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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156771/novel-post-transcriptional-and-post-translational-regulation-of-pro-apoptotic-protein-bok-and-anti-apoptotic-protein-mcl-1-determine-the-fate-of-breast-cancer-cells-to-survive-or-die
#1
Benjamin Onyeagucha, Panneerdoss Subbarayalu, Nourhan Abdelfattah, Subapriya Rajamanickam, Santosh Timilsina, Rosa Guzman, Carla Zeballos, Vijay Eedunuri, Sanjay Bansal, Tabrez Mohammad, Yidong Chen, Ratna K Vadlamudi, Manjeet K Rao
Deregulation of apoptosis is central to cancer progression and a major obstacle to effective treatment. The Bcl-2 gene family members play important roles in the regulation of apoptosis and are frequently altered in cancers. One such member is pro-apoptotic protein Bcl-2-related Ovarian Killer (BOK). Despite its critical role in apoptosis, the regulation of BOK expression is poorly understood in cancers. Here, we discovered that miR-296-5p regulates BOK expression by binding to its 3'-UTR in breast cancers...
October 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156756/mir-221-regulated-kit-level-by-wild-type-or-leukemia-mutant-runx1-a-determinant-of-single-myeloblast-fate-decisions-that-collectively-drives-or-hinders-granulopoiesis
#2
Stefano Rossetti, Michael J Anauo, Nicoletta Sacchi
RUNX1, a master transcription factor of hematopoiesis, was shown to orchestrate both cell proliferation and differentiation during granulopoiesis by regulating microRNAs (miRs). In this study, taking advantage of the miR-ON reporter system, we monitored first, how the granulocyte colony stimulation factor (GCSF) temporally modulates the concomitant level variation of miR-221 and one of its prototypic targets, the stem cell factor receptor KIT, in single 32D(miR-ON-221) myeloblasts expressing wild type RUNX1...
October 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156567/the-role-of-infected-cell-proliferation-in-the-clearance-of-acute-hbv-infection-in-humans
#3
Ashish Goyal, Ruy M Ribeiro, Alan S Perelson
Around 90-95% of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infected adults do not progress to the chronic phase and, instead, recover naturally. The strengths of the cytolytic and non-cytolytic immune responses are key players that decide the fate of acute HBV infection. In addition, it has been hypothesized that proliferation of infected cells resulting in uninfected progeny and/or cytokine-mediated degradation of covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) leading to the cure of infected cells are two major mechanisms assisting the adaptive immune response in the clearance of acute HBV infection in humans...
November 18, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155748/using-in-vitro-live-cell-imaging-to-explore-chemotherapeutics-delivered-by-lipid-based-nanoparticles
#4
Ann L B Seynhaeve, Timo L M Ten Hagen
Conventional imaging techniques can provide detailed information about cellular processes. However, this information is based on static images in an otherwise dynamic system, and successive phases are easily overlooked or misinterpreted. Live-cell imaging and time-lapse microscopy, in which living cells can be followed for hours or even days in a more or less continuous fashion, are therefore very informative. The protocol described here allows for the investigation of the fate of chemotherapeutic nanoparticles after the delivery of doxorubicin (dox) in living cells...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155044/the-forkhead-transcription-factor-unc-130-foxd-integrates-both-bmp-and-notch-signaling-to-regulate-dorsoventral-patterning-of-the-c-elegans-postembryonic-mesoderm
#5
Qinfang Shen, Leila B Toulabi, Herong Shi, Erin E Nicklow, Jun Liu
The proper development of a multicellular organism requires precise spatial and temporal coordination of cell intrinsic and cell extrinsic regulatory mechanisms. Both Notch signaling and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling function to regulate the proper development of the C. elegans postembryonic mesoderm. We have identified the C. elegans FOXD transcription factor UNC-130 as a major target functioning downstream of both BMP signaling and Notch signaling to regulate dorsoventral patterning of the postembryonic mesoderm...
