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D M Gordon, D A Friedman
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February 2017: Molecular Ecology
Sophie Laffont, Cyril Seillet, Jean-Charles Guéry
Autoimmunity, infectious diseases and cancer affect women and men differently. Because they tend to develop more vigorous adaptive immune responses than men, women are less susceptible to some infectious diseases but also at higher risk of autoimmunity. The regulation of immune responses by sex-dependent factors probably involves several non-redundant mechanisms. A privileged area of study, however, concerns the role of sex steroid hormones in the biology of innate immune cells, especially dendritic cells (DCs)...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
Christyn Bailey, Helmut Segner, Ayako Casanova-Nakayama, Thomas Wahli
Proliferative kidney disease (PKD) of salmonids, caused by Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae may lead to high mortalities at elevated water temperatures. However, it has not yet been investigated how temperature affects the fish host immune response to T. bryosalmonae. We exposed YOY (young of the year) rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to T. bryosalmonae at two temperatures (12 °C and 15 °C) that reflect a realistic environmental scenario and could occur in the natural habitat of salmonids. We followed the development of the parasite, host pathology and immune response over seven weeks...
February 23, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Emma F Woodham, Nikki R Paul, Benjamin Tyrrell, Heather J Spence, Karthic Swaminathan, Michelle R Scribner, Evangelos Giampazolias, Ann Hedley, William Clark, Frieda Kage, Daniel J Marston, Klaus M Hahn, Stephen W G Tait, Lionel Larue, Cord H Brakebusch, Robert H Insall, Laura M Machesky
The individual molecular pathways downstream of Cdc42, Rac, and Rho GTPases are well documented, but we know surprisingly little about how these pathways are coordinated when cells move in a complex environment in vivo. In the developing embryo, melanoblasts originating from the neural crest must traverse the dermis to reach the epidermis of the skin and hair follicles. We previously established that Rac1 signals via Scar/WAVE and Arp2/3 to effect pseudopod extension and migration of melanoblasts in skin...
February 18, 2017: Current Biology: CB
Shuo Luo, H Robert Horvitz
At least some animal species can generate neurons from mesoderm or endoderm, but the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. We screened for C. elegans mutants in which the presumptive mesoderm-derived I4 neuron adopts a muscle-like cell fate. From this screen, we identified HLH-3, the C. elegans homolog of a mammalian proneural protein (Ascl1) used for in vitro neuronal reprogramming, as required for efficient I4 neurogenesis. We discovered that the CDK-8 Mediator kinase module acts together with a second proneural protein, HLH-2, and in parallel to HLH-3 to promote I4 neurogenesis...
February 18, 2017: Current Biology: CB
Tonya Azevedo Duarte, Joilda Silva Nery, Neio Boechat, Susan Martins Pereira, Vera Simonsen, Martha Oliveira, Maria Gabriela Miranda Gomes, Carlos Penha-Gonçalves, Mauricio Lima Barreto, Theolis Barbosa
INTRODUCTION: The Mycobacterium tuberculosis East African-Indian (EAI) spoligotyping family (belonging to lineage 1, Indo-Oceanic, defined by the region of deletion RD239) is distributed worldwide, but is more prevalent in Southeast Asia, India, and East Africa. Studies in Latin America have rarely identified EAI. In this study, we describe the occurrence of the EAI family in Brazil. METHODS: EAI was identified in a systematic literature review of genetic diversity studies pertaining to M...
February 23, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
Alessandro Mauriello, Erica Giacobbi, Andrea Saggini, Antonella Isgrò, Simone Facchetti, Lucia Anemona
Bone marrow histological features of sickle cell anaemia (SCA) patients during early stages and in the asymptomatic phase of the disease appear an interesting area of study, representing early-stage consequences of SCA with a close relation to its pathophysiology. Unfortunately, this field of research has never been specifically addressed before. Bone marrow biopsies from 26 consecutive Black African SCA patients (M:F=1.6:1; age 2-17 years), free of clinical signs of chronic bone marrow damage, with no recent history of symptomatic vaso-occlusive episodes, and waiting for haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), underwent morphological, immunohistochemical and electron microscopy evaluation...
February 23, 2017: Pathology
Saskia Haitjema, Jessica van Setten, James Eales, Sander W van der Laan, Ilaria Gandin, Jean-Paul P M de Vries, Gert J de Borst, Gerard Pasterkamp, Folkert W Asselbergs, Fadi J Charchar, James F Wilson, Saskia C A de Jager, Maciej Tomaszewski, Hester M den Ruijter
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Haplogroup I, a common European paternal lineage of the Y chromosome, is associated with increased risk of coronary artery disease in British men. It is unclear whether this haplogroup or any other haplogroup on the Y chromosome is associated with histological characteristics of the diseased vessel wall in other vascular manifestations of cardiovascular diseases showing a male preponderance. METHODS: We examined Dutch men undergoing either carotid endarterectomy from the Athero-Express biobank (AE, n = 1217) or open aneurysm repair from the Aneurysm-Express biobank (AAA, n = 393)...
