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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720036/procalcitonin-to-detect-bacterial-infections-in-critically-ill-pediatric-patients
#1
David M Jacobs, Maya Holsen, Shirley Chen, Nicholas M Fusco, Amanda B Hassinger
The diagnostic power of procalcitonin (PCT) in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) is uncertain. This study aimed to determine the diagnostic ability of PCT to detect serious bacterial infections (SBI) in a heterogeneous PICU population. This was a retrospective cohort study of patients on whom a PCT level was obtained within 48 hours of admission to a PICU from 2013 to 2015. Discriminatory ability of PCT to predict SBI was examined by test and receiver operating characteristics (AUC [area under the curve]-ROC)...
August 2017: Clinical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717338/perspectives-about-pandemic-influenza-and-its-prophylactic-measures-among-final-year-pharmacy-students-in-karachi-pakistan
#2
Najia Rahim, Wajiha Iffat, Sadia Shakeel, Muhammad Iyad Naeem, Faiza Qazi, Mehwish Rizvi, Iqbal Nasiri, Lubna Bashir, Faisal Muhammad Khan, Hina Yaseen, Shazia Jamshed
AIMS: In flu pandemics, pharmacy students' knowledge, attitudes, and practices are critical to save patients life. The objective of study was to determine the knowledge of and attitude toward the pandemic influenza among the pharmacy students of Karachi, Pakistan. SETTINGS AND DESIGNS: The cross-sectional study was conducted from September to December 2014 by adopting a prevalidated questionnaire distributed to senior pharmacy students (final year) in seven private and public sector universities of Karachi...
April 2017: Journal of Pharmacy & Bioallied Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716451/multidrug-resistant-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-lower-respiratory-tract-infections-in-the-intensive-care-unit-prevalence-and-risk-factors
#3
Trang D Trinh, Evan J Zasowski, Kimberly C Claeys, Abdalhamid M Lagnf, Shravya Kidambi, Susan L Davis, Michael J Rybak
Intensive care unit (ICU) admission is a risk for multidrug-resistant (MDR) Pseudomonas aeruginosa, but factors specific to critically ill pneumonia patients are not fully characterized. Objective was to determine risk factors associated with MDR P. aeruginosa pneumonia among ICU patients. This was a retrospective case-control study of P. aeruginosa pneumonia in the ICU; cystic fibrosis and colonizers were excluded. Risk factors included comorbid conditions and prior healthcare exposure (anti-pseudomonal antibiotics, hospitalizations, nursing home, P...
June 19, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716359/predictors-of-polymyxin-b-treatment-failure-in-gram-negative-healthcare-associated-infections-among-critically-ill-patients
#4
Bahiah Ismail, Mohd Nazri Shafei, Azian Harun, Saedah Ali, Mahamarowi Omar, Zakuan Zainy Deris
BACKGROUND: With increasing prevalence and spread of multidrug resistant Gram-negative infections, parenteral polymyxins resurged in clinical practice. The primary aim of the study was to determine the predictors of treatment failure and in-hospital mortality among critically ill patients treated with polymyxin B. METHODS: Demographic data, underlying diseases, procedures and details on polymyxin B therapy were retrospectively analyzed in a cohort of 84 patients who received intravenous polymyxin B in an intensive care unit from 2010 to 2014...
June 29, 2017: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712106/sensitivity-and-specificity-of-urinalysis-samples-in-critically-ill-patients
#5
Sean P Lee, Terrie Vasilopoulos, Thomas James Gallagher
BACKGROUND: Preemptive screening of urine for patients admitted to an intensive care unit can result in misinterpretation of data and over- or under-treatment of urinary tract infection. METHODS: Data were studied from 169 consecutive patients admitted to the neurologic or burn intensive care unit at Shands Hospital at the University of Florida. All patients had a urinary catheter in place at the time of admission. Urinalysis and urine culture were sent for analysis...
