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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645159/genomic-characterization-of-two-novel-sar11-isolates-from-the-red-sea-including-the-first-strain-of-the-sar11-ib-clade
#1
Francy Jimenez-Infante, David Kamanda Ngugi, Manikandan Vinu, Jochen Blom, Intikhab Alam, Vladimir B Bajic, Ulrich Stingl
The SAR11 clade (Pelagibacterales) is a diverse group that forms a monophyletic clade within the Alphaproteobacteria, and constitutes up to one third of all prokaryotic cells in the photic zone of most oceans. Pelagibacterales are very abundant in the warm and highly saline surface waters of the Red Sea, raising the question of adaptive traits of SAR11 populations in this water body and warmer oceans through the world. In this study, two pure cultures were successfully obtained from surface waters on the Red Sea, one isolate of subgroup Ia and one of the previously uncultured SAR11 Ib lineage...
June 22, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645158/the-potential-for-co-evolution-of-co2-concentrating-mechanisms-and-rubisco-in-diatoms
#2
Jodi N Young, Brian M Hopkinson
Diatoms are a diverse group of unicellular algae that contribute significantly to global photosynthetic carbon fixation and export in the modern ocean, and are an important source of microfossils for paleoclimate reconstructions. Because of their importance in the environment, diatoms have been a focus of study on the physiology and ecophysiology of carbon fixation, in particular their CO2-concentrating mechanisms (CCMs) and Rubisco characteristics. While carbon fixation in diatoms is not as well understood as in certain model aquatic photoautotrophs, a greater number of species have been examined in diatoms...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644950/hematopoietic-cell-transplantation-in-fanconi-anemia-and-dyskeratosis-congenita-a-minireview
#3
REVIEW
Mouhab Ayas
Bone marrow failure syndrome is an epithet of bone marrow failure (all or single-cell lineage) that is attributable to an underlying genetic aberration usually with a constellation of somatic abnormalities. Multiple inheritance patterns have been described in these disorders; many are transmitted in an autosomal recessive pattern, which may consequently lead to a higher prevalence of such illnesses in homogeneous societies such as Saudi Arabia, where consanguineous marriages are not uncommon. At King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, the most common entity referred for allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is Fanconi anemia, followed by pure red aplasia, and, less commonly, dyskeratosis congenita, congenital neutropenia, and others...
June 15, 2017: Hematology/oncology and Stem Cell Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644919/signaling-and-epigenetic-mechanisms-of-intestinal-stem-cells-and-progenitors-insight-into-crypt-homeostasis-plasticity-and-niches
#4
REVIEW
Ryan J Smith, Abilasha Rao-Bhatia, Tae-Hee Kim
The rapid turnover of intestinal epithelial cells is maintained by a small number of stem cells located in pocket-like gland structures called crypts. While our understanding of the identity and function of intestinal stem cells (ISCs) has rapidly progressed, epigenetic and transcriptional regulation in crypt stem cell and progenitor pools remains an active field of investigation. Surrounded by various types of cells in the stroma, crypt progenitors display high levels of plasticity, harboring the ability to interconvert in the face of epithelial damage...
June 23, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644721/small-gtpases-in-plant-biotic-interactions
#5
Claudio Rivero, Soledad Traubenik, María Eugenia Zanetti, Flavio Antonio Blanco
The superfamily of small monomeric GTPases originated in a common ancestor of eukaryotic multicellular organisms and, since then, it has evolved independently in each lineage to cope with the environmental challenges imposed by their different life styles. Members of the small GTPase family function in the control of vesicle trafficking, cytoskeleton rearrangements and signaling during crucial biological processes, such as cell growth and responses to environmental cues. In this review, we discuss the emerging roles of these small GTPases in the pathogenic and symbiotic interactions established by plants with microorganisms present in their nearest environment, in which membrane trafficking is crucial along the different steps of the interaction, from recognition and signal transduction to nutrient exchange...
