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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110278/a-portrait-of-the-c4-photosynthetic-family-on-the-50th-anniversary-of-its-discovery-species-number-evolutionary-lineages-and-hall-of-fame
#1
REVIEW
Rowan F Sage
Fifty years ago, the C4 photosynthetic pathway was first characterized. In the subsequent five decades, much has been learned about C4 plants, such that it is now possible to place nearly all C4 species into their respective evolutionary lineages. Sixty-one independent lineages of C4 photosynthesis are identified, with additional, ancillary C4 origins possible in 12 of these principal lineages. The lineages produced ~8100 C4 species (5044 grasses, 1322 sedges, and 1777 eudicots). Using midpoints of stem and crown node dates in their respective phylogenies, the oldest and most speciose C4 lineage is the grass lineage Chloridoideae, estimated to be near 30 million years old...
January 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110119/interleukin-15-activates-akt-to-protect-astrocytes-from-oxygen-glucose-deprivation-induced-cell-death
#2
Gilbert Aaron Lee, Yein-Gei Lai, Ray-Jade Chen, Nan-Shih Liao
Astrocytes play a pivotal role in neuronal survival under the condition of post-ischemic brain inflammation, but the relevant astrocyte-derived mediators of ischemic brain injury remain to be defined. IL-15 supports survival of multiple lymphocyte lineages in the peripheral immune system, but the role of IL-15 in inflammatory disease of the central nervous system is not well defined. Recent research has shown an increase of IL-15-expressing astrocytes in the ischemic brain. Since astrocytes promote neuron survival under cerebral ischemia by buffering excess extracellular glutamate and producing growth factors, recovery of astrocyte function could be of benefit for stroke therapy...
January 18, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109746/diversity-and-evolution-of-tir-domain-containing-proteins-in-bivalves-and-metazoa-new-insights-from-comparative-genomics
#3
Marco Gerdol, Paola Venier, Paolo Edomi, Alberto Pallavicini
The Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domain has a fundamental role in the innate defence response of plants, vertebrate and invertebrate animals. Mostly found in the cytosolic side of membrane-bound receptor proteins, it mediates the intracellular signalling upon pathogen recognition via heterotypic interactions. Although a number of TIR-domain-containing (TIR-DC) proteins have been characterized in vertebrates, their evolutionary relationships and functional role in protostomes are still largely unknown. Due to the high abundance and diversity of TIR-DC proteins in bivalve molluscs, we investigated this class of marine invertebrates as a case study...
January 18, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109717/dicer-1-regulates-proliferative-potential-of-drosophila-larval-neural-stem-cells-through-bantam-mirna-based-down-regulation-of-the-g1-s-inhibitor-dacapo
#4
Animesh Banerjee, Jagat Kumar Roy
The present work elucidates the role of miRNA in cell cycle regulation during brain development in Drosophila. Here we report that lineage specific depletion of dicer-1, a classically acknowledged miRNA biogenesis protein in neuroblasts leads to a reduction in their numbers and size in the third instar larval central brain. These brains also showed lower number of mitotically active cells and when homozygous mitotic clones were generated in an otherwise heterozygous dicer-1 mutant background via MARCM technique, they showed reduced number of progeny cells in individual clones, substantiating the adverse effect of the loss of dicer-1 on the proliferative potential of neuroblasts...
January 18, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109325/studying-hematopoiesis-using-single-cell-technologies
#5
REVIEW
Fang Ye, Wentao Huang, Guoji Guo
Hematopoiesis is probably the best-understood stem cell differentiation system; hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation represents the most widely used regenerative therapy. The classical view of lineage hierarchy in hematopoiesis is built on cell type definition system by a group of cell surface markers. However, the traditional model is facing increasing challenges, as many classical cell types are proved to be heterogeneous. Recently, the developments of new technologies allow genome, transcriptome, proteome, and epigenome analysis at the single-cell level...
