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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936480/treatment-of-fulminant-acute-hepatitis-b-with-nucles-t-id-analogues-is-safe-and-does-not-lead-to-secondary-chronification-of-hepatitis-b
#1
C Jochum, F Maischack, O E Anastasiou, J Verheyen, J Timm, L Bechmann, G Gerken, A Canbay
Background: Acute hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is still a major cause of acute liver failure (ALF), necessitating a high rate of emergency liver transplantation (LTx). Acute infection is followed by high viral replication rates leading to hepatocyte death and, ultimately, ALF. The objective of treating HBV-induced ALF thus is to eliminate, or significantly suppress, HBV replication and therefore reduce cell death and support regeneration. Objective: In this retrospective study, we want to evaluate the timing, the safety, and the long-term virological outcome of this approach...
December 2016: Zeitschrift Für Gastroenterologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936223/central-obesity-and-h-pylori-infection-influence-risk-of-barrett-s-esophagus-in-an-asian-population
#2
Chih-Cheng Chen, Yao-Chun Hsu, Ching-Tai Lee, Chia-Chang Hsu, Chi-Ming Tai, Wen-Lun Wang, Cheng-Hao Tseng, Chao-Tien Hsu, Jaw-Town Lin, Chi-Yang Chang
BACKGROUND AND AIM: The prevalence rates of Barrett's esophagus (BE) in western countries are higher than Asian ones, but little is known about their difference among risk factors of BE. The aim of this study is to investigate the associations of various risk factors including central obesity, body mass index (BMI), metabolic syndrome and H. pylori infection, with BE. METHODS: A total of 161 subjects with BE were enrolled and compared to age- and gender-matched controls randomly sampled (1:4) from check-up center in same hospital...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936203/early-respiratory-infections-and-dental-caries-in-the-first-27-years-of-life-a-population-based-cohort-study
#3
Aino K Rantala, Ilkka T Mehtonen, Maritta S Jaakkola, Simo Näyhä, Timo T Hugg, Jouni J K Jaakkola
Early-life respiratory tract infections (RTIs) and dental caries are among the most common infectious diseases worldwide. The relations between early RTIs and development of caries in permanent teeth have not been studied earlier. We assessed childhood RTIs as potential predictors of caries in young adulthood in a 20-year prospective population-based cohort study (The Espoo Cohort Study). Information on lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) that had required hospitalization was retrieved from the National Hospital Discharge Registry (n = 1623)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936139/epidemiological-and-virological-characteristics-of-influenza-in-chongqing-china-2011-2015
#4
Li Qi, Yu Xiong, Bangzhong Xiao, Wenge Tang, Hua Ling, Jiang Long, Dayong Xiao, Han Zhao, Sheng Ye, Shuang Chen, Zhen Yu, Qin Li
BACKGROUND: Chongqing is the largest municipality and located in Southwestern of China, with over 30 million registered inhabitants. There are few reports regarding the epidemiology of influenza in Chongqing. The objective of the paper is to explore the epidemiology of influenza in Chongqing, in order to provide scientific basis for prevention and control of influenza. METHODOLOGY /PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: From 2011 to 2015, we collected information on influenza-like illness (ILI) patients fulfilling the case definition, and took nasalpharyngeal or throat swabs specimens from ILI cases per week at the 7 sentinel hospitals...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936054/high-prevalence-of-faecal-carriage-of-esbl-producing-enterobacteriaceae-among-children-in-dar-es-salaam-tanzania
#5
Marit G Tellevik, Bjørn Blomberg, Øyvind Kommedal, Samuel Y Maselle, Nina Langeland, Sabrina J Moyo
BACKGROUND: Faecal carriage of ESBL-producing bacteria is a potential risk for transmission and infection. Little is known about faecal carriage of antibiotic resistance in Tanzania. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of faecal carriage of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae and to identify risk factors for carriage among young children in Tanzania. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: From August 2010 to July 2011, children below 2 years of age were recruited in Dar es Salaam, including healthy community children (n = 250) and children hospitalized due to diarrhoea (n = 250) or other diseases (n = 103)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936016/a-tool-for-investigating-asthma-and-copd-exacerbations-a-newly-manufactured-and-well-characterised-gmp-wild-type-human-rhinovirus-for-use-in-the-human-viral-challenge-model