June 23, 2017: Small GTPases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644712/comparative-analysis-of-behavioral-and-transcriptional-variation-underlying-co2-sensory-neuron-function-and-development-in-drosophila
#6
Jia Wern Pan, Joi McLaughlin, Haining Yang, Charles Leo, Paula Rambarat, Sumie Okuwa, Anaïs Monroy-Eklund, Sabrina Clark, Corbin D Jones, Pelin Cayirlioglu Volkan
Carbon dioxide is an important environmental cue for many insects, regulating many behaviors including some that have direct human impacts. To further improve our understanding of how this system varies among closely related insect species, we examined both the behavioral response to CO2 as well as the transcriptional profile of key developmental regulators of CO2 sensory neurons in the olfactory system across the Drosophila genus. We found that CO2 generally evokes repulsive behavior across most of the Drosophilids we examined, but this behavior has been lost or reduced in several lineages...
June 23, 2017: Fly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644396/runx1-plays-an-important-role-in-mediating-bmp9-induced-osteogenic-differentiation-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-line-c3h10t1-2-murine-multi-lineage-cells-lines-c2c12-and-mefs
#7
Caixia Ji, Xiaohua Liu, Li Xu, Tingting Yu, Chaoqun Dong, Jinyong Luo
As one of the least studied bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), BMP9 is highly capable of promoting osteogenic differentiation. However, the underlying mechanism involved remains largely unknown. Recent studies have demonstrated that RUNX1 (runt-related transcription factor 1) is essential in osteoblast/chondrocyte maturation. In this study, we investigated the function of RUNX1 in BMP9-induced osteogenic of murine mesenchymal stem cell line (C3H10T1/2) and murine multi-lineage cell lines (C2C12 and MEFs). Our data showed that BMP9 promoted the endogenous expression of RUNX1 in C3H10T1/2, C2C12 and MEFs...
June 23, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643909/the-fate-of-osterix-expressing-mesenchymal-cells-in-dental-root-formation-and-maintenance
#8
A Takahashi, N Ono, W Ono
OBJECTIVES: Osterix (Osx)-expressing mesenchymal cells are progenitors for tooth root forming cells. The aim of this study was to reveal the fates of Osx-expressing cells during and after root formation using a lineage tracing experiment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: To reveal the fates of Osx-expressing dental mesenchymal progenitors, we took advantage of tamoxifen-inducible Cre reporter system. Osx-creER; R26R-tdTomato mice received tamoxifen (0.1 mg/body) at postnatal day 3 (P3)...
June 2017: Orthodontics & Craniofacial Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643905/diverse-contribution-of-col2a1-expressing-cells-to-the-craniofacial-skeletal-cell-lineages
#9
N Sakagami, W Ono, N Ono
OBJECTIVES: Craniofacial skeletal development requires deliberate coordination of two distinct mechanisms of endochondral and intramembranous ossification. Col2a1-expressing cells encompass growth-associated skeletal progenitors in endochondral bones of the limb. The objective of this study was to determine the contribution of Col2a1-expressing cells to the craniofacial skeletal cell lineages. We hypothesize that Col2a1-expressing progenitors significantly contribute to various modes of ossification associated with the craniofacial development...
June 2017: Orthodontics & Craniofacial Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643786/a-unified-model-of-hymenopteran-preadaptations-that-trigger-the-evolutionary-transition-to-eusociality
#10
Andrés E Quiñones, Ido Pen
Explaining the origin of eusociality, with strict division of labour between workers and reproductives, remains one of evolutionary biology's greatest challenges. Specific combinations of genetic, behavioural and demographic traits in Hymenoptera are thought to explain their relatively high frequency of eusociality, but quantitative models integrating such preadaptations are lacking. Here we use mathematical models to show that the joint evolution of helping behaviour and maternal sex ratio adjustment can synergistically trigger both a behavioural change from solitary to eusocial breeding, and a demographic change from a life cycle with two reproductive broods to a life cycle in which an unmated cohort of female workers precedes a final generation of dispersing reproductives...
