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Natural birth

Vander Borght Mélodie, Wyns Christine
Infertility is a disease characterized by the failure to establish a clinical pregnancy after 12 months of regular and unprotected sexual intercourse. It is estimated to affect between 8 and 12% of reproductive-aged couples worldwide. Males are found to be solely responsible for 20-30% of infertility cases but contribute to 50% of cases overall. Secondary infertility is the most common form of female infertility around the globe, often due to reproductive tract infections. The three major factors influencing the spontaneous probability of conception are the time of unwanted non-conception, the age of the female partner and the disease-related infertility...
March 16, 2018: Clinical Biochemistry
Jeroen J van den Broek, Nicolien T van Ravesteyn, Eveline A Heijnsdijk, Harry J de Koning
The MISCAN-Fadia microsimulation model uses continuous tumor growth to simulate the natural history of breast cancer and has been used extensively to estimate the impact of screening and adjuvant treatment on breast cancer incidence and mortality trends. The model simulates individual life histories from birth to death, with and without breast cancer, in the presence and in the absence of screening and treatment. Life histories are simulated according to discrete events such as birth, tumor inception, the tumor's clinical diagnosis diameter in the absence of screening, and death from breast cancer or death from other causes...
April 2018: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
Clyde B Schechter, Aimee M Near, Jinani Jayasekera, Young Chandler, Jeanne S Mandelblatt
BACKGROUND: The Georgetown University-Albert Einstein College of Medicine breast cancer simulation model (Model GE) has evolved over time in structure and function to reflect advances in knowledge about breast cancer, improvements in early detection and treatment technology, and progress in computing resources. This article describes the model and provides examples of model applications. METHODS: The model is a discrete events microsimulation of single-life histories of women from multiple birth cohorts...
April 2018: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
Giovanni Iacono, Aline Dubos, Hamid Méziane, Marco Benevento, Ehsan Habibi, Amit Mandoli, Fabrice Riet, Mohammed Selloum, Robert Feil, Huiqing Zhou, Tjitske Kleefstra, Nael Nadif Kasri, Hans van Bokhoven, Yann Herault, Hendrik G Stunnenberg
Kleefstra syndrome, a disease with intellectual disability, autism spectrum disorders and other developmental defects is caused in humans by haploinsufficiency of EHMT1. Although EHMT1 and its paralog EHMT2 were shown to be histone methyltransferases responsible for deposition of the di-methylated H3K9 (H3K9me2), the exact nature of epigenetic dysfunctions in Kleefstra syndrome remains unknown. Here, we found that the epigenome of Ehmt1+/- adult mouse brain displays a marked increase of H3K9me2/3 which correlates with impaired expression of protocadherins, master regulators of neuronal diversity...
March 15, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Riccardo Calvani, Anna Picca, Maria Rita Lo Monaco, Francesco Landi, Roberto Bernabei, Emanuele Marzetti
In recent years, an extensive body of literature focused on the gut-brain axis and the possible role played by the gut microbiota in modulating brain morphology and function from birth to old age. Gut microbiota has been proposed as a relevant player during the early phases of neurodevelopment, with possible long-standing effects in later life. The reduction in gut microbiota diversity has also become one of the hallmarks of aging, and disturbances in its composition are associated with several (age-related) neurological conditions, including depression, Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
Margaret Addabbo, Elena Longhi, Ioana Cristina Marchis, Paolo Tagliabue, Chiara Turati
The ability to discriminate between different facial expressions is fundamental since the first stages of postnatal life. The aim of this study is to investigate whether 2-days-old newborns are capable to discriminate facial expressions of emotions as they naturally take place in everyday interactions, that is in motion. When two dynamic displays depicting a happy and a disgusted facial expression were simultaneously presented (i.e., visual preference paradigm), newborns did not manifest any visual preference (Experiment 1)...
2018: PloS One
Ilaria Bo, Thomas Semple, Emma Cheasty, Michael B Rubens, Siew Yen Ho, Michael L Rigby, Edward D Nicol
BACKGROUND: Scimitar syndrome is a rare combination of cardiopulmonary abnormalities found in 1-3 per 1000 live births. Anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery (ALCAPA) is only found in 1 in 250-400 congenital heart disease patients. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the incidence of left circumflex ALCAPA within our referral center's cohort of scimitar syndrome patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A review of medical records, cardiac imaging and operative notes from all patients diagnosed with scimitar syndrome at our center between 1992 and 2016 was undertaken and all imaging reviewed...
