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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538698/diet-hypotheses-in-light-of-the-microbiota-revolution-new-perspectives
#1
REVIEW
Tomasz P Wypych, Benjamin J Marsland
From an evolutionary standpoint, allergy has only recently emerged as a significant health problem. Various hypotheses were proposed to explain this, but they all indicated the importance of rapid lifestyle changes, which occurred in industrialized countries in the last few decades. In this review, we discuss evidence from epidemiological and experimental studies that indicate changes in dietary habits may have played an important role in this phenomenon. Based on the example of dietary fiber, we discuss molecular mechanisms behind this and point towards the importance of diet-induced changes in the microbiota...
May 24, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538662/maternal-factors-that-induce-epigenetic-changes-contribute-to-neurological-disorders-in-offspring
#2
REVIEW
Avijit Banik, Deepika Kandilya, Seshadri Ramya, Walter Stünkel, Yap Seng Chong, S Thameem Dheen
It is well established that the regulation of epigenetic factors, including chromatic reorganization, histone modifications, DNA methylation, and miRNA regulation, is critical for the normal development and functioning of the human brain. There are a number of maternal factors influencing epigenetic pathways such as lifestyle, including diet, alcohol consumption, and smoking, as well as age and infections (viral or bacterial). Genetic and metabolic alterations such as obesity, gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), and thyroidism alter epigenetic mechanisms, thereby contributing to neurodevelopmental disorders (NDs) such as embryonic neural tube defects (NTDs), autism, Down's syndrome, Rett syndrome, and later onset of neuropsychological deficits...
May 24, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538427/return-on-investment-of-advanced-practice-medical-degrees-nps-vs-pas
#3
Christopher K Craig, James H Holmes, Jeffery E Carter
As the United States faces a predicted physician shortage over the next 2 decades, physician assistants (PAs) and NPs are expected to fill the void. At the same time, because education is expensive, student loan and tuition increases have many potential applicants assessing differences in reimbursement and wondering about their return on investment (ROI). An analysis compared PA and NP salaries by incorporating national salary data, federal income tax, and student loans for a comparative analysis of each career pathway...
June 2017: JAAPA: Official Journal of the American Academy of Physician Assistants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535295/bioinformatic-analysis-of-bacteria-and-host-cell-dual-rna-sequencing-experiments
#4
James W Marsh, Regan J Hayward, Amol C Shetty, Anup Mahurkar, Michael S Humphrys, Garry S A Myers
Bacterial pathogens subvert host cells by manipulating cellular pathways for survival and replication; in turn, host cells respond to the invading pathogen through cascading changes in gene expression. Deciphering these complex temporal and spatial dynamics to identify novel bacterial virulence factors or host response pathways is crucial for improved diagnostics and therapeutics. Dual RNA sequencing (dRNA-Seq) has recently been developed to simultaneously capture host and bacterial transcriptomes from an infected cell...
May 23, 2017: Briefings in Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535261/recruitment-of-a-lineage-specific-virulence-regulatory-pathway-promotes-intracellular-infection-by-a-plant-pathogen-experimentally-evolved-into-a-legume-symbiont
#5
Delphine Capela, Marta Marchetti, Camille Clérissi, Anthony Perrier, Dorian Guetta, Carine Gris, Marc Valls, Alain Jauneau, Stéphane Cruveiller, Eduardo P C Rocha, Catherine Masson-Boivin
Ecological transitions between different lifestyles, such as pathogenicity, mutualism and saprophytism, have been very frequent in the course of microbial evolution, and often driven by horizontal gene transfer. Yet, how genomes achieve the ecological transition initiated by the transfer of complex biological traits remains poorly known. Here we used experimental evolution, genomics, transcriptomics and high-resolution phenotyping to analyze the evolution of the plant pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum into legume symbionts, following the transfer of a natural plasmid encoding the essential mutualistic genes...
