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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723933/comparative-repeatome-analysis-on-triatoma-infestans-andean-and-non-andean-lineages-main-vector-of-chagas-disease
#1
Sebastián Pita, Francisco Panzera, Pablo Mora, Jesús Vela, Ángeles Cuadrado, Antonio Sánchez, Teresa Palomeque, Pedro Lorite
Triatoma infestans is the most important Chagas disease vector in South America. Two main evolutionary lineages, named Andean and non-Andean, have been recognized by geographical distribution, phenetic and genetic characteristics. One of the main differences is the genomic size, varying over 30% in their haploid DNA content. Here we realize a genome wide analysis to compare the repetitive genome fraction (repeatome) between both lineages in order to identify the main repetitive DNA changes occurred during T...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723902/seed-size-and-its-rate-of-evolution-correlate-with-species-diversification-across-angiosperms
#2
Javier Igea, Eleanor F Miller, Alexander S T Papadopulos, Andrew J Tanentzap
Species diversity varies greatly across the different taxonomic groups that comprise the Tree of Life (ToL). This imbalance is particularly conspicuous within angiosperms, but is largely unexplained. Seed mass is one trait that may help clarify why some lineages diversify more than others because it confers adaptation to different environments, which can subsequently influence speciation and extinction. The rate at which seed mass changes across the angiosperm phylogeny may also be linked to diversification by increasing reproductive isolation and allowing access to novel ecological niches...
July 19, 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723896/maternal-h3k27me3-controls-dna-methylation-independent-imprinting
#3
Azusa Inoue, Lan Jiang, Falong Lu, Tsukasa Suzuki, Yi Zhang
Mammalian sperm and oocytes have different epigenetic landscapes and are organized in different fashions. After fertilization, the initially distinct parental epigenomes become largely equalized with the exception of certain loci, including imprinting control regions. How parental chromatin becomes equalized and how imprinting control regions escape from this reprogramming is largely unknown. Here we profile parental allele-specific DNase I hypersensitive sites in mouse zygotes and morula embryos, and investigate the epigenetic mechanisms underlying these allelic sites...
July 19, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723681/inhibition-of-necroptosis-attenuates-kidney-inflammation-and-interstitial-fibrosis-induced-by-unilateral-ureteral-obstruction
#4
Xia Xiao, Chunyang Du, Zhe Yan, Yonghong Shi, Huijun Duan, Yunzhuo Ren
BACKGROUND: Inflammation plays a crucial role in renal interstitial fibrosis, the pathway of chronic kidney diseases. Necroptosis is a novel form of regulated cell death, which plays a potential role in inflammation and renal diseases. The small molecule necrostatin-1 (Nec-1) is a specific inhibitor of necroptosis. This study was aimed at determining the role of necroptosis, RIP1/RIP3/mixed lineage kinase domain-like (MLKL) signaling pathway, in renal inflammation and interstitial fibrosis related to primitive tubulointerstitial injury...
July 20, 2017: American Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723631/cbl-b-predicts-postoperative-survival-in-patients-with-resectable-pancreatic-ductal-adenocarcinoma
#5
Qian Dong, Yuteng Ma, Yao Zhang, Xiujuan Qu, Zhi Li, Yafei Qi, Yunpeng Liu, Ce Li, Kai Li, Xianghong Yang, Xiaofang Che
Casitas B-lineage lymphoma b (Cbl-b) is a ubiquitin-protein ligase and a signal transducing adaptor protein involved in immune regulation, and it may be involved in the development and progression of cancer. We investigated the association between Cbl-b expression and prognosis in patients with resectable pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). The clinicopathological characteristics and survival data of 134 patients with surgery for PDAC between January 2009 and February 2012 were retrospectively evaluated, and Cbl-b expression was assayed by immunohistochemical staining...