July 16, 2017: Anaesthesiology Intensive Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711861/healthcare-infrastructure-capacity-to-respond-to-severe-acute-respiratory-infection-sari-and-sepsis-in-vietnam-a-low-middle-income-country
#6
Vu Quoc Dat, Nguyen Thanh Long, Kim Bao Giang, Pham Bich Diep, Ta Hoang Giang, Janet V Diaz
PURPOSE: This study investigated the availability of relevant structural and human resources needed for the clinical management of patients with severe acute respiratory infections and sepsis in critical care units in Vietnam. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A questionnaire survey was conducted by purposive sampling of 128 hospitals (36% of total hospitals in surveyed provinces), including 25 provincial and 103 district level hospitals, from 20 provinces in Vietnam. Data on availability of hospital characteristics, structural resources and health care workers was then analyzed...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705583/prevalence-and-risk-factors-for-colonization-by-clostridium-difficile-and-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-producing-enterobacteriaceae-in-rehabilitation-clinics-in-germany
#7
Mardjan Arvand, Claudia Ruscher, Gudrun Bettge-Weller, Markus Goltz, Yvonne Pfeifer
BACKGROUND: Rehabilitation clinics may vary widely in terms of type of care provided, duration of hospital stay, and case severity. Only few data are available on prevalence of Clostridium difficile or extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) colonization in rehabilitation clinics in Germany. AIM: This study investigated the frequency of intestinal colonization by these pathogens among patients in rehabilitation clinics of different specialization...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705450/clinical-outcome-and-antimicrobial-therapeutic-drug-monitoring-for-the-treatment-of-infections-in-acute-burn-patients
#8
Anna Silva Machado, Maura S Oliveira, Cristina Sanches, Carlindo Vieira da Silva Junior, David S Gomez, Rolf Gemperli, Silvia Regina Cavani Jorge Santos, Anna S Levin
PURPOSE: In critical burn patients, the pharmacokinetic parameters (absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion) of many classes of drugs, including antibiotics, are altered. The aim of this study was to compare 2 groups of burn patients undergoing treatment for health care-associated infections with and without therapeutic drug monitoring. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of a clinical intervention (ie, a before/after study) was conducted with patients with health care-associated pneumonia, burn infection, bloodstream infection, and urinary tract infection in the burn intensive care unit of a tertiary care hospital...
July 10, 2017: Clinical Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705203/serum-lactate-is-an-independent-predictor-of-hospital-mortality-in-critically-ill-patients-in-the-emergency-department-a-retrospective-study
#9
Ralphe Bou Chebl, Christopher El Khuri, Ali Shami, Eva Rajha, Nagham Faris, Rana Bachir, Gilbert Abou Dagher
BACKGROUND: Elevated lactate has been found to be associated with a higher mortality in a diverse patient population. The aim of the study is to investigate if initial serum lactate level is independently associated with hospital mortality for critically ill patients presenting to the Emergency Department. METHODS: Single-center, retrospective study at a tertiary care hospital looking at patients who presented to the Emergency Department (ED) between 2014 and 2016...
July 14, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704234/ce-tuberculosis-a-new-screening-recommendation-and-an-expanded-approach-to-elimination-in-the-united-states
#10
John Parmer, Leeanna Allen, Wanda Walton
A review of risk assessment, testing, and treatment. ABSTRACT: Nurses play a critical role in the diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis and in the prevention of tuberculosis transmission through infection control practices. To eliminate tuberculosis in the United States, however, an expanded approach to testing and treating people with latent tuberculosis infection must be implemented. Recently, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) issued a new recommendation statement on latent tuberculosis infection testing that expands nurses' opportunities to identify at-risk populations for tuberculosis prevention...
July 12, 2017: American Journal of Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704089/malaria-diagnosis-treatment-and-management-of-a-critically-ill-patient
#11
Chris Carter, Priscar Sakala Mukonka
Malaria is a significant cause of mortality in many countries and remains the most prevalent parasitic tropical infection. The World Health Organization estimates that 50% of the world's population is at risk of malaria, with most deaths occurring in sub-Saharan Africa. This case study explores the management of a malaria patient admitted to a critical care unit in Zambia, a lower-middle-income country in sub-Saharan Africa. While malaria is prevalent in Zambia and other countries, in the UK all malaria is imported and less frequently seen by health professionals...