May 23, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535255/tea-and-coffee-consumption-in-relation-to-dna-methylation-in-four-european-cohorts
#6
Weronica E Ek, Elmar W Tobi, Muhammad Ahsan, Erik Lampa, Erica Ponzi, Soterios A Kyrtopoulos, Panagiotis Georgiadis, L H Lumey, Bastiaan T Heijmans, Maria Botsivali, Ingvar A Bergdahl, Torgny Karlsson, Mathias Rask-Andersen, Domenico Palli, Erik Ingelsson, Åsa K Hedman, Lena M Nilsson, Paolo Vineis, Lars Lind, James M Flanagan, Åsa Johansson
Lifestyle factors, such as food choices and exposure to chemicals, can alter DNA methylation and lead to changes in gene activity. Two such exposures with pharmacologically active components are coffee and tea consumption. Both coffee and tea has been suggested to play an important role in modulating disease-risk in humans by suppressing tumour progression, decreasing inflammation and influencing estrogen metabolism. These mechanisms may be mediated by changes in DNA methylation.To investigate if DNA methylation in blood is associated with coffee and tea consumption we performed a genome-wide DNA methylation study for coffee and tea consumption in four European cohorts (N = 3,096)...
May 23, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534422/psychosocial-risk-factors-in-relation-to-other-cardiovascular-risk-factors-in-coronary-heart-disease-results-from-the-euroaspire-iv-survey-a-registry-from-the-european-society-of-cardiology
#7
Nana Pogosova, Kornelia Kotseva, Dirk De Bacquer, Roland von Känel, Delphine De Smedt, Jan Bruthans, Maryna Dolzhenko
Background Depression and anxiety are established psychosocial risk factors for coronary heart disease. Contemporary data on their prevalence and associations with other risk factors were evaluated as part of the EUROASPIRE IV survey. Design The design of this study was cross-sectional. Methods The study group consisted of 7589 patients from 24 European countries examined at a median of 1.4 years after hospitalisation due to coronary heart disease events. Depression and anxiety were assessed using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale...
January 1, 2017: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534177/european-guidelines-on-lifestyle-changes-for-management-of-hypertension-awareness-and-implementation-of-recommendations-among-german-and-european-physicians
#8
J Bolbrinker, L Zaidi Touis, H Gohlke, B Weisser, R Kreutz
BACKGROUND: In the 2013 European Society of Hypertension (ESH) and European Society of Cardiology (ESC) guidelines for the management of arterial hypertension, six lifestyle changes for treatment are recommended for the first time with class I, level of evidence A. We initiated a survey among physicians to explore their awareness and consideration of lifestyle changes in hypertension management. METHODS: The survey included questions regarding demographics as well as awareness and implementation of the recommended lifestyle changes...
May 22, 2017: Herz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533729/anmco-gicr-iacpr-sici-gise-consensus-document-the-clinical-management-of-chronic-ischaemic-cardiomyopathy
#9
Carmine Riccio, Michele Massimo Gulizia, Furio Colivicchi, Andrea Di Lenarda, Giuseppe Musumeci, Pompilio Massimo Faggiano, Maurizio Giuseppe Abrignani, Roberta Rossini, Francesco Fattirolli, Serafina Valente, Gian Francesco Mureddu, Pier Luigi Temporelli, Zoran Olivari, Antonio Francesco Amico, Giancarlo Casolo, Claudio Fresco, Alberto Menozzi, Federico Nardi
Stable coronary artery disease (CAD) is a clinical entity of great epidemiological importance. It is becoming increasingly common due to the longer life expectancy, being strictly related to age and to advances in diagnostic techniques and pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions. Stable CAD encompasses a variety of clinical and anatomic presentations, making the identification of its clinical and anatomical features challenging. Therapeutic interventions should be defined on an individual basis according to the patient's risk profile...
