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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231541/endogenous-microrna-424-predicts-clinical-outcome-and-its-inhibition-acts-as-cancer-suppressor-in-human-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#1
Yu Wang, Zhenyang Lv, Junfeng Fu, Ze Wang, Zhe Fan, Ting Lei
PURPOSE: We examined the expression, clinical correlation and functional mechanisms of endogenous microRNA-424 (miR-424) in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). METHODS: Expression pattern of endogenous miR-424 was examined by qRT-PCR in clinical samples obtained from 233 NSCLC patients. Correlations between differential miR-424 expression level (low vs. high) and NSCLC patients' clinicopathological parameters or survival were statistically examined. In in vitro NSCLC H596 and SW900 cells, miR-424 was either upregulated or downregulation by lentiviral transduction...
February 20, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231327/functionally-focused-algorithmic-analysis-of-high-resolution-microarray-cgh-genomic-landscapes-demonstrates-comparable-genomic-copy-number-aberrations-in-msi-and-mss-sporadic-colorectal-cancer
#2
Hamad Ali, Milad S Bitar, Ashraf Al Madhoun, Makia Marafie, Fahd Al-Mulla
Array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) emerged as a powerful technology for studying copy number variations at higher resolution in many cancers including colorectal cancer. However, the lack of standardized systematic protocols including bioinformatic algorithms to obtain and analyze genomic data resulted in significant variation in the reported copy number aberration (CNA) data. Here, we present genomic aCGH data obtained using highly stringent and functionally relevant statistical algorithms from 116 well-defined microsatellites instable (MSI) and microsatellite stable (MSS) colorectal cancers...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230750/targeting%C3%A2-mdm4%C3%A2-splicing%C3%A2-in%C3%A2-cancers
#3
REVIEW
Boris Bardot, Franck Toledo
MDM4, an essential negative regulator of the P53 tumor suppressor, is frequently overexpressed in cancer cells that harbor a wild-type P53. By a mechanism based on alternative splicing, the MDM4 gene generates two mutually exclusive isoforms: MDM4-FL, which encodes the full-length MDM4 protein, and a shorter splice variant called MDM4-S. Previous results suggested that the MDM4-S isoform could be an important driver of tumor development. In this short review, we discuss a recent set of data indicating that MDM4-S is more likely a passenger isoform during tumorigenesis and that targeting MDM4 splicing to prevent MDM4-FL protein expression appears as a promising strategy to reactivate p53 in cancer cells...
February 20, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230739/mnt%C3%A2-and%C3%A2-emerging%C3%A2-concepts%C3%A2-of%C3%A2-mnt-myc-antagonism
#4
Guang Yang, Peter J Hurlin
MYC family proteins play fundamental roles in stem and progenitor cell homeostasis, morphogenesis and cancer. As expected for proteins that profoundly affect the fate of cells, the activities of MYC are regulated at a multitude of levels. One mechanism with the potential to broadly affect the activities of MYC is transcriptional antagonism by a group of MYC-related transcriptional repressors. From this group, the protein MNT has emerged as having perhaps the most far-reaching impact on MYC activities. In this review, we discuss the current understanding of MNT, its regulation and how, as a MYC antagonist, it functions both as a tumor suppressor and facilitator of MYC-driven proliferation and oncogenesis...
February 20, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229988/endometrial-microrna-signature-during-the-window-of-implantation-changed-in-patients-with-repeated-implantation-failure
#5
Cheng Shi, Huan Shen, Li-Juan Fan, Jing Guan, Xin-Bang Zheng, Xi Chen, Rong Liang, Xiao-Wei Zhang, Qing-Hua Cui, Kun-Kun Sun, Zhu-Ran Zhao, Hong-Jing Han
BACKGROUND: At present, a diagnostic tool with high specificity for impaired endometrial receptivity, which may lead to implantation failure, remains to be developed. We aimed to assess the different endometrial microRNA (miRNA) signatures for impaired endometrial receptivity by microarray analysis. METHODS: A total of 12 repeated implantation failure (RIF) patients and 10 infertile patients, who conceived and delivered after one embryo transfer attempt, were recruited as RIF and control groups, respectively...