July 13, 2017: British Journal of Nursing: BJN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700476/peripheral-monocytosis-as-a-predictive-factor-for-adverse-outcome-in-the-emergency-department-survey-based-on-a-register-study
#12
Mathias Hensel, Lena Grädel, Alexander Kutz, Sebastian Haubitz, Andreas Huber, Beat Mueller, Philipp Schuetz, Thomas Hügle
Monocytosis is associated with chronic infections such as tuberculosis or endocarditis as well as rheumatic and myeloproliferative disorders. Monocytes are also involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, coronary artery disease, and stroke. The value of monocytosis as a prognostic marker in different diagnostic groups in the emergency setting, however, has not been investigated so far.The aim of the article is to study monocytosis as an outcome factor in the emergency setting.In a Swiss register study, we analyzed monocyte counts in 4238 patients aged >18 years who were admitted to the emergency department of a regional tertiary care hospital...
July 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697503/update-of-sepsis-in-the-intensive-care-unit
#13
Kelly Roveran Genga, James A Russell
Sepsis, the most common cause of admission to an intensive care unit (ICU), has had an increased incidence and prevalence over the last years with a simultaneous decrease in its short-term mortality. Sepsis survivors are more frequently discharged from hospital and often experience long-term outcomes such as late mortality, immune dysfunction, secondary infections, impaired quality of life, and unplanned readmissions. Early recognition and management of sepsis have challenged emergency care and critical care physicians and nurses...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694703/secondary-sclerosing-cholangitis-in-critically-ill-patients-current-perspectives
#14
REVIEW
Hafsteinn O Gudnason, Einar S Björnsson
Secondary sclerosing cholangitis (SSC) is a term used for a group of chronic cholestatic disease affecting the intra- and/or extrahepatic biliary tree with inflammation and progressive stricture formation, which can lead to biliary cirrhosis. A newly recognized form of SSC is secondary sclerosing cholangitis in critically ill patients (SSC-CIP). Pathogenesis is believed to involve ischemic injury of intrahepatic bile ducts associated with prolonged hypotension, vasopressors administration, and/or mechanical ventilation in patients treated in the intensive care unit (ICU)...
2017: Clinical and Experimental Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694568/the-role-of-routine-measurement-of-intra-abdominal-pressure-in-preventing-abdominal-compartment-syndrome
#15
G Raghavendra Prasad, J V Subba Rao, Amtul Aziz, T M Rashmi
INTRODUCTION: Abdomen, a closed compartment, is prone to raised intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) in the postoperative period. After a critical value of ≥ 15 cm of water, IAP produces abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS). ACS leads to reduced venous return, reduced cardiac output, and domino effect of organ dysfunction, leading to death. Hence, it is the need of hour to monitor IAP to pick up intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) and ACS. This routine facilitates early institution of treatment measures...
July 2017: Journal of Indian Association of Pediatric Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693606/combined-use-of-serum-1-3-%C3%AE-d-glucan-and-procalcitonin-for-the-early-differential-diagnosis-between-candidaemia-and-bacteraemia-in-intensive-care-units
#16
Daniele Roberto Giacobbe, Malgorzata Mikulska, Mario Tumbarello, Elisa Furfaro, Marzia Spadaro, Angela Raffaella Losito, Alessio Mesini, Gennaro De Pascale, Anna Marchese, Marco Bruzzone, Paolo Pelosi, Michele Mussap, Alexandre Molin, Massimo Antonelli, Brunella Posteraro, Maurizio Sanguinetti, Claudio Viscoli, Valerio Del Bono
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to assess the combined performance of serum (1,3)-β-D-glucan (BDG) and procalcitonin (PCT) for the differential diagnosis between candidaemia and bacteraemia in three intensive care units (ICUs) in two large teaching hospitals in Italy. METHODS: From June 2014 to December 2015, all adult patients admitted to the ICU who had a culture-proven candidaemia or bacteraemia, as well as BDG and PCT measured closely to the time of the index culture, were included in the study...
