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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933593/inflammation-induced-cd69-kupffer-cell-feedback-inhibits-t-cell-proliferation-via-membrane-bound-tgf-%C3%AE-1
#1
Xiang Zhang, Zhengping Jiang, Yan Gu, Yanfang Liu, Xuetao Cao, Yanmei Han
Kupffer cells, tissue-resident macrophage lineage cell, are enriched in vertebrate liver. The mouse F4/80(+) Kupffer cells have been subclassified into two subpopulations according to their phenotype and function: CD68(+) subpopulation with potent reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and phagocytic capacities, and CD11b(+) subpopulation with a potent capacity to produce T helper 1 cytokines. In addition, CD11b(+) Kupffer cells/macrophages may be migrated from the bone marrow or spleen, especially in inflammatory conditions of the liver...
December 6, 2016: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933109/functional-characterization-of-rare-foxp2-variants-in-neurodevelopmental-disorder
#2
Sara B Estruch, Sarah A Graham, Swathi M Chinnappa, Pelagia Deriziotis, Simon E Fisher
BACKGROUND: Heterozygous disruption of FOXP2 causes a rare form of speech and language impairment. Screens of the FOXP2 sequence in individuals with speech/language-related disorders have identified several rare protein-altering variants, but their phenotypic relevance is often unclear. FOXP2 encodes a transcription factor with a forkhead box DNA-binding domain, but little is known about the functions of protein regions outside this domain. METHODS: We performed detailed functional analyses of seven rare FOXP2 variants found in affected cases, including three which have not been previously characterized, testing intracellular localization, transcriptional regulation, dimerization, and interaction with other proteins...
2016: Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933102/a-polysaccharide-utilization-locus-from-flavobacterium-johnsoniae-enables-conversion-of-recalcitrant-chitin
#3
Johan Larsbrink, Yongtao Zhu, Sampada S Kharade, Kurt J Kwiatkowski, Vincent G H Eijsink, Nicole M Koropatkin, Mark J McBride, Phillip B Pope
BACKGROUND: Chitin is the second most abundant polysaccharide on earth and as such a great target for bioconversion applications. The phylum Bacteroidetes is one of nature's most ubiquitous bacterial lineages and is essential in the global carbon cycle with many members being highly efficient degraders of complex carbohydrates. However, despite their specialist reputation in carbohydrate conversion, mechanisms for degrading recalcitrant crystalline polysaccharides such as chitin and cellulose are hitherto unknown...
2016: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933090/the-worldwide-spread-of-the-tiger-mosquito-as-revealed-by-mitogenome-haplogroup-diversity
#4
Vincenza Battaglia, Paolo Gabrieli, Stefania Brandini, Marco R Capodiferro, Pio A Javier, Xiao-Guang Chen, Alessandro Achilli, Ornella Semino, Ludvik M Gomulski, Anna R Malacrida, Giuliano Gasperi, Antonio Torroni, Anna Olivieri
In the last 40 years, the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus, indigenous to East Asia, has colonized every continent except Antarctica. Its spread is a major public health concern, given that this species is a competent vector for numerous arboviruses, including those causing dengue, chikungunya, West Nile, and the recently emerged Zika fever. To acquire more information on the ancestral source(s) of adventive populations and the overall diffusion process from its native range, we analyzed the mitogenome variation of 27 individuals from representative populations of Asia, the Americas, and Europe...
2016: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932973/decline-in-proliferation-and-immature-neuron-markers-in-the-human-subependymal-zone-during-aging-relationship-to-egf-and-fgf-related-transcripts
#5
Christin Weissleder, Samantha J Fung, Matthew W Wong, Guy Barry, Kay L Double, Glenda M Halliday, Maree J Webster, Cynthia Shannon Weickert
Neuroblasts exist within the human subependymal zone (SEZ); however, it is debated to what extent neurogenesis changes during normal aging. It is also unknown how precursor proliferation may correlate with the generation of neuronal and glial cells or how expression of growth factors and receptors may change throughout the adult lifespan. We found evidence of dividing cells in the human SEZ (n D 50) in conjunction with a dramatic age-related decline (21-103 years) of mRNAs indicative of proliferating cells (Ki67) and immature neurons (doublecortin)...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932520/myeloid-derived-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-negative-regulation-of-pu-1-and-c-ebp-%C3%AE-driven-pro-inflammatory-cytokine-production-restrains-lps-induced-shock
#6
Simone Vanoni, Yi-Ting Tsai, Amanda Waddell, Lisa Waggoner, Jared Klarquist, Senad Divanovic, Kasper Hoebe, Kris A Steinbrecher, Simon P Hogan
Sepsis is a life-threatening event predominantly caused by Gram-negative bacteria. Bacterial infection causes a pronounced macrophage (MΦ) and dendritic cell activation that leads to excessive pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α production (cytokine storm), resulting in endotoxic shock. Previous experimental studies have revealed that inhibiting NF-κB signaling ameliorates disease symptoms; however, the contribution of myeloid p65 in endotoxic shock remains elusive. In this study, we demonstrate increased mortality in mice lacking p65 in the myeloid lineage (p65(Δmye)) compared with wild type mice upon ultra-pure LPS challenge...