#6
Daniel J Fullen, Bryan Murray, Julie Mori, Andrew Catchpole, Daryl W Borley, Edward J Murray, Ganesh Balaratnam, Anthony Gilbert, Alex Mann, Fiona Hughes, Rob Lambkin-Williams
BACKGROUND: Human Rhinovirus infection is an important precursor to asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbations and the Human Viral Challenge model may provide a powerful tool in studying these and other chronic respiratory diseases. In this study we have reported the production and human characterisation of a new Wild-Type HRV-16 challenge virus produced specifically for this purpose. METHODS AND STOCK DEVELOPMENT: A HRV-16 isolate from an 18 year old experimentally infected healthy female volunteer (University of Virginia Children's Hospital, USA) was obtained with appropriate medical history and consent...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936002/the-significance-of-prolonged-and-saddleback-fever-in-hospitalised-adult-dengue
#7
Deborah Hl Ng, Joshua Gx Wong, Tun-Linn Thein, Yee-Sin Leo, David C Lye
Dengue fever is gaining importance in Singapore with an increase in the number of cases and mortality in recent years. Although prolonged and saddleback fever have been reported in dengue fever, there are no specific studies on their significance in dengue. This study aims to examine the prevalence of prolonged and saddleback fever in dengue as well as their associations with dengue severity. A total of 2843 polymerase-chain reaction (PCR) confirmed dengue patients admitted to Tan Tock Seng Hospital from 2004 to 2008 were included in the study...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935971/costs-of-care-of-hiv-infected-children-initiating-lopinavir-ritonavir-based-antiretroviral-therapy-before-the-age-of-two-in-cote-d-ivoire
#8
Sophie Desmonde, Divine Avit, Junie Petit, Madeleine Amorissani Folquet, Francois Tanoh Eboua, Clarisse Amani Bosse, Evelyne Dainguy, Véronique Mea, Marguerite Timite-Konan, Sylvie Ngbeché, Andrea Ciaranello, Valeriane Leroy
OBJECTIVES: To access the costs of care for Ivoirian children before and after initiating LPV/r-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) before the age of two. METHODS: We assessed the direct costs of care for all HIV-infected children over the first 12 months on LPV/r-based ART initiated <2 years of age in Abidjan. We recorded all drug prescriptions, ART and cotrimoxazole prophylaxis delivery, medical analyses/examinations and hospital admissions. We compared these costs to those accrued in the month prior to ART initiation...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935835/robust-extracellular-ph-modulation-by-candida-albicans-during-growth-in-carboxylic-acids
#9
Heather A Danhof, Slavena Vylkova, Elisa M Vesely, Amy E Ford, Manuel Gonzalez-Garay, Michael C Lorenz
: The opportunistic fungal pathogen Candida albicans thrives within diverse niches in the mammalian host. Among the adaptations that underlie this fitness is an ability to utilize a wide array of nutrients, especially sources of carbon that are disfavored by many other fungi; this contributes to its ability to survive interactions with the phagocytes that serve as key barriers against disseminated infections. We have reported that C. albicans generates ammonia as a byproduct of amino acid catabolism to neutralize the acidic phagolysosome and promote hyphal morphogenesis in a manner dependent on the Stp2 transcription factor...
November 15, 2016: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935664/point-of-care-assessment-of-c-reactive-protein-and-white-blood-cell-count-to-identify-bacterial-aetiologies-in-malaria-negative-paediatric-fevers-in-tanzania
#10
Helena Hildenwall, Florida Muro, Jaqueline Jansson, George Mtove, Hugh Reyburn, Ben Amos
OBJECTIVE: To assess the role of point of care assessment of C-reactive protein (CRP) and white blood cell (WBC) count to identify bacterial illness in Tanzanian children with nonsevere nonmalarial fever. METHODS: From the outpatient department of a district hospital in Tanzania 428 patients between 3 months and 5 years of age who presented with fever and a negative malaria test were enrolled. All had a physical examination and bacterial cultures from blood and urine...
