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Mother obesity

Jonathan D Teo, Margaret J Morris, Nicole M Jones
OBJECTIVE: In humans, maternal obesity is associated with an increase in the incidence of birth related difficulties. However, the impact of maternal obesity on the severity of brain injury in offspring is not known. Recent studies have found evidence of increased glial response and inflammatory mediators in the brains as a result of obesity in humans and rodents. We hypothesised that hypoxic-ischaemic (HI) brain injury is greater in neonatal offspring from obese rat mothers compared to lean controls...
October 13, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Angela A Northrup, Arlene Smaldone
INTRODUCTION: This exploratory study examined maternal attitudes, normative beliefs, subjective norms, and meal selection behaviors of mothers of 2- and 3-year-old children. METHODS: Guided by the Theory of Reasoned Action, we had mothers complete three surveys, two interviews, and a feeding simulation exercise. Data were analyzed using descriptive and bivariate statistics and multivariate linear regression. RESULTS: A total of 31 mothers (50% Latino, 34% Black, 46...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Health Care
Ronald Ching Wan Ma, Maria Ines Schmidt, Wing Hung Tam, Harold David McIntyre, Patrick M Catalano
The global epidemic of obesity has led to an increasing number of obese women of reproductive age. Obesity is associated with reduced fertility, and pregnancies complicated by maternal obesity are associated with adverse outcomes, including increased risk of gestational diabetes, pre-eclampsia, preterm birth, instrumental and caesarean births, infections, and post-partum haemorrhage. The medical and obstetric management of obese women is focused on identifying, addressing, and preventing some of these associated complications, and is a daunting challenge given the high percentage of patients with obesity and few therapeutic options proven to improve outcomes in this population...
October 10, 2016: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
Lucilla Poston, Rishi Caleyachetty, Sven Cnattingius, Camila Corvalán, Ricardo Uauy, Sharron Herring, Matthew W Gillman
Obesity in women of reproductive age is increasing in prevelance worldwide. Obesity reduces fertility and increases time taken to conceive, and obesity-related comorbidities (such as type 2 diabetes and chronic hypertension) heighten the risk of adverse outcomes for mother and child if the woman becomes pregnant. Pregnant women who are obese are more likely to have early pregnancy loss, and have increased risk of congenital fetal malformations, delivery of large for gestational age infants, shoulder dystocia, spontaneous and medically indicated premature birth, and stillbirth...
October 10, 2016: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
Giridhara R Babu, Gvs Murthy, R Deepa, Yamuna, Prafulla, H Kiran Kumar, Maithili Karthik, Keerti Deshpande, Sara E Benjamin Neelon, D Prabhakaran, Anura Kurpad, Sanjay Kinra
BACKGROUND: India is experiencing an epidemic of obesity-hyperglycaemia, which coincides with child bearing age for women. The epidemic can be sustained and augmented through transgenerational transmission of adiposity and glucose intolerance in women. This presents an opportunity for exploring a clear strategy for the control of this epidemic in India. We conducted a study between November 2013 and May 2015 to inform the design of a large pregnancy cohort study. Based on the findings of this pilot, we developed the protocol for the proposed birth cohort of 5000 women, the recruitment for which will start in April 2016...
October 14, 2016: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Min-Su Oh, Sorina Kim, Joon-Hyuck Jang, Jong Yoon Park, Hyun-Sik Kang, Mu Sook Lee, Ki Soo Kang
PURPOSE: To analyze the associations among the degrees of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) by ultrasonography and metabolic syndrome, degrees of obesity in children, and degrees of parental obesity. METHODS: A total of 198 children with obesity who visited a pediatric obesity clinic were prospectively enrolled in this study. The severity of NAFLD based on ultrasonography was classified into no, mild, moderate, or severe NAFLD group. The degree of obesity based on the percentage over standard weight for height per sex was classified into mild, moderate, or severe...
September 2016: Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
Lawrence Doi, Andrew James Williams, John Frank
BACKGROUND: Adiposity rebound is considered critical to the development of overweight and obesity. The purpose of this study was to investigate how growth has changed in comparison to the UK 1990 BMI growth reference curves between the ages 4-8 years and identify any marked deviations in growth. We also examined potential maternal and child risk/protective factors associated with the altered growth patterns. METHODS: We used data from birth cohort 1 of the Growing Up in Scotland study...
