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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793039/antimicrobial-resistance-in-the-context-of-the-syrian-conflict-drivers-before-and-after-the-onset-of-conflict-and-key-recommendations
#1
REVIEW
Aula Abbara, Timothy M Rawson, Nabil Karah, Wael El-Amin, James Hatcher, Bachir Tajaldin, Osman Dar, Omar Dewachi, Ghassan Abu Sitta, Bernt Eric Uhlin, Annie Sparrow
Current evidence describing antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in the context of the Syrian conflict is of poor quality and sparse in nature. In this paper we explore and report the major drivers of AMR that were present in Syria pre-conflict and those that have emerged since its onset in March 2011. Drivers which existed before the conflict included a lack of enforcement of existing legislation to regulate over the counter antibiotics and notification of communicable diseases. This contributed to a number of drivers of AMR after the onset of conflict which were also compounded by the exodus of trained staff, the increase in overcrowding and unsanitary conditions, the increase in injuries and economic sanctions limiting the availability of required laboratory medical materials and equipment...
May 21, 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792971/impact-of-active-surveillance-and-infection-control-measures-on-carbapenem-resistant-gram-negative-bacterial-colonization-and-infections-in-intensive-care
#2
T Karampatakis, K Tsergouli, E Iosifidis, C Antachopoulos, A Karapanagiotou, A Karyoti, N Gritsi-Gerogianni, A Tsakris, E Roilides
BACKGROUND: Carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacteria (CRGNB) infections constitute a global threat for critically ill patients and the outcome of their hospitalization. Early identification of CRGNB through rectal surveillance cultures and routine infection control measures including contact precautions, use of appropriate disinfectants, staff education on cleaning, and hand hygiene may reduce the dissemination of CRGNB. AIM: To assess the impact of enhanced infection control measures on CRGNB infections in a nine-bed polyvalent intensive care unit in a tertiary level hospital in an endemic area...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792970/investigation-of-the-efficacy-of-alcohol-based-solutions-on-adenovirus-serotypes-8-19-and-37-the-common-cause-of-epidemic-keratoconjunctivitis-after-an-adenovirus-outbreak-occurred-in-the-hospital
#3
Hüseyin Uzuner, Aynur Karadenizli, Doğanhan Kadir Er, Agim Osmani
BACKGROUND: Hand antiseptics are of great importance in the prevention of nosocomial infections. Due to the frequent occurrence of adenoviral epidemic keratoconjunctivitis outbreaks in our hospital, we needed to detect the efficiency of alcohol-based-solutions on adenovirus. AIM: To investigate the efficacy of alcohol-based-solutions, that commonly found in hand-antiseptics against adenovirus 8, 19 and 37. METHODS: We investigated the efficacy of ethanol, isopropanol, chlorhexidine-digluconate, n-butanol and different combinations of these antiseptics on adenovirus serotypes that typically cause to epidemic keratoconjunctivitis...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792779/association-of-colistin-resistant-kpc-clonal-strains-with-subsequent-infections-and-colonization-and-biofilm-production
#4
Melina Lorraine Ferreira, Bruna Fuga Araújo, Iara Rossi Gonçalves, Sabrina Royer, Paola Amaral Campos, Luiz Gustavo Machado, Deivid William Fonseca Batistão, Cristiane Silveira Brito, Paulo P Gontijo-Filho, Rosineide Marques Ribas
Carbapenemase-producing organisms are pandemic and a significant threat to public health. We investigated the clonal relatedness of colistin-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae strains producing KPC-type carbapenemase (KPC-KP) causing subsequent infections or colonization. Moreover, we aimed to gain insight into the ability of biofilm production in K. pneumoniae strains producing carbapenemase. Twenty-two consecutive KPC-KP and one KPC-negative strain was identified from an adult intensive care unit in Brazil. Seventy-five percent of isolates that harbored the blaKPC gene exhibited genetic relatedness by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and none presented the plasmid-mediated mcr-1 and blaNDM genes...
