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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911073/reducing-risky-alcohol-use-what-health-care-systems-can-do
#1
Amity E Quinn, Mary Brolin, Maureen T Stewart, Brooke Evans, Constance Horgan
Risky, non-dependent alcohol use is prevalent in the United States, affecting 25% of adults (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2014b). Massachusetts has higher rates of alcohol use and binge drinking than most states (Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2015). Serious physical, social, and economic consequences result. Excessive alcohol use contributes to cancer, cardiovascular disease, sleep disorders, birth defects, motor vehicle injuries, and suicide, and it complicates management of chronic illnesses (Green, McKnight-Eily, Tan, Mejia, & Denny, 2016; Laramee et al...
April 27, 2016: Issue Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910870/antinociceptive-profile-of-levo-tetrahydropalmatine-in-acute-and-chronic-pain-mice-models-role-of-spinal-sigma-1-receptor
#2
Dong-Wook Kang, Ji-Young Moon, Jae-Gyun Choi, Suk-Yun Kang, Yeonhee Ryu, Jin Bong Park, Jang-Hern Lee, Hyun-Woo Kim
We have recently reported that repeated systemic treatments of extract from Corydalis yanhusuo alleviate neuropathic pain and levo-tetrahydropalmatine (l-THP) is one of active components from Corydalis. We designed this study to investigate antinociceptive effect of l-THP in acute and chronic pain models and related mechanism within the spinal cord. We found that intraperitoneal pretreatment with l-THP significantly inhibited the second phase of formalin-induced pain behavior. In addition, intrathecal as well as intraperitoneal pretreatment with l-THP reduced the mechanical allodynia (MA) induced by direct activation of sigma-1 receptor (Sig-1)...
December 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909988/predicting-the-abuse-liability-of-entactogen-class-new-and-emerging-psychoactive-substances-via-preclinical-models-of-drug-self-administration
#3
Shawn M Aarde, Michael A Taffe
Animal models of drug self-administration are currently the gold standard for making predictions regarding the relative likelihood that a recreational drug substance will lead to continued use and addiction. Such models have been found to have high predictive accuracy and discriminative validity for a number of drug classes including ethanol, nicotine, opioids, and psychostimulants such as cocaine and methamphetamine. Members of the entactogen class of psychostimulants (drugs that produce an "open mind state" including feelings of interpersonal closeness, intimacy and empathy) have been less frequently studied in self-administration models...
December 2, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909965/correction-of-negative-effect-of-antenatal-hypoxia-on-liver-tissue-homeostasis-in-newborn-albino-rats-with-opioid-peptides
#4
O G Pinaeva, E N Sazonova, O A Lebed'ko, S S Timoshin
We studied the possibility of correction of the negative effects of antenatal hypoxia on the liver tissue homeostasis in 7-day-old albino rats by administration of opioid peptides in a dose of 100 μg/kg on postnatal days 2-6. Administration of mixed μ/δ-opioid receptor agonist Dalargin neutralized deviations of gravimetric indicators, parameters of proliferative activity, and activity of the nucleolar apparatus of hepatocytes. Administration of the non-opiate Leu-enkephalin analogue did not normalize gravimetric parameters and nucleolar apparatus parameters, however, it significantly increased the pool of proliferating hepatocytes...