March 14, 2018: Pediatric Radiology
Francesca Ciuffini, Colin F Robertson, David G Tingay
Chronic respiratory morbidity is a common complication of premature birth, generally defined by the presence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia, both clinically and in trials of respiratory therapies. However, recent data have highlighted that bronchopulmonary dysplasia does not correlate with chronic respiratory morbidity in older children born preterm. Longitudinally evaluating pulmonary morbidity from early life through to childhood provides a more rational method of defining the continuum of chronic respiratory morbidity of prematurity, and offers new insights into the efficacy of neonatal respiratory interventions...
March 31, 2018: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
Frank Gabel, Hendrik Jürges, Kai E Kruk, Stefan Listl
BACKGROUND: Dental diseases are among the most frequent diseases globally and tooth loss imposes a substantial burden on peoples' quality of life. Non-experimental evidence suggests that individuals with more children have more missing teeth than individuals with fewer children, but until now there is no causal evidence for or against this. METHODS: Using a Two-Stage Least Squares (2SLS) instrumental variables approach and large-scale cross-sectional data from the Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement in Europe (study sample: 34 843 non-institutionalised individuals aged 50+from 14 European countries and Israel study years: 2015), we investigated the causal relationship between the number of biological children and their parents' number of missing natural teeth...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Qianqian Zhu, Qiuju Chen, Li Wang, Xuefeng Lu, Qifeng Lyu, Yun Wang, Yanping Kuang
STUDY QUESTION: What is the chance of having a child following one complete IVF cycle for patients using a freeze-all strategy? SUMMARY ANSWER: The chance of having a child after the first complete IVF cycle was 50.74% with the freeze-all strategy. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Several studies have reported on live birth rates (LBRs) based on only the fresh embryo transfer cycle or fresh and frozen-thawed embryo transfer cycles. However, the LBR using a freeze-all strategy in IVF is unknown...
March 9, 2018: Human Reproduction
Xian Zhang, Ellen E Pinderhughes
Parents raising children adopted from a different racial/ethnic group usually engage in cultural socialization-providing activities in adoptees' birth culture-hoping to instill pride and help adoptees develop a positive identity. Adoptive parents engage in a wide variety of socialization activities, yet adult adoptees have reported not having deep enough exposure from their parents. The present study explored the depth of cultural socialization in transracial adoptive families. Informed by Pinderhughes' Ethnic-Racial Socialization model, this study developed a continuum examining the depth in cultural socialization with three indicators: (1) the depth of cultural activities, (2) parents' motivation for cultural socialization, and (3) parental cultural attitudes...
March 13, 2018: Family Process
Sandeep T Samuel, Anthony D Martinez, Yang Chen, Marianthi Markatou, Andrew H Talal
AIM: To understand the role of knowledge as a promoter of hepatitis C virus (HCV) screening among primary care physicians (PCP). METHODS: A 45-item online questionnaire assessing knowledge of HCV natural history, risk factors, and treatment was distributed to 163 PCP. Logistic regression, adjusted for survey responses, assessed associations between PCP knowledge of HCV natural history and treatment and birth cohort ( i.e ., birth between 1945 and 1965) screening...
February 27, 2018: World Journal of Hepatology
Chrissy Frances Bishop, Neil Small, Roger Parslow, Brian Kelly
OBJECTIVES: Congenital anomaly (CA) are a leading cause of disease, death and disability for children throughout the world. Many have complex and varying healthcare needs which are not well understood. Our aim was to analyse the healthcare needs of children with CA and examine how that healthcare is delivered. DESIGN: Secondary analysis of observational data from the Born in Bradford study, a large prospective birth cohort, linked to primary care data and hospital episode statistics...