2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229982/circulating-free-dna-mutation-associated-with-response-of-targeted-therapy-in-human-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-2-positive-metastatic-breast-cancer
#6
Qing Ye, Fan Qi, Li Bian, Shao-Hua Zhang, Tao Wang, Ze-Fei Jiang
BACKGROUND: The addition of anti-human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-targeted drugs, such as trastuzumab, lapatinib, and trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1), to chemotherapy significantly improved prognosis of HER2-positive breast cancer patients. However, it was confused that metastatic patients vary in the response of targeted drug. Therefore, methods of accurately predicting drug response were really needed. To overcome the spatial and temporal limitations of biopsies, we aimed to develop a more sensitive and less invasive method of detecting mutations associated with anti-HER2 therapeutic response through circulating-free DNA (cfDNA)...
2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229253/the-biology-of-uveal-melanoma
#7
Adriana Amaro, Rosaria Gangemi, Francesca Piaggio, Giovanna Angelini, Gaia Barisione, Silvano Ferrini, Ulrich Pfeffer
Uveal melanoma (UM), a rare cancer of the eye, is distinct from cutaneous melanoma by its etiology, the mutation frequency and profile, and its clinical behavior including resistance to targeted therapy and immune checkpoint blockers. Primary disease is efficiently controlled by surgery or radiation therapy, but about half of UMs develop distant metastasis mostly to the liver. Survival of patients with metastasis is below 1 year and has not improved in decades. Recent years have brought a deep understanding of UM biology characterized by initiating mutations in the G proteins GNAQ and GNA11...
February 22, 2017: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229220/overexpression-of-hepacam-inhibits-bladder-cancer-cell-proliferation-and-viability-through-the-akt-foxo-pathway
#8
Min Tang, Yan Zhao, Nanjing Liu, E Chen, Zhen Quan, Xiaohou Wu, Chunli Luo
PURPOSE: HepaCAM, an N-linked glycoprotein that encodes a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily, has been reported to be a tumor suppressor gene that mediates diverse cellular bio-functions. Recent studies have shown that the FoxO transcription factors play a pivotal role during cancer progression. Here, we explored the correlation between HepaCAM and the FoxO family via regulation of the PI3K/AKT pathway. METHODS: HepaCAM and FoxO3 expression were detected by immunohistochemistry staining...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229086/rb-an-essential-player-in-adult-neurogenesis
#9
Bensun C Fong, Ruth S Slack
The fundamental mechanisms underlying adult neurogenesis remain to be fully clarified. Members of the cell cycle machinery have demonstrated key roles in regulating adult neural stem cell (NSC) quiescence and the size of the adult-born neuronal population. The retinoblastoma protein, Rb, is known to possess CNS-specific requirements that are independent from its classical role as a tumor suppressor. The recent study by Vandenbosch et al. has clarified distinct requirements for Rb during adult neurogenesis, in the restriction of proliferation, as well as long-term adult-born neuronal survival...
2017: Neurogenesis (Austin, Tex.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228690/human-cytomegalovirus-interleukin-10-enhances-matrigel-invasion-of-mda-mb-231-breast-cancer-cells
#10
Cendy A Valle Oseguera, Juliet V Spencer
BACKGROUND: While some risk factors for breast cancer are well-known, the influence of other factors, particularly virus infection, remains unclear. Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is widespread in the general population, and both molecular and epidemiological evidence has indicated links between HCMV and breast cancer. The HCMV protein cmvIL-10 is a potent suppressor of immune function that has also been shown to promote proliferation and migration of breast cancer cells. In this study, the impact of cmvIL-10 on tumor cell invasion through a simulated basement membrane was investigated...