November 16, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155025/understanding-the-role-of-mammalian-sterile-20-like-kinase-1-mst1-in-cardiovascular-disorders
#6
REVIEW
Yang Yang, Haichang Wang, Zhiqiang Ma, Wei Hu, Dongdong Sun
Hippo signaling is a conserved pathway and plays important role in controlling cell proliferation and differentiation. As critical components of the Hippo pathway in mammals, mammalian sterile 20-like kinase 1 (MST1) participate in cell apoptosis and cell proliferation. Yes-associated protein (YAP) acts as a downstream transcriptional co-activator of MST1. MST1 is present in heart tissue and helps determine the fate of cardiomyocytes by regulating the balance between autophagy and apoptosis. Recent studies showed MST1 signaling is an essential participant in many cardiovascular disorders, including aortic dissection, aortic aneurysm, atherosclerosis, myocardial ischemic injury, and cardiomyopathy...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154958/pathogenic-th17-inflammation-is-sustained-in-the-lungs-by-conventional-dendritic-cells-and-tlr4-signaling
#7
Karim H Shalaby, Miranda R Lyons-Cohen, Gregory S Whitehead, Seddon Y Thomas, Immo Prinz, Hideki Nakano, Donald N Cook
BACKGROUND: Mechanisms that elicit mucosal Th17 cell responses have been described, yet how these cells are sustained in chronically inflamed tissues remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: We sought to understand whether the maintenance of lung Th17 inflammation requires environmental agents in addition to antigen, and to identify the lung antigen-presenting cell types (APCs) that sustain the self-renewal of Th17 cells. METHODS: Animals were repeatedly exposed to aspiration of ovalbumin alone, or together with environmental adjuvants, including extracts of common house dust (HDE), to test their role in maintaining lung inflammation...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154784/tgf-%C3%AE-1-signaling-regulates-mouse-hepatic-stellate-cell-differentiation-via-the-jagged1-notch-pathway
#8
Yasen Aimaiti, Xin Jin, Wei Wang, Zixin Chen, Dewei Li
AIMS: We tested whether transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) signaling plays an important role in hepatic stellate cell differentiation fate and investigated the role of Jagged1/Notch in this process. MATERIALS AND METHODS: TGF-β1 was overexpressed and transforming growth factor receptor 1 (TGF-β-R1) was knocked down by a lentiviral vector in mouse hepatic stellate cells (mHSCs). Transfection efficiency was assessed with immunofluorescence, quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and western blotting...
November 14, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154213/liposomally-formulated-phospholipid-conjugated-novel-near-infrared-fluorescence-probe-for-particle-size-effect-on-cellular-uptake-and-biodistribution-in-vivo
#9
Jing Xing, Dong Liu, Gaoxin Zhou, Yuan Li, Peng Wang, Ke Hu, Ning Gu, Min Ji
Lipid based nanoparticles (LBNs) with excellent biocompatibility and versatility have received much attention from the drug delivery community recently. A detailed understanding of in vitro and vivo fate of LBNs is important for developing different types of LBNs with improved selectivity and low cytotoxicity. We developed a novel near-infrared (NIR) probe with high fluorescence, designated as DSPE-ir623 (iDSPE). Then, we prepared iDSPE-embeded liposomes (iLPs) with two different hydrodynamic sizes (∼100nm and ∼400nm) to evaluate the effect of particle size on cellular uptake and biodistribution of nanoliposomes in vivo...
November 16, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154209/external-signals-regulate-germinal-center-fate-determining-transcription-factors-in-the-a20-lymphoma-cell-line
#10
Juan Feng, Xin Liu, Xingya Ni, Hai Qi
Due to the apoptosis-prone nature of primary germinal center B (GCB) cells, it remains a huge challenge to dissect signals that guide their differentiation towards memory B cells and plasma cells in vitro. Here we show that the murine lymphoma cell line A20 resembles primary GCB cells in expression of GC-specific surface markers and the master transcription factor BCL6 and may serve as a useful system to model certain GCB cell behaviors in vitro. Using these cells, we found that both CD40 and B cell receptor (BCR) signaling are able to drive BCL6 downregulation, which is a prerequisite of post-GC B-cell differentiation...