February 20, 2017: Atherosclerosis
Mohammad Savari, Alireza Ekrami, Saeed Shoja, Abbas Bahador
Colistin is the last hope to treat extensively drug resistance (XDR) Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii) infections, but resistance to colistin is currently reported in clinical centers all over the world. Here, we studied two colistin-resistant A. baumannii isolates with a difference in minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) that were isolated from a single burn patient during treatment in the hospitalization period. The international clonal (IC) lineage, multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and multiple loci variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) analysis (MLVA) typing were used to characterize the relatedness of A...
February 25, 2017: Folia Microbiologica
Ana Terriente-Félix, Lidia Pérez, Sarah J Bray, Angel R Nebreda, Marco Milán
Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) of the Philadelphia-negative class comprise polycythemia vera, essential thrombocythemia and primary myelofibrosis (PMF). They are associated with aberrant amounts of myeloid lineage cells in the blood, and in the case of overt PMF, with the development of myelofibrosis in the bone marrow and the failure to produce normal blood cells. These diseases are usually caused by gain-of-function mutations in the kinase JAK2 Here we use Drosophila to investigate the consequences of activation of the JAK2 ortholog in hematopoiesis...
February 24, 2017: Disease Models & Mechanisms
Vito Baraka, Christopher Delgado-Ratto, Sidsel Nag, Deus S Ishengoma, Rashid A Madebe, Hypolite Muhindo Mavoko, Carolyn Nabasumba, Pascal Lutumba, Michael Alifrangis, Jean-Pierre Van Geertruyden
Sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine (SP) is still used for malaria control in sub-Saharan Africa; however, widespread resistance is a major concern. This study aimed to determine the dispersal and origin of sulphadoxine resistance lineages in the Democratic Republic of the Congo compared with East African Plasmodium falciparum dihydropteroate synthetase (Pfdhps) haplotypes. The analysis involved 264 isolates collected from patients with uncomplicated malaria from Tanzania, Uganda and DR Congo. Isolates were genotyped for Pfdhps mutations at codons 436, 437, 540, 581 and 613...
February 22, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
María Mercedes Bigi, Beatriz Lopez, Federico Carlos Blanco, María Del Carmen Sasiain, Silvia De la Barrera, Marcelo A Marti, Ezequiel Jorge Sosa, Darío Augusto Fernández Do Porto, Viviana Ritacco, Fabiana Bigi, Marcelo Abel Soria
Globally, about 4.5% of new tuberculosis (TB) cases are multi-drug-resistant (MDR), i.e. resistant to the two most powerful first-line anti-TB drugs. Indeed, 480,000 people developed MDR-TB in 2015 and 190,000 people died because of MDR-TB. The MDR Mycobacterium tuberculosis M family, which belongs to the Haarlem lineage, is highly prosperous in Argentina and capable of building up further drug resistance without impairing its ability to spread. In this study, we sequenced the whole genomes of a highly prosperous M-family strain (Mp) and its contemporary variant, strain 410, which produced only one recorded tuberculosis case in the last two decades...
March 2017: Tuberculosis
Estefanía Abascal, Diana Maricela Herrera, Marta Herranz, Sheila Santantón, Miguel Martínez-Lirola, Griselda Tudó, Juliá Gonzalez, Emilio Bouza, Laura Pérez-Lago, Darío García-de-Viedma
Molecular epidemiology analysis of tuberculosis transmission is based mostly on the application of MIRU-VNTR. In certain isolates a complete 24-loci genotype is not obtained and these incompletely genotyped isolates can not be used in the definition of clusters. In a population-based molecular epidemiology study performed in Almería, Southeast Spain, a context with a high proportion of immigrants, we found that an 88-bp deletion in isolates of Mycobacterium africanum Lineage 5 hampers MIRU-VNTR analysis. A more extensive analysis revealed that this deletion was shared by all the Lineage 5 isolates in certain countries of origin of immigrants, such as Equatorial Guinea, and is likely present in several other African countries and also in the USA...