May 24, 2018: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792393/outcomes-of-transcatheter-aortic-valve-implantation-compared-with-surgical-aortic-valve-replacement-in-geriatric-patients-with-chronic-kidney-disease
#5
Linda Shavit, Shuli Silberman, Rachel Tauber, Ofer Merin, Daniel Bitran, Daniel Fink
BACKGROUND: Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is a less invasive treatment modality for patients with severe aortic valve stenosis (AS) who are at a higher risk if they have surgery. Preoperative chronic kidney disease (CKD) influences outcomes of cardiac surgery and is associated with a higher mortality and more complicated hospital course. The aims of our study were to evaluate the comparative outcomes of TAVI versus surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) in geriatric patients with preoperative CKD...
May 24, 2018: Clinical Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792341/our-experience-with-using-a-uniform-prophylactic-protocol-in-neurosurgery-surgical-site-infection-did-not-occur-in-272-operations
#6
Arash Fattahi, Amin Jahanbakhshi, Morteza Taheri, Akbar Mehrizi, Mehdi Chavoshinejad
PURPOSE: Surgical site infection (SSI) is a source of concern in any surgical procedure. Although studies with high numbers of patients are available, most of these studies were performed by different surgeons and the exact anti-SSI protocol is not mentioned or is not homogeneous in all patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We present the results of 272 cases where SSI was successfully prevented in our neurosurgical units and in this study we explain our institutional protocol for achieving this positive result...
May 24, 2018: British Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792233/antibiotic-resistance-and-molecular-characterization-of-diarrheagenic-escherichia-coli-and-non-typhoidal-salmonella-strains-isolated-from-infections-in-southwest-china
#7
Shun-Xian Zhang, Yong-Ming Zhou, Li-Guang Tian, Jia-Xu Chen, Rita Tinoco-Torres, Emmanuel Serrano, Shi-Zhu Li, Shao-Hong Chen, Lin Ai, Jun-Hu Chen, Shang Xia, Yan Lu, Shan Lv, Xue-Jiao Teng, Wen Xu, Wen-Peng Gu, Si-Tang Gong, Xiao-Nong Zhou, Lan-Lan Geng, Wei Hu
BACKGROUND: Bacterial diarrhea is one of the most common causes for medical consultations, mortality and morbidity in the world. Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) and non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) are major intestinal pathogens in developing countries, and the indiscriminate use of antibiotics has greatly contributed to resistant strains. Hence, the aim of the present study is to identify the antimicrobial resistance patterns and the molecular characteristics of DEC and NTS in southwest, China...
May 7, 2018: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792212/the-role-of-human-metapneumovirus-genetic-diversity-and-nasopharyngeal-viral-load-on-symptom-severity-in-adults
#8
Xiang Yong Oong, Jack Bee Chook, Kim Tien Ng, Wei Zhen Chow, Kok Gan Chan, Nik Sherina Hanafi, Yong Kek Pang, Yoke Fun Chan, Adeeba Kamarulzaman, Kok Keng Tee
BACKGROUND: Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) is established as one of the causative agents of respiratory tract infections. To date, there are limited reports that describe the effect of HMPV genotypes and/or viral load on disease pathogenesis in adults. This study aims to determine the role of HMPV genetic diversity and nasopharyngeal viral load on symptom severity in outpatient adults with acute respiratory tract infections. METHODS: Severity of common cold symptoms of patients from a teaching hospital was assessed by a four-category scale and summed to obtain the total symptom severity score (TSSS)...
May 23, 2018: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792179/hopkins-syndrome-following-the-first-episode-of-bronchial-asthma-associated-with-enterovirus-d68-a-case-report
#9
Fumie Hayashi, Shintaro Hayashi, Dai Matsuse, Ryo Yamasaki, Keiji Yonekura, Jun-Ichi Kira
BACKGROUND: Hopkins syndrome (HS) is a rare disorder presenting with acute flaccid paralysis of the limbs following an asthma attack. Neurologists encounter a diagnostic challenge if patients without a history of bronchial asthma develop neurologic features mimicking HS following acute respiratory distress. We report a case of HS occurring after a first episode of bronchial asthma associated with enterovirus D68 infection. CASE PRESENTATION: A 5-year-old girl developed acute respiratory distress...
