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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346521/the-intracellular-and-intercellular-cross-talk-during-subsidiary-cell-formation-in-zea-mays-existing-and-novel-components-orchestrating-cell-polarization-and-asymmetric-division
#1
P Apostolakos, P Livanos, E Giannoutsou, E Panteris, B Galatis
Background: Formation of stomatal complexes in Poaceae is the outcome of three asymmetric and one symmetric cell division occurring in particular leaf protodermal cells. In this definite sequence of cell division events, the generation of subsidiary cells is of particular importance and constitutes an attractive model for studying local intercellular stimulation. In brief, an induction stimulus emitted by the guard cell mother cells (GMCs) triggers a series of polarization events in their laterally adjacent protodermal cells...
January 15, 2018: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346405/oxytocin-alters-cell-fate-selection-of-rat-neural-progenitor-cells-in-vitro
#2
Arvind Palanisamy, Ramaswamy Kannappan, Zhiqiang Xu, Audrey Martino, Matthew B Friese, Justin D Boyd, Gregory Crosby, Deborah J Culley
Synthetic oxytocin (sOT) is widely used during labor, yet little is known about its effects on fetal brain development despite evidence that it reaches the fetal circulation. Here, we tested the hypothesis that sOT would affect early neurodevelopment by investigating its effects on neural progenitor cells (NPC) from embryonic day 14 rat pups. NPCs expressed the oxytocin receptor (OXTR), which was downregulated by 45% upon prolonged treatment with sOT. Next, we examined the effects of sOT on NPC death, apoptosis, proliferation, and differentiation using antibodies to NeuN (neurons), Olig2 (oligodendrocytes), and GFAP (astrocytes)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346066/expression-of-autophagy-related-genes-in-chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia-is-associated-with-disease-course
#3
Yi-Lin Kong, Ying Huang, Jia-Zhu Wu, Xin Cao, Jin-Hua Liang, Yi Xia, Wei Wu, Lei Cao, Hua-Yuan Zhu, Li Wang, Lei Fan, Jian-Yong Li, Wei Xu
Autophagy leads cells to different fates in various cell types and under diverse contexts. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), an incurable hematologic neoplasm, has highly variable course and its heterogeneity prompts interest in exploring autophagic trajectories in CLL. We detected the mRNA levels of two autophagy-related genes, BECN1 and ATG5, assessed the association between expression levels and clinical characteristics, and did survival analysis. One hundred and six patients with CLL and fifty healthy controls were enrolled in the present study...
January 3, 2018: Leukemia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345101/a-pdgf-ccreert2-knock-in-mouse-model-for-tracing-pdgf-c-cell-lineages-during-development
#4
Xiaoli Wu, Wenjun Liu, Hao Ding
PDGF-C, a member of the platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) family, plays important roles in the development of craniofacial structures, the neural system, the vascular system and tumors. PDGF-C could also be required for the regulation of certain types of stem or progenitor cells as suggested by its expression in the regions where these cells are located. To further characterize the role of PDGF-C in development, we generated a Pdgf-cCreERT2 mouse strain, in which a tamoxifen-inducible Cre (CreERT2) cDNA was specifically targeted into the Pdgf-c genomic locus and controlled by the endogenous Pdgf-c regulatory elements...
January 18, 2018: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345024/being-pluripotent-bone-marrow-vsels-rather-than-hscs-have-the-potential-to-regenerate-other-adult-organs
#5
REVIEW
Deepa Bhartiya
Recent study by Deanne's group provides evidence that transplanted GFP positive bone marrow hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) expressing CD45 do not regenerate the endometrium of irradiated mice. The results do not surprise us since global efforts to regenerate various organs by transplanting bone marrow (BM) mononuclear cells (presumably enriched for HSCs) have failed. HSCs can only regenerate/reconstitute BM as they are 'committed progenitors' that are specified from more primitive, CD45 negative stem cells...