December 8, 2016: Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932519/host-plants-indirectly-influence-plant-virus-transmission-by-altering-gut-cysteine-protease-activity-of-aphid-vectors
#7
Patricia V Pinheiro, Murad Ghanim, Mariko M Matsuda Alexander, Ana Rita Rebelo, Rogerio S Santos, Benjamin C Orsburn, Stewart Gray, Michelle Cilia
The green peach aphid, Myzus persicae, is a vector of the Potato leafroll virus (PLRV, Luteoviridae), transmitted exclusively by aphids in a circulative manner. PLRV transmission efficiency was significantly reduced when a clonal lineage of M. persicae was reared on turnip as compared to the weed physalis, a transient effect caused by a host-switch response. A trend of higher PLRV titer in physalis-reared aphids as compared to turnip-reared aphids was observed at 24h and 72h after virus acquisition. The major difference in the proteomes of these aphids was the upregulation of predicted lysosomal enzymes, in particular the cysteine protease cathepsin B (cathB), in aphids reared on turnip...
December 8, 2016: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932500/notch1-and-notch2-regulate-epithelial-cell-proliferation-in-mouse-and-human-gastric-corpus
#8
Elise S Demitrack, Gail B Gifford, Theresa M Keeley, Nobukatsu Horita, Andrea Todisco, D Kim Turgeon, Christian W Siebel, Linda C Samuelson
The Notch signaling pathway is known to regulate stem cells and epithelial cell homeostasis in gastrointestinal tissues; however, Notch function in the corpus region of the stomach is poorly understood. In this study we examined the consequences of Notch inhibition and activation on cellular proliferation and differentiation and defined the specific Notch receptors functioning in the mouse and human corpus. Notch pathway activity was observed in the mouse corpus epithelium, and gene expression analysis revealed NOTCH1 and NOTCH2 to be the predominant Notch receptors in both mouse and human...
December 8, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932420/the-plastid-genome-of-polytoma-uvella-is-the-largest-known-among-non-photosynthetic-algae-and-plants
#9
Francisco Figueroa Martinez, Aurora M Nedelcu, David Roy Smith, Adrian Reyes Prieto
The loss of photosynthesis is frequently associated with parasitic or pathogenic lifestyles, but it can also occur in free-living, plastid-bearing lineages. A common consequence of becoming non-photosynthetic is the reduction in size and gene content of the plastid genome. In exceptional circumstances, it can even result in the complete loss of the plastid DNA (ptDNA), as recently reported in several lineages, including the nonphotosynthetic green algal genus Polytomella. Closely related to Polytomella is the genus Polytoma, the members of which lost photosynthesis independently of Polytomella...
December 8, 2016: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932417/molecular-pathways-the-necrosome-a-target-for-cancer-therapy
#10
Lena Seifert, George Miller
Necroptosis is a caspase 8-independent cell death that requires co-activation of receptor-interacting protein (RIP) 1 and RIP 3 kinases. The necrosome is a complex consisting of RIP1, RIP3 and Fas-associated protein with death domain (FADD) leading to activation of the pseudokinase mixed lineage kinase like (MLKL) followed by a rapid plasma membrane rupture and inflammatory response through the release of damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) and cytokines. The necrosome has been shown to be relevant in multiple tumor types, including pancreatic adenocarcinoma, melanoma and several hematological malignancies...