May 2017: European Heart Journal Supplements: Journal of the European Society of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533471/the-atypical-response-regulator-atvr-is-a-new-player-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-response-to-hypoxia-and-virulence
#10
Gilberto Hideo Kaihami, Leandro Carvalho Dantas Breda, José Roberto Fogaça de Almeida, Thays de Oliveira Pereira, Gianlucca Gonçalves Nicastro, Ana Laura Boechat, Sandro Rogério de Almeida, Regina Lúcia Baldini
Two-component systems are widespread in bacteria, allowing adaptation to environmental changes. The classical pathway is composed by a histidine kinase that phosphorylates an aspartate residue in the cognate response regulator (RR). RRs lacking the phosphorylable aspartate also occur, but their function and contribution during host-pathogen interaction are poorly characterized. AtvR (PA14_26570) is the only atypical response regulator with a DNA-binding domain in the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa Macrophage infection with the atvR mutant strain resulted in higher TNF-α secretion as well as increased bacterial clearance as compared to macrophages infected with the wild-type strain...
May 22, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532894/-spanish-adaptation-of-the-2016-european-guidelines-on-cardiovascular-disease-prevention-in-clinical-practice
#11
Miguel Ángel Royo-Bordonada, Pedro Armario, José María Lobos Bejarano, Juan Pedro-Botet, Fernando Villar Álvarez, Roberto Elosua, Carlos Brotons Cuixart, Olga Cortés, Benilde Serrano, Miguel Camafort Babkowski, Antonio Gil Núñez, Antonio Pérez, Antonio Maiques, Ana de Santiago Nocito, Almudena de Castro, Eduardo Alegría, Ciro Baeza, María Herranz, Susana Sans, Pilar Campos
The VI European Guidelines for Cardiovascular Prevention recommend combining population and high-risk strategies with lifestyle changes as a cornerstone of prevention, and propose the SCORE function to quantify cardiovascular risk. The guidelines highlight disease specific interventions, and conditions as women, young people and ethnic minorities. Screening for subclinical atherosclerosis with noninvasive imaging techniques is not recommended. The guidelines distinguish four risk levels (very high, high, moderate and low) with therapeutic objectives for lipid control according to risk...
May 19, 2017: Semergen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532219/no-sweat-managing-menopausal-symptoms-at-work
#12
Martha Hickey, Kathleen Riach, Reza Kachouie, Gavin Jack
INTRODUCTION: Menopause usually occurs between the ages of 45 and 55, a time when women are likely to be in the paid workforce. Most women have menopausal symptoms and these may impact on daytime function and work performance. This study examines the relationship between reproductive stage, menopausal symptoms and work, and advises how employers can best support menopausal women. METHODS: An online and paper-based survey was completed in 2015-16 by 1092 women (22% response rate) aged 40 years plus employed in three hospitals in metropolitan Australia...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531821/examining-the-physical-health-and-lifestyle-of-young-people-at-ultra-high-risk-for-psychosis-a-qualitative-study-involving-service-users-parents-and-clinicians
#13
Rebekah Carney, Jack Cotter, Tim Bradshaw, Alison R Yung
Emerging evidence suggests young people at ultra-high risk for psychosis (UHR) are also at-risk for poor physical health, and display high rates of modifiable cardiometabolic risk factors. However, before we can develop effective interventions there is a need to understand factors affecting lifestyle choices in the UHR group. We conducted semi-structured qualitative interviews with 20 UHR individuals (50% male; mean age 21.7), 5 parents (4 mothers, 1 father), and 6 clinicians from early intervention services in the Northwest of England to identify barriers and facilitators to living a healthy lifestyle, including achieving regular exercise, eating well and refraining from excessive substance use...