January 18, 2018: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344311/gilz-activin-a-as-a-novel-signaling-axis-orchestrating-mesenchymal-stem-cell-and-th17-cell-interplay
#6
Patricia Luz-Crawford, Gabriel Espinosa-Carrasco, Natacha Ipseiz, Rafael Contreras, Gautier Tejedor, Daniel A Medina, Ana-Maria Vega-Letter, Devi Ngo, Eric F Morand, Jérôme Pène, Javier Hernandez, Christian Jorgensen, Farida Djouad
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are highly immunosuppressive cells able to reduce chronic inflammation through the active release of mediators. Recently, we showed that glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper (Gilz) expression by MSC is involved in their therapeutic effect by promoting the generation of regulatory T cells. However, the mechanisms underlying this pivotal role of Gilz remain elusive. Methods and Results In this study, we have uncovered evidence that Gilz modulates the phenotype and function of Th1 and Th17 cells likely by upregulating the level of Activin A and NO2 secreted by MSC...
2018: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343687/mechanically-sensitive-mirnas-bias-human-mesenchymal-stem-cell-fate-via-mtor-signalling
#7
Jessica E Frith, Gina D Kusuma, James Carthew, Fanyi Li, Nicole Cloonan, Guillermo A Gomez, Justin J Cooper-White
Mechanotransduction is a strong driver of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) fate. In vitro, variations in matrix mechanics invoke changes in MSC proliferation, migration and differentiation. However, when incorporating MSCs within injectable, inherently soft hydrogels, this dominance over MSC response substantially limits our ability to couple the ease of application of hydrogels with efficiently directed MSC differentiation, especially in the case of bone generation. Here, we identify differential miRNA expression in response to varying hydrogel stiffness and RhoA activity...
January 17, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343637/tyrosine-phosphorylation-and-proteolytic-cleavage-of-notch-are-required-for-non-canonical-notch-abl-signaling-in-drosophila-axon-guidance
#8
Ramakrishnan Kannan, Eric Cox, Lei Wang, Irina Kuzina, Qun Gu, Edward Giniger
Notch signaling is required for the development and physiology of nearly every tissue in metazoans. Much of Notch signaling is mediated by transcriptional regulation of downstream target genes, but Notch controls axon patterning in Drosophila by local modulation of Abl tyrosine kinase signaling, via direct interactions with the Abl co-factors Disabled and Trio. Here, we show that Notch-Abl axonal signaling requires both of the proteolytic cleavage events that initiate canonical Notch signaling. We further show that some Notch protein is tyrosine phosphorylated in Drosophila, that this form of the protein is selectively associated with Disabled and Trio, and that relevant tyrosines are essential for Notch-dependent axon patterning but not for canonical Notch-dependent regulation of cell fate...
January 17, 2018: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342370/fgf8-signaling-alters-the-osteogenic-cell-fate-in-the-hard-palate
#9
J Xu, Z Huang, W Wang, X Tan, H Li, Y Zhang, W Tian, T Hu, Y P Chen
Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling has been implicated in the regulation of osteogenesis in both intramembranous and endochondral ossifications. In the developing palate, the anterior bony palate forms by direct differentiation of cranial neural crest (CNC)-derived mesenchymal cells, but the signals that regulate the osteogenic cell fate in the developing palate remain unclear. In the present study, we investigated the potential role of FGF signaling in osteogenic fate determination of the palatal mesenchymal cells...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342317/osteoblast-like-mc3t3-e1-cells-prefer-glycolysis-for-atp-production-but-adipocyte-like-3t3-l1-cells-prefer-oxidative-phosphorylation
#10
Anyonya R Guntur, Akos A Gerencser, Phuong T Le, Victoria E DeMambro, Sheila A Bornstein, Shona A Mookerjee, David E Maridas, David E Clemmons, Martin D Brand, Clifford J Rosen
Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are early progenitors that can differentiate into osteoblasts, chondrocytes and adipocytes. We hypothesized that osteoblasts and adipocytes utilize distinct bioenergetic pathways during MSC differentiation. To test this hypothesis, we compared the bioenergetic profiles of pre-osteoblast MC3T3-E1 cells and calvarial osteoblasts with pre-adipocyte 3T3L1 cells, before and after differentiation. Differentiated MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts met ATP demand mainly by glycolysis with minimal reserve glycolytic capacity, whereas non-differentiated cells generated ATP through oxidative phosphorylation...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341848/protection-of-root-apex-meristem-during-stress-responses
#11
Mohamed M Mira, Shuanglong Huang, Robert D Hill, Claudio Stasollaa
By regulating the levels of nitric oxide (NO) in a cell and tissue specific fashion, Phytoglobins (Pgbs), plant hemoglobin-like proteins, interfere with many NO-mediated pathways participating in developmental and stress-related responses. Recent evidence reveals that one of the functions of Pgbs is to protect the root apical meristem (RAM) from stress conditions by retaining the viability and function of the quiescent center (QC), required to maintain the stem cells in an undifferentiated state and ensure proper tissue patterning and root viability...