December 2, 2016: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909407/the-tlr4-active-morphine-metabolite-morphine-3-glucuronide-does-not-elicit-macrophage-classical-activation-in-vitro
#5
Samira Khabbazi, Nan Xie, Wenjun Pu, Yannick Goumon, Marie-Odile Parat
Macrophages are abundant in the tumor microenvironment where they adopt a pro-tumor phenotype following alternative polarization induced by paracrine factors from cancer and stromal cells. In contrast, classically activated macrophages have tumoricidal activities, such that the polarization of tumor-associated macrophages has become a novel therapeutic target. Toll-like receptor 4 engagement promotes classical activation of macrophages, and recent literature suggests TLR4 agonism to prevent metastasis and promote survival in experimental metastasis models...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909193/osteotomy-models-the-current-status-on-pain-scoring-and-management-in-small-rodents
#6
Annemarie Lang, Anja Schulz, Agnes Ellinghaus, Katharina Schmidt-Bleek
Fracture healing is a complex regeneration process which produces new bone tissue without scar formation. However, fracture healing disorders occur in approximately 10% of human patients and cause severe pain and reduced quality of life. Recently, the development of more standardized, sophisticated and commercially available osteosynthesis techniques reflecting clinical approaches has increased the use of small rodents such as rats and mice in bone healing research dramatically. Nevertheless, there is no standard for pain assessment, especially in these species, and consequently limited information regarding the welfare aspects of osteotomy models...
December 2016: Laboratory Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909191/analgesia-in-clinically-relevant-rodent-models-of-sepsis
#7
Victor Jeger, Till Hauffe, Flora Nicholls-Vuille, Dominique Bettex, Alain Rudiger
Postoperative analgesia in rodent sepsis models has been considerably neglected in the past. However, intentions to model clinical practice, increasing awareness of animal ethics, efforts to apply the 3Rs (replacement, reduction, refinement), and stricter legislation argue for a change in this respect. In this review, we describe different concepts of analgesia in rodent models of sepsis focusing on opioid agonists as well as non-opioid analgesics. Advantages and pitfalls in study design and side-effects are discussed...
December 2016: Laboratory Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909104/loss-of-plasticity-in-the-d2-accumbens-pallidal-pathway-promotes-cocaine-seeking
#8
J A Heinsbroek, D N Neuhofer, W C Griffin, G S Siegel, A-C Bobadilla, Y M Kupchik, P W Kalivas
Distinct populations of D1- and D2-dopamine receptor expressing medium spiny neurons (D1-/D2-MSNs) comprise the nucleus accumbens, and activity in D1-MSNs promotes, while activity in D2-MSNs inhibits motivated behaviors. We used chemogenetics to extend D1-/D2-MSN cell specific regulation to cue-reinstated cocaine seeking in a mouse model of self-administration and relapse, and found that either increasing activity in D1-MSNs or decreasing activity in D2-MSNs augmented cue-induced reinstatement. Both D1- and D2-MSNs provide substantial GABAergic innervation to the ventral pallidum, and chemogenetic inhibition of ventral pallidal neurons blocked the augmented reinstatement elicited by chemogenetic regulation of either D1- or D2-MSNs...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909084/sustained-benefits-of-exercise-based-motivational-interviewing-but-only-among-nonusers-of-opioids-in-patients-with-fibromyalgia
#9
Sunghye Kim, James E Slaven, Dennis C Ang
OBJECTIVE: Given the known side effects of opioids and their potential effects on cognition, we sought to evaluate the benefits of motivational interviewing (MI) to promote physical activity on 2 subsets of participants with fibromyalgia (FM): nonusers and users of opioids. METHODS: This was a secondary data analysis of a 36-week randomized controlled trial to assess the efficacy of MI to promote physical activity among participants with FM. Participants were randomized to 1 of 2 treatment arms: 6 phone-based MI sessions (n = 107) or 6 sessions of FM self-management instructions [attention control (AC), n = 109]...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908843/treatment-of-acute-coronary-syndrome-by-telemedically-supported-paramedics-compared-with-physician-based-treatment-a-prospective-interventional-multicenter-trial
#10
Jörg C Brokmann, Clemens Conrad, Rolf Rossaint, Sebastian Bergrath, Stefan K Beckers, Miriam Tamm, Michael Czaplik, Frederik Hirsch