January 21, 2017: Journal of Hematology & Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109200/arcobacter-lekithochrous-sp-nov-a-new-species-isolated-from-a-molluscan-hatchery-in-norway
#6
Ana L Diéguez, Sabela Balboa, Thorolf Magnesen, Jesús L Romalde
Four bacterial strains, LFT 1.7T, LT2C 2.5, LT4C 2.8 and TM 4.6, were isolated from Great scallop (Pecten maximus) larvae and tank seawater in a Norwegian hatchery and characterized by a polyphasic approach including phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and genomic traits. All of them were Gram-negative and motile rods, oxidase and catalase positive and required sea salts for growth. Major fatty acids present were Summed Feature 3 (C16:1ω7c/C16:1 ω6c), Summed Feature 8 (C18:1ω7c or C18:1 ω6c), C16:0, C14:0, Summed Feature 2 (C14:0 3OH/C16:1 iso I), C12:0 3OH and C12:0...
January 19, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109150/-isolation-culture-and-identification-of-adipose-derived-stem-cells-from-sd-rat-adipose-tissues-subjected-to-long-term-cryopreservation
#7
Qin Liu, Liping Wang, Fang Chen, Yi Zhang
Objective To study the feasibility of isolation and culture of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) from SD rat adipose tissues subjected to long-term cryopreservation. Methods We took inguinal fat pads from healthy SD rats. Adipose tissues were stored with 100 mL/L dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) combined with 900 mL/L fetal bovine serum (FBS) in liquid nitrogen. Three months later, the adipose tissues were resuscitated for the isolation and culture of ADSCs. The growth status and morphology were observed. The growth curve and cell surface markers CD29, CD45, CD90 of the 3rd passage cells were analyzed respectively by CCK-8 assay and immunocytochemistry...
February 2017: Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109101/-fgf-2-pela-bmp-2-microcapsule-scaffold-promotes-osteogenic-differentiation-of-rat-periosteum-derived-stem-cells-in-vitro
#8
Jie Yin, Su-Jun Qiu, Jun-Huai Gao, Sheng-Li Zhao, Shao-Xiong Min
OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of a microencapsule scaffold capable of sustained release of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) and bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) in promoting the osteogenic differentiation of rat periosteum-derived stem cells (PDSCs) in vitro. METHODS: PDSCs from 4-week-old SD rats, after identification of the surface markers using flow cytometry, were induced to differentiate into osteoblast, chondroblast, and adipocyte lineages. The differentiated cells were verified by staining with Alizarin red, toluidine blue, alcian blue, oil red O and by immunofluorescence assay...
January 20, 2017: Nan Fang Yi Ke da Xue Xue Bao, Journal of Southern Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108952/transcriptional-regulators-dictate-innate-lymphoid-cell-fates
#9
REVIEW
Chao Zhong, Jinfang Zhu
Research on innate lymphoid cells (ILC) has recently been a fast paced topic of immunological research. As ILCs are able to produce signature Th cytokine, ILCs have garnered considerable attention and have been described to represent the innate counterpart of the CD4(+) T helper (Th) cells. The development and function of ILCs are precisely regulated by a network of crucial transcription factors, which are also involved in the development or differentiation of conventional natural killer (cNK) cells and T cells...
January 20, 2017: Protein & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108804/antigenic-and-genotypic-characterization-of-rabies-virus-isolated-from-bats-mammalia-chiroptera-from-municipalities-in-s%C3%A3-o-paulo-state-southeastern-brazil
#10
Benedito Donizete Menozzi, Rafael de Novaes Oliveira, Laís Moraes Paiz, Virgínia Bodelão Richini-Pereira, Helio Langoni
Bats have aroused growing attention in the public health sphere because they are considered the main reservoir of rabies virus (RABV) in the Americas, in places where canine rabies is under control. Antigenic and genetic studies of RABV isolates have been used to describe the epidemiological profile of rabies and to identify possible hosts/reservoirs for different epidemiological cycles. This study describes the antigenic and genotypic characterization of 19 RABV isolates from central nervous system samples of non-hematophagous bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera)...
