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Mother obesity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933755/maternal-pre-pregnancy-bmi-downregulates-neonatal-cord-blood-lep-methylation
#1
R Kadakia, Y Zheng, Z Zhang, W Zhang, L Hou, J L Josefson
BACKGROUND: Neonatal adiposity has many determinants and may be a risk factor for future obesity. Epigenetic regulation of metabolically important genes is a potential contributor. OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study is to determine whether methylation changes in the LEP gene in cord blood DNA are impacted by the maternal environment or affect neonatal adiposity measures. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 114 full-term neonates born to healthy mothers with normal glucose tolerance was performed...
December 8, 2016: Pediatric Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931182/exposure-of-bovine-oocytes-and-embryos-to-elevated-non-esterified-fatty-acid-concentrations-integration-of-epigenetic-and-transcriptomic-signatures-in-resultant-blastocysts
#2
K L J Desmet, V Van Hoeck, D Gagné, E Fournier, A Thakur, A M O'Doherty, C P Walsh, M A Sirard, P E J Bols, J L M R Leroy
BACKGROUND: Metabolic stress associated with negative energy balance in high producing dairy cattle and obesity in women is a risk factor for decreased fertility. Non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) are involved in this pathogenesis as they jeopardize oocyte and embryo development. Growing evidence indicates that maternal metabolic disorders can disturb epigenetic programming, such as DNA methylation, in the offspring. Oocyte maturation and early embryo development coincide with methylation changes and both are sensitive to adverse environments...
December 8, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930556/the-fto-rs9939609-and-lepr-rs1137101-mothers-newborns-gene-polymorphisms-and-maternal-fat-mass-index-effects-on-anthropometric-characteristics-in-newborns-a-cross-sectional-study-on-mothers-newborns-gene-polymorphisms-the-fto-lepr-study-strobe-compliant-article
#3
Claudiu Mărginean, Cristina Oana Mărginean, Mihaela Iancu, Lorena Elena Meliţ, Florin Tripon, Claudia Bănescu
The aim of this study was to assess the impact of mothers' and newborns' fat mass and obesity-associated gene (FTO) rs9939609 and leptin receptor (LEPR) rs1137101 gene polymorphisms on neonatal anthropometric parameters in order to identify a potential risk for developing obesity.We performed a cross-sectional study on 355 mother-newborn couples in an Obstetrics Gynecology Tertiary Hospital from Romania, evaluated with regard to anthropometric parameters, clinical and laboratory parameters besides 2 genetic polymorphisms (FTO rs9939609 and LEPR rs1137101)...
December 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928892/is-consumption-of-sugar-sweetened-soft-drinks-during-pregnancy-associated-with-birth-weight
#4
Jacob H Grundt, Geir Egil Eide, Anne-Lise Brantsaeter, Margaretha Haugen, Trond Markestad
In Norway, there were parallel increases and subsequent decreases in birth weight (BW) and consumption of sugar-sweetened carbonated soft drinks (SSC) during the period 1990-2010, and by an ecological approach, we have suggested that the relationship was causal. The objective of this study was to examine if such a relationship was present in a prospectively followed cohort of pregnant women. The study population included 62,494 term singleton mother-infant dyads in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa), a national prospective cohort study in Norway from 1999 to 2008...
December 7, 2016: Maternal & Child Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928443/pre-and-post-natal-risk-and-determination-of-factors-for-child-obesity
#5
Trandafir Lm, Temneanu Or
Obesity is considered a condition presenting a complex, multi-factorial etiology that implies genetic and non-genetic factors. The way the available information should be efficiently and strategically used in the obesity and overweight prohylaxisprogrammes for children all over the world is still unclear for most of the risk factors. Mothers' pre-conception weight and weight gain during pregnancy are two of the most important prenatal determinants of childhood obesity. Maternal obesity and gestational weight gain are associated with foetal macrosomia and childhood obesity, and this effect extends into adulthood...
October 2016: Journal of Medicine and Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925166/new-guidelines-for-screening-diagnosing-and-treating-gestational-diabetes-evaluation-of-maternal-and-neonatal-outcomes-in-finland-from-2006-to-2012
#6
Anni Ellenberg, Nanna Sarvilinna, Mika Gissler, Veli-Matti Ulander
INTRODUCTION: In this study, we have assessed the changes in pregnancy outcomes following the implementation of national guidelines for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). These national guidelines changed the screening policy from risk-based to comprehensive screening. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We designed a retrospective register-based cohort study based on the data from the Finnish Medical Birth Register and Hospital Discharge Register including 34 794 singleton births in 2006-2008 and 36 488 in 2010-2012...
December 7, 2016: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923280/obstetric-and-neonatal-characteristics-of-pregnancy-and-delivery-for-infant-birthweight-%C3%A2-5-0kg
#7
David A Crosby, Sahar Ahmed, Aminah Razley, John J Morrison
AIM: Infant birthweight≥5.0 kg represents a significant risk factor for mother and neonate. The objective of this study was to examine the obstetric and neonatal outcome measures in a large cohort of such deliveries. METHODS: The data used for this study were prospectively entered into an obstetric computerized database during the period 1989-2013. All pregnancies where the delivery resulted in an infant weighing ≥5.0kg were identified. The results were retrospectively analyzed separately for parity, and a separate analysis was performed comparing the outcome measures observed in the earlier years of the study with those of the later years...
