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Renato Leonardo de Freitas, Priscila Medeiros, Juliana Almeida da Silva, Rithiele Cristina de Oliveira, Ricardo de Oliveira, Farhad Ullah, Asmat Ullah Khan, Norberto Cysne Coimbra
It has been proposed that the post-ictal state is associated with the expression of hypoalgesia. It is clear that the projections among the periaqueductal gray matter (PAG), dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) and locus coeruleus (LC) play a role in pain management. These mesencephalic structures have direct reciprocal opioid and monoaminergic projections to the LC that can possibly modulate post-ictal hypoalgesia. The goal of this study was to examine if LC-opioid and serotonergic/noradrenergic mechanisms signal the post-ictal hypoalgesic responses to tonic-clonic seizures produced by intraperitoneal administration of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ at 64mg/kg), causing an ionophore γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-mediated Cl(-) influx antagonism...
November 12, 2016: Neuroscience
Nunzio Vicario, Rosalba Parenti, Giuseppina Arico', Rita Turnaturi, Giovanna Maria Scoto, Santina Chiechio, Carmela Parenti
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Molecular Pain
Steven W Gangestad, Nicholas M Grebe
Which hormones are implicated in human social bonding and affiliation? And how does field research speak to this issue? We begin by laying out a broad view of how endocrine hormones in general modulate life history allocations of energy and other resources, and the ways in which their neuromodulatory functions must be understood within a broader conceptualization of how they have been shaped to affect allocations. We then turn to four specific hormones or hormone families that have received much attention:oxytocin, opiods, prolactin, and progesterone...
August 13, 2016: Hormones and Behavior
George E Woody, Evgeny Krupitsky, Edwin Zvartau
Naltrexone is an antagonist that binds tightly to μ-opioid receptors and blocks the subjective and analgesic effects of opioids. It does not produce physiologic dependence and precipitates withdrawal if administered to an opioid dependent person, thus starting it must begin with detoxification. It was first available in the mid-1970s as a 50 mg tablet that blocked opioids for 24-36 h if taken daily, or every 2-3 days at higher doses - for example: 100 mg Monday and Wednesday, 150 mg on Friday. From a pharmacological perspective it worked very well and was hoped to be an effective treatment but results were disappointing due to low patient interest and high dropout followed by relapse...
September 2016: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
Anna Dushenkov, Julie Kalabalik, Antonia Carbone, Paiboon Jungsuwadee
PURPOSE: Aprepitant and its parenteral formulation fosaprepitant are widely used for the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. Aprepitant exerts modest inhibitory effect on CYP3A4 and modest inductive effect on CYP2C9 substrates such as some antineoplastics and multiple other medications. This article is aimed to provide pharmacists and other healthcare professionals with an updated summary of drug-drug interactions of aprepitant/fosaprepitant and implications for clinical practice...
February 25, 2016: Journal of Oncology Pharmacy Practice
Neel Mehta, Kelli O'Connell, Gregory P Giambrone, Aisha Baqai, Sudhir Diwan
OBJECTIVE: Constipation is a common adverse effect in patients requiring long-term opioid therapy for pain control. Methylnaltrexone, a quaternary peripheral mu-opioid receptor antagonist, is an effective treatment of opioid induced constipation (OIC) without affecting centrally mediated analgesia. Our objective was to conduct a review and meta-analysis to evaluate the efficacy of methylnaltrexone for treatment of OIC, as well as to provide a clinical discussion regarding newly developed alternatives and provide the current treatment algorithm utilized at our institution...
2016: Postgraduate Medicine
Giovanni De Caridi, Mafalda Massara, Raffaele Serra, Claudia Risitano, Massimiliano Giardina, Ignazio Eduardo Acri, Pietro Volpe, Antonio David
Phantom limb pain (PLP) is a chronic condition experienced by about 80% of patients who have undergone amputation. In most patients, both the frequency and the intensity of pain attacks diminish with time, but severe pain persists in about 5-10%. Probably, factors in both the peripheral and central nervous system play a role in the occurrence and persistence of pain in the amputated lower limb. The classical treatment of PLP can be divided into pharmacologic, surgical, anesthetic, and psychological modalities...
