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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055169/diversification-in-tropics-and-subtropics-following-the-mid-miocene-climate-change-a-case-study-of-the-spider-genus-nesticella
#1
Francesco Ballarin, Shuqiang Li
Caves may offer suitable refugia for troglophilic invertebrates during periods of unfavourable climatic conditions because of their stable microclimates. As a consequence, allopatric divergence from their epigean counterparts may occur, leading to formation of truly hypogean communities (the Climatic Relict Hypothesis). Unlike the well-studied effects of Pleistocene glaciations, we know little about how ancient climate changes drove the development of cave-dwelling organisms living at both middle and lower latitudes...
October 21, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055150/distinct-sources-of-gene-flow-produce-contrasting-population-genetic-dynamics-at-different-range-boundaries-of-a-choristoneura-budworm
#2
Gwylim S Blackburn, Bryan M T Brunet, Kevin Muirhead, Michel Cusson, Catherine Béliveau, Roger C Levesque, Lisa M Lumley, Felix A H Sperling
Populations are often exposed to multiple sources of gene flow, but accounts are lacking of the population genetic dynamics that result from these interactions or their effects on local evolution. Using a genomic clines framework applied to 1195 SNPs, we documented genome-wide, locus-specific patterns of introgression between Choristoneura occidentalis biennis spruce budworms and two ecologically divergent relatives, C. o. occidentalis and C. fumiferana, that it interacts with at alternate boundaries of its range...
October 21, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055110/host-conservatism-geography-and-elevation-in-the-evolution-of-a-neotropical-moth-radiation
#3
Joshua P Jahner, Matthew L Forister, Thomas L Parchman, Angela M Smilanich, James S Miller, Joseph S Wilson, Thomas R Walla, Eric J Tepe, Lora A Richards, Mario Alberto Quijano-Abril, Andrea E Glassmire, Lee A Dyer
The origins of evolutionary radiations are often traced to the colonization of novel adaptive zones, including unoccupied habitats or unutilized resources. For herbivorous insects, the predominant mechanism of diversification is typically assumed to be a shift onto a novel lineage of host plants. However, other drivers of diversification are important in shaping evolutionary history, especially for groups residing in regions with complex geological histories. We evaluated the contributions of shifts in host plant clade, bioregion, and elevation to diversification in Eois (Lepidoptera: Geometridae), a hyper-diverse genus of moths found throughout the Neotropics...
October 21, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054930/the-transcription-factor-mef2a-fine-tunes-gene-expression-in-the-atrial-and-ventricular-chambers-of-the-adult-heart
#4
Jose L Medrano, Francisco J Naya
The distinct morphological and functional properties of the cardiac chambers arise from an elaborate developmental program involving cell lineage determination, morphogenesis, and dynamic spatiotemporal gene expression patterns. While a number of transcription factors have been identified for proper gene regulation in the chambers, the complete transcriptional network that controls these patterns remains poorly defined. Previous studies have implicated the MEF2C transcription factor in the regulation of chamber-restricted enhancers...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054864/heterogeneous-patterns-of-genetic-diversity-and-differentiation-in-european-and-siberian-chiffchaff-phylloscopus-collybita-abietinus-p-tristis
#5
Venkat Talla, Faheema Kalsoom, Daria Shipilina, Irina Marova, Niclas Backström
Identification of candidate genes for trait variation in diverging lineages and characterization of mechanistic underpinnings of genome differentiation are key steps towards understanding the processes underlying the formation of new species. Hybrid zones provide a valuable resource for such investigations since they allow for studying how genomes evolve as species exchange genetic material and for associating particular genetic regions with phenotypic traits of interest. Here we use whole-genome resequencing of both allopatric and hybridising populations of the European (Phylloscopus collybita abietinus) and the Siberian chiffchaff (P...