December 8, 2016: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932284/genetic-diversity-of-coronaviruses-in-bats-in-lao-pdr-and-cambodia
#11
Audrey Lacroix, Veasna Duong, Vibol Hul, Sorn San, Hull Davun, Keo Omaliss, Sokha Chea, Alexandre Hassanin, Watthana Theppangna, Soubanh Silithammavong, Kongsy Khammavong, Sinpakone Singhalath, Zoe Greatorex, Amanda E Fine, Tracey Goldstein, Sarah Olson, Damien O Joly, Lucy Keatts, Philippe Dussart, Aneta Afelt, Roger Frutos, Philippe Buchy
South-East Asia is a hot spot for emerging zoonotic diseases, and bats have been recognized as hosts for a large number of zoonotic viruses such as Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), responsible for acute respiratory syndrome outbreaks. Thus, it is important to expand our knowledge of the presence of viruses in bats which could represent a risk to humans. Coronaviruses (CoVs) have been reported in bat species from Thailand, China, Indonesia, Taiwan and the Philippines. However no such work was conducted in Cambodia or Lao PDR...
December 5, 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932033/cellular-analysis-of-trophoblast-and-placenta
#12
Frances Wong, Brian J Cox
The placenta is composed of two lineages: the trophoblast and mesoderm. While morphological assessment of the placenta has highlighted major cell types and developmental structures, the human placenta is relatively unexplained on a molecular level. Current molecular analysis of the placenta has largely been confined to assessing whole organs that include both cell lineages and their differentiated progeny. This has confounded our understanding of the processes of placental development and function for two reasons...
November 30, 2016: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931852/the-baf45a-phf10-subunit-of-swi-snf-like-chromatin-remodeling-complexes-is-essential-for-hematopoietic-stem-cell-maintenance
#13
Veneta Krasteva, Gerald R Crabtree, Julie A Lessard
The ability of hemopoietic stem cells to self-renew and differentiate into downstream lineages is dependent on specialized chromatin environments that establish and maintain stage-specific patterns of gene expression. However, the epigenetic factors responsible for mediating these regulatory events remain poorly defined. Here we provide evidence that BAF45a/PHF10, a subunit of SWI/SNF-like chromatin remodeling complexes, is essential for adult hemopoietic stem cell (HSC) maintenance and myeloid lineage development...
December 5, 2016: Experimental Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931748/lentil-lens-culinaris-medik-nodulates-with-genotypically-and-phenotypically-diverse-rhizobia-in-ethiopian-soils
#14
Wondwosen Tena, Endalkachew Wolde-Meskel, Tulu Degefu, Fran Walley
Forty-eight lentil-nodulating rhizobia were isolated from soil samples collected from diverse agro-ecological locations in Ethiopia, and characterized based on 76 phenotypic traits. Furthermore, 26 representative strains were selected and characterized using multilocus sequence analyses (MLSA) of core (16S rRNA, recA, atpD, glnII and gyrB) and symbiotic (nodA and nifH) genes. Numerical analysis of phenotypic characteristics showed that the 48 test strains fell into three major distinct clusters. The phylogenetic trees based on 16S rRNA genes showed that they belong to the Rhizobium genus...
November 24, 2016: Systematic and Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931518/vitamin-c-enhances-the-expression-of-il17-in-a-jmjd2-dependent-manner
#15
Mi Hye Song, Varun Sasidharan Nair, Kwon Ik Oh
Previously, we reported that vitamin C facilitates the CpG demethylation of Foxp3 enhancer in CD4+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) by enhancing the activity of a DNA demethylase ten-eleven-translocation (Tet). However, it is not clear whether vitamin C affects other helper T cell lineages like T helper type 17 (Th17) cells which are related with Tregs. Here, we show that the expression of interleukin-17A (IL17) increases with the treatment of vitamin C but not with other antioxidants. Interestingly, the upregulation of IL17 was not accompanied by DNA demethylation in Il17 promoter and was independent of Tet enzymes...
