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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331322/the-role-of-deep-brain-stimulation-in-parkinson-s-disease-an-overview-and-update-on-new-developments
#1
REVIEW
John Y Fang, Christopher Tolleson
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the loss of neuronal dopamine production in the brain. Oral therapies primarily augment the dopaminergic pathway. As the disease progresses, more continuous delivery of therapy is commonly needed. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has become an effective therapy option for several different neurologic and psychiatric conditions, including PD. It currently has US Food and Drug Administration approval for PD and essential tremor, as well as a humanitarian device exception for dystonia and obsessive-compulsive disorder...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315465/early-preclinical-evaluation-of-dihydropyrimidin-thi-ones-as-potential-anticonvulsant-drug-candidates
#2
Mariana Matias, Gonçalo Campos, Samuel Silvestre, Amílcar Falcão, Gilberto Alves
Although significant advances are occurring in epilepsy research, about 30% of epileptic patients are still inadequately controlled by standard drug therapy. For this reason, it continues to be important to develop new chemical entities through which epilepsy could be effectively controlled. In this study, the anticonvulsant activity of forty-two dihydropyrimidin(thi)ones was explored and their efficacy was evaluated in rodents against the maximal electroshock seizure (MES) and subcutaneous pentylenetetrazole tests...
March 14, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315072/direct-myosin-activation-by-omecamtiv-mecarbil-for-heart-failure-with-reduced-ejection-fraction
#3
Mitchell A Psotka, John R Teerlink
Myosin is the indispensable molecular motor that utilizes chemical energy to produce force for contraction within the cardiac myocyte. Myosin activity is gated by intracellular calcium levels which are regulated by multiple upstream signaling cascades that can be altered for clinical utility using inotropic medications. In contrast to clinically available cardiac inotropes, omecamtiv mecarbil is a novel direct myosin activator developed to augment left ventricular systolic function without the undesirable secondary effects of altered calcium homeostasis...
March 18, 2017: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290970/severe-systemic-lead-toxicity-resulting-from-extra-articular-retained-shrapnel-presenting-as-jaundice-and-hepatitis-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#4
Ian A Grasso, Matthew R Blattner, Tyler Short, John W Downs
INTRODUCTION: Despite greater than 60,000 nonfatal firearm injuries per year in the United States, retained shrapnel is a relatively rare cause of systemic lead toxicity with less than 100 cases reported in the medical literature since 1867. While intra-articular retained shrapnel as a cause of lead toxicity is well-described, extra-articular fragments are less well known to cause symptomatic disease. CASE REPORT: A 31-year-old man initially presented with abdominal pain, constipation, jaundice, and elevated liver transaminases approximately 3 weeks after suffering a left lower extremity injury during athletic activity...
March 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287009/continuous-positive-airway-pressure-therapy-in-obstuctive-sleep-apnea-benefits-and-alternatives
#5
Michelle T Cao, Joshua M Sternbach, C Guilleminault
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a highly prevalent condition affecting persons of all age with an increasing public health burden. It is implicated in cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome, neurocognitive impairment, reductions in quality of life, and increased motor vehicle accidents. The goals of OSA treatment are to improve sleep and daytime symptoms, and minimize cardiovascular risks. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is considered the gold standard therapy that delivers pressurized air into the upper airway to relieve obstruction during sleep...