April 2016: Annals of Vascular Surgery
Piyaporn Bunsangjaroen, Cattleya Thongrong, Patt Pannengpetch, Supakorn Somsaad, Nonthida Rojanapithayakorn, Lumpai Polsena, Duangnate Litu, Wimonrat Sriraj, Pornthep Kasemsiri
BACKGROUND: Cleft lip (CL) and cleft palate (CP) are common craniofacial abnormalities with an incidence of around 1:800. Surgical are corrections often performed during the first year of life. These patients have risks for difficult intubation and various perioperative complications due to their young age and craniofacial abnormalities. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the retrospective descriptive study is to report the data of anesthetic techniques and complications of repairing CLCP in Srinagarind Hospital...
August 2015: Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand, Chotmaihet Thangphaet
Jeroen J J Van Eijk, Jan T Groothuis, Nens Van Alfen
In this review we provide a current overview of the clinical features, pathophysiology, epidemiology, and diagnostic and therapeutic strategies in neuralgic amyotrophy (NA). The disorder has several phenotypic variations, with a classic form in 70% of the patients. It is not rare, with an incidence of 1 per 1,000 individuals, but it is still often missed. Recurrences are common, yet the proposed multifactorial etiology, which includes genetic, biomechanical, and immunologic factors, limits our capacity to predict or prevent them...
March 2016: Muscle & Nerve
Rianto Setiabudy, Cosphiadi Irawan, Aru W Sudoyo
Severe pain is a major problem for cancer patients, and pain management often requires the use of opioids. Indonesia is one of the countries where the use of opioids for cancer patients is extremely low, and this calls for attention, as many cancer patients in the country undergo unnecessary suffering as the consequence of this opioid underuse. The inability to assess pain correctly, failure to determine the correct dose, fear of addiction, overly tight regulation, all contribute to the failure to implement rational use of opioids for cancer patients...
July 2015: Acta Medica Indonesiana
Francisco A Acurcio, Cristiano S Moura, Sasha Bernatsky, Louis Bessette, Elham Rahme
OBJECTIVE: To assess the risk of nonvertebral fractures in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) who were exposed to opioids. METHODS: A population-based, nested case-control study was conducted using health services administrative databases (Quebec, Canada) from 1997 to 2012. Among RA patients, cases of nonvertebral fractures from 2007 to 2012 were identified using a validated algorithm. The date of the first fracture was the index date for the case and his/her matched control...
January 2016: Arthritis & Rheumatology
Pierre-Eric Lutz, Yi Zhou, Aurélie Labbe, Naguib Mechawar, Gustavo Turecki
The nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ)-Nociceptin Opiod-like Peptide (NOP) receptor system is a critical mediator of physiological and pathological processes involved in emotional regulation and drug addiction. As such, this system may be an important biological substrate underlying psychiatric conditions that contribute to the risk of suicide. Thus, the goal of the present study was to characterize changes in human N/OFQ and NOP signaling as a function of depression, addiction and suicide. We quantified the expression of N/OFQ and NOP by RT-PCR in the anterior insula, the mediodorsal thalamus, and the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) from a large sample of individuals who died by suicide and matched psychiatrically-healthy controls...
November 2015: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Iraia Muñoa, Itziar Urizar, Luis Casis, Jon Irazusta, Nerea Subirán
The most well-known physiological effect associated with opiod system is their efficacy in pain reduction or analgesia, although their effect on a variety of other physiological and physiophological functions has become apparent in recent years. This review is an attempt to clarify in more detail the epigenetic regulation of opioid system to understand with more precision their transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation in multiple pyisiological and pharmacological contexts. The opioid receptors show an epigenetic regulation and opioid peptide precursors by methylation, chromatin remodeling and microRNA...