2017: Cancer Cell International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228601/loss-of-tumor-suppressor-kdm6a-amplifies-prc2-regulated-transcriptional-repression-in-bladder-cancer-and-can-be-targeted-through-inhibition-of-ezh2
#11
Lian Dee Ler, Sujoy Ghosh, Xiaoran Chai, Aye Aye Thike, Hong Lee Heng, Ee Yan Siew, Sucharita Dey, Liang Kai Koh, Jing Quan Lim, Weng Khong Lim, Swe Swe Myint, Jia Liang Loh, Pauline Ong, Xin Xiu Sam, Dachuan Huang, Tony Lim, Puay Hoon Tan, Sanjanaa Nagarajan, Christopher Wai Sam Cheng, Henry Ho, Lay Guat Ng, John Yuen, Po-Hung Lin, Cheng-Keng Chuang, Ying-Hsu Chang, Wen-Hui Weng, Steven G Rozen, Patrick Tan, Caretha L Creasy, See-Tong Pang, Michael T McCabe, Song Ling Poon, Bin Tean Teh
Trithorax-like group complex containing KDM6A acts antagonistically to Polycomb-repressive complex 2 (PRC2) containing EZH2 in maintaining the dynamics of the repression and activation of gene expression through H3K27 methylation. In urothelial bladder carcinoma, KDM6A (a H3K27 demethylase) is frequently mutated, but its functional consequences and therapeutic targetability remain unknown. About 70% of KDM6A mutations resulted in a total loss of expression and a consequent loss of demethylase function in this cancer type...
February 22, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228558/the-ribosomal-protein-s19-suppresses-antitumor-immune-responses-via-the-complement-c5a-receptor-1
#12
Maciej M Markiewski, Surya Kumari Vadrevu, Sharad K Sharma, Navin Kumar Chintala, Shanawaz Ghouse, Jun-Hung Cho, David P Fairlie, Yvonne Paterson, Aristotelis Astrinidis, Magdalena Karbowniczek
Relatively little is known about factors that initiate immunosuppression in tumors and act at the interface between tumor cells and host cells. In this article, we report novel immunosuppressive properties of the ribosomal protein S19 (RPS19), which is upregulated in human breast and ovarian cancer cells and released from apoptotic tumor cells, whereupon it interacts with the complement C5a receptor 1 expressed on tumor infiltrating myeloid-derived suppressor cells. This interaction promotes tumor growth by facilitating recruitment of these cells to tumors...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228263/reciprocal-regulation-between-53bp1-and-the-anaphase-promoting-complex-cyclosome-is-required-for-genomic-stability-during-mitotic-stress
#13
Thomas J Kucharski, Paul E Minshall, Mohamed Moustafa-Kamal, Andrew S Turnell, Jose G Teodoro
The anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that targets substrates for degradation to promote mitotic progression. Here, we show that the DNA damage response protein 53BP1 contains conserved KEN boxes that are required for APC/C-dependent degradation in early mitosis. Mutation of the 53BP1 KEN boxes stabilized the protein and extended mitotic duration, whereas 53BP1 knockdown resulted in a shorter and delayed mitosis. Loss of 53BP1 increased APC/C activity, and we show that 53BP1 is a direct APC/C inhibitor...
February 21, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225180/microrna-216b-inhibits-cell-proliferation-and-migration-in-human-melanoma-by-targeting-foxm1-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#14
Mengyao Sun, Xiaopeng Wang, Chen Tu, Shuang Wang, Jianqiang Qu, Shengxiang Xiao
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play an increasingly important role in cancer growth by coordinately suppressing genes that controlcell migration, proliferationand invasion. The above results can be achieved through the regulation of gene expression by miRNAs bysuppressing translation or the directsequence-specific degradation of the targetedmRNA. In the present study, we indicate that the expression of miR-216b could be effectively repressed both in human melanoma tissues through a comparison with primary melanoma and in human melanoma cell lines through a comparison with a normal human keratinocyte line...
February 22, 2017: Cell Biology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224273/over-expression-of-mir-196b-5p-is-significantly-associated-with-the-progression-of-myelodysplastic-syndrome
#15
Jing Wen, Ying Huang, Hongying Li, Xupai Zhang, Peng Cheng, Donghong Deng, Zhigang Peng, Jun Luo, Weihua Zhao, Yongrong Lai, Zhenfang Liu
Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is a clonal stem cell disorder characterized by ineffective hematopoiesis with a high risk of transformation to acute myeloid leukemia (AML). miRNAs function as tumor suppressors and oncogenes in various cancers and regulate the differentiation potential of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs). It has been suggested that miRNAs may play an important role in progression of MDS. We analyzed bone marrow samples collected from MDS patients according to different risk stratification indicated by the International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS)...