November 16, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153990/cell-type-dependent-alzheimer-s-disease-phenotypes-probing-the-biology-of%C3%A2-selective-neuronal-vulnerability
#11
Christina R Muratore, Constance Zhou, Meichen Liao, Marty A Fernandez, Walter M Taylor, Valentina N Lagomarsino, Richard V Pearse, Heather C Rice, Joseph M Negri, Amy He, Priya Srikanth, Dana G Callahan, Taehwan Shin, Monica Zhou, David A Bennett, Scott Noggle, J Christopher Love, Dennis J Selkoe, Tracy L Young-Pearse
Alzheimer's disease (AD) induces memory and cognitive impairment in the absence of motor and sensory deficits during its early and middle course. A major unresolved question is the basis for this selective neuronal vulnerability. Aβ, which plays a central role in AD pathogenesis, is generated throughout the brain, yet some regions outside of the limbic and cerebral cortices are relatively spared from Aβ plaque deposition and synapse loss. Here, we examine neurons derived from iPSCs of patients harboring an amyloid precursor protein mutation to quantify AD-relevant phenotypes following directed differentiation to rostral fates of the brain (vulnerable) and caudal fates (relatively spared) in AD...
November 13, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153705/spatial-and-temporal-control-of-nodal-signaling
#12
REVIEW
Caroline S Hill
Embryonic development is orchestrated by the activity of signal transduction pathways, amongst which are those downstream of the transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) family. Here I focus on signalling by one of these ligands, NODAL, which is essential for early embryonic axis patterning. I review recent advances in our understanding of how NODAL signalling is transduced from the plasma membrane to the nucleus to regulate the transcription of target genes, and how domains of NODAL activity are established and refined during embryonic development...
November 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152224/recent-insights-into-perk-dependent-signaling-from-the-stressed-endoplasmic-reticulum
#13
REVIEW
Alexander McQuiston, J Alan Diehl
The unfolded protein response (UPR) is an evolutionarily conserved stress response to intra- and extracellular conditions that disrupt endoplasmic reticulum (ER) protein-folding capacity. The UPR is engaged by a variety of disease conditions, including most cancers as well as both metabolic and neurodegenerative disorders. Three transmembrane transducers-PERK, IRE1, and ATF6-are responsible for activating downstream signaling pathways that mediate the UPR and subsequent stress response pathways. PERK, an ER resident transmembrane protein kinase, initiates both pro-apoptotic and pro-survival signaling pathways...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150936/the-roles-of-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-pathway-in-tissue-development-and-regenerative-medicine
#14
REVIEW
Maryam Majidinia, Javad Aghazadeh, Rana Jahanban-Esfahlani, Bahman Yousefi
Regenerative medicine is a translational field which combines tissue engineering and molecular biology to construct spare organs or help injured or defective tissues to regenerate or restore their normal functions. This is particularly important with specific organs such as heart, central nervous system, retina or limbs which possess very limited regenerative capacity. As such, regenerative medicine has received peculiar attention in the last decade. In this regard, Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway has been subject to intensive research, since it plays many essential roles in the regulation of the progenitor cell fate, developmental decisions, proliferation during embryonic development, and adult tissue homeostasis...
November 18, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150680/potential-landscape-of-high-dimensional-nonlinear-stochastic-dynamics-with-large-noise
#15
Ying Tang, Ruoshi Yuan, Gaowei Wang, Xiaomei Zhu, Ping Ao
Quantifying stochastic processes is essential to understand many natural phenomena, particularly in biology, including the cell-fate decision in developmental processes as well as the genesis and progression of cancers. While various attempts have been made to construct potential landscape in high dimensional systems and to estimate transition rates, they are practically limited to the cases where either noise is small or detailed balance condition holds. A general and practical approach to investigate real-world nonequilibrium systems, which are typically high-dimensional and subject to large multiplicative noise and the breakdown of detailed balance, remains elusive...