January 20, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108681/re-emergence-of-methicillin-susceptibility-in-a-resistant-lineage-of-staphylococcus-aureus
#11
Alice Ledda, James R Price, Kevin Cole, Martin J Llewelyn, Angela M Kearns, Derrick W Crook, John Paul, Xavier Didelot
OBJECTIVES: MRSA is a leading cause of hospital-associated infection. Acquired resistance is encoded by the mecA gene or its homologue mecC, but little is known about the evolutionary dynamics involved in gain and loss of resistance. The objective of this study was to obtain an expanded understanding of Staphylococcus aureus methicillin resistance microevolution in vivo, by focusing on a single lineage. METHODS: We compared the whole-genome sequences of 231 isolates from a single epidemic lineage [clonal complex 30 (CC30) and spa-type t018] of S...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108457/rb1-and-tp53-loss-promotes-lineage-plasticity-in-prostate-cancer
#12
(no author information available yet)
Loss of RB1 and TP53 induces a neuroendocrine phenotype that confers resistance to antiandrogen therapy.
January 20, 2017: Cancer Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108350/molecular-characterization-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-isolated-from-blood-in-rio-de-janeiro-displaying-susceptibility-profiles-to-non-%C3%AE-lactam-antibiotics
#13
Alexandra Vidal Pedinotti Zuma, Danielle Ferreira Lima, Ana Paula D'Alincourt Carvalho Assef, Elizabeth Andrade Marques, Robson Souza Leão
The distinction between healthcare-associated MRSA (HA-MRSA) and community-associated MRSA (CA-MRSA) infections has become increasingly blurred. We assessed the molecular characterization and antimicrobial resistance profile for MRSA isolates from blood. Most of all (81.9%) isolates are related to known HA-MRSA and CA-MRSA epidemic lineages, such as, USA300, USA400, USA600, USA800 and USA1100. This is the first multicenter study in Rio de Janeiro.
December 21, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108335/tryptase-catalyzed-core-histone-truncation-a-novel-epigenetic-regulatory-mechanism-in-mast-cells
#14
Fabio R Melo, Ola Wallerman, Aida Paivandy, Gabriela Calounova, Ann-Marie Gustafson, Benjamin R Sabari, Giuliano Zabucchi, C David Allis, Gunnar Pejler
BACKGROUND: Mast cells are key effector cells in allergic reactions. When activated to degranulate, they release a plethora of bioactive compounds from their secretory granules, including mast cell-restricted proteases such as tryptase. In a previous study we showed that tryptase, in addition to its intragranular location, can be found within the nuclei of mast cells where it truncates core histones at their N-terminal ends. OBJECTIVE: Considering that the N-terminal portions of the core histones constitute sites for posttranslational modifications of major epigenetic impact, we here evaluated whether histone truncation by tryptase could have an impact on epigenetic events in mast cells...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107800/neuroregeneration-of-ips-cells-in-polyacrylamide-chitosan-inverted-colloidal-crystal-scaffolds-with-poly-lactide-co-glycolide-nanoparticles-and-tatvhl-peptide
#15
Yung-Chih Kuo, Chun-Wei Chen
Polyacrylamide (PAAM) and chitosan were fabricated by inverted colloidal crystal (ICC) method for scaffolds comprising regular pores. The hybrid PAAM-chitosan ICC scaffolds were grafted with poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs) for a rougher pore surface and grafted with TATVHL peptide for a better differentiation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells toward neural lineage. By scanning electron microscopy, we found that iPS cells cultured in PAAM-chitosan ICC scaffolds with PLGA NPs at 1...