June 23, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643450/scpp-genes-and-their-relatives-in-gar-rapid-expansion-of-mineralization-genes-in-osteichthyans
#11
Kazuhiko Kawasaki, Masato Mikami, Mitsushiro Nakatomi, Ingo Braasch, Peter Batzel, John H Postlethwait, Akie Sato, Ichiro Sasagawa, Mikio Ishiyama
Gar is an actinopterygian that has bone, dentin, enameloid, and ganoin (enamel) in teeth and/or scales. Mineralization of these tissues involves genes encoding various secretory calcium-binding phosphoproteins (SCPPs) in osteichthyans, but no SCPP genes have been identified in chondrichthyans to date. In the gar genome, we identified 38 SCPP genes, seven of which encode "acidic-residue-rich" proteins and 31 encode "Pro/Gln (P/Q) rich" proteins. These gar SCPP genes constitute the largest known repertoire, including many newly identified P/Q-rich genes expressed in teeth and/or scales...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643449/morphology-of-the-tongue-of-vermilingua-xenarthra-pilosa-and-evolutionary-considerations
#12
Daniel M Casali, Elisângela Martins-Santos, André L Q Santos, Flávia R Miranda, Germán A B Mahecha, Fernando A Perini
The tongue of anteaters (Xenarthra, Pilosa, Vermilingua) is a highly specialized for myrmecophagy. Here, we describe the topography and histology of the tongue, and compare it to that of other xenarthrans and other myrmecophagous eutherian mammals. The tongue of Vermilingua is long and slender, with an apical protuberance, which differs between Myrmecophagidae and Cyclopes didactylus. In the former, the rostral region is conical, and in the latter, it is dorsoventrally compressed, as observed in sloths. The tongue of Vermilingua has filiform and circumvallate papillae on the surface; foliate and fungiform papillae are absent...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643368/cell-lineage-tracing-in-the-retina-could-material-transfer-distort-conclusions
#13
Camille Boudreau-Pinsonneault, Michel Cayouette
Recent studies reported the transfer of fluorescent labels between grafted and host cells after transplantation of photoreceptor precursor cells in the mouse retina. While clearly impacting the interpretation of transplantation studies in the retina, the potential impact of material transfer in other experimental paradigms using cell-specific labels remains uncertain. Here, we briefly review the evidence supporting material transfer in transplantation studies and discuss whether it might influence retinal cell lineage tracing experiments in developmental and regeneration studies...
June 23, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642986/viridiuvalis-adhaerens-gen-et-sp-nov-a-novel-colony-forming-chlorarachniophyte
#14
Takashi Shiratori, Sakuya Fujita, Tenma Shimizu, Takeshi Nakayama, Ken-Ichiro Ishida
A new chlorarachniophyte, Viridiuvalis adhaerens gen. et sp. nov. was isolated from the mucus on a coral reef from Zanpa Beach, Okinawa, Japan. The main vegetative stage of V. adhaerens consisted of unicellular coccoid cells with cell walls, although sarcinoid colonies and uniflagellate zoospores were also observed. V. adhaerens had chloroplasts with nucleomorphs and pyrenoids that were completely embedded in the chloroplast. A deep plate-like invagination of the periplastidal compartment (PPC) almost partitioned the pyrenoid and chloroplast components, which were surrounded by two membranes...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642740/multigenerational-influences-of-the-fut2-gene-on-the-dynamics-of-the-gut-microbiota-in-mice
#15
Philipp Rausch, Sven Künzel, Abdulhadi Suwandi, Guntram A Grassl, Philip Rosenstiel, John F Baines
The FUT2 gene encodes an α-1,2-fucosyltransferase responsible for the expression of ABO histo-blood-group antigens on mucosal surfaces and bodily secretions. Individuals who carry at least one functional allele are known as "secretors," whereas those homozygous for loss-of-function mutations are known as "non-secretors." Non-secretor individuals are more susceptible to chronic inflammatory disorders such as Crohn's Disease, which may be mediated by alterations in the microbiota. Here, we investigated the dynamics of microbial community assembly with respect to genotype using a Fut2-deficient mouse model, taking the genotype of the maternal lineage over two generations into account...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642739/genetic-variability-of-koi-herpesvirus-in-vitro-a-natural-event
#16
Sandro Klafack, Qing Wang, Weiwei Zeng, Yingying Wang, Yingying Li, Shucheng Zheng, Jolanta Kempter, Pei-Yu Lee, Marek Matras, Sven M Bergmann
Worldwide koi herpesvirus (KHV) causes high mortalities in Cyprinus carpio L. aquaculture. So far, it is unknown how the different variants of KHV have developed and how they spread in the fish, but also in the environmental water bodies. Therefore, a phylogenetic method based on variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) was improved to gain deeper insights into the phylogeny of KHV and its possible worldwide distribution. Moreover, a VNTR-3 qPCR was designed which allows fast virus typing. This study presents a useful method for molecular tracing of diverse KHV types, variants, and lineages...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642499/comprehensive-analysis-and-reinterpretation-of-cenozoic-mesofossils-reveals-ancient-origin-of-the-snapping-claw-of-alpheid-shrimps
#17
Matúš Hyžný, Andreas Kroh, Alexander Ziegler, Arthur Anker, Martin Košťák, Ján Schlögl, Adam Culka, John W M Jagt, René H B Fraaije, Mathias Harzhauser, Barry W M van Bakel, Andrej Ruman
Alpheid snapping shrimps (Decapoda: Caridea: Alpheidae) constitute one of the model groups for inferences aimed at understanding the evolution of complex structural, behavioural, and ecological traits among benthic marine invertebrates. Despite being a super-diverse taxon with a broad geographical distribution, the alpheid fossil record is still poorly known. However, data presented herein show that the strongly calcified fingertips of alpheid snapping claws are not uncommon in the fossil record and should be considered a novel type of mesofossil...