October 20, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054843/contribution-of-extra-cardiac-cells-in-murine-heart-valves-is-age-dependent
#6
Lindsey J Anstine, Tori E Horne, Edwin M Horwitz, Joy Lincoln
BACKGROUND: Heart valves are dynamic structures that open and close over 100 000 times a day to maintain unidirectional blood flow during the cardiac cycle. Function is largely achieved by highly organized layers of extracellular matrix that provide the necessary biomechanical properties. Homeostasis of valve extracellular matrix is mediated by valve endothelial and interstitial cell populations, and although the embryonic origins of these cells are known, it is not clear how they are maintained after birth...
October 20, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054828/cloning-and-expression-study-of-an-irf4a-gene-and-its-two-transcript-variants-in-turbot-scophthalmus-maximus
#7
Song Li, Guobin Hu, Zhipeng Chen, Lianfei Song, Guanjie Wang, Dahai Liu, Qiuming Liu
Interferon regulatory factor 4 (IRF4) is known to be involved in antiviral response as well as regulation of functional and developmental processes in lymphomyeloid cell lineages in mammals. In this study, the gene of IRF4a and its two transcript variants (named IRF4a1 and -2) were cloned from turbot, Scophthalmus maximus, the tissue distributions and in vivo immune responsive expression patterns of the two transcripts were subsequently examined. The Scophthalmus maximus (Sm)IRF4a gene is 8367 nucleotide (nt) in length, consisting of eight exons and seven introns...
October 17, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054811/molecular-phylogeny-of-bladderworts-a-wide-approach-of-utricularia-lentibulariaceae-species-relationships-based-on-six-plastidial-and-nuclear-dna-sequences
#8
Saura R Silva, Robert Gibson, Lubomír Adamec, Yoannis Domínguez, Vitor F O Miranda
The carnivorous plant genus Utricularia L. (bladderwort) comprises about 240 species distributed worldwide and is traditionally classified into two subgenera (Polypompholyx and Utricularia) and 35 sections, based mainly on general and trap morphology. It is one out of the largest carnivorous genera, representing ca. 30% of all carnivorous plant species, and is also the most widely distributed. According to previous phylogenetic studies, most infrageneric sections are monophyletic, but there are several incongruences considering their relationships and also the dissenting position of some species as a result of a too few (mostly one or two) molecular markers analyzed...
October 17, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054426/origin-of-the-myotonic-dystrophy-type-1-mutation-in-mexican-population-and-influence-of-amerindian-ancestry-on-ctg-repeat-allelic-distribution
#9
N M Murillo-Melo, L C Márquez-Quiróz, R Gómez, L Orozco, E Mendoza-Caamal, Y S Tapia-Guerrero, R Camacho-Mejorado, H Cortés, A López-Reyes, C Santana, G Noris, O Hernández-Hernández, B Cisneros, J J Magaña
Myotonic dystrophy type 1 is caused by expansion of a CTG trinucleotide repeat situated in the DMPK gene. Worldwide genetic studies suggest a single or limited number of mutational events cause the disease. However, distribution of CTG alleles and disease incidence varies among ethnicities. Due to the great ethnic diversity of the Mexican population, the present study was aimed at analyzing the impact of different lineages in shaping the CTG-repeat allelic distribution in the contemporary Mexican-Mestizo population as well as to shed light on the DM1 ancestral origin...
September 21, 2017: Neuromuscular Disorders: NMD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054410/molecular-cloning-and-3d-structure-of-first-cytochrome-p450-from-cyp3a-subfamily-in-saltwater-crocodile-crocodylus-porosus
#10
Rabia Tabassum
Cytochrome P450s (CYPs) play critical role in oxidative metabolism of numerous xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. The first CYP3A subfamily member in saltwater crocodile has been cloned and modelled for three-dimensional (3D) structure. The full-length cDNA was obtained employing reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) strategy and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The cDNA sequence of 1659 nucleotides includes 132 nucleotides from 5' untranslated region (UTR), an open reading frame of 1527 nucleotides encoding 509 amino acids designated as CYP3A163...
