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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340487/microrna-4739-regulates-osteogenic-and-adipocytic-differentiation-of-immortalized-human-bone-marrow-stromal-cells-via-targeting-lrp3
#1
Mona Elsafadi, Muthurangan Manikandan, Nehad M Alajez, Rimi Hamam, Raed Abu Dawud, Abdullah Aldahmash, Zafar Iqbal, Musaad Alfayez, Moustapha Kassem, Amer Mahmood
Understanding the regulatory networks underlying lineage differentiation and fate determination of human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSC) is a prerequisite for their therapeutic use. The goal of the current study was to unravel the novel role of the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 3 (LRP3) in regulating the osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation of immortalized hBMSCs. Gene expression profiling revealed significantly higher LRP3 levels in the highly osteogenic hBMSC clone imCL1 than in the less osteogenic clone imCL2, as well as a significant upregulation of LRP3 during the osteogenic induction of the imCL1 clone...
March 8, 2017: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340459/transcriptional-profiling-of-porcine-granulosa-cells-exposed-to-2-3-7-8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin
#2
Agnieszka Sadowska, Anna Nynca, Monika Ruszkowska, Lukasz Paukszto, Kamil Myszczynski, Karina Orlowska, Sylwia Swigonska, Tomasz Molcan, Jan P Jastrzebski, Renata E Ciereszko
2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is a toxic man-made chemical compound contaminating the environment. An exposure of living organisms to TCDD may result in numerous disorders, including reproductive pathologies. The aim of the current study was to examine the effects of TCDD on the transcriptome of porcine granulosa cell line AVG-16. By employing next-generation sequencing (NGS) we aimed to identify genes potentially involved in the mechanism of TCDD action and toxicity in porcine granulosa cells...
March 16, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339682/the-effects-of-interleukin-2-on-immune-response-regulation
#3
Ryan S Waters, Justin S A Perry, SunPil Han, Bibiana Bielekova, Tomas Gedeon
The immune system has many adaptive and dynamic components that are regulated to ensure appropriate, precise and rapid response to a foreign pathogen. A delayed or inadequate immune response can lead to prolonged disease, while an excessive or under-regulated response can lead to autoimmunity. The cytokine, interleukin-2 (IL-2) and its receptor IL-2R play an important role in maintaining this balance.The IL-2 receptor transduces pSTAT5 signal through both the intermediate and high affinity receptors, which differ from each other by the presence of CD25 chain in IL-2 receptor...
February 20, 2017: Mathematical Medicine and Biology: a Journal of the IMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339556/influence-of-temperature-and-growth-selection-on-turkey-pectoralis-major-muscle-satellite-cell-adipogenic-gene-expression-and-lipid-accumulation
#4
D L Clark, G M Strasburg, K M Reed, S G Velleman
Immature poults have an inefficient thermoregulatory system, and therefore extreme ambient temperatures can impact their internal body temperature. Satellite cells, the only posthatch myonuclei source, are multipotential stem cells and sensitive to temperature. Selection for faster-growing, high-yielding birds has altered satellite-cell properties. The objective of the current study was to determine how temperature affects adipogenic properties of satellite cells isolated from the pectoralis major ( ) muscle of Randombred Control line ( ) and F line turkeys selected only for increased 16-wk body weight from the RBC2 line...
October 6, 2016: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339035/duration-of-simulated-microgravity-affects-the-differentiation-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#5
Li Xue, Yaohui Li, Jun Chen
Previous evidence has suggested that physical microenvironments and mechanical stresses, independent of soluble factors, influence mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) fate. In the present study, simulated microgravity (SMG) was demonstrated to regulate the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. This may be a novel strategy for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Rat MSCs were cultured for 72 h or 10 days in either normal gravity or a clinostat to model microgravity, followed with culture in diverse differential media...
