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Lifestyle changes

Mohammad Heidari, Mansureh Ghodusi Borujeni, Mansour Ghafourifard, Rahim Ali Sheikhi
INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of various diseases in the elderly has increased the use of drugs, which is coupled with age-related physiological changes and places the elderly at risk for multiple side effects. The present study aimed to determine awareness, attitudes and practices of elderly towards self-medication. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The sample included 300 participants over 60 years under any of the health centers in urban and rural areas of Abadeh city, who were selected based on stratified random sampling method...
March 20, 2018: Drug Research
Hanan A Alfawaz, Kaiser Wani, Abdullah M Alnaami, Yousef Al-Saleh, Naji J Aljohani, Omar S Al-Attas, Majed S Alokail, Sudhesh Kumar, Nasser M Al-Daghri
This three-arm, randomized, controlled study aimed to determine the differences in the effects of general advice (GA) on lifestyle change, intensive lifestyle modification programme (ILMP) and GA + metformin (GA + Met) in reducing the prevalence of full metabolic syndrome (MetS) in subjects with prediabetes; 294 Saudis with prediabetes (fasting glucose 5.6-6.9 mmol/L) were initially randomized, 263 completed 6 months and 237 completed 12 months. They were allocated into three groups: GA group which received a standard lifestyle change education; ILMP which followed a rigorous lifestyle modification support on diet and physical activity; and a GA + Met group...
March 20, 2018: Nutrients
Rhys D Pockett, Phil McEwan, Joshua Ray, Irwin Tran, Simon Shutler, Steven Martin, Zaheer Yousef, Ameet Bakhai
OBJECTIVES: The effects of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) events on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and the time dependency of these effects are unknown. This study aimed to characterise health utilities in ACS patients to aid development of future economic models estimating the cost per quality-adjusted life-year impact of ACS events and potential treatments. METHODS: Multicentre, non-interventional, longitudinal evaluation of health utility in patients experiencing ACS or stroke events...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Medical Economics
Bastian Hornung, Vitor A P Martins Dos Santos, Hauke Smidt, Peter J Schaap
Humans are not autonomous entities. We are all living in a complex environment, interacting not only with our peers, but as true holobionts; we are also very much in interaction with our coexisting microbial ecosystems living on and especially within us, in the intestine. Intestinal microorganisms, often collectively referred to as intestinal microbiota, contribute significantly to our daily energy uptake by breaking down complex carbohydrates into simple sugars, which are fermented to short-chain fatty acids and subsequently absorbed by human cells...
2018: Genes & Nutrition
Jean-Eric Tarride, Allan Smofsky, Priscilla Nykoliation, Stephen Allain, Linda Lewis-Daly, David Satok, Jeremy Schwartz, Joshua Hart Pollack, Jason Robert Guertin, Roger S McIntyre
OBJECTIVES: There is a lack of Canadian data concerning the effectiveness of diabetes interventions in the workplace. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Motivaction, a diabetes screening and education pilot program, in the workplace. METHODS: The Motivaction program involves a voluntary web-based diabetes health-risk assessment, the Canadian Diabetes Risk Questionnaire (CANRISK), combined with an opportunity for those eligible (i.e...
December 18, 2017: Canadian Journal of Diabetes
Ane Storch Jakobsen, Helene Speyer, Hans Christian Brix Nørgaard, Mette Karlsen, Carsten Hjorthøj, Jesper Krogh, Ole Mors, Merete Nordentoft, Ulla Toft
OBJECTIVES: People with severe mental disorders die 10-25years earlier than people in the Western background population, mainly due to lifestyle related diseases, with cardiovascular disease (CVD) being the most frequent cause of death. Major contributors to this excess morbidity and mortality are unhealthy lifestyle factors including tobacco smoking, unhealthy eating habits and lower levels of physical activity. The aim of this study was to investigate the dietary habits and levels of physical activity in people with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and overweight and to compare the results with the current recommendations and with results from the general Danish population...