May 23, 2018: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792168/trends-in-the-incidence-and-associated-factors-of-late-onset-sepsis-associated-with-improved-survival-in-extremely-preterm-infants-born-at-23-26-weeks-gestation-a-retrospective-study
#10
Jin Kyu Kim, Yun Sil Chang, Sein Sung, So Yoon Ahn, Won Soon Park
BACKGROUND: To investigate the trends in the incidence and associated factors of late-onset sepsis (LOS) associated with improved survival in extremely preterm infants. METHODS: Medical records of 364 infants who were born at 23-26 weeks' gestation from 2000 to 2005 (period I, n = 124) and from 2006 to 2011 (period II, n = 240) were retrospectively reviewed. The infants were stratified into subgroups of 23-24 and 25-26 weeks' gestation within each period, and survival, LOS rate, and clinical characteristics were analyzed...
May 23, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792020/daclatasvir-and-asunaprevir-combination-therapy-for-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-c-virus-genotype-1b-infection-in-real-world
#11
Jae Young Oh, Byung Seok Kim, Chang Hyeong Lee, Jeong Eun Song, Heon Ju Lee, Jung Gil Park, Jae Seok Hwang, Woo Jin Chung, Byoung Kuk Jang, Young Oh Kweon, Won Young Tak, Soo Young Park, Se Young Jang, Jeong Ill Suh, Sang Gyu Kwak
Background/Aims: Previous studies have reported a high rate of sustained virologic response (SVR) and a low rate of serious adverse events with the use of daclatasvir (DCV) and asunaprevir (ASV) combination therapy. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of DCV and ASV combination therapy for patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1b infection in real world. Methods: We enrolled 278 patients (184 treatment-naïve patients) from five hospitals in Daegu and Gyeongsangbuk-do...
May 25, 2018: Korean Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791701/microbial-load-of-trocars-potential-source-of-contamination-and-surgical-site-infection
#12
Vanessa Aparecida Vilas-Boas, Carlos Emílio Levy, Maria Isabel Pedreira de Freitas, Kevin Woo
Surgical site infection (SSI) is a common complication that is associated with delayed recovery, prolonged length of hospital stay, exorbitant cost, and mortality. The present prospective longitudinal study aimed to evaluate the relationships between the microbial load of trocars used in laparoscopic gynecological surgery, microbiota in surgical sites, and SSI. The final sample consisted of 24 patients, including 68 swab samples and 48 trocars. Microorganisms were recovered in 100.0% of the swabs collected from the umbilicus and vaginal fornix and in 58...
June 1, 2018: Surgical Technology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791494/sequential-assessment-of-clinical-and-laboratory-parameters-in-patients-with-hemorrhagic-fever-with-renal-syndrome
#13
Emil Pal, Miša Korva, Katarina Resman Rus, Nataša Kejžar, Petra Bogovič, Anica Kurent, Tatjana Avšič-Županc, Franc Strle
BACKGROUND: Information on the sequential appearance, duration, and magnitude of clinical and laboratory parameters in hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) is limited. METHODS: Analysis of clinical and laboratory parameters obtained serially in 81 patients with HFRS, of whom 15 were infected with Dobrava virus and 66 with Puumala virus. RESULTS: The initial signs/symptoms, appearing on median day 1 of illness, were fever, headache, and myalgia...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791442/bacillus-cereus-a-serious-cause-of-nosocomial-infections-epidemiologic-and-genetic-survey
#14
Benjamin Glasset, Sabine Herbin, Sophie A Granier, Laurent Cavalié, Emilie Lafeuille, Cyprien Guérin, Raymond Ruimy, Florence Casagrande-Magne, Marion Levast, Nathalie Chautemps, Jean-Winoc Decousser, Laure Belotti, Isabelle Pelloux, Jerôme Robert, Anne Brisabois, Nalini Ramarao
Bacillus cereus is the 2nd most frequent bacterial agent responsible for food-borne outbreaks in France and the 3rd in Europe. In addition, local and systemic infections have been reported, mainly describing individual cases or single hospital setting. The real incidence of such infection is unknown and information on genetic and phenotypic characteristics of the incriminated strains is generally scarce. We performed an extensive study of B. cereus strains isolated from patients and hospital environments from nine hospitals during a 5-year study, giving an overview of the consequences, sources and pathogenic patterns of B...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791217/prevention-of-dehydration-in-hospital-patients
#15
Rebecca Shells, Nicola Morrell-Scott
Dehydration is widely linked to increased risk of mortality in patients who are acutely unwell, and it also increases the risk of further illness. Despite being recognised nationwide as a cause for concern, 45% of hospital patients will become dehydrated upon admission, suggesting that more needs to be done to prevent dehydration. The use of bedside water devices allows patients to drink freely without assistance. Access to these can reduce a patient's length of stay in hospital and minimise the risk of developing a urinary tract infection...