January 20, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107664/safety-and-efficacy-of-cardiopoietic-stem-cells-in-the-treatment-of-post-infarction-left-ventricular-dysfunction-from-cardioprotection-to-functional-repair-in-a-translational-pig-infarction-model
#16
Maximilian Y Emmert, Petra Wolint, Andras Jakab, Sean P Sheehy, Francesco S Pasqualini, Thi Dan Linh Nguyen, Monika Hilbe, Burkhardt Seifert, Benedikt Weber, Chad E Brokopp, Dominika Macejovska, Etem Caliskan, Arnold von Eckardstein, Ruth Schwartlander, Viola Vogel, Volkmar Falk, Kevin Kit Parker, Mariann Gyöngyösi, Simon P Hoerstrup
To date, clinical success of cardiac cell-therapies remains limited. To enhance the cardioreparative properties of stem cells, the concept of lineage-specification through cardiopoietic-guidance has been recently suggested. However, so far, only results from murine studies and from a clinical pilot-trial in chronic heart-failure (CHF) are available, while systematic evidence of its therapeutic-efficacy is still lacking. Importantly, also no data from large animals or for other indications are available. Therefore, we here investigate the therapeutic-efficacy of human cardiopoietic stem cells in the treatment of post-infarction LV-dysfunction using a translational pig-model...
November 23, 2016: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107513/the-zebrafish-anillin-egfp-reporter-marks-late-dividing-retinal-precursors-and-stem-cells-entering-neuronal-lineages
#17
Meret Cepero Malo, Anne-Laure Duchemin, Luca Guglielmi, Eva Patzel, Saadettin Sel, Gerd U Auffarth, Matthias Carl, Lucia Poggi
Monitoring cycling behaviours of stem and somatic cells in the living animal is a powerful tool to better understand tissue development and homeostasis. The tg(anillin:anillin-eGFP) transgenic line carries the full-length zebrafish F-actin binding protein Anillin fused to eGFP from a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) containing Anillin cis-regulatory sequences. Here we report the suitability of the Anillin-eGFP reporter as a direct indicator of cycling cells in the late embryonic and post-embryonic retina...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107476/origin-and-dispersal-history-of-two-colonial-ascidian-clades-in-the-botryllus-schlosseri-species-complex
#18
Marie L Nydam, Kirsten B Giesbrecht, Emily E Stephenson
Human-induced global warming and species introductions are rapidly altering the composition and functioning of Earth's marine ecosystems. Ascidians (Phylum Chordata, Subphylum Tunicata, Class Ascidiacea) are likely to play an increasingly greater role in marine communities. The colonial ascidian B. schlosseri is a cryptic species complex comprising five genetically divergent clades (A-E). Clade A is a global species, and Clade E has so far been identified in European waters only. Using the largest mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I datasets yet assembled, we determine the origin and dispersal history of these species...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107427/serine-phosphorylation-of-slp76-is-dispensable-for-t-cell-development-but-modulates-helper-t-cell-function
#19
Victor H Navas, Céline Cuche, Andres Alcover, Vincenzo Di Bartolo
The adapter protein SLP76 is a key orchestrator of T cell receptor (TCR) signal transduction. We previously identified a negative feedback loop that modulates T cell activation, involving phosphorylation of Ser376 of SLP76 by the hematopoietic progenitor kinase 1 (HPK1). However, the physiological relevance of this regulatory mechanism was still unknown. To address this question, we generated a SLP76-S376A-expressing knock-in mouse strain and investigated the effects of Ser376 mutation on T cell development and function...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107055/radiating-despite-a-lack-of-character-ecological-divergence-among-closely-related-morphologically-similar-honeyeaters-aves-meliphagidae-co-occurring-in-arid-australian-environments
#20
Eliot T Miller, Sarah K Wagner, Luke J Harmon, Robert E Ricklefs
Quantifying the relationship between form and function can inform use of morphology as a surrogate for ecology. How the strength of this relationship varies continentally can inform understanding of evolutionary radiations; for example, does the relationship break down when certain lineages invade and diversify in novel habitats? The 75 species of Australian honeyeaters (Meliphagidae) are morphologically and ecologically diverse, with species feeding on nectar, insects, fruit, and other resources. We investigated Meliphagidae ecomorphology and community structure by (1) quantifying the concordance between morphology and ecology (foraging behavior), (2) estimating rates of trait evolution in relation to the packing of ecological space, and (3) comparing phylogenetic and trait community structure across the broad environmental gradients of the continent...
February 2017: American Naturalist
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