March 16, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
Xiao Xiao Zhao, Jinbo Liu, Hongwei Zhao, Yingyan Zhou, Lihong Li, Hongyu Wang
Hypertension is a generally accepted atherogenic risk factor. The aim of this prospective longitudinal study was to evaluate changes in carotid intima-media thickness (c-IMT) and explore the association of cardiovascular risk factors and the carotid intima thickness in adults with hypertension using standardized methods. We used data from a subgroup of Beijing Vascular Disease Patients Evaluation Study (BEST), a population-based study of community-dwelling adults. The c-IMT, biomarkers, and carotid-femoral-pulse wave velocity (PWV) were measured at baseline, and lifestyles such as smoking status, sleeping habits, and oil or salt intake level were determined with the use of a validated questionnaire in the follow-up...
March 19, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Hypertension: CHE
Mohammad Abu-Zaineh, Maame Esi Woode, Rita Giacaman
BACKGROUND: Interest in the Senian capability framework as an alternative approach to wellbeing measurement has increased in recent decades. The aim of this study was to look at the extent to which an individual's capability to achieve wellbeing in one dimension is associated with his or her attempt to achieve wellbeing in another dimension in a fragile setting affected by conflict. METHODS: Capability is defined as the ability to achieve health, knowledge, and wealth and is measured as latent variables using a structural equation model...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
Christopher Blattman, Julian C Jamison, Margaret Sheridan
We show that a number of noncognitive skills and preferences, including patience and identity, are malleable in adults, and that investments in them reduce crime and violence. We recruited criminally engaged men and randomized one-half to eight weeks of cognitive behavioral therapy designed to foster self-regulation, patience, and a noncriminal identity and lifestyle. We also randomized $200 grants. Cash alone and therapy alone initially reduced crime and violence, but effects dissipated over time. When cash followed therapy, crime and violence decreased dramatically for at least a year...
April 2017: American Economic Review
Keiichi Torimoto, Yosuke Okada, Yoshiya Tanaka
Vascular endothelial function is important for maintaining the homeostasis of the living body. Especially, nitric oxide (NO) produced in vascular endothelial cells regulates blood vessel tone and has an antiatherosclerotic effect. Type 2 diabetes is a typical disease that causes impaired vascular endothelial function, resulting in various vascular complications and damage to organs. Cardiovascular disease associated with type 2 diabetes is a chronic inflammatory disease that starts with endothelial dysfunction (ED), and vascular ED is important as an initial change in arteriosclerotic lesions...
2018: Journal of UOEH
Thais Regina de Mattos Lourenco, Priscila Katsumi Matsuoka, Edmund Chada Baracat, Jorge Milhem Haddad
INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: People are increasingly aware of healthy lifestyles. Extenuating practice can injure the pelvic floor. Urinary incontinence (UI) is a prevalent condition in women whether they exercise professionally or not. The most common symptom is stress UI. It is reported in a large variety of sports and may interfere with everyday life or training, leading athletes to change or compromise their performance or risk compromising it. We aimed to assess the prevalence of UI in female athletes and to determine whether the type of sport might also influence UI...
March 19, 2018: International Urogynecology Journal
Kunal Bailoor, Leslie H Kamil, Ed Goldman, Laura M Napiewocki, Denise Winiarski, Christian J Vercler, Andrew G Shuman
Advance care planning allows patients to articulate preferences for their medical treatment, lifestyle, and surrogate decision-makers in order to anticipate and mitigate their potential loss of decision-making capacity. Written advance directives are often emphasized in this regard. While these directives contain important information, there are several barriers to consider: veracity and accuracy of surrogate decision-makers in making choices consistent with the substituted judgement standard, state-to-state variability in regulations, literacy issues, lack of access to legal resources, lack of understanding of medical options, and cultural disparities...
March 17, 2018: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry
Garrett Otto, Sharon Bewick, Bingtuan Li, William F Fagan
In this paper, we develop a phenologically explicit reaction-diffusion model to analyze the spatial spread of a univoltine insect species. Our model assumes four explicit life stages: adult, two larval, and pupa, with a fourth, implicit, egg stage modeled as a time delay between oviposition and emergence as a larva. As such, our model is broadly applicable to holometabolous insects. To account for phenology (seasonal biological timing), we introduce four time-dependent phenological functions describing adult emergence, oviposition and larval conversion, respectively...
March 16, 2018: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
Rosa Ruchlemer, Michal Amit-Kohn, Ariella Tvito, Irena Sindelovsky, Ari Zimran, David Raveh-Brawer
PURPOSE: Bone loss-osteopenia and osteoporosis-is a recognized consequence of solid tumors in adults, of pediatric hematological malignancies, and of the treatment for these diseases, but little research has been published on the adverse effects of hematological malignancies on the bone in adults. The aim of this study is to identify hematological diseases that are associated with the highest prevalence and severity of osteoporosis. METHODS: We evaluated DXA (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) in a cross-section of 181 adult patients with hematological neoplasms, excluding multiple myeloma...