December 9, 2016: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935535/continuous-ambulatory-peritoneal-dialysis-in-patients-with-hiv-and-end-stage-renal-failure
#11
Kwazi C Ndlovu, Alain Assounga
♦ Background: This study aimed to evaluate the differences in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD)-related outcomes according to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status of end-stage renal failure patients. ♦ Methods: This prospective cohort study included 70 HIV-negative and 70 HIV-positive consecutive patients with renal failure who underwent dialysis with newly inserted Tenckhoff catheters between September 2012 and February 2015. Patients were followed up monthly at a central renal clinic for 1 year or until the primary endpoints of technique failure or death...
December 1, 2016: Peritoneal Dialysis International: Journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935534/representativeness-of-honeypot-trial-participants-to-australasian-pd-patients
#12
Lei Zhang, Sunil V Badve, Elaine M Pascoe, Elaine Beller, Alan Cass, Carolyn Clark, Janak de Zoysa, Nicole M Isbel, Xusheng Liu, Steven McTaggart, Alicia T Morrish, Geoffrey Playford, Anish Scaria, Paul Snelling, Liza A Vergara, Carmel M Hawley, David W Johnson
♦ Background: This study aimed to evaluate the differences in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD)-related outcomes according to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status of end-stage renal failure patients. ♦ Methods: This prospective cohort study included 70 HIV-negative and 70 HIV-positive consecutive patients with renal failure who underwent dialysis with newly inserted Tenckhoff catheters between September 2012 and February 2015. Patients were followed up monthly at a central renal clinic for 1 year or until the primary endpoints of technique failure or death...
December 1, 2016: Peritoneal Dialysis International: Journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935120/prevalence-of-high-risk-human-papillomavirus-infection-among-women-in-shaanxi-province-of-china-a-hospital-based-investigation
#13
Di Cao, Shaohua Zhang, Qian Zhang, Xing Wei, Minyi Zhao, Qian Ma, Yang Li, Li Wang, Meili Pei, Ting Yang, Juan Zhao, Xiaofeng Yang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the characteristics of female high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) infection in Shaanxi province of China. METHODS: A total of 14,111 women were enrolled for HPV genotyping test, and a cytology and/or cervix biopsy were performed in partial women. RESULTS: Of these women, the HPV infection rate was 30.21%, and 26.73% were caused by HR-HPV. The most common HR-HPV genotypes were HPV-16, HPV-58, HPV-52, HPV-18 and HPV-31...
December 9, 2016: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935008/distal-femoral-lateral-closing-wedge-osteotomy-as-a-component-of-comprehensive-treatment-of-medial-patellar-luxation-and-distal-femoral-varus-in-dogs
#14
Barry E Brower, Michael P Kowaleski, Ann M Peruski, Antonio Pozzi, Jonathan Dyce, Kenneth A Johnson, Randy J Boudrieau
OBJECTIVE: To describe a cohort of dogs with medial patellar luxation managed with a distal femoral lateral closing wedge ostectomy (DFO) as a component of comprehensive treatment, and to report radiographic and long-term clinical outcome of this technique. METHODS: Medical records of dogs that had a lateral closing wedge DFO as part of management of medial patellar luxation at three veterinary teaching hospitals were reviewed. Surgical reports as well as the preoperative, postoperative, and follow-up radiographs were reviewed...
December 9, 2016: Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology: V.C.O.T
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934909/characterization-of-the-first-double-stranded-rna-bacteriophage-infecting-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#15
Yuhui Yang, Shuguang Lu, Wei Shen, Xia Zhao, Mengyu Shen, Yinling Tan, Gang Li, Ming Li, Jing Wang, Fuquan Hu, Shuai Le
Bacteriophages (phages) are widely distributed in the biosphere and play a key role in modulating microbial ecology in the soil, ocean, and humans. Although the role of DNA bacteriophages is well described, the biology of RNA bacteriophages is poorly understood. More than 1900 phage genomes are currently deposited in NCBI, but only 6 dsRNA bacteriophages and 12 ssRNA bacteriophages genome sequences are reported. The 6 dsRNA bacteriophages were isolated from legume samples or lakes with Pseudomonas syringae as the host...