March 22, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338770/response-of-human-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-cells-to-the-influence-of-wogonin-with-sgk1-dynamics
#6
Guanglin Shi, Qian Wang, Xiaoyu Zhou, Jun Li, Hua Liu, Jun Gu, Haiying Wang, Yi Wu, Liang Ding, Songshi Ni, Zhiyuan Tang
A number of significant studies in the field of cell biology have revealed another pattern of intracellular signal transduction in which cells transmit information through the dynamics of key signaling molecules. Dynamical properties of p53 have been demonstrated to be the key factor in dictating cell fate, including cell cycle arrest, permanent cell cycle arrest, and cell death. Previous studies showed a negative feedback regulation pathway between SGK1 and p53, but the dynamics of SGK1 have never been reported before...
February 18, 2017: Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338285/remote-control-of-cellular-functions-the-role-of-smart-nanomaterials-in-the-medicine-of-the-future
#7
REVIEW
Giada Graziana Genchi, Attilio Marino, Agostina Grillone, Ilaria Pezzini, Gianni Ciofani
The remote control of cellular functions through smart nanomaterials represents a biomanipulation approach with unprecedented potential applications in many fields of medicine, ranging from cancer therapy to tissue engineering. By actively responding to external stimuli, smart nanomaterials act as real nanotransducers able to mediate and/or convert different forms of energy into both physical and chemical cues, fostering specific cell behaviors. This report describes those classes of nanomaterials that have mostly paved the way to a "wireless" control of biological phenomena, focusing the discussion on some examples close to the clinical practice...
March 24, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338096/identification-of-cardiac-hemo-vascular-precursors-and-their-requirement-of-sphingosine-1-phosphate-receptor-1-for-heart-development
#8
Yan Hu, Brian C Belyea, Minghong Li, Joachim R Göthert, R Ariel Gomez, Maria Luisa S Sequeira-Lopez
The cardiac endothelium plays a crucial role in the development of a functional heart. However, the precise identification of the endocardial precursors and the mechanisms they require for their role in heart morphogenesis are not well understood. Using in vivo and in vitro cell fate tracing concomitant with specific cell ablation and embryonic heart transplantation studies, we identified a unique set of precursors which possess hemogenic functions and express the stem cell leukemia (SCL) gene driven by its 5' enhancer...
March 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337249/cellular-homeostasis-and-antioxidant-response-in-epithelial-ht29-cells-on-titania-nanotube-arrays-surface
#9
Rabiatul Basria Smn Mydin, Srimala Sreekantan, Roshasnorlyza Hazan, Mustafa Fadzil Farid Wajidi, Ishak Mat
Cell growth and proliferative activities on titania nanotube arrays (TNA) have raised alerts on genotoxicity risk. Present toxicogenomic approach focused on epithelial HT29 cells with TNA surface. Fledgling cell-TNA interaction has triggered G0/G1 cell cycle arrests and initiates DNA damage surveillance checkpoint, which possibly indicated the cellular stress stimuli. A profound gene regulation was observed to be involved in cellular growth and survival signals such as p53 and AKT expressions. Interestingly, the activation of redox regulator pathways (antioxidant defense) was observed through the cascade interactions of GADD45, MYC, CHECK1, and ATR genes...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337199/nutrient-and-metabolic-sensing-in-t-cell-responses
#10
REVIEW
Jun Wei, Jana Raynor, Thanh-Long M Nguyen, Hongbo Chi
T cells play pivotal roles in shaping host immune responses in infectious diseases, autoimmunity, and cancer. The activation of T cells requires immune and growth factor-derived signals. However, alterations in nutrients and metabolic signals tune T cell responses by impinging upon T cell fates and immune functions. In this review, we summarize how key nutrients, including glucose, amino acids, and lipids, and their sensors and transporters shape T cell responses. We also briefly discuss regulation of T cell responses by oxygen and energy sensing mechanisms...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335859/making-it-new-again-insight-into-liver-development-regeneration-and-disease-from-zebrafish-research
#11
Shuang Wang, Sophie R Miller, Elke A Ober, Kirsten C Sadler
The adult liver of most vertebrates is predominantly comprised of hepatocytes. However, these cells must work in concert with biliary, stellate, vascular, and immune cells to accomplish the vast array of hepatic functions required for physiological homeostasis. Our understanding of liver development was accelerated as zebrafish emerged as an ideal vertebrate system to study embryogenesis. Through work in zebrafish and other models, it is now clear that the cells in the liver develop in a coordinated fashion during embryogenesis through a complex yet incompletely understood set of molecular guidelines...