December 6, 2016: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923099/cesarean-birth-is-not-associated-with-early-childhood-body-mass-index
#8
L G Smithers, B W Mol, L Jamieson, J W Lynch
Cesarean birth leads to a markedly different microbiome compared to vaginal birth, and the microbiome has been implicated in childhood obesity. Among mothers who had a previous cesarean, we compared anthropometry of 3- to 6-year-old children who were subsequently born by cesarean section versus vaginal birth. This large population-based study involved linking de-identified administrative perinatal and anthropometric data. Children's weight and height were collected at community-based clinics and converted to age- and sex-adjusted z-scores of height-for-age (HFAz), weight-for-age (WFAz) and BMI-for-age (BMIz)...
December 6, 2016: Pediatric Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922245/a-novel-mutation-in-a-case-of-pseudohypoparathyroidism-type-ia
#9
Birgül Kırel, Meliha Demiral, Özkan Bozdağ, Kadri Karaer
Pseudohypoparathyroidism (PHP) type Ia is characterized by multiple hormone resistance; primarily parathyroid hormone (PTH) resistance and Albright's hereditary osteodystrophy (AHO) which involves skeletal and developmental defects. The AHO phenotype alone without hormone resistance is defined as pseudoPHP. A boy was first diagnosed as having both rickets and primary hypothyroidism at 2.5 months of age. His calcium level remained within normal levels after vitamin D treatment, but, elevated PTH and ALP levels and normal-high phosphate levels persisted during his follow-up by age of 2...
2016: Turkish Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922238/parental-perception-and-child-s-nutritional-status
#10
S Songül Yalçın, Esra Serdaroğlu, O Tolga İnce
Childhood obesity is a health hazard increasing worldwide. Preschool period which is under supervision of parents is a critical period to detect overweight and take precautions. We studied the factors affecting parental estimation of their preschool child's weight. Three hundred sixty seven mothers completed questionnaires consisting of child's and parents' anthropometric measurements, parents' assessment of their child's and their own weight status, and general information about their lifestyle. Mothers also chose their wish for current and future body image of their child from child drawings representing percentiles...
2016: Turkish Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919354/ldl-cholesterol-in-early-pregnancy-and-offspring-cardiovascular-disease-risk-factors
#11
Jacob J Christensen, Kjetil Retterstøl, Kristin Godang, Marie Cecilie Paasche Roland, Elisabeth Qvigstad, Jens Bollerslev, Thor Ueland, Tore Henriksen, Kirsten B Holven
BACKGROUND: Vast amounts of data show associations between maternal obesity, dysglycemia, diabetes, and undernutrition during pregnancy and increased cardiovascular disease risk in offspring. However, elevated maternal LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) in pregnancy and offspring cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk has scarcely been studied. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to investigate the associations between elevated maternal LDL-C in pregnancy and CVD risk factors in 6-to-13-year-old offspring...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916904/impact-of-pre-pregnancy-bmi-on-b-vitamin-and-inflammatory-status-in-early-pregnancy-an-observational-cohort-study
#12
Anne-Lise Bjørke-Monsen, Arve Ulvik, Roy M Nilsen, Øivind Midttun, Christine Roth, Per Magnus, Camilla Stoltenberg, Stein Emil Vollset, Ted Reichborn-Kjennerud, Per Magne Ueland
Maternal nutrition and inflammation have been suggested as mediators in the development of various adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with maternal obesity. We have investigated the relation between pre-pregnancy BMI, B vitamin status, and inflammatory markers in a group of healthy pregnant women. Cobalamin, folate, pyridoxal 5'-phosphate, and riboflavin; and the metabolic markers homocysteine, methylmalonic acid, and 3-hydroxykynurenine/xanthurenic acid ratio (HK/XA); and markers of cellular inflammation, neopterin and kynurenine/tryptophan ratio (KTR) were determined in pregnancy week 18 and related to pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), in 2797 women from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa)...
November 30, 2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913848/increased-fetal-adiposity-prior-to-diagnosis-of-gestational-diabetes-in-south-asians-more-evidence-for-the-thin-fat-baby
#13
Hema Venkataraman, Uma Ram, Sam Craik, Anuradhai Arungunasekaran, Suresh Seshadri, Ponnusamy Saravanan
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with an increased future risk of obesity in the offspring. Increased adiposity has been observed in the newborns of women with GDM. Our aim was to examine early fetal adiposity in women with GDM. METHODS: Obstetric and sonographic data was collated for 153 women with GDM and 178 controls from a single centre in Chennai, India. Fetal head circumference (HC), abdominal circumference (AC), femur length (FL) and biparietal diameter (BPD) were recorded at 11, 20 and 32 weeks...