June 27, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723565/the-transcription-factor-tcf1-contributes-to-normal-nk-cell-development-and-function-by-limiting-the-expression-of-granzymes
#6
Beena Jeevan-Raj, Jasmine Gehrig, Mélanie Charmoy, Vijaykumar Chennupati, Camille Grandclément, Paolo Angelino, Mauro Delorenzi, Werner Held
The transcription factor Tcf1 is essential for the development of natural killer (NK) cells. However, its precise role has not been clarified. Our combined analysis of Tcf1-deficient and transgenic mice indicated that Tcf1 guides NK cells through three stages of development. Tcf1 expression directed bone marrow progenitors toward the NK cell lineage and ensured the survival of NK-committed cells, and its downregulation was needed for terminal maturation. Impaired survival of NK-committed cells was due to excessive expression of granzyme B (GzmB) and other granzyme family members, which induced NK cell self-destruction during maturation and following activation with cytokines or target cells...
July 18, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723562/integrative-genomics-identifies-the-molecular-basis-of-resistance-to-azacitidine-therapy-in-myelodysplastic-syndromes
#7
Ashwin Unnikrishnan, Elli Papaemmanuil, Dominik Beck, Nandan P Deshpande, Arjun Verma, Ashu Kumari, Petter S Woll, Laura A Richards, Kathy Knezevic, Vashe Chandrakanthan, Julie A I Thoms, Melinda L Tursky, Yizhou Huang, Zara Ali, Jake Olivier, Sally Galbraith, Austin G Kulasekararaj, Magnus Tobiasson, Mohsen Karimi, Andrea Pellagatti, Susan R Wilson, Robert Lindeman, Boris Young, Raj Ramakrishna, Christopher Arthur, Richard Stark, Philip Crispin, Jennifer Curnow, Pauline Warburton, Fernando Roncolato, Jacqueline Boultwood, Kevin Lynch, Sten Eirik W Jacobsen, Ghulam J Mufti, Eva Hellstrom-Lindberg, Marc R Wilkins, Karen L MacKenzie, Jason W H Wong, Peter J Campbell, John E Pimanda
Myelodysplastic syndromes and chronic myelomonocytic leukemia are blood disorders characterized by ineffective hematopoiesis and progressive marrow failure that can transform into acute leukemia. The DNA methyltransferase inhibitor 5-azacytidine (AZA) is the most effective pharmacological option, but only ∼50% of patients respond. A response only manifests after many months of treatment and is transient. The reasons underlying AZA resistance are unknown, and few alternatives exist for non-responders. Here, we show that AZA responders have more hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) in the cell cycle...
July 18, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723558/dendritic-cell-lineage-potential-in-human-early-hematopoietic-progenitors
#8
Julie Helft, Fernando Anjos-Afonso, Annemarthe G van der Veen, Probir Chakravarty, Dominique Bonnet, Caetano Reis E Sousa
Conventional dendritic cells (cDCs) are thought to descend from a DC precursor downstream of the common myeloid progenitor (CMP). However, a mouse lymphoid-primed multipotent progenitor has been shown to generate cDCs following a DC-specific developmental pathway independent of monocyte and granulocyte poiesis. Similarly, here we show that, in humans, a large fraction of multipotent lymphoid early progenitors (MLPs) gives rise to cDCs, in particular the subset known as cDC1, identified by co-expression of DNGR-1 (CLEC9A) and CD141 (BDCA-3)...
July 18, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723549/interleukin-7-availability-is-maintained-by-a-hematopoietic-cytokine-sink-comprising-innate-lymphoid-cells-and-t%C3%A2-cells
#9
Christopher E Martin, Darina S Spasova, Kwesi Frimpong-Boateng, Hee-Ok Kim, Minji Lee, Kwang Soon Kim, Charles D Surh
Interleukin-7 (IL-7) availability determines the size and proliferative state of the resting T cell pool. However, the mechanisms that regulate steady-state IL-7 amounts are unclear. Using experimental lymphopenic mouse models and IL-7-induced homeostatic proliferation to measure IL-7 availability in vivo, we found that radioresistant cells were the source of IL-7 for both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells. Hematopoietic lineage cells, although irrelevant as a source of IL-7, were primarily responsible for limiting IL-7 availability via their expression of IL-7R...