2017: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335666/control-of-dental-derived-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-through-modified-surfaces-for-dental-application
#12
Hyunmin Choi, Kyu-Hyung Park, Ah-Reum Lee, Chin Hee Mun, Yong Dae Shin, Yong-Beom Park, Young-Bum Park
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to investigate the behaviour of iPSc derived from dental stem cells in terms of initial adhesion, differentiation potential on differently surface-treated titanium disc. MATERIALS AND METHODS: iPSc derived from human gingival fibroblasts (hGFs) were established using 4-reprogramming factors transduction with Sendai virus. The hGF-iPSc established in this study exhibited the morphology and growth properties similar to human embryonic stem (ES) cells and expressed pluripotency makers...
March 23, 2017: Acta Odontologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335354/titanium-dioxide-nanoparticle-biomolecule-interactions-influence-oral-absorption
#13
Mi-Rae Jo, Jin Yu, Hyoung-Jun Kim, Jae Ho Song, Kyoung-Min Kim, Jae-Min Oh, Soo-Jin Choi
Titanium dioxide (TiO₂) nanoparticles (NPs) have been widely applied in various industrial fields, such as electronics, packaging, food, and cosmetics. Accordingly, concerns about the potential toxicity of TiO₂ NPs have increased. In order to comprehend their in vivo behavior and potential toxicity, we must evaluate the interactions between TiO₂ NPs and biomolecules, which can alter the physicochemical properties and the fate of NPs under physiological conditions. In the present study, in vivo solubility, oral absorption, tissue distribution, and excretion kinetics of food grade TiO₂ (f-TiO₂) NPs were evaluated following a single-dose oral administration to rats and were compared to those of general grade TiO₂ (g-TiO₂) NPs...
November 29, 2016: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334916/mocap-large-scale-inference-of-transcription-factor-binding-sites-from-chromatin-accessibility
#14
Xi Chen, Bowen Yu, Nicholas Carriero, Claudio Silva, Richard Bonneau
Differential binding of transcription factors (TFs) at cis-regulatory loci drives the differentiation and function of diverse cellular lineages. Understanding the regulatory interactions that underlie cell fate decisions requires characterizing TF binding sites (TFBS) across multiple cell types and conditions. Techniques, e.g. ChIP-Seq can reveal genome-wide patterns of TF binding, but typically requires laborious and costly experiments for each TF-cell-type (TFCT) condition of interest. Chromosomal accessibility assays can connect accessible chromatin in one cell type to many TFs through sequence motif mapping...
March 15, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334017/genome-wide-rnai-selection-identifies-a-regulator-of-transmission-stage-enriched-gene-families-and-cell-type-differentiation-in-trypanosoma-brucei
#15
Eva Rico, Alasdair Ivens, Lucy Glover, David Horn, Keith R Matthews
Trypanosoma brucei, causing African sleeping-sickness, exploits quorum-sensing (QS) to generate the 'stumpy forms' necessary for the parasite's transmission to tsetse-flies. These quiescent cells are generated by differentiation in the bloodstream from proliferative slender forms. Using genome-wide RNAi selection we screened for repressors of transmission stage-enriched mRNAs in slender forms, using the stumpy-elevated ESAG9 transcript as a model. This identified REG9.1, whose RNAi-silencing alleviated ESAG9 repression in slender forms and tsetse-midgut procyclic forms...