October 13, 2016: BMC Public Health
Richard J Silverwood, Lee Williamson, Emily M Grundy, Bianca L De Stavola
Socioeconomically disadvantaged children are more likely to be of shorter stature and overweight, leading to greater risk of obesity in adulthood. Disentangling the mediatory pathways between socioeconomic disadvantage and childhood size may help in the development of appropriate policies aimed at reducing these health inequalities. We aimed to elucidate the putative mediatory role of birth weight using a representative sample of the Scottish population born 1991-2001 (n = 16,628). Estimated height and overweight/obesity at age 4...
2016: PloS One
Banafsheh Sadeghi, Sara Schaefer, Iraklis Erik Tseregounis, Alberto L Aguilera, Lisa Martinez, Rosa Gomez-Camacho, Ulfat Shaikh, Mayra Munoz Gomez, Linda Whent, Adela de la Torre
In California's central valley, childhood obesity rates are above the national average. The majority of families living in the rural, agricultural communities of this region are immigrant of Mexican heritage, and face numerous social and environmental challenges. Demographic and anthropometric data were collected from a population of Mexican-heritage children 3-8 years (N = 609) and families (N = 466) living in two central valley communities. Overall, 45 % of children and 82 % of mothers were classified as overweight or obese...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Community Health
Carrie E McCurdy, Simon Schenk, Byron Hetrick, Julie Houck, Brian G Drew, Spencer Kaye, Melanie Lashbrook, Bryan C Bergman, Diana L Takahashi, Tyler A Dean, Travis Nemkov, Ilya Gertsman, Kirk C Hansen, Andrew Philp, Andrea L Hevener, Adam J Chicco, Kjersti M Aagaard, Kevin L Grove, Jacob E Friedman
Maternal obesity is proposed to alter the programming of metabolic systems in the offspring, increasing the risk for developing metabolic diseases; however, the cellular mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here, we used a nonhuman primate model to examine the impact of a maternal Western-style diet (WSD) alone, or in combination with obesity (Ob/WSD), on fetal skeletal muscle metabolism studied in the early third trimester. We find that fetal muscle responds to Ob/WSD by upregulating fatty acid metabolism, mitochondrial complex activity, and metabolic switches (CPT-1, PDK4) that promote lipid utilization over glucose oxidation...
October 6, 2016: JCI Insight
Saki Horie, Kyoko Nomura, Junko Nakagawa, Michiko Kido, Mitsuhiro Sugimoto
OBJECTIVES: To clarify the predisposing factors associated with blood loss after delivery in mothers with full-term singleton babies. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, we investigated 1,294 women who delivered singleton babies vaginally in 2011 at a medical center in Tokyo. We determined the amount of blood loss after delivery and covariates of age, parity, pre pregnancy body mass index (BMI), gestational weight gain (GWG), gestational week, pregnancy complications, lifestyles of smoking and drinking, placental weight, and infant weight and sex...
2016: Nihon Eiseigaku Zasshi. Japanese Journal of Hygiene
Sofie Ingdam Halkjaer, Lisbeth Nilas, Emma Malchau Carlsen, Dina Cortes, Thórhallur Ingi Halldórsson, Sjúrdur Frodi Olsen, Anders Elm Pedersen, Karen Angeliki Krogfelt, Andreas Munk Petersen
BACKGROUND: Maternal obesity is associated with increased risks of adverse pregnancy-related complications and outcomes for both mothers and infants. Overweight and obese women have an increased risk of pregnancy-induced hypertension, preeclampsia and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Infant Body Mass index (BMI) and the risk of obesity in adulthood are related to maternal gestational weight gain (GWG). Preventive lifestyle and dietary interventions are time-consuming and do not always reduce GWG or the risk of maternal pregnancy complications...
October 11, 2016: Trials
Kristy A Bolton, Peter Kremer, Kylie D Hesketh, Rachel Laws, Karen J Campbell
BACKGROUND: Rapid growth in the first six months of life is a well-established risk factor for childhood obesity, and child feeding practices (supplementation or substitution of breast milk with formula and early introduction of solids) have been reported to predict this. The third largest immigrant group in Australia originate from China. Case-studies reported from Victorian Maternal and Child Health nurses suggest that rapid growth trajectories in the infants of Chinese parents is common place...