May 16, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531232/changes-in-primary-healthcare-providers-attitudes-and-counseling-behaviors-related-to-dietary-sodium-reduction-docstyles-2010-and-2015
#14
Zerleen S Quader, Mary E Cogswell, Jing Fang, Sallyann M Coleman King, Robert K Merritt
High blood pressure is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The 2013 ACC/AHA Lifestyle Management Guideline recommends counseling pre-hypertensive and hypertensive patients to reduce sodium intake. Population sodium reduction efforts have been introduced in recent years, and dietary guidelines continued to emphasize sodium reduction in 2010 and 2015. The objective of this analysis was to determine changes in primary health care providers' sodium-reduction attitudes and counseling between 2010 and 2015...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531197/a-narrative-systematic-review-of-factors-affecting-diabetes-prevention-in-primary-care-settings
#15
Josie Messina, Stephen Campbell, Rebecca Morris, Emily Eyles, Caroline Sanders
BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes is impacting millions of people globally; however, many future cases can be prevented through lifestyle changes and interventions. Primary care is an important setting for diabetes prevention, for at-risk populations, because it is a patient's primary point of contact with the health care system and professionals can provide lifestyle counselling and support, as well as monitoring health outcomes. These are all essential elements for diabetes prevention for at-risk adults...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530898/chronic-constipation-update-on-management
#16
REVIEW
Umar Hayat, Mohannad Dugum, Samita Garg
Managing chronic constipation involves identifying and treating secondary causes, instituting lifestyle changes, prescribing pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic therapies, and, occasionally, referring for surgery. Several new drugs have been approved, and others are in the pipeline.
May 2017: Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530453/two-case-studies-illustrating-a-shared-decision-making-approach-to-illicit-methamphetamine-use-and-breastfeeding
#17
Julie Blandthorn, Katie James, Ellen Bowman, Yvonne Bonomo, Lisa H Amir
Crystal methamphetamine (MA) is a potent psycho-stimulant that is increasingly used worldwide. It is highly addictive, is often made in clandestine laboratories, and can cause serious health issues in adults. Health professionals caring for women in the perinatal period must counsel women about the health risks to infants if they are exposed to MA in breast milk. Most guidelines recommend that women who have current or recent MA use do not breastfeed. This article explores approaches to breastfeeding advice in the context of MA use...
May 22, 2017: Breastfeeding Medicine: the Official Journal of the Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530381/diabetes-update-risk-factors-screening-diagnosis-and-prevention-of-type-2-diabetes
#18
Beth Choby
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is the result of insulin resistance. Significant differences are noted in the prevalence of T2D among races. Screening recommendations vary by subspecialty society. Asian Americans should be screened for T2D at a lower body mass index (BMI) (ie, 23 kg/m(2)) than other racial groups. Risk factors for T2D include high-risk ethnicity, obesity, taking of certain drugs (including statins), and gestational diabetes. Health disparities and genetics also influence risk of T2D, although these complexities continue to be poorly understood...
May 2017: FP Essentials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529160/do-unfavourable-alcohol-smoking-nutrition-and-physical-activity-predict-sustained-leisure-time-sedentary-behaviour-a-population-based-cohort-study
#19
Carla F J Nooijen, Jette Möller, Yvonne Forsell, Maria Ekblom, Maria R Galanti, Karin Engström
Comparing lifestyle of people remaining sedentary during longer periods of their life with those favourably changing their behaviour can provide cues to optimize interventions targeting sedentary behaviour. The objective of this study was to determine lifestyle predictors of sustained leisure time sedentary behaviour and assess whether these predictors were dependent on gender, age, socioeconomic position and occupational sedentary behaviour. Data from a large longitudinal population-based cohort of adults (aged 18-97years) in Stockholm responding to public health surveys in 2010 and 2014 were analysed (n=49,133)...
May 18, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528075/adopting-the-new-world-health-organization-diagnostic-criteria-for-gestational-diabetes-how-the-prevalence-changes-in-a-high-risk-region-in-australia
#20
Vincent W Wong, Andrew Lin, Hamish Russell
AIMS: In this study, we assessed changes in prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in a region with diverse cultural backgrounds in Australia under the new World Health Organization (WHO) diagnostic criteria, with reference to the woman's ethnicity, age and pre-pregnant body mass index (BMI). METHODS: We recorded results of all 75-gram oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs) performed on pregnant women between February and December 2015 together with their demographic details, and determined the prevalence of GDM based on the old Australian Diabetes in Pregnancy Society (ADIPS) and the new WHO criteria respectively...
April 25, 2017: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
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