June 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642457/human-mediated-secondary-contact-of-two-tortoise-lineages-results-in-sex-biased-introgression
#18
Eva Graciá, Roberto C Rodríguez-Caro, Ana C Andreu, Uwe Fritz, Andrés Giménez, Francisco Botella
Human-mediated secondary contact of recently diverged taxa offers valuable opportunities for studying the evolutionary mechanisms involved in the establishment and maintenance of genetic boundaries between taxa. We used mitochondrial and microsatellite markers to examine a recently introduced population of the spur-thighed tortoise (Testudo graeca) of mixed origin in the Doñana National Park (SW Spain). The earliest records of tortoises in Doñana trace back to the 18th century, but several population reinforcements in the 20th century with animals from Morocco are well-documented...
June 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642444/upregulation-of-cd11b-and-cd86-through-lsd1-inhibition-promotes-myeloid-differentiation-and-suppresses-cell-proliferation-in-human-monocytic-leukemia-cells
#19
Jianwu Fang, Haiyan Ying, Ting Mao, Yanjia Fang, Yuan Lu, He Wang, Irene Zang, Zhaofu Wang, Ying Lin, Mengxi Zhao, Xiao Luo, Zongyao Wang, Yan Zhang, Chao Zhang, Wei Xiao, Yan Wang, Wei Tan, Zhui Chen, Chris Lu, Peter Atadja, En Li, Kehao Zhao, Jianfeng Liu, Justin Gu
LSD1 (Lysine Specific Demethylase1)/KDM1A (Lysine Demethylase 1A), a flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)-dependent histone H3K4/K9 demethylase, sustains oncogenic potential of leukemia stem cells in primary human leukemia cells. However, the pro-differentiation and anti-proliferation effects of LSD1 inhibition in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) are not yet fully understood. Here, we report that small hairpin RNA (shRNA) mediated LSD1 inhibition causes a remarkable transcriptional activation of myeloid lineage marker genes (CD11b/ITGAM and CD86), reduction of cell proliferation and decrease of clonogenic ability of human AML cells...
June 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642365/phenotypic-diagnosis-of-lineage-and-differentiation-during-sake-yeast-breeding
#20
Shinsuke Ohnuki, Hiroki Okada, Anne Friedrich, Yoichiro Kanno, Tetsuya Goshima, Hirokazu Hasuda, Masaaki Inahashi, Naoto Okazaki, Hiroyasu Tamura, Ryo Nakamura, Dai Hirata, Hisashi Fukuda, Hitoshi Shimoi, Katsuhiko Kitamoto, Daisuke Watanabe, Joseph Schacherer, Takeshi Akao, Yoshikazu Ohya
Sake yeast was developed exclusively in Japan. Its diversification during breeding remains largely uncharacterized. To evaluate the breeding processes of the sake lineage, we thoroughly investigated the phenotypes and differentiation of 27 sake yeast strains using high-dimensional, single-cell morphological phenotyping. Although the genetic diversity of the sake yeast lineage is relatively low, its morphological diversity has expanded substantially compared to that of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae species as a whole...
June 22, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
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