July 10, 2017: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693463/descriptive-analysis-of-cochrane-child-relevant-systematic-reviews-an-update-and-comparison-between-2009-and-2013
#17
Katelynn Crick, Denise Thomson, Ricardo M Fernandes, Megan Nuspl, Dean T Eurich, Brian H Rowe, Lisa Hartling
BACKGROUND: Systematic reviews support health systems and clinical decision-making by identifying and summarizing all existing studies on a particular topic. In 2009, a comprehensive description of child-relevant systematic reviews published in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews was compiled. This study aims to provide an update, and to describe these systematic reviews according to their content and methodological approaches. METHODS: All child-relevant systematic reviews published by the Cochrane Collaboration in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR) as of March, 2013 were identified and described in relation to their content and methodological approaches...
July 11, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692913/particle-and-bioaerosol-characteristics-in-a-paediatric-intensive-care-unit
#18
Congrong He, Ian M Mackay, Kay Ramsay, Zhen Liang, Timothy Kidd, Luke D Knibbs, Graham Johnson, Donna McNeale, Rebecca Stockwell, Mark G Coulthard, Debbie A Long, Tara J Williams, Caroline Duchaine, Natalie Smith, Claire Wainwright, Lidia Morawska
The paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) provides care to critically ill neonates, infants and children. These patients are vulnerable and susceptible to the environment surrounding them, yet there is little information available on indoor air quality and factors affecting it within a PICU. To address this gap in knowledge we conducted continuous indoor and outdoor airborne particle concentration measurements over a two-week period at the Royal Children's Hospital PICU in Brisbane, Australia, and we also collected 82 bioaerosol samples to test for the presence of bacterial and viral pathogens...
July 7, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691435/clinical-and-public-health-implications-of-acute-and-early-hiv-detection-and-treatment-a-scoping-review
#19
Sarah E Rutstein, Jintanat Ananworanich, Sarah Fidler, Cheryl Johnson, Eduard J Sanders, Omar Sued, Asier Saez-Cirion, Christopher D Pilcher, Christophe Fraser, Myron S Cohen, Marco Vitoria, Meg Doherty, Joseph D Tucker
INTRODUCTION: The unchanged global HIV incidence may be related to ignoring acute HIV infection (AHI). This scoping review examines diagnostic, clinical, and public health implications of identifying and treating persons with AHI. METHODS: We searched PubMed, in addition to hand-review of key journals identifying research pertaining to AHI detection and treatment. We focused on the relative contribution of AHI to transmission and the diagnostic, clinical, and public health implications...
June 28, 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689674/determination-of-immune-status-in-dogs-against-cpv-2-by-recombinant-protein-based-latex-agglutination-test
#20
Jobin Thomas, Mithilesh Singh, T K Goswami, Philma Glora, Soumendu Chakravarti, Vishal Chander, Vikramaditya Upmanyu, Suman Verma, Chhavi Sharma, K Mahendran
Canine parvoviral enteritis is a highly contagious viral illness caused by canine parvovirus-2 (CPV-2) which affects puppies of mainly 6-20 weeks of age. Vaccination is pivotal in preventing and controlling CPV-2 infection. Determination of antibody status is a critical determinant for successful vaccination. The hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test is 'gold standard' test for quantification of antibodies specific to CPV-2, although the execution of this test is not feasible under field conditions. The present study was undertaken to develop a point of care testing to determine immune status prior to CPV-2 vaccination or to detect seroconversion in immunized dogs by latex agglutination test (LAT) using recombinant antigen...
July 6, 2017: Biologicals: Journal of the International Association of Biological Standardization
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