December 2, 2016: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909996/modelling-the-cost-effectiveness-of-human-milk-and-breastfeeding-in-preterm-infants-in-the-united-kingdom
#14
James Mahon, Lindsay Claxton, Hannah Wood
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the cost savings and health benefits in the UK NHS that could be achieved if human milk usage in the NICU was increased. METHODS: A systematic review established the disease areas with the strong sources of evidence of the short, medium and long-term benefits of human milk for preterm infants as opposed to the use of formula milk. The analysis assessed the economic impact of reducing rates of necrotising enterocolitis, sepsis, sudden infant death syndrome, leukaemia, otitis media, obesity and neurodevelopmental impairment...
December 2016: Health Economics Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906710/who-s-your-daddy-paternal-inheritance-of-metabolic-disease-risk
#15
Elvira Isganaitis, Harumi Suehiro, Connie Cardona
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Although the importance of optimizing mothers' health prior to conception and during pregnancy is now well accepted, recent data also implicate health and nutritional status of fathers as contributors to chronic disease risk in their progeny. This brief review will highlight recent epidemiological and experimental studies linking paternal overnutrition, undernutrition, and other forms of stress, to metabolic disease in the offspring. RECENT FINDINGS: The past 2 years have brought tremendous insights into the mechanisms by which paternal exposures can contribute to disease susceptibility in the next generation...
November 30, 2016: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903516/metabolic-abnormalities-and-obesity-s-impact-on-the-risk-for-developing-preeclampsia
#16
Frank T Spradley
Preeclampsia (PE), a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy, is increasing as a major contributor to perinatal and long-term morbidity of mother and offspring. PE is thought to originate from ischemic insults in the placenta driving the release of pro-hypertensive anti-angiogenic (sFlt-1) and pro-inflammatory (TNFα) factors into the maternal circulation. While the increased incidence of PE is hypothesized to be largely due to the obesity pandemic, the mechanisms whereby obesity increases this risk are unknown...
November 30, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902543/associations-of-anthropometric-behavioral-and-social-factors-on-level-of-body-esteem-in-peripubertal-girls
#17
Elizabeth A Szamreta, Bo Qin, Pamela A Ohman-Strickland, Katie A Devine, Jerod L Stapleton, Jeanne M Ferrante, Elisa V Bandera
OBJECTIVE: Lower body esteem may decrease self-esteem and lead to adverse health effects in children. This study explored the role of anthropometric, behavioral, and social factors on body esteem in peripubertal girls. METHOD: We evaluated associations of body esteem (measured by the Revised Body Esteem Scale) with body mass index (BMI), mother's BMI, puberty, physical activity, role models for appearance, and screen time among girls (ages 9 and 10) participating in the Jersey Girl Study (n = 120)...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899809/does-vaginal-delivery-mitigate-or-strengthen-the-intergenerational-association-of-overweight-and-obesity-findings-from-the-boston-birth-cohort
#18
N T Mueller, G Mao, W Bennet, S Hourigan, M G Dominguez-Bello, L J Appel, X Wang
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The intergenerational association of obesity may be driven by mother-to-newborn transmission of microbiota at birth. Yet Cesarean delivery circumvents newborn acquisition of vaginal microbiota, and has been associated with greater childhood adiposity. Here we examined the independent and joint associations of maternal pre-pregnancy BMI (kg/m(2)) and delivery mode with childhood overweight or obesity. SUBJECTS/METHODS: We prospectively followed 1441 racially and ethnically diverse mother-child dyads in the Boston Birth Cohort until age 5y (range 2...
November 30, 2016: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895808/mendelian-inheritance-of-trimodal-cpg-methylation-sites-suggests-distal-cis-acting-genetic-effects
#19
Shaza B Zaghlool, Mashael Al-Shafai, Wadha A Al Muftah, Pankaj Kumar, Christian Gieger, Melanie Waldenberger, Mario Falchi, Karsten Suhre
BACKGROUND: Environmentally influenced phenotypes, such as obesity and insulin resistance, can be transmitted over multiple generations. Epigenetic modifications, such as methylation of DNA cytosine-guanine (CpG) pairs, may be carriers of inherited information. At the population level, the methylation state of such "heritable" CpG sites is expected to follow a trimodal distribution, and their mode of inheritance should be Mendelian. METHODS: Using the Illumina Infinium 450 K DNA methylation array, we determined DNA CpG-methylation in blood cells from a family cohort 123 individuals of Arab ethnicity, including 18 elementary father-mother-child trios, we asked whether Mendelian inheritance of CpG methylation is observed, and most importantly, whether it is independent of any genetic signals...
2016: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891832/cortisol-in-human-milk-predicts-child-bmi
#20
Jennifer Hahn-Holbrook, Tran Bao Le, Anna Chung, Elysia Poggi Davis, Laura M Glynn
OBJECTIVE: Breastfeeding has been linked to lower rates of childhood obesity. Human milk contains cortisol, known to regulate glucose storage and metabolism. The aim of this study was to to test the hypothesis that early exposure to cortisol in human breast milk helps to modulate infant body mass index (BMI) trajectories over the first 2 years of life. METHODS: Growth curve modeling was used to examine whether infant exposure to cortisol in human milk at 3 months predicted changes in child body mass index percentile (BMIP) at 6, 12, and 24 months of age in 51 breastfeeding mother-child pairs...
December 2016: Obesity
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