March 9, 2018: BMJ Open
Jaana Seikkula, Sanna Oksjoki, Saija Hurme, Harri Mankonen, Päivi Polo-Kantola, Varpu Jokimaa
Blastomere multinucleation in human embryos is a common phenomenon, but data on its effect on pregnancy outcome and the health of newborns are scarce. In this case-control study, we assessed pregnancy and perinatal outcomes from 136 binucleated and multinucleated frozen-thawed embryo transfer cycles against a control group of 136 non-binucleated and multinucleated frozen embryo transfer cycles. Clinical pregnancy and live birth rates were lower among the case group (29.4% versus 44.1%, P = 0.012; 22.1% versus 36...
February 26, 2018: Reproductive Biomedicine Online
Marina Leone, Gentian Musa, Felix Benedikt Engel
Aims: After birth mammalian cardiomyocytes initiate a last cell cycle which results in binucleation due to cytokinesis failure. Despite its importance for cardiac regenerative therapies, this process is poorly understood. Here, we aimed at a better understanding of the difference between cardiomyocyte proliferation and binucleation, and providing a new tool to distinguish these two processes. Methods and Results: Monitoring of cell division by time-lapse imaging revealed that rat cardiomyocyte binucleation stems from a failure to properly ingress the cleavage furrow...
March 7, 2018: Cardiovascular Research
Matthew C Altman, Elizabeth Whalen, Alkis Togias, George T O'Connor, Leonard B Bacharier, Gordon R Bloomberg, Meyer Kattan, Robert A Wood, Scott Presnell, Petra LeBeau, Katy Jaffee, Cynthia M Visness, William W Busse, James E Gern
BACKGROUND: Childhood asthma in inner city populations is a major public health burden and understanding early life immune mechanisms that promote asthma onset is key to disease prevention. Children who develop asthma demonstrate a high prevalence of aeroallergen sensitization and T helper 2 (Th2)-type inflammation, however the early life immune events that lead to Th2 skewing and disease development are unknown. OBJECTIVE: We sought to use RNA sequencing of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) collected at age 2 to determine networks of immune responses that occur in children who develop allergy and asthma...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Eliza Hartley, Briony Hill, Skye McPhie, Helen Skouteris
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to conduct a rapid systematic review of the evidence of associations between postpartum depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, body image and weight status in the first 12 months post birth. BACKGROUND: The postpartum period places the mother and infant at risk of a number of negative health outcomes. Mental health conditions such as depression and anxiety are common in the postpartum, as are poor body image and excessive weight retention as women adjust to their post pregnancy body...
February 2018: Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology
M-A Sirard, F-X Grand, R Labrecque, C Vigneault, P Blondin
The selection of the best dairy heifers is mainly driven by the genetic value of their parents. The phenotype analysis of cows and of the daughters of bulls has been used to identify the best genetic value for decades before being replaced by genomic selection of individuals that are not yet parents. Because it is possible to predict the future value of an individual by its genetic makeup, it becomes feasible to do it as early as the blastocyst stage and to decide which should be transferred or not. Because we know the genotype of an animal at birth, or even before, it is becoming desirable to reproduce this animal as soon as possible to reduce generation interval and improve selection speed...
March 3, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Ping He, Gong Chen, Chao Guo, Xu Wen, Xinming Song, Xiaoying Zheng
BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia is a common major mental disorder and prenatal nutritional deficiency may increase its risk. We aimed to investigate long-term impact of prenatal exposure to malnutrition on risk of schizophrenia in adulthood using the Chinese famine of 1959-1961 as a natural experiment. METHODS: We obtained data from the Second National Sample Survey on Disability implemented in 31 provinces in 2006, and restricted our analysis to 387,093 individuals born from 1956 to 1965...
March 4, 2018: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
J Wertz, A Caspi, D W Belsky, A L Beckley, L Arseneault, J C Barnes, D L Corcoran, S Hogan, R M Houts, N Morgan, C L Odgers, J A Prinz, K Sugden, B S Williams, R Poulton, T E Moffitt
Drawing on psychological and sociological theories of crime causation, we tested the hypothesis that genetic risk for low educational attainment (assessed via a genome-wide polygenic score) is associated with criminal offending. We further tested hypotheses of how polygenic risk relates to the development of antisocial behavior from childhood through adulthood. Across the Dunedin and Environmental Risk (E-Risk) birth cohorts of individuals growing up 20 years and 20,000 kilometers apart, education polygenic scores predicted risk of a criminal record with modest effects...
March 1, 2018: Psychological Science
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