May 24, 2018: British Journal of Nursing: BJN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791033/diabetes-related-lower-extremity-complications-are-a-leading-cause-of-the-global-burden-of-disability
#16
P A Lazzarini, R E Pacella, D G Armstrong, J J van Netten
Globally ~435 million people have diabetes [1], and an estimated 19-34% (~83-148 million people) of those will be expected to develop foot ulcers in their lifetime [2]. Foot ulcers are typically precipitated by other diabetes-related lower-extremity complications, (DRLECs) including peripheral neuropathy and peripheral vascular disease [2,3]. Collectively, DRLECs are a leading cause of infection, hospitalization and amputation outcomes [2-5], yet, these outcomes are readily preventable with evidence-based care [6,7]...
May 23, 2018: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790481/antiviral-combination-therapy-for-cytomegalovirus-infection-in-high-risk-infants
#17
Surabhi B Vora, Adam W Brothers, Alpana Waghmare, Janet A Englund
BACKGROUND: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is a major risk factor for mortality in infants with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) and other profound immune defects. Specific antiviral therapy must be initiated early and aggressively because of the potential for antiviral resistance, rapid dissemination and poor transplant outcomes. Combination antiviral therapy is routinely administered for some viral infections, but the value of this approach for the treatment of CMV is unclear...
May 23, 2018: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790456/evaluation-of-neuroimaging-findings-of-central-nervous-system-complications-in-heart-transplant-recipients
#18
Hale Turnaoglu, Ahmet Muhtesem Agildere, Feride Kural Rahatli, Fuldem Yildirim Donmez, Ruhsen Ocal, Taner Sezer, Ufuk Can, Atilla Sezgin, Sait Aslamaci
OBJECTIVES: In this study, we presented neuroradiologic findings and diagnoses of neurologic complications in a series of heart transplant recipients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective review was conducted at Başkent University Hospital. We searched the hospital and radiology databases and identified 109 heart transplant recipients. Thirty-one of these recipients had neuroradiologic evaluations secondary to presentation of neurologic symptoms after heart transplant, with 18 patients evaluated with computed tomography and 22 patients evaluated with magnetic resonance imaging (overlap of imaging-defined groups occurred in 9 recipients)...
May 23, 2018: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790455/successful-management-of-de-novo-acute-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-with-entecavir-in-a-living-donor-liver-transplant-patient
#19
Sami Akbulut, Murat Harputluoglu, Sezai Yilmaz
The risk of de novo hepatitis B virus infection is lower after liver transplant using hepatitis B core antibody-negative donors into negative recipients versus hepatitis B core antibody-positive donors but can occur. Here, we present a 34-year-old male patient with acute de novo hepatitis B virus that developed 7 months after successful liver transplant. The case we report here is the first in the literature with regard to both switch from tenofovir to entecavir treatment and the presentation of de novo acute hepatitis B virus after liver transplant...
May 23, 2018: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790450/opisthotonos-and-unilateral-internal-hydrocephalus-associated-with-aberrant-migration-of-serratospiculum-sp-or-serratospiculoides-sp-in-a-prairie-falcon
#20
Arnaud J Van Wettere, Jaqueline P Kurz, Amanda Wilhelm, Jay Dee Ipsen
A juvenile, wild-caught prairie falcon ( Falco mexicanus) kept for falconry was presented to a veterinary hospital for intermittent opisthotonos and torticollis. Clinical examination, complete blood count, serum biochemistry panel, and fecal analysis were unremarkable. Clinical signs did not resolve, and the bird was euthanized 6 mo after the appearance of clinical signs. Autopsy revealed a mild, unilateral hydrocephalus and nematodes within the thoracic air sac. Histopathology demonstrated mild, unilateral hydrocephalus; scattered glial nodules; meningeal nematode sections; and meningeal and intraventricular embryonated eggs...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
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