December 9, 2016: BMB Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931250/tracing-the-origin-of-disseminated-tumor-cells-in-breast-cancer-using-single-cell-sequencing
#16
Jonas Demeulemeester, Parveen Kumar, Elen K Møller, Silje Nord, David C Wedge, April Peterson, Randi R Mathiesen, Renathe Fjelldal, Masoud Zamani Esteki, Koen Theunis, Elia Fernandez Gallardo, A Jason Grundstad, Elin Borgen, Lars O Baumbusch, Anne-Lise Børresen-Dale, Kevin P White, Vessela N Kristensen, Peter Van Loo, Thierry Voet, Bjørn Naume
BACKGROUND: Single-cell micro-metastases of solid tumors often occur in the bone marrow. These disseminated tumor cells (DTCs) may resist therapy and lay dormant or progress to cause overt bone and visceral metastases. The molecular nature of DTCs remains elusive, as well as when and from where in the tumor they originate. Here, we apply single-cell sequencing to identify and trace the origin of DTCs in breast cancer. RESULTS: We sequence the genomes of 63 single cells isolated from six non-metastatic breast cancer patients...
December 9, 2016: Genome Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931226/culex-pipiens-forms-and-urbanization-effects-on-blood-feeding-sources-and-transmission-of-avian-plasmodium
#17
Josué Martínez-de la Puente, Martina Ferraguti, Santiago Ruiz, David Roiz, Ramón C Soriguer, Jordi Figuerola
BACKGROUND: The wide spread mosquito Culex pipiens pipiens have two forms molestus and pipiens which frequently hybridize. The two forms have behavioural and physiological differences affecting habitat requirements and host selection, which may affect the transmission dynamic of Cx. p. pipiens-borne diseases. METHODS: During 2013, blood engorged Cx. p. pipiens mosquitoes were captured in urban, rural and natural areas from Southern Spain. In 120 mosquitoes, we identified the blood meal origin at vertebrate species/genus level and the mosquito form...
December 8, 2016: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931183/evolution-of-mitosome-metabolism-and-invasion-related-proteins-in-cryptosporidium
#18
Shiyou Liu, Dawn M Roellig, Yaqiong Guo, Na Li, Michael A Frace, Kevin Tang, Longxian Zhang, Yaoyu Feng, Lihua Xiao
BACKGROUND: The switch from photosynthetic or predatory to parasitic life strategies by apicomplexans is accompanied with a reductive evolution of genomes and losses of metabolic capabilities. Cryptosporidium is an extreme example of reductive evolution among apicomplexans, with losses of both the mitosome genome and many metabolic pathways. Previous observations on reductive evolution were largely based on comparative studies of various groups of apicomplexans. In this study, we sequenced two divergent Cryptosporidium species and conducted a comparative genomic analysis to infer the reductive evolution of metabolic pathways and differential evolution of invasion-related proteins within the Cryptosporidium lineage...
December 8, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931140/phylogeography-of-the-endangered-orchid-dendrobium-moniliforme-in-east-asia-inferred-from-chloroplast-dna-sequences
#19
Meirong Ye, Wei Liu, Qingyun Xue, Beiwei Hou, Jing Luo, Xiaoyu Ding
The aim of the current study was to elucidate the phylogeographic history of Dendrobium moniliforme, an endangered orchid species, based on two chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) markers (trnC-petN and trnE-trnT). One hundred and thirty-five samples were collected from 18 natural populations of D. moniliforme covering the entire range of the Sino-Japanese Floristic Region (SJFR) of East Asia. A total of 35 distinct cpDNA haplotypes were identified in these populations, of which 23 haplotypes were each present in only one sample and thus restricted to a single population...
December 8, 2016: Mitochondrial DNA. Part A. DNA Mapping, Sequencing, and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931107/a-diffusely-enlarged-pancreas-the-un-usual-suspect
#20
Pedro Magalhães-Costa, Maria José Brito, Pedro Pinto-Marques
An 81-years-old female presented with obstructive jaundice and a non-specific clinical picture of nausea and appetite loss. Labs demonstrated a conjugated hyperbilirrubinemia (7.7 mg/dL), increased aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase (10xULN and 8xULN, respectively), increased lactate dehydrogenase (10xULN) and serum lipase (3xULN). CA 19.9 was 342 U/mL (Ref value < 37 U/mL). There was no evidence of peripheral lymphadenopathy or hepatosplenomegaly. Imaging (Figure 1A and 1B) revealed a marked homogeneous enlargement of the pancreas (without any well-defined mass), dilation of the extra and intra-hepatic bile ducts and ascites...
December 2016: Revista Española de Enfermedades Digestivas
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