BACKGROUND: Prehospital treatment of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in German emergency medical services (EMSs) is reserved for EMS physicians due to legal issues. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this prospective, interventional, multicenter trial was to evaluate the quality of telemedically-delegated therapy and the possible complications in patients with ACS. METHODS: After approval by the ethics committee and trial registration, a one-year study phase was started in August 2012 with 5 ambulances, telemedically equipped and staffed with paramedics, in 4 German EMS districts...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908840/prescription-opioid-taper-support-for-outpatients-with-chronic-pain-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#11
Mark D Sullivan, Judith A Turner, Cory DiLodovico, Angela D'Appolonio, Kari Stephens, Ya-Fen Chan
Patients receiving long-term opioid therapy for chronic pain and interested in tapering their opioid dose were randomly assigned to a 22-week taper support intervention (psychiatric consultation, opioid dose tapering, and 18 weekly meetings with a physician assistant to explore motivation for tapering and learn pain self-management skills) or usual care (N=35). Assessments were conducted at baseline and 22 and 34 weeks after randomization. Using an intention-to-treat approach, we constructed linear regression models to compare groups at each follow-up...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908278/comparison-of-predictors-of-hip-fracture-and-mortality-after-hip-fracture-in-community-dwellers-with-and-without-alzheimer-s-disease-exposure-matched-cohort-study
#12
Anna-Maija Tolppanen, Heidi Taipale, Antti Tanskanen, Jari Tiihonen, Sirpa Hartikainen
BACKGROUND: Dementia, with Alzheimer's disease (AD) being the most common form, is a major hip fracture risk factor, but currently it is not known whether the same factors predict hip fracture among persons with and without dementia/AD. We compared the predictors of hip fracture and mortality after hip fracture in persons with and without AD. METHODS: An exposure-matched cohort of all community-dwellers of Finland who received a new clinically verified AD diagnosis in 2005-2011 and had no history of previous hip fracture (N = 67,072) and an age, sex, and region-matched cohort of persons without AD (N = 67,072)...
December 1, 2016: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907936/early-treatment-for-neonatal-abstinence-syndrome-a-palliative-approach
#13
Jennifer Hudson, Rachel Mayo, Lori Dickes, Liwei Chen, Windsor Westbrook Sherrill, Julie Summey, Bradley Dalton, Kindal Dankovich
Objective To describe medical, safety, and health care utilization outcomes associated with an early treatment model for neonatal opioid withdrawal. Study Design This is a retrospective review of 117 opioid-exposed infants born in a large regional hospital and treated in the level I nursery with methadone initiated within 48 hours of birth. Results For this cohort, mean length of stay was 8.3 days. Hospital safety events were infrequent; there were no medication errors or deaths. Within 30 days of discharge, 14% of infants visited the emergency department; 7% were readmitted...
December 1, 2016: American Journal of Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906953/what-s-tramadol-got-to-do-with-it-a-case-report-of-rebound-hypoglycemia-a-reappraisal-and-review-of-potential-mechanisms
#14
Charles A Odonkor, Akhil Chhatre
BACKGROUND: Tramadol has gained traction as an analgesic of choice among pain practicing physicians. However some concerns regarding a previously unlabeled adverse reaction - hypoglycemia - have cast it in a dim light. Prior reports have noted an associated risk of hospitalization for hypoglycemia after tramadol use, but whether tramadol is the main causal agent is poorly understood and the underlying mechanisms are not well delineated. We present a unique case of rebound hypoglycemia as a variation of the theme of tramadol's adverse effect profile in a patient with type 1 diabetes mellitus, and reappraise potential mechanisms underlying this underappreciated phenomenon...
November 2016: Pain Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906535/schedules-of-controlled-substances-temporary-placement-of-furanyl-fentanyl-into-schedule-i-final-order
#15
(no author information available yet)
The Administrator of the Drug Enforcement Administration is issuing this final order to temporarily schedule the synthetic opioid, N-(1-phenethylpiperidin-4-yl)-N-phenylfuran-2-carboxamide (furanyl fentanyl), and its isomers, esters, ethers, salts and salts of isomers, esters and ethers, into schedule I pursuant to the temporary scheduling provisions of the Controlled Substances Act. This action is based on a finding by the Administrator that the placement of furanyl fentanyl into schedule I of the Controlled Substances Act is necessary to avoid an imminent hazard to the public safety...