March 13, 2017: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229223/levodopa-carbidopa-intestinal-gel-lcig-infusion-as-mono-or-combination-therapy
#6
Carsten Buhmann, R Hilker, P Lingor, C Schrader, J Schwarz, M Wolz, H Reichmann
Levodopa/carbidopa intestinal gel (LCIG) infusion is an effective escalating therapy in patients with Parkinson disease (PD) suffering from motor fluctuations and dyskinesia. Levodopa/carbidopa given continuously as infusion provides an optimized application of the most effective and best tolerable antiparkinsonian drug. It has been proven to have a superior motor effect compared with oral levodopa and to improve also non-motor symptoms. However, invasiveness, discomfort resulting from carrying an external device, and side effects associated with the way of administration limit its application in PD patients...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203479/metformin-impairs-spatial-memory-and-visual-acuity-in-old-male-mice
#7
Nopporn Thangthaeng, Margaret Rutledge, Jessica M Wong, Philip H Vann, Michael J Forster, Nathalie Sumien
Metformin is an oral anti-diabetic used as first-line therapy for type 2 diabetes. Because benefits of metformin extend beyond diabetes to other age-related pathology, and because its effect on gene expression profiles resembles that of caloric restriction, metformin has a potential as an anti-aging intervention and may soon be assessed as an intervention to extend healthspan. However, beneficial actions of metformin in the central nervous system have not been clearly established. The current study examined the effect of chronic oral metformin treatment on motor and cognitive function when initiated in young, middle-aged, or old male mice...
February 2017: Aging and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199020/gemfibrozil-food-and-drug-administration-approved-lipid-lowering-drug-increases-longevity-in-mouse-model-of-late-infantile-neuronal-ceroid-lipofuscinosis
#8
Arunava Ghosh, Suresh Babu Rangasamy, Khushbu K Modi, Kalipada Pahan
Late Infantile Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinosis (LINCL) is a rare neurodegenerative disease caused by mutations in the Cln2 gene that leads to deficiency or loss of function of the tripeptidyl peptidase 1 (TPP1) enzyme. TPP1 deficiency is known to cause the accumulation of autofluoroscent lipid-protein pigments in brain. Similar to other neurodegenerative disorders, LINCL is also associated with neuroinflammation and neuronal damage. Despite investigations, no effective therapy is currently available for LINCL...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197100/rho-kinase-inhibition-with-fasudil-in-the-sod1-g93a-mouse-model-of-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-symptomatic-treatment-potential-after-disease-onset
#9
René Günther, Alexander Balck, Jan C Koch, Tobias Nientiedt, Michael Sereda, Mathias Bähr, Paul Lingor, Lars Tönges
Despite an improved understanding of the genetic background and the pathomechanisms of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) no novel disease-modifying therapies have been successfully implemented in clinical routine. Riluzole still remains the only clinically approved substance in human ALS treatment with limited efficacy. We have previously identified pharmacological rho kinase (ROCK) inhibitors as orally applicable substances in SOD1.G93A transgenic ALS mice (SOD1(G93A)), which are able to extend survival time and improve motor function after presymptomatic treatment...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181668/nsi-189-a-small-molecule-with-neurogenic-properties-exerts-behavioral-and-neurostructural-benefits-in-stroke-rats
#10
Naoki Tajiri, David M Quach, Yuji Kaneko, Stephanie Wu, David Lee, Tina Lam, Ken L Hayama, Thomas G Hazel, Karl Johe, Michael C Wu, Cesar V Borlongan
Enhancing neurogenesis may be a powerful stroke therapy. Here, we tested in a rat model of ischemic stroke the beneficial effects of NSI-189, an orally active, new molecular entity (mol. wt. 366) with enhanced neurogenic activity, and indicated as an anti-depressant drug in a clinical trial (Fava et al., 2015) and being tested in a Phase 2 efficacy trial (ClinicalTrials.gov, 2016) for treatment of major depression. Oral administration of NSI-189 in adult Sprague-Dawley rats starting at 6 hours after middle cerebral artery occlusion, and daily thereafter over the next 12 weeks resulted in significant amelioration of stroke-induced motor and neurological deficits, which was maintained up to 24 weeks post-stroke...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169036/identification-of-risk-factors-for-poor-feeding-in-infants-with-congenital-heart-disease-and-a-novel-approach-to-improve-oral-feeding
#11
Gitanjali Indramohan, Tiffany P Pedigo, Nicole Rostoker, Mae Cambare, Tristan Grogan, Myke D Federman