October 17, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054300/why-might-bacterial-pathogens-have-small-genomes
#11
REVIEW
Lucy A Weinert, John J Welch
Bacteria that cause serious disease often have smaller genomes, and fewer genes, than their nonpathogenic, or less pathogenic relatives. Here, we review evidence for the generality of this association, and summarise the various reasons why the association might hold. We focus on the population genetic processes that might lead to reductive genome evolution, and show how several of these could be connected to pathogenicity. We find some evidence for most of the processes having acted in bacterial pathogens, including several different modes of genome reduction acting in the same lineage...
October 17, 2017: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054163/new-dental-and-postcranial-material-of-agerinia-smithorum-primates-adapiformes-from-the-type-locality-casa-retjo-1-early-eocene-iberian-peninsula
#12
Joan Femenias-Gual, Judit Marigó, Raef Minwer-Barakat, Salvador Moyà-Solà
New material attributed to Agerinia smithorum from Casa Retjo-1 (early Eocene, NE Iberian Peninsula), consisting of 13 isolated teeth and a fragment of calcaneus, is studied in this work. These fossils allow the first description of the calcaneus and the upper premolars for the genus Agerinia, as well as the first description of the P2 and M(2) for A. smithorum. The newly recovered lower teeth are virtually identical to the holotype of A. smithorum and are clearly distinguishable from the other species of Agerinia...
December 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054117/assessing-global-range-expansion-in-a-cryptic-species-complex-insights-from-the-red-seaweed-genus-asparagopsis-florideophyceae
#13
Marianela Zanolla, María Altamirano, Raquel Carmona, Julio De la Rosa, Virginia Souza-Egipsy, Alison Sherwood, Konstantinos Tsiamis, Ana Márcia Barbosa, Antonio Román Muñoz, Nikos Andreakis
The mitochondrial genetic diversity, distribution and invasive potential of multiple cryptic operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of the red invasive seaweed Asparagopsis were assessed by studying introduced Mediterranean and Hawaiian populations. Invasive behavior of each Asparagopsis OTU was inferred from phylogeographic reconstructions, past historical demographic dynamics, recent range expansion assessments and future distributional predictions obtained from demographic models. Genealogical networks resolved Asparagopsis gametophytes and tetrasporophytes into four A...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053990/persistence-and-infectivity-of-zika-virus-in-semen-after-returning-from-endemic-areas-report-of-5-cases
#14
S García-Bujalance, A Gutiérrez-Arroyo, F De la Calle, M Díaz-Menéndez, Jose R Arribas, J García-Rodríguez, M Arsuaga
BACKGROUND: There are limited data about the persistence and infectivity of Zika virus in semen of symptomatic travelers returning from endemic areas and even less data in asymptomatic cases. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the persistence and infectivity of ZIKA virus in semen in five patients with Zika virus infection returning to Spain from endemic areas. STUDY DESIGN: We evaluated the epidemiological, clinical and virological characteristic of the five patients...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053711/evaluation-of-spoligotyping-snps-and-customised-miru-vntr-combination-for-genotyping-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-clinical-isolates-in-madagascar
#15
Rondroarivelo Rasoahanitralisoa, Niaina Rakotosamimanana, David Stucki, Christophe Sola, Sebastien Gagneux, Voahangy Rasolofo Razanamparany
BACKGROUND: Combining different molecular typing methods for Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) can be a powerful tool for molecular epidemiology-based investigation of TB. However, the current standard method that provides high discriminatory power for such a combination, mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units-variable numbers of tandem repeats typing (MIRU-VNTR), is laborious, time-consuming and often too costly for many resource-limited laboratories. We aimed to evaluate a reduced set of loci for MIRU-VNTR typing in combination with spoligotyping and SNP-typing for routine molecular epidemiology of TB...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053691/quantitative-whole-mount-immunofluorescence-analysis-of-cardiac-progenitor-populations-in-mouse-embryos
#16
Evan Bardot, Nikos Tzavaras, Deanna L Benson, Nicole C Dubois
The use of ever-advancing imaging techniques has contributed broadly to our increased understanding of embryonic development. Pre-implantation development and organogenesis are two areas of research that have benefitted greatly from these advances, due to the high quality of data that can be obtained directly from imaging pre-implantation embryos or ex vivo organs. While pre-implantation embryos have yielded data with especially high spatial resolution, later stages have been less amenable to three-dimensional reconstruction...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053378/genetic-diversity-of-jiangsu-native-chicken-breeds-assessed-with-the-mitochondrial-dna-d-loop-region
#17
X X Jia, J X Lu, X J Tang, Y F Fan, S H Huang, Q L Ge, Y S Gao
1. The objective of this study was to determine the origin and evolution of chickens from 5 native breeds that are traditionally raised in Jiangsu Province. 2. The sequence of the mitochondrial D-loop has proven to be useful for studying population genetics and trace the origins of domestic animals. 3. To address this question, we analysed the complete mitochondrial DNA D-loop sequence of 149 chickens from 5 native breeds of Jiangsu Province. 4. Sequences read lengths of the native breeds were 1231 to 1232 bp, with a single-base deletion from the 859 bp site in the 1231 bp haplotype...