December 9, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934840/application-of-real-time-quantitative-polymerase-chain-reaction-assay-to-detect-legionella-pneumophila-in-patients-of-community-acquired-pneumonia-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital
#16
A Angrup, R Chaudhry, S Sharma, A Valavane, K Passi, K Padmaja, S Javed, A B Dey, B Dhawan, S K Kabra
Legionella pneumophila is one of the important pathogen responsible for community -acquired pneumonia attributing for 1-5% of cases. Since early and accurate therapy reduces mortality, rapid and reliable diagnostic methods are needed. A total of 134 samples of blood, urine and respiratory tract fluids were collected. Blood was tested for IgG, IgM and IgA antibodies using commercially available kits. A total of 8 (6%) samples were found to be positive for L. pneumophila by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), compared to conventional PCR where 6 (4...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934837/high-fungal-spore-burden-with-predominance-of-aspergillus-in-hospital-air-of-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-chandigarh
#17
S M Rudramurthy, G Singh, V Hallur, S Verma, A Chakrabarti
The prevalence of fungal spores in the hospital air is essential to understand the hospital-acquired fungal infections. Air conditioners (ACs) used in hospitals may either reduce spores in air or be colonised by fungi and aid in its dissemination. The present study was conducted to assess the fungal spore burden in AC and non-AC areas. We found a high fungal spore count in air irrespective of whether the area was AC or non-AC. The most predominant species isolated were Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus fumigatus...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934830/coagulase-negative-staphylococci-causing-blood-stream-infection-at-an-indian-tertiary-care-hospital-prevalence-antimicrobial-resistance-and-molecular-characterisation
#18
S Singh, B Dhawan, A Kapil, S K Kabra, A Suri, V Sreenivas, B K Das
INTRODUCTION: Recent years have seen a rise of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) from common contaminants to agents of nosocomial blood stream infections (BSI's). Molecular typing and establishing a correlation with antibiotic resistance is essential particularly in countries like India where genotyping studies for drug-resistant CoNS are sparse. METHODS: A prospective study was done over 18 months, wherein 42,693 blood samples were received, and 59 patients with BSI due to CoNS were evaluated...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934829/does-the-presence-of-klebsiella-pneumoniae-carbapenemase-and-new-delhi-metallo-%C3%AE-lactamase-1-genes-in-pathogens-lead-to-fatal-outcome
#19
P Mathur, S Sagar, S Kumar, V Sharma, D Gupta, S Lalwani, R Rani, A Muruganantham
INTRODUCTION: Infections due to multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens are a medical challenge. There is considerable apprehension among clinicians regarding pathogens reported as carrying New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase-1 (NDM) and Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC) genes from their patients. In the face of extremely high rates of antimicrobial resistance, it is essential to gauge the clinical significance of isolation of pathogens carrying these genes from clinical samples. This study compares the outcome of patients infected with pathogens carrying NDM/KPC genes versus those without these genes...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934826/molecular-characterisation-of-panton-valentine-leucocidin-producing-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-clones-isolated-from-the-main-hospitals-in-taif-ksa
#20
E M Eed, M M Ghonaim, Y M Hussein, S S Al-Shehri, A S Khalifa
INTRODUCTION: Panton-Valentine leucocidin (PVL) is a bicomponent pore-forming cytolytic toxin encoded by the lukF-PV and lukS-PV genes. Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) may carry the pvl genes which may be related to increased disease severity. This study aimed to characterise the PVL-producing MRSA recovered from different Taif Hospitals, Saudi Arabia. METHODS: The study included 45 hospital-acquired-MRSA (HA-MRSA) and 26 CA-MRSA strains which were identified from 445 S...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
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