July 18, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722717/counting-the-cost-of-lineage-decisions
#10
Alberto Yáñez, Helen S Goodridge, H Leighton Grimes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 19, 2017: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722603/molecular-characterization-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-strains-with-tb-sprint
#11
Barbara Molina-Moya, Michel Kiréopori Gomgnimbou, Carmen Lafoz, Alicia Lacoma, Cristina Prat, Guislaine Refrégier, Sofia Samper, Jose Dominguez, Christophe Sola
We evaluated Tuberculosis-Spoligo-Rifampicin-Isoniazid Typing (TB-SPRINT), a microbead-based method for spoligotyping and detection of rifampicin and isoniazid resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. For that, 67 M. tuberculosis complex strains were retrospectively selected. Membrane-based spoligotyping, restriction fragment length polymorphism, DNA sequencing/pyrosequencing of rpoB, katG, and inhA promoter, TB-SPRINT, and SNP typing were performed. Concordance between spoligotyping methods was 99.6% (2,785/2,795 spoligotype data points)...
July 10, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722566/molecular-epidemiology-of-staphylococcus-aureus-skin-and-soft-tissue-infections-in-the-lao-people-s-democratic-republic
#12
Alicia D Yeap, Kate Woods, David A B Dance, Bruno Pichon, Sayaphet Rattanavong, Viengmon Davong, Rattanaphone Phetsouvanh, Paul N Newton, Nandini Shetty, Angela M Kearns
This is the first report of the molecular epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus from skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI) in Laos. We selected a random sample of 96 S. aureus SSTI isolates received by the Microbiology Laboratory, Mahosot Hospital, Vientiane, between July 2012 and June 2014, including representation from seven referral hospitals. Isolates underwent susceptibility testing by Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute methods, spa typing and DNA microarray analysis, with whole genome sequencing for rare lineages...
May 30, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722319/immunophenotypic-aberrancies-in-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-from-282-iraqi-patients
#13
S D Jalal, N A S Al-Allawi, A A S Al Doski
INTRODUCTION: The identification of aberrancies in leukemia-associated immunophenotype (LAIP) of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is quite important in the assessment of minimal residual disease (MRD). This study, the first from Iraq, aimed to assess the frequency and patterns of LAIP among Iraqi patients with ALL, to establish future strategies for evaluating MRD. METHODS: A total of 282 newly diagnosed Iraqi ALL cases were analyzed with six-parameter flow cytometry using a panel of 29 monoclonal antibodies...
July 18, 2017: International Journal of Laboratory Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721594/exome-analysis-in-an-estonian-multiplex-family-with-neural-tube-defects-a-case-report
#14
Liina Pappa, Mart Kals, Paula Ann Kivistik, Andres Metspalu, Ann Paal, Tiit Nikopensius
INTRODUCTION: Neural tube defects (NTDs) are a group of common and severe congenital birth defects that occur during early embryonic development due to incomplete closure of the neural tube. The genetic architecture of human NTDs, including spina bifida and hydrocephalus, is highly heterogeneous, with multiple genes/loci and both gene-gene and gene-environment interactions involved. Hence, the variation in outcomes also most likely relates to a combination of the severity of different variants in multiple genes and genetic modifiers affecting the biochemical traits...