November 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150616/nmr-metabolomics-for-stem-cell-type-discrimination
#16
Franca Castiglione, Monica Ferro, Evangelos Mavroudakis, Rosalia Pellitteri, Patrizia Bossolasco, Damiano Zaccheo, Massimo Morbidelli, Vincenzo Silani, Andrea Mele, Davide Moscatelli, Lidia Cova
Cell metabolism is a key determinant factor for the pluripotency and fate commitment of Stem Cells (SCs) during development, ageing, pathological onset and progression. We derived and cultured selected subpopulations of rodent fetal, postnatal, adult Neural SCs (NSCs) and postnatal glial progenitors, Olfactory Ensheathing Cells (OECs), respectively from the subventricular zone (SVZ) and the olfactory bulb (OB). Cell lysates were analyzed by proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance ((1)H-NMR) spectroscopy leading to metabolites identification and quantitation...
November 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150566/the-loss-of-tet2-promotes-cd8-t-cell-memory-differentiation
#17
Shannon A Carty, Mercy Gohil, Lauren B Banks, Renee M Cotton, Matthew E Johnson, Erietta Stelekati, Andrew D Wells, E John Wherry, Gary A Koretzky, Martha S Jordan
T cell differentiation requires appropriate regulation of DNA methylation. In this article, we demonstrate that the methylcytosine dioxygenase ten-eleven translocation (TET)2 regulates CD8(+) T cell differentiation. In a murine model of acute viral infection, TET2 loss promotes early acquisition of a memory CD8(+) T cell fate in a cell-intrinsic manner without disrupting Ag-driven cell expansion or effector function. Upon secondary recall, TET2-deficient memory CD8(+) T cells demonstrate superior pathogen control...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150519/biological-containment-of-genetically-modified-bacillus-subtilis
#18
Siamand Hosseini, Alex Curilovs, Simon M Cutting
Genetic manipulation of bacterial spores of the genus Bacillus has shown potential for vaccination and for delivery of drugs or enzymes. Remarkably, proteins displayed on the spore surface retain activity and generally are not degraded. The heat stability of spores coupled with their desiccation resistance makes them suitable for delivery to humans or to animals by the oral route. Despite these attributes one regulatory obstacle has remained regarding the fate of recombinant spores shed into the environment as viable spores...
November 17, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150431/the-e3-ubiquitin-ligase-apc-c-c-dh1-degrades-mcph1-after-mcph1-%C3%AE-trcp2-cdc25a-mediated-mitotic-entry-to-ensure-neurogenesis
#19
Xiaoqian Liu, Wen Zong, Tangliang Li, Yujun Wang, Xingzhi Xu, Zhong-Wei Zhou, Zhao-Qi Wang
Mutations of microcephalin (MCPH1) can cause the neurodevelopmental disorder primary microcephaly type 1. We previously showed that MCPH1 deletion in neural stem cells results in early mitotic entry that distracts cell division mode, leading to exhaustion of the progenitor pool. Here, we show that MCPH1 interacts with and promotes the E3 ligase βTrCP2 to degrade Cdc25A independent of DNA damage. Overexpression of βTrCP2 or the knockdown of Cdc25A remedies the high mitotic index and rescues the premature differentiation of Mcph1-deficient neuroprogenitors in vivo MCPH1 itself is degraded by APC/C(C)(dh1), but not APC/C(C)(dc20), in late mitosis and G1 phase...
November 17, 2017: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149675/evaluation-of-potassium-ferrate-as-an-alternative-disinfectant-on-cyanobacteria-inactivation-and-associated-toxin-fate-in-various-waters
#20
Jiajia Fan, Bo-Hung Lin, Che-Wei Chang, Yuqing Zhang, Tsair-Fuh Lin
Potassium ferrate (K2FeO4) is an effective oxidant that may be used as a pre- or post-oxidant in the purification of source water with cyanobacterial issues. To provide a better basis for the application of this oxidant during water treatment processes, the impacts of K2FeO4 on the cell viability of Microcystis aeruginosa and the fate of associated microcystins (MCs) were investigated in various water matrices. The results showed that a water matrix can significantly affect the effectiveness of K2FeO4 on cyanobacteria inactivation...
November 9, 2017: Water Research
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