March 23, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333941/phenotypically-heterogeneous-podoplanin-expressing-cell-populations-are-associated-with-the-lymphatic-vessel-growth-and-fibrogenic-responses-in-the-acutely-and-chronically-infarcted-myocardium
#16
Maria Cimini, Antonio Cannatá, Gianandrea Pasquinelli, Marcello Rota, Polina Goichberg
Cardiac lymphatic vasculature undergoes substantial expansion in response to myocardial infarction (MI). However, there is limited information on the cellular mechanisms mediating post-MI lymphangiogenesis and accompanying fibrosis in the infarcted adult heart. Using a mouse model of permanent coronary artery ligation, we examined spatiotemporal changes in the expression of lymphendothelial and mesenchymal markers in the acutely and chronically infarcted myocardium. We found that at the time of wound granulation, a three-fold increase in the frequency of podoplanin-labeled cells occurred in the infarcted hearts compared to non-operated and sham-operated counterparts...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333343/centromere-destiny-in-dicentric-chromosomes-new-insights-from-the-evolution-of-human-chromosome-2-ancestral-centromeric-region
#17
Giorgia Chiatante, Giuliana Giannuzzi, Francesco Maria Calabrese, Evan E Eichler, Mario Ventura
Dicentric chromosomes are products of genomic rearrangements that place two centromeres on the same chromosome. Due to the presence of two primary constrictions, they are inherently unstable and overcome their instability by epigenetically inactivating and/or deleting one of the two centromeres, thus resulting in functionally monocentric chromosomes that segregate normally during cell division. Our understanding to date of dicentric chromosome formation, behavior and fate has been largely inferred from observational studies in plants and humans as well as artificially produced de novo dicentrics in yeast and in human cells...
March 15, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332630/pml-nuclear-bodies-contribute-to-the-basal-expression-of-the-mtor-inhibitor-ddit4
#18
Jayme Salsman, Alex Stathakis, Ellen Parker, Dudley Chung, Livia E Anthes, Kara L Koskowich, Sara Lahsaee, Daniel Gaston, Kimberly R Kukurba, Kevin S Smith, Ian C Chute, Daniel Léger, Laura D Frost, Stephen B Montgomery, Stephen M Lewis, Christopher Eskiw, Graham Dellaire
The promyelocytic leukemia (PML) protein is an essential component of PML nuclear bodies (PML NBs) frequently lost in cancer. PML NBs coordinate chromosomal regions via modification of nuclear proteins that in turn may regulate genes in the vicinity of these bodies. However, few PML NB-associated genes have been identified. PML and PML NBs can also regulate mTOR and cell fate decisions in response to cellular stresses. We now demonstrate that PML depletion in U2OS cells or TERT-immortalized normal human diploid fibroblasts results in decreased expression of the mTOR inhibitor DDIT4 (REDD1)...
March 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332207/the-eyes-and-vision-of-butterflies
#19
Kentaro Arikawa
Butterflies use colour vision when searching for flowers. Unlike the trichromatic retinas of humans (blue, green, and red cones; plus rods) and honeybees (ultraviolet, blue, and green photoreceptors), butterfly retinas typically have six or more photoreceptor classes with distinct spectral sensitivities. The eyes of the Japanese yellow swallowtail (Papilio xuthus) contain ultraviolet, violet, blue, green, red and broad-band receptors, with each ommatidium housing nine photoreceptor cells in one of three fixed combinations...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331971/an-integrated-view-of-asteroid-regeneration-tissues-cells-and-molecules
#20
REVIEW
Yousra Ben Khadra, Michela Sugni, Cinzia Ferrario, Francesco Bonasoro, Ana Varela Coelho, Pedro Martinez, Maria Daniela Candia Carnevali
The potential for repairing and replacing cells, tissues, organs and body parts is considered a primitive attribute of life shared by all the organisms, even though it may be expressed to a different extent and which is essential for the survival of both individual and whole species. The ability to regenerate is particularly evident and widespread within invertebrates. In spite of the wide availability of experimental models, regeneration has been comprehensively explored in only a few animal systems (i.e., hydrozoans, planarians, urodeles) leaving many other animal groups unexplored...
March 22, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
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