July 18, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721476/post-prandial-physiology-and-intestinal-morphology-of-the-pacific-hagfish-eptatretus-stoutii
#15
Alyssa M Weinrauch, Alexander M Clifford, Greg G Goss
Hagfishes are unique to the vertebrate lineage in that they acquire dissolved nutrients across multiple epithelia including the intestine, gill, and skin. This feat has been attributed to their immersive feeding behavior that likely simultaneously provides benefits (nutrient rich) and potentially adverse (hypercapnia, hypoxia, high environmental ammonia) physiological effects. Examinations have been conducted of the ex vivo transport capabilities of specific nutrients as well as in vivo effects of the hypothesized feeding environments, yet the physiological effects of feeding itself have never been elucidated...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721186/factors-driving-the-global-decline-of-cycad-diversity
#16
Ledile T Mankga, Kowiyou Yessoufou
Mounting evidence indicates that we are witnessing the sixth mass extinction period. Given the important goods and services biodiversity delivers to humans, there is a need for a continued commitment to investigate what pre-disposes some taxa to greater risk of extinction. Here, we investigate this question using a phylogenetic comparative method and fitting a cumulative link mixed effect model on biological, ecological and evolutionary data of cycads, the most threatened lineage in the plant kingdom. We identified nine groups of threats to cycads, with habitat loss, over-collection, fire and reproduction failure being the most prominent, but only four of these threats (habitat loss, over-collection, medicinal uses and reproduction failure) clustered on the cycad tree of life...
July 2017: AoB Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720755/functional-variants-of-the-melanocortin-4-receptor-associated-with-the-odontoceti-and-mysticeti-suborders-of-cetaceans
#17
Liyuan Zhao, Xiaofan Zhou, Antonis Rokas, Roger D Cone
Cetaceans, a group of mammals adapted to the aquatic environment that descended from terrestrial artiodactyls, exhibit tremendous interspecific differences in a number of phenotypes, including feeding behavior, such as filter feeding in the Mysticeti vs prey-hunting Odontoceti, and size, with the smallest cetacean, the vaquita, at 1.4 meters and the largest, the blue whale, reaching 33 meters. The Melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) regulates food intake, energy balance, and somatic growth in both mammals and teleosts...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720700/hitchhiking-and-epistasis-give-rise-to-cohort-dynamics-in-adapting-populations
#18
Sean W Buskirk, Ryan Emily Peace, Gregory I Lang
Beneficial mutations are the driving force of adaptive evolution. In asexual populations, the identification of beneficial alleles is confounded by the presence of genetically linked hitchhiker mutations. Parallel evolution experiments enable the recognition of common targets of selection; yet these targets are inherently enriched for genes of large target size and mutations of large effect. A comprehensive study of individual mutations is necessary to create a realistic picture of the evolutionarily significant spectrum of beneficial mutations...
July 18, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720606/re-using-blood-products-as-an-alternative-supplement-in-the-optimisation-of-clinical-grade-adipose-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cell-culture
#19
J Phetfong, T Tawonsawatruk, K Seenprachawong, A Srisarin, C Isarankura-Na-Ayudhya, A Supokawej
OBJECTIVES: Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSCs) are a promising strategy for orthopaedic applications, particularly in bone repair. Ex vivo expansion of ADMSCs is required to obtain sufficient cell numbers. Xenogenic supplements should be avoided in order to minimise the risk of infections and immunological reactions. Human platelet lysate and human plasma may be an excellent material source for ADMSC expansion. In the present study, use of blood products after their recommended transfusion date to prepare human platelet lysate (HPL) and human plasma (Hplasma) was evaluated for in vitro culture expansion and osteogenesis of ADMSCs...
July 2017: Bone & Joint Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720580/detecting-ancient-positive-selection-in-humans-using-extended-lineage-sorting
#20
Séphane Peyégne, Michael James Boyle, Michael Dannemann, Kay Prüfer
Natural selection that affected modern humans early in their evolution has likely shaped some of the traits that set present-day humans apart from their closest extinct and living relatives. The ability to detect ancient natural selection in the human genome could provide insights into the molecular basis for these human-specific traits. Here, we introduce a method for detecting ancient selective sweeps by scanning for extended genomic regions where our closest extinct relatives, Neandertals and Denisovans, fall outside of the present-day human variation...
July 18, 2017: Genome Research
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