March 2017: Tuberculosis
Fang Yan, Yi Wang, Wencheng Zhang, Mingyang Chang, Zhiying He, Jinbo Xu, Changzhen Shang, Tao Chen, Jiang Liu, Xin Wang, Xuetao Pei, Yunfang Wang
: Maturation of hepatic cells can be gradually acquired through multiple stages of hepatic lineage specification, while little is known if the dynamics of HCV infection are maturationally lineage dependent. We investigated the susceptibility to HCV at multiple stages comprising human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), definitive endodermal cells (hDECs), hepatic stem cells (hHpSCs), hepatoblasts (hHBs) and mature hepatocytes (hHeps). Susceptibility to infection occurred initially at the stage of hHpSC, however, hHBs proved to have the highest permissiveness and infectivity compared with all other stages...
February 25, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Charlotte Degraeve-Guilbault, Claire Bréhélin, Richard P Haslam, Olga Sayanova, Glawdys Marie-Luce, Juliette Jouhet, Florence Corellou
The pico-alga Ostreococcus tauri is a minimal photosynthetic eukaryote that has been implemented as model system. O. tauri is known to efficiently produce docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). We provide a comprehensive study of the glycerolipidome of O.tauri and validate this species as model for related picoeukaryotes. Ostreococcus lipids displayed unique features that combined traits from the green and the chromoalveolate lineages. The betaine-lipid diacylglyceryl-hydroxymethyl-trimethyl-β-alanine and phosphatidyldimethylpropanethiol, both hallmarks of chromalveolates, were identified as presumed extraplastidial lipids...
February 24, 2017: Plant Physiology
Maeva Leitwein, Bruno Guinand, Juliette Pouzadoux, Erick Desmarais, Patrick Berrebi, Pierre-Alexandre Gagnaire
High-density linkage maps are valuable tools for conservation and eco-evolutionary issues. In salmonids, a complex rediploidization process consecutive to an ancient whole genome duplication event makes linkage maps of prime importance for investigating the evolutionary history of chromosome rearrangements. Here, we developed a high-density consensus linkage map for the brown trout (Salmo trutta), a socio-economically important species heavily impacted by human activities. A total of 3,977 ddRAD markers were mapped and ordered in 40 linkage groups using sex- and lineage-averaged recombination distances obtained from two family crosses...
February 24, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
Gerhard Müller-Newen, Matthias B Stope, Thomas Kraus, Patrick Ziegler
Megakaryocytes (MK) are the sole source of platelets in the body. They develop from lineage-committed hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) via intermediate cells, which differ in morphology, size, ploidy, and surface phenotype. Development and maturation of MKs is governed by different transcription factors, including GATA-1, E26 transformation-specific transcription factor (ETS) family members, nuclear factor erythroid 2 transcription factor (NF-E2), and STAT3. During such challenges as acute inflammation, platelets are consumed in high numbers and must be replenished to secure survival of the host...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
Iwona Rozempolska-Rucińska, Grzegorz Zięba, Lucyna Kibała, Tomasz Paweł Próchniak, Marek Łukaszewicz
The aim of the study was to evaluate genetic correlations between the behavioural profile and performance in laying hens as an indirect answer to the question whether the observed behavioural responses are associated with increased levels of stress in these birds. The assessment of birds' temperament was carried out using the Novel Objects Test. The behavioural test was conducted in two successive generations comprising 9483 Rhode Island White birds (approx. 4700 individuals per generation) and 4326 Rhode Island Red birds (approx...
February 23, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Peter F Cowman, Valeriano Parravicini, Michel Kulbicki, Sergio R Floeter
The largest marine biodiversity hotspot straddles the Indian and Pacific Oceans, driven by taxa associated with tropical coral reefs. Centred on the Indo-Australian Archipelago (IAA), this biodiversity hotspot forms the 'bullseye' of a steep gradient in species richness from this centre to the periphery of the vast Indo-Pacific region. Complex patterns of endemism, wide-ranging species and assemblage differences have obscured our understanding of the genesis of this biodiversity pattern and its maintenance across two-thirds of the world's oceans...
February 23, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
Bhushan P Mahadik, Narayanan A K Bharadwaj, Randy H Ewoldt, Brendan A C Harley
Hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) reside in unique bone marrow niches and are influenced by signals from surrounding cells, the extracellular matrix (ECM), ECM-bound or diffusible biomolecules. Here we describe the use of a three-dimensional hydrogel to alter the balance of HSC-generated autocrine feedback and paracrine signals generated by co-cultured niche-associated cells. We report shifts in HSC proliferation rate and fate specification in the presence of lineage positive (Lin(+)) niche cells. Hydrogels promoting autocrine feedback enhanced expansion of early hematopoietic progenitors while paracrine signals from Lin(+) cells increased myeloid differentiation...
February 14, 2017: Biomaterials
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