February 21, 2017: International Journal of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224211/mechanisms-overseeing-myeloid-derived-suppressor-cell-production-in-neoplastic-disease
#16
REVIEW
Colleen S Netherby, Scott I Abrams
Perturbations in myeloid cell differentiation are common in neoplasia, culminating in immature populations known as myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). MDSCs favor tumor progression due to their ability to suppress host immunity or promote invasion and metastasis. They are thought to originate from the bone marrow as a result of exposure to stromal- or circulating tumor-derived factors (TDFs). Although great interest has been placed on understanding how MDSCs function, less is known regarding how MDSCs develop at a transcriptional level...
February 21, 2017: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223815/antitumor-effects-of-oncolytic-herpes-simplex-virus-type-2-against-colorectal-cancer-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#17
Lei Yin, Chunhong Zhao, Jixia Han, Zengjun Li, Yanan Zhen, Ruixue Xiao, Zhongfa Xu, Yanlai Sun
BACKGROUND: The incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) is on the rise. Furthermore, late-stage diagnoses and limited efficacious treatment options make CRC a complex clinical challenge. Therefore, a new therapeutic regimen with a completely novel therapeutic mechanism is necessary for CRC. In the present study, the therapeutic efficacy of oncolytic herpes simplex virus type 2 (oHSV2) in CRC was assessed in vitro and in vivo. oHSV2 is an oncolytic agent derived from herpes simplex virus type 2 that encodes granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor...
2017: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223316/energy-metabolism-drives-myeloid-derived-suppressor-cell-differentiation-and-functions-in-pathology
#18
REVIEW
Antonio Sica, Laura Strauss
Over the last decade, a heterogeneous population of immature myeloid cells with major regulatory functions has been described in cancer and other pathologic conditions and ultimately defined as MDSCs. Most of the early work on the origins and functions of MDSCs has been in murine and human tumor bearers in which MDSCs are known to be immunosuppressive and to result in both reduced immune surveillance and antitumor cytotoxicity. More recent studies, however, suggest that expansion of these immature myeloid cells may be linked to most, if not all, chronic and acute inflammatory processes...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222938/the-role-of-mir-17-92-cluster-in-the-expression-of-tumor-suppressor-genes-in-unrestricted-somatic-stem-cells
#19
Rezvan Tavakoli, Saeid Vakilian, Lida Langroudi, Ehsan Arefian, Mehdi Sahmani, Masoud Soleimani, Fatemeh Jamshidi-Adegani
The miR-17-92 cluster consisted of seven miRNAs (mir-17-5p, -17-3p, -18a, -19a, -20a, -19b-1, and -92a-1). Previous studies have shown this cluster has been over-expressed in several cancers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the over-expression impacts of miR-17-92 on stem cells. In the current work, the effect of miR-17-92 cluster which was cloned in Lentiviral vector has been investigated on unrestricted somatic stem cells (USSCs). Tumor suppressor genes (p53, p15, RBL1, SMAD2, SMAD4, and MAPK-1) expression, especially p53, was considerably reduced...
February 17, 2017: Biologicals: Journal of the International Association of Biological Standardization
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222671/reversal-of-hypermethylation-and-reactivation-of-glutathione-s-transferase-pi-1-gene-by-curcumin-in-breast-cancer-cell-line
#20
Umesh Kumar, Ujjawal Sharma, Garima Rathi
One of the mechanisms for epigenetic silencing of tumor suppressor genes is hypermethylation of cytosine residue at CpG islands at their promoter region that contributes to malignant progression of tumor. Therefore, activation of tumor suppressor genes that have been silenced by promoter methylation is considered to be very attractive molecular target for cancer therapy. Epigenetic silencing of glutathione S-transferase pi 1, a tumor suppressor gene, is involved in various types of cancers including breast cancer...
February 2017: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
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