March 16, 2018: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
Virginia Quick, Jennifer Martin-Biggers, Gayle Alleman Povis, John Worobey, Nobuko Hongu, Carol Byrd-Bredbenner
This study examined long-term follow-up effects of participation in the HomeStyles RCT, using Social Cognitive Theory constructs, on physical activity cognitions, home environment, and lifestyle behavioral practices of families with preschool children (ages 2 to 5 years). Parents were systematically randomized to experimental or attention control group at baseline. Those completing all surveys that comprised of valid, reliable measures were the analytic sample (n = 61 experimental, n = 63 control; mean age 32...
March 13, 2018: Contemporary Clinical Trials
Sebastian Huhn, Frauke Beyer, Rui Zhang, Leonie Lampe, Jana Grothe, Jürgen Kratzsch, Anja Willenberg, Jana Breitfeld, Peter Kovacs, Michael Stumvoll, Robert Trampel, Pierre-Louis Bazin, Arno Villringer, A Veronica Witte
INTRODUCTION: The polyphenol resveratrol has been suggested to exert beneficial effects on memory and the aging hippocampus due to calorie-restriction mimicking effects. However, the evidence based on human interventional studies is scarce. We therefore aimed to determine the effects of resveratrol on memory performance, and to identify potential underlying mechanisms using a broad array of blood-based biomarkers as well as hippocampus connectivity and microstructure assessed with ultra-high field magnetic resonance imaging (UHF-MRI)...
March 13, 2018: NeuroImage
Nuria Farré, Ramon Farré, David Gozal
Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) has emerged as a highly prevalent public health problem that imposes important mid-term and long-term consequences, namely cardiovascular, metabolic, cognitive and cancer-related alterations. OSA is characterized by increased upper airway resistance, alveolar hypoventilation, and recurrent upper airway obstruction during sleep. Recurrent collapse of the upper airway develops with sleep onset, and is associated with both intermittent hypoxemia and sleep fragmentation. The microbiome is a vast and complex polymicrobial ecosystem that coexists with the human organism, and has been identified as playing significant roles in the development of host immunological phenotypes...
March 13, 2018: Chest
Meike Traub, Romy Lauer, Tibor Kesztyüs, Olivia Wartha, Jürgen Michael Steinacker, Dorothea Kesztyüs
BACKGROUND: Regular breakfast and well-balanced soft drink, and screen media consumption are associated with a lower risk of overweight and obesity in schoolchildren. The aim of this research is the combined examination of these three parameters as influencing factors for longitudinal weight development in schoolchildren in order to adapt targeted preventive measures. METHODS: In the course of the Baden-Württemberg Study, Germany, data from direct measurements (baseline (2010) and follow-up (2011)) at schools was available for 1733 primary schoolchildren aged 7...
March 16, 2018: BMC Public Health
Fiona M Nea, L Kirsty Pourshahidi, John M Kearney, M Barbara E Livingstone, Carolina Bassul, Clare A Corish
Background: Approximately 17% of the European workforce is engaged in shift work. How the experience of shift work impacts on the dietary and lifestyle practices of workers is unclear. Methods: Overall, 15 focus groups were conducted by two researchers, with 109 participants. The initial focus group was carried out with both researchers present, to ensure consistency in facilitation. Both researchers thematically analysed all data collected. Results: Shift work was described as affecting many areas of workers' lives...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Public Health
Maria Lucia Campos Gonçalves, Samantha Fernandes, João Batista de Sousa
[Purpose] To assess the influence of moderate physical exercise on pelvic floor muscle electromyographic (EMG) biofeedback signal in female non-athletes. [Subjects and Methods] A prospective, non-randomized study of 90 adult females (age ≥18 years) divided into three groups: Intervention (I), which began physical exercise upon study enrollment; Moderate Exercise (ME), comprising those who already engaged in physical activity; and Sedentary (S), comprising those who had a sedentary lifestyle. All participants underwent EMG biofeedback of the pelvic floor muscles upon study enrollment (T1) and at the end of the third subsequent month (T2)...
February 2018: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
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