Many infants with complex congenital heart disease (CHD) do not develop the skills to feed orally and are discharged home on gastrostomy tube or nasogastric feeds. We aimed to identify risk factors for failure to achieve full oral feeding and evaluate the efficacy of oral motor intervention for increasing the rate of discharge on full oral feeds by performing a prospective study in the neonatal and cardiac intensive care units of a tertiary children's hospital. 23 neonates born at ≥37weeks gestation and diagnosed with single-ventricle physiology requiring a surgical shunt were prospectively enrolled and received oral motor intervention therapy...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160523/orofacial-functions-in-experimental-models-of-cerebral-palsy-a-systematic-review
#12
REVIEW
Diego Cabral Lacerda, Kelli Nogueira Ferraz-Pereira, André Terácio, Bárbara Juacy Rodrigues Costa de Santana, Omar Guzman Quevedo, Raul Manhães-de-Castro, Ana Elisa Toscano
BACKGROUND: Children who suffer from cerebral palsy (CP) often present comorbidities in the form of orofacial dysfunctions. Studies in animals have contributed to elaborate potential therapies aimed at minimizing the chronic disability of the syndrome. OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the scientific literature regarding the possible effects that experimental models of CP can have on orofacial functions. METHODS: Two independent authors conducted a systematic review in the electronic databases Medline, Scopus, CINAHL, Web of Science and Lilacs, using Mesh and Decs terms in animal models...
February 4, 2017: Journal of Oral Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155231/charge-syndrome-gastrointestinal-involvement-from-mouth-to-anus
#13
REVIEW
A Hudson, M Macdonald, J N Friedman, K Blake
CHARGE syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder that occurs as a result of a heterozygous loss-of-function mutation in the chromodomain helicase DNA-binding (CHD7) gene, which is important for neural crest cell formation. Gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms and feeding difficulties are highly prevalent but are often a neglected area of diagnosis, treatment, and research. Cranial nerve dysfunction, craniofacial abnormalities, and other physical manifestations of this syndrome lead to gut dysmotility, sensory impairment, and oral-motor function abnormalities...
October 13, 2016: Clinical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145054/longterm-adherence-to-apomorphine-infusion-in-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease-a-10-year-observational-study
#14
Thomas Edmund Kimber, Jing Fang, Lynda Jane Huddy, Philip Douglas Thompson
BACKGROUND: Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) commonly experience motor fluctuations and dyskinesias in response to oral dopaminergic medications. Affected patients may benefit from a device-assisted therapy, such as medication infusion or deep brain stimulation surgery. This is the first Australian study of the long term adherence to apomorphine infusion (AI) in patients with PD. AIM: to assess the adherence to AI in patients with PD in a single centre over a 10 year period and, in patients who discontinued AI, the reasons for discontinuation...
February 1, 2017: Internal Medicine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110399/safinamide-a-review-in-parkinson-s-disease
#15
Hannah A Blair, Sohita Dhillon
Safinamide (Xadago(®)) is an orally active, selective, reversible monoamine oxidase-B inhibitor with both dopaminergic and non-dopaminergic (glutamatergic) properties. In the EU, safinamide is approved for the treatment of mid- to late-stage fluctuating Parkinson's disease (PD) as add-on therapy to a stable dose of levodopa alone or in combination with other PD medications. Safinamide 50-100 mg/day administered as a fixed or flexible dose significantly increased daily 'on' time without dyskinesia (primary endpoint) in patients with mid- to late-stage PD with motor fluctuations in 24-week, placebo-controlled clinical trials...
January 21, 2017: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108196/homovanillic-acid-in-csf-of-mild-stage-parkinson-s-disease-patients-correlates-with-motor-impairment
#16
Alessandro Stefani, Mariangela Pierantozzi, Enrica Olivola, Salvatore Galati, Rocco Cerroni, Vincenza D'Angelo, Atticus H Hainsworth, Valentina Saviozzi, Ernesto Fedele, Claudio Liguori
In Parkinson's disease (PD), several efforts have been spent in order to find biochemical parameters able to identify the progression of the pathological processes at the basis of the disease. It is already known that advanced PD patients manifesting dyskinesia are featured by the high homovanillic acid (HVA)/dopamine (DA) ratio, suggesting the increased turnover of DA in these patients. Less clear is whether similar changes affect mild and moderate stages of the disease (between 1 and 2.5 of Hoehn & Yahr -H&Y- stage)...