November 2015: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Amanda S Mota, Anderson B de Lima, Thayana Lucy F Albuquerque, Tiago S Silveira, José Luiz M do Nascimento, Joyce Kelly R da Silva, Alcy F Ribeiro, José Guilherme S Maia, Gilmara N T Bastos
Seed oil (Pp-oil) of Plukenetia polyadenia is used by native people of the Brazilian Amazon against arthritis and rheumatism, spreading it on the arms and legs to reduce the pain and inflammation. Pp-oil was obtained by pressing dried seeds at room temperature to give a 47.0% yield of oil. It was then subjected to fatty acid composition analysis. The principal fatty acids were linoleic acid (46.5%), α-linolenic acid (34.4%) and oleic acid (13.9%). Then, it was evaluated for its antinociceptive activity in mice, using the acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing, hot plate and formalin test models...
2015: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Nondumiso Mkontwana, Natalia Novikova
BACKGROUND: Oral analgesia is a convenient and widely used form of pain relief following caesarean section. It includes various medications used at different doses alone or in adjunction to other form of analgesia. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effectiveness, safety and cost-effectiveness of oral analgesia for post-caesarean pain relief. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 July 2014) and reference lists of retrieved studies...
March 29, 2015: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
A M Cruz, M H Sukikara, L F Felicio
Changes in plasma progesterone levels during late pregnancy are a determining factor in the expression of maternal behavior during lactation. Previous studies showed that mild opioidergic stimulation during late pregnancy makes lactating females more sensitive to opioidergic-induced inhibition of maternal behavior and more willing to display hunting behavior. Such previous behaviorally meaningful opioidergic stimulation also selectively increased serum progesterone levels. The present study tested whether progesterone treatment during late pregnancy interferes with the display of maternal behavior and behavioral selection during lactation...
March 2015: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Natalia Adamou, Jamilu Tukur, Zakari Muhammad, Hadiza Galadanci
BACKGROUND: Post-Caesarean section pain is complex in nature, requiring a combination of pharmacological and non-pharmacological methods. Effective management of postoperative pain will reduce postoperative morbidity, hospital stay and cost. The objective of this study was to compare the clinical effectiveness and adverse effects of a combination of non-selective cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor (Diclofenac sodium 50 mg) and opioid (Pentazocine 60 mg) to opiod only (Pentazocine 60 mg) for pain management after Caesarean section (CS) at Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital (AKTH)...
September 2014: Nigerian Medical Journal: Journal of the Nigeria Medical Association
Iu I Hubs'kyĭ, T A Bukhtiarova, H H Horiushko, N V Litvinova, H I Paramonova, T M Kurapova, O M Velychko, L P Babenko
Methods of fluorescent probing, spectrophotometry and microcalorimetry were applied to investigate the alterations in biophysical parameters of erythrocytes membranes, and specifically microviscosity, surface charge, molecular organization of lipid bilayer and lipid-protein interactions under conditions of acute pain syndrome produced by experimental chemical lesion. The distinctive features of non-opiod analgesics interactions and binding to the erythrocytes membranes of rats subjected to acute nociceptive pain accompanied with oxidative stress development were investigated...
May 2014: Ukrainian Biochemical Journal
Maida Rakanović-Todić, Lejla Burnazović-Ristić, Slavka Ibrulj, Nedžad Mulbegović
Endogenious opiod met-enkephalin throughout previous research manifested cytoprotective and anti-inflammatory effects. Previous research suggests that met-enkephalin has cytogenetic effects. Reducement in the frequency of structural chromosome aberrations as well as a suppressive effect on lymphocyte cell cycle is found. It also reduces apoptosis in the blood samples of the patients with immune-mediated diseases. Met-enkephalin exerts immunomodulatory properties and induces stabilization of the clinical condition in patients with multiple Sclerosis (MS)...
May 2014: Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
Shaima Salman, Josef Buttigieg, Colin A Nurse
The adrenal medulla plays a key role in the physiological responses of developing and mature mammals by releasing catecholamines (CAT) during stress. In rodents and humans, the innervation of CAT-producing, adrenomedullary chromaffin cells (AMCs) is immature or absent during early postnatal life, when these cells possess 'direct' hypoxia- and CO2/H(+)-chemosensing mechanisms. During asphyxial stressors at birth, these mechanisms contribute to a CAT surge that is critical for adaptation to extra-uterine life...
March 1, 2014: Journal of Experimental Biology
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