October 11, 2016: BMC Public Health
Leonardo Pozza Santos, Maria Cecília Formoso Assunção, Alicia Matijasevich, Iná S Santos, Aluísio J D Barros
BACKGROUND: Dietary intake patterns of children from the 2004 Pelotas birth cohort study have been described at 12, 24 and 48 months of age, but there is no information about dietary patterns of these children at 6 years. Then, we aimed to identify and describe dietary intake patterns of children aged 6 years as well as to assess their association with socioeconomic and demographic characteristics, early feeding practices and BMI z-score at 6 years. METHODS: We used principal components analysis to identify dietary intake patterns of 3,427 children from the 2004 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort study...
October 6, 2016: BMC Public Health
Kirsten K Davison, Selma Gicevic, Alyssa Aftosmes-Tobio, Claudia Ganter, Christine L Simon, Sami Newlan, Jennifer A Manganello
BACKGROUND: The involvement of fathers in caregiving has increased substantially over the past 30 years. Yet in child and adolescent psychopathology, few studies include fathers as research participants and few present results for fathers separate from those for mothers. We test for the first time whether a similar pattern exists in research on parenting and childhood obesity. OBJECTIVES: To conduct a systematic review and quantitative content analysis of observational studies on parenting and childhood obesity to (1) document the inclusion of fathers, relative to mothers, as research participants and (2) examine characteristics of studies that did and did not include fathers...
November 2016: American Journal of Public Health
Eric A Hodges, Heather M Wasser, Brook K Colgan, Margaret E Bentley
PURPOSE: To enhance responsive feeding, this study aimed to characterize the development of feeding cues during infancy and toddlerhood. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: A secondary analysis was performed on a dataset of first-time, low-income African American mother-infant pairs assessed at infant age 3, 6, 9, 12, and 18 months. A subsample with the 15 highest, middle, and lowest infant body mass index (BMI) Z-scores at 18 months was selected (n = 45). Using video-recorded home feedings, early, active, and late receptiveness and fullness cues were assessed using the Responsiveness to Child Feeding Cues Scale at each time point...
July 2016: MCN. the American Journal of Maternal Child Nursing
Nayera E Hassan, Saneya Wahba, Inas R El-Alameey, Sahar A El-Masry, Mones M AbuShady, Enas R Abdel Hameed, Tarek S Ibrahim, Samia Boseila
BACKGROUND: Obesity and related morbidity increase in Egyptian women and their children. A better understanding of dietary and activity patterns is needed to reduce obesity prevalence. AIM: The present study aimed to assess dietary patterns and physical activity in Egyptian overweight and obese mothers and to explore its relationships with their children's body mass index (BMI). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This descriptive case-control study was conducted at the National Research Center...
September 15, 2016: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
Nayera E Hassan, Sahar A El-Masry, Tarek Farid, Aya Khalil
BACKGROUND: Overweight/obesity is a multi-factorial problem, which results from rapidly changing social, economic, and physical environments that have led to an energy imbalance. AIM: To identify the association between childhood overweight/obesity and some socio-demographic risk factors, as parental age, body mass index (BMI), education and occupation, family size and residence (urban/rural). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Cross-sectional study included 154 children of both sexes; aged 5-18 years; with their parents; one of them was working at the National Research Centre and from their relatives and neighbours...
September 15, 2016: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
Carmela Nardelli, Ilaria Granata, Laura Iaffaldano, Valeria D'Argenio, Valentina Del Monaco, Giuseppe Maria Maruotti, Luigi Del Vecchio, Pasquale Martinelli, Francesco Salvatore, Mario Rosario Guarracino, Lucia Sacchetti, Lucio Pastore
Experimental evidence indicates differences between women and men in several medical areas, including susceptibility to metabolic diseases. Sexual dimorphism could be influenced by microRNA (miRNA)-mediated regulation of gene expression, and miRNAs have also been implicated in fetal programming of obesity. Our previous finding of altered proteome in human amniotic stem cells (hA-MSCs) during obesity (Ob-) prompted us to look for gender-related differences in the miRNA regulation of gene expression in Ob-hA-MSCs that might be involved in metabolic changes...
October 5, 2016: Stem Cells and Development
Amanda Veile, Karen L Kramer
OBJECTIVE: The epidemiologic link between cesarean birth and childhood obesity is unresolved, partly because most studies come from industrialized settings where many post-birth factors affect the risk for obesity. We take advantage of an unusual ethnographic situation where hospital and cesarean birth modes have recently been introduced among Yucatec Maya subsistence farmers, but young children have had minimal exposure to the nutritional transition. While we expect to find very low rates of childhood obesity, we predict that cesarean-born children will be larger and heavier than vaginally born children...
October 4, 2016: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
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