November 29, 2016: Federal Register
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905978/schedules-of-controlled-substances-temporary-placement-of-u-47700-into-schedule-i-final-order
#16
(no author information available yet)
The Administrator of the Drug Enforcement Administration is issuing this final order to temporarily schedule the synthetic opioid, 3,4-dichloro-N-[2-(dimethylamino)cyclohexyl]-N-methylbenzamide (also known as U-47700), and its isomers, esters, ethers, salts and salts of isomers, esters and ethers, into schedule I pursuant to the temporary scheduling provisions of the Controlled Substances Act. This action is based on a finding by the Administrator that the placement of U-47700 into schedule I of the Controlled Substances Act is necessary to avoid an imminent hazard to the public safety...
November 14, 2016: Federal Register
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905940/drug-poisoning-deaths-in-the-united-states-1999-2012-a-statistical-adjustment-analysis
#17
Christopher J Ruhm
BACKGROUND: Drug poisoning mortality in the US has risen rapidly but the drugs involved are frequently unspecified on death certificates. METHODS: Reported and adjusted proportions of specific drug types involved in fatal drug poisonings were calculated using vital statistics mortality data from 1999 to 2012. The adjusted proportions were those predicted to occur if at least one specific type of drug had been identified on the death certificates of all poisoning fatalities...
January 15, 2016: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905916/study-protocol-a-dose-escalating-phase-2-study-of-oral-lisdexamfetamine-in-adults-with-methamphetamine-dependence
#18
Nadine Ezard, Adrian Dunlop, Brendan Clifford, Raimondo Bruno, Andrew Carr, Alexandra Bissaker, Nicholas Lintzeris
BACKGROUND: The treatment of methamphetamine dependence is a continuing global health problem. Agonist type pharmacotherapies have been used successfully to treat opioid and nicotine dependence and are being studied for the treatment of methamphetamine dependence. One potential candidate is lisdexamfetamine, a pro-drug for dexamphetamine, which has a longer lasting therapeutic action with a lowered abuse potential. The purpose of this study is to determine the safety of lisdexamfetamine in this population at doses higher than those currently approved for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder or binge eating disorder...
December 1, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905910/is-standardized-care-feasible-in-the-emergency-setting-a-case-matched-analysis-of-patients-undergoing-laparoscopic-cholecystectomy
#19
Fabian Grass, Matthieu Cachemaille, Catherine Blanc, Nicolas Fournier, Nermin Halkic, Nicolas Demartines, Martin Hübner
BACKGROUND: Immediate laparoscopic cholecystectomy is the accepted standard for the treatment of acute cholecystitis. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the feasibility of a standardized approach with tailored care maps for pre- and postoperative care by comparing pain, nausea and patient satisfaction after elective and emergent laparoscopic cholecystectomy. METHODS: From January 2014 until April 2015, data on pain and nausea management were prospectively recorded for all elective and emergency procedures in the department of visceral surgery...
December 1, 2016: BMC Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904962/factors-associated-to-post-operative-nausea-and-vomiting-following-oral-and-maxillofacial-surgery-a-prospective-study
#20
Assis Filipe Medeiros Albuquerque, Salomão Israel Monteiro Lourenço Queiroz, Adriano Rocha Germano, José Sandro Pereira da Silva
AIM: This study aims to address and assess possible factors associated with nausea and vomiting (NV) following oral and maxillofacial surgery. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A prospective study was carried out in the period from December 2013 to January 2016 targeting all attended cases in that period. For statistical analysis, Pearson chi-square and Fisher tests were used to verify association and ANOVA and Student's t tests to test for significant difference, p was defined as ≤0...
November 30, 2016: Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
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