January 17, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341429/trans-acting-translational-regulatory-rna-binding-proteins
#12
REVIEW
Robert F Harvey, Tom S Smith, Thomas Mulroney, Rayner M L Queiroz, Mariavittoria Pizzinga, Veronica Dezi, Eneko Villenueva, Manasa Ramakrishna, Kathryn S Lilley, Anne E Willis
The canonical molecular machinery required for global mRNA translation and its control has been well defined, with distinct sets of proteins involved in the processes of translation initiation, elongation and termination. Additionally, noncanonical, trans-acting regulatory RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) are necessary to provide mRNA-specific translation, and these interact with 5' and 3' untranslated regions and coding regions of mRNA to regulate ribosome recruitment and transit. Recently it has also been demonstrated that trans-acting ribosomal proteins direct the translation of specific mRNAs...
January 17, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. RNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341339/immunomodulation-by-therapeutic-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-msc-is-triggered-through-phagocytosis-of-msc-by-monocytic-cells
#13
Samantha F H de Witte, Franka Luk, Jesus M Sierra Parraga, Madhu Gargesha, Ana Merino, Sander S Korevaar, Anusha S Shankar, Lisa O'Flynn, Steve J Elliman, Debashish Roy, Michiel G H Betjes, Philip N Newsome, Carla C Baan, Martin J Hoogduijn
Mesenchymal stem or stromal cells (MSC) are under investigation as a potential immunotherapy. MSC are usually administered via intravenous infusion, after which they are trapped in the lungs and die and disappear within a day. The fate of MSC after their disappearance from the lungs is unknown and it is unclear how MSC realize their immunomodulatory effects in their short lifespan. We examined immunological mechanisms determining the fate of infused MSC and the immunomodulatory response associated with it. Tracking viable and dead human umbilical cord MSC (ucMSC) in mice using Qtracker beads (contained in viable cells) and Hoechst33342 (staining all cells) revealed that viable ucMSC were present in the lungs immediately after infusion...
January 17, 2018: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340254/response-of-methane-production-via-propionate-oxidation-to-carboxylated-multiwalled-carbon-nanotubes-in-paddy-soil-enrichments
#14
Jianchao Zhang, Xingxuan Xia, Siliang Li, Wei Ran
Carboxylated multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs-COOH) have become a growing concern in terms of their fate and toxicity in aqueous environments. Methane (CH4) is a major product of organic matter degradation in waterlogged environments. In this study, we determined the effect of MWCNTs-COOH on the production of CH4 from propionate oxidation in paddy soil enrichments. The results showed that the methanogenesis from propionate degradation was accelerated in the presence of MWCNTs-COOH. In addition, the rates of CH4 production and propionate degradation increased with increasing concentrations of MWCNTs-COOH...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339798/shedding-light-on-the-cell-biology-of-extracellular-vesicles
#15
REVIEW
Guillaume van Niel, Gisela D'Angelo, Graça Raposo
Extracellular vesicles are a heterogeneous group of cell-derived membranous structures comprising exosomes and microvesicles, which originate from the endosomal system or which are shed from the plasma membrane, respectively. They are present in biological fluids and are involved in multiple physiological and pathological processes. Extracellular vesicles are now considered as an additional mechanism for intercellular communication, allowing cells to exchange proteins, lipids and genetic material. Knowledge of the cellular processes that govern extracellular vesicle biology is essential to shed light on the physiological and pathological functions of these vesicles as well as on clinical applications involving their use and/or analysis...