January 18, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102508/simvastatin-promotes-hematoma-absorption-and-reduces-hydrocephalus-following-intraventricular-hemorrhage-in-part-by-upregulating-cd36
#17
Qianwei Chen, Xia Shi, Qiang Tan, Zhou Feng, Yuelong Wang, Qiaoying Yuan, Yihao Tao, Jianbo Zhang, Liang Tan, Gang Zhu, Hua Feng, Zhi Chen
We previously found that hematoma worsens hydrocephalus after intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) via increasing iron deposition and aggravating ependymal cilia injury; therefore, promoting hematoma absorption may be a promising strategy for IVH. Recently, some investigations imply that simvastatin has the ability of accelerating hematoma absorption. Thus, this study was designed to examine the efficacy of simvastatin for IVH in rats. Intracerebral hemorrhage with ventricular extension was induced in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats after autologous blood injection...
January 19, 2017: Translational Stroke Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095731/n-palmitoylethanolamine-oxazoline-pea-oxa-as-a-new-therapeutic-strategy-to-control-neuroinflammation-neuroprotective-effects-in-experimental-models-of-spinal-cord-and-brain-injury
#18
Daniela Impellizzeri, Marika Cordaro, Giuseppe Bruschetta, Rosalba Siracusa, Rosalia Crupi, Emanuela Esposito, Salvatore Cuzzocrea
Modulation of N-acylethanolamine-hydrolyzing acid amidase (NAAA) represents a potential alternative strategy in the treatment of neuroinflammation. Recent studies showed that pharmacological modulation of NAAA could be achieved with the oxazoline of palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) (PEA-OXA). The aim of this study was to evaluate the neuroprotective effects of PEA-OXA in the secondary neuro-inflammatory events induced by spinal and brain trauma in mice. Animals were subjected to spinal cord and brain injury models and PEA-OXA (10 mg/kg) administered both intraperitoneally and orally 1 h and 6 h after trauma...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081026/the-effect-of-nebulized-glycopyrrolate-on-posterior-drooling-in-patients-with-brain-injury-two-cases-of-different-brain-lesions
#19
Zee-Ihn Lee, Kwang Jae Yu, Dae Hee Lee, Seong Kyung Hong, Seung Beom Woo, Jong Min Kim, Donghwi Park
Posterior drooling, which can lead to substantial respiratory morbidity, including unexplained lung diseases and recurrent pneumonia, is an important issue in the rehabilitation unit. There are various treatment options for posterior drooling, including pharmacologic therapy, oral motor or behavioral therapy, biofeedback, local glandular injection of botulinum toxin, irradiation, and surgery. Among them, nebulized glycopyrrolate has the following advantages: It is noninvasive and is relatively free of central adverse effects because it does not cross the blood-brain barrier unlike other anticholinergics...
January 9, 2017: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029056/ultrasound-in-dysphagia-rehabilitation-a-novel-approach-following-partial-glossectomy
#20
Katrina M Blyth, Patricia McCabe, Catherine Madill, Kirrie J Ballard
PURPOSE: While the presence of dysphagia following partial glossectomy has been widely reported, there is insufficient quality evidence to guide clinical decision making about the treatment of this disorder. This study investigated a novel dysphagia rehabilitation approach using ultrasound tongue imaging for patient training. METHOD: Initially, a pilot study was conducted to investigate the feasibility of ultrasound visual feedback during swallow tasks. The protocol was then replicated using a single-case experimental designed study to investigate therapeutic effect...
December 28, 2016: Disability and Rehabilitation
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