October 20, 2017: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052042/paternal-lineage-affinity-of-the-malay-subethnic-and-orang-asli-populations-in-peninsular-malaysia
#18
SyedHassan SharifahNany RahayuKarmilla, Alwi R Aedrianee, Sundararajulu Panneerchelvam, Mohd Nor Norazmi, Abdullah Nur Azeelah, Zainuddin Zafarina
Peninsular Malaysia is populated by the Malays, Chinese, Indians, and Orang Asli. We have analyzed 17 Y-STRs loci for 243 randomly unrelated individuals, which include 153 Malays (7 Acheh, 13 Champa, 11 Rawa, 9 Kedah, 23 Minang, 15 Bugis, 43 Kelantan, 14 Jawa, and 18 Bugis) and 90 Orang Asli [54 Semang (16 Kensiu, 13 Lanoh, 25 Bateq); 30 Senoi (21 Semai, 9 Che Wong); and 6 Proto-Malay (6 Orang Kanaq)] from selected settlements in Peninsular Malaysia using the AmpFlSTR Yfiler™ kit (Applied Biosystems™). The overall haplotype diversity is 0...
October 19, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051571/a-new-cellular-type-in-invertebrates-first-evidence-of-telocytes-in-leech-hirudo-medicinalis
#19
Laura Pulze, Nicolò Baranzini, Rossana Girardello, Annalisa Grimaldi, Lidia Ibba-Manneschi, Enzo Ottaviani, Marcella Reguzzoni, Gianluca Tettamanti, Magda de Eguileor
Telocytes, a peculiar cell type, were recently found in vertebrates. Hence this cell system has been reported as ubiquitous in the bodies of mammals and interpreted as an important player in innate immunity and tissue regeneration, it is reasonable to look for it also in invertebrates, that rely their integrity solely by innate immunity. Here we describe, at morphological and functional level, invertebrate telocytes from the body of leech Hirudo medicinalis (Annelida), suggesting how these cells, forming a resident stromal 3D network, can influence or participate in different events...
October 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051505/large-scale-genomic-analyses-reveal-the-population-structure-and-evolutionary-trends-of-streptococcus-agalactiae-strains-in-brazilian-fish-farms
#20
Gustavo M Barony, Guilherme C Tavares, Felipe L Pereira, Alex F Carvalho, Fernanda A Dorella, Carlos A G Leal, Henrique C P Figueiredo
Streptococcus agalactiae is a major pathogen and a hindrance on tilapia farming worldwide. The aims of this work were to analyze the genomic evolution of Brazilian strains of S. agalactiae and to establish spatial and temporal relations between strains isolated from different outbreaks of streptococcosis. A total of 39 strains were obtained from outbreaks and their whole genomes were sequenced and annotated for comparative analysis of multilocus sequence typing, genomic similarity and whole genome multilocus sequence typing (wgMLST)...
October 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
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