January 17, 2018: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339782/loss-of-disease-tolerance-during-citrobacter-rodentium-infection-is-associated-with-impaired-epithelial-differentiation-and-hyperactivation-of-t-cell-responses
#16
Eugene Kang, Guangyan Zhou, Mitra Yousefi, Romain Cayrol, Jianguo Xia, Samantha Gruenheid
Citrobacter rodentium is an intestinal mouse pathogen widely used as a model to study the mucosal response to infection. Inbred mouse strains suffer one of two fates following infection: self-limiting colitis or fatal diarrheal disease. We previously reported that Rspo2 is a major genetic determinant of the outcome of C. rodentium infection; Rspo2 induction during infection of susceptible mice leads to loss of intestinal function and mortality. Rspo2 induction does not impact bacterial colonization, but rather, impedes the ability of the host to tolerate C...
January 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339718/injury-activated-glial-cells-promote-wound-healing-of-the-adult-skin-in-mice
#17
Vadims Parfejevs, Julien Debbache, Olga Shakhova, Simon M Schaefer, Mareen Glausch, Michael Wegner, Ueli Suter, Una Riekstina, Sabine Werner, Lukas Sommer
Cutaneous wound healing is a complex process that aims to re-establish the original structure of the skin and its functions. Among other disorders, peripheral neuropathies are known to severely impair wound healing capabilities of the skin, revealing the importance of skin innervation for proper repair. Here, we report that peripheral glia are crucially involved in this process. Using a mouse model of wound healing, combined with in vivo fate mapping, we show that injury activates peripheral glia by promoting de-differentiation, cell-cycle re-entry and dissemination of the cells into the wound bed...
January 16, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339432/deregulation-of-hdac5-by-viral-interferon-regulatory-factor-3-plays-an-essential-role-in-kaposi-s-sarcoma-associated-herpesvirus-induced-lymphangiogenesis
#18
Hye-Ra Lee, Fan Li, Un Yung Choi, Hye Ryun Yu, Grace M Aldrovandi, Pinghui Feng, Shou-Jiang Gao, Young-Kwon Hong, Jae U Jung
Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the etiologic agent for Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), which is one of the most common HIV-associated neoplasms. The endothelium is the thin layer of squamous cells where vascular blood endothelial cells (BECs) line the interior surface of blood vessels and lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) are in direct contact with lymphatic vessels. The KS lesions contain a prominent compartment of neoplastic spindle morphology cells that are closely related to LECs. Furthermore, while KSHV can infect both LECs and BECs in vitro, its infection activates genetic programming related to lymphatic endothelial cell fate, suggesting that lymphangiogenic pathways are involved in KSHV infection and malignancy...
January 16, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339164/nanos2-acts-as-an-intrinsic-regulator-of-gonocytes-to-spermatogonia-transition-in-the-murine-testes
#19
Han Pin Pui, Yumiko Saga
In the male mouse embryos, the primordial germ cells colonize the developing testes at E11.5. These resident germ cells termed gonocytes are the predecessors of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) and differentiating spermatogonia. Both of which are essential for male fertility where the former maintains the continuity of spermatogenesis and the latter generates pioneering waves of spermatozoa. Therefore the timely initiation of gonocytes-to-spermatogonia transition (GST) is an important process during which the cell fates of gonocytes might be segregated...
January 12, 2018: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339111/stem-cells-for-urinary-incontinence-functional-differentiation-or-cytokine-effects
#20
REVIEW
Bradley C Gill, Daniel Z Sun, Margot S Damaser
Minimally-invasive stem cell therapy for stress urinary incontinence may provide an effective nonsurgical treatment for this common condition. Clinical trials of periurethral stem cell injection have been underway and basic science research has demonstrated the efficacy of both local and systemic stem cell therapies. Results differ as to whether stem cells have a therapeutic effect by differentiating into permanent, functional tissues, or whether they exert benefits through a transient presence and the secretion of regenerative factors...
January 12, 2018: Urology
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