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Mother obesity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917205/prenatal-ddt-exposure-and-child-adiposity-at-age-12-the-chamacos-study
#1
Marcella Warner, Morgan Ye, Kim Harley, Katherine Kogut, Asa Bradman, Brenda Eskenazi
OBJECTIVE: Using data from the Center for the Health Assessment of Mothers and Children of Salinas (CHAMACOS) birth cohort study, we assessed the association of in utero exposure to dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and dichlorodiphenylethylene (DDE) with child adiposity at age 12. METHODS: We included 240 children with o,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDT, and p,p'-DDE concentrations measured in maternal serum collected during pregnancy (ng/g lipid) and complete 12-year follow-up data...
September 12, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914727/summer-healthy-lifestyle-intervention-program-for-young-children-who-are-overweight-results-from-a-nonrandomized-pilot-trial
#2
Paulo A Graziano, Alexis Garcia, Crystal S Lim
OBJECTIVE: To examine initial outcomes of an 8-week Healthy-Lifestyle Intervention Program (HIP) which included children's participation in a daily summer camp along with parents' participation in a parenting program focused on overweight/obesity. METHODS: Using a nonrandomized pilot trial design, 16 children (M child age = 6.42 yr; 81% male; 100% Latino) classified as overweight/obese and their mothers completed 3 assessments (baseline, posttreatment, and 6-8 mo follow-up)...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904060/early-exposure-to-a-high-fat-high-sugar-diet-increases-the-mammary-stem-cell-compartment-and-mammary-tumor-risk-in-female-mice
#3
Isabel U Lambertz, Linjie Luo, Thomas R Berton, Scott L Schwartz, Stephen D Hursting, Claudio J Conti, Robin Fuchs-Young
Obesity and alterations in metabolic programming from early diet exposures can affect the propensity to disease in later life. Through dietary manipulation, developing mouse pups were exposed to a hyperinsulinemic, hyperglycemic milieu during three developmental phases: gestation, lactation and post-weaning. Analyses showed that a post-weaning high fat/high sugar (HF/HS) diet had the main negative effect on adult body weight, glucose tolerance and insulin resistance. However, dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced carcinogenesis revealed that animals born to a mother fed a HF/HS gestation diet, nursed by a mother on a mildly diet-restricted, low fat/low sugar diet (DR) and weaned onto a HF/HS diet (HF/DR/HF) had the highest mammary tumor incidence, while HF/HF/DR had the lowest tumor incidence...
September 13, 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903892/effectiveness-of-smartmoms-a-novel-ehealth-intervention-for-management-of-gestational-weight-gain-randomized-controlled-pilot-trial
#4
Leanne M Redman, L Anne Gilmore, Jeffrey Breaux, Diana M Thomas, Karen Elkind-Hirsch, Tiffany Stewart, Daniel S Hsia, Jeffrey Burton, John W Apolzan, Loren E Cain, Abby D Altazan, Shelly Ragusa, Heather Brady, Allison Davis, J Mick Tilford, Elizabeth F Sutton, Corby K Martin
BACKGROUND: Two-thirds of pregnant women exceed gestational weight gain (GWG) recommendations. Because excess GWG is associated with adverse outcomes for mother and child, development of scalable and cost-effective approaches to deliver intensive lifestyle programs during pregnancy is urgent. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to decrease the proportion of women who exceed the Institute of Medicine (IOM) 2009 GWG guidelines. METHODS: In a parallel-arm randomized controlled trial, 54 pregnant women (age 18-40 years) who were overweight (n=25) or obese (n=29) were enrolled to test whether an intensive lifestyle intervention (called SmartMoms) decreased the proportion of women with excess GWG, defined as exceeding the 2009 IOM guidelines, compared to no intervention (usual care group)...
September 13, 2017: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903110/flavor-perception-and-preference-development-in-human-infants
#5
Catherine A Forestell
As most parents and caregivers are aware, feeding children a nutritionally balanced diet can be challenging. Children are born with a biological predisposition to prefer sweet and to avoid bitter foods such as green leafy vegetables. It has been hypothesized that this predisposition evolved to attract children to energy-dense foods while discouraging the consumption of toxins. Although this may have enhanced survival in environments historically characterized by food scarcity, it is clearly maladaptive in many of today's food environments where children are surrounded by an abundance of sweet-tasting, unhealthful foods and beverages that place them at risk for excessive weight gain...
2017: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903109/does-breastfeeding-shape-food-preferences-links-to-obesity
#6
Alison K Ventura
The first 2 years of life have been recognized as a critical window for obesity prevention efforts. This period is characterized by rapid growth and development and, in a relatively short period of time, a child transitions from a purely milk-based diet to a more varied solid-food diet. Much learning about food and eating occurs during this critical window, and it is well-documented that early feeding and dietary exposures predict later food preferences, eating behaviors, and dietary patterns. The focus of this review will be on the earliest feeding experiences - breast- and formula-feeding - and the unique role of breastfeeding in shaping children's food preferences...
2017: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901891/dietary-intake-of-fat-and-fibre-according-to-reference-values-relates-to-higher-gut-microbiota-richness-in-overweight-pregnant-women
#7
Henna Röytiö, Kati Mokkala, Tero Vahlberg, Kirsi Laitinen
The diet-microbiota-metabolism relationships during pregnancy are mostly unknown. We explored the effect of the habitual diet and adherence to the dietary reference values on gut microbiota composition and diversity. Further, the association of gut microbiota with serum lipidomics and low-grade inflammation was evaluated. Overweight and obese women (BMI 30·7 (sd 4·4) kg/m2, n 100) were studied at early pregnancy (≤17 weeks). Intakes of nutrients were calculated from 3-d food diaries. Faecal microbiota composition was analysed using 16S rRNA gene sequencing...
September 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901544/effect-of-obesity-on-neonatal-hypoglycaemia-in-mothers-with-gestational-diabetes-a-comparative-study
#8
Katherine Collins, Raoul Oehmen, Shailender Mehta
BACKGROUND: Rates of pre-gestational obesity and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are increasing in Australia. While both are established risk factors for neonatal hypoglycaemia, the additive effect of both risks on neonatal hypoglycaemia is not well understood. AIMS: To determine the influence of obesity on neonatal hypoglycaemia among infants born to GDM mothers. The authors hypothesise the presence of a greater frequency and severity of neonatal hypoglycaemia in infants born to obese GDM women...
September 13, 2017: Australian & New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899652/predicting-preschool-children-s-eating-in-the-absence-of-hunger-from-maternal-pressure-to-eat-a-longitudinal-study-of-low-income-latina-mothers
#9
Lionor Galindo, Thomas G Power, Ashley D Beck, Jennifer Orlet Fisher, Teresia M O'Connor, Sheryl O Hughes
Early work by Klesges et al. (1983, 1986) suggested that mothers who frequently prompt their children to eat have children at greater risk for obesity. This is consistent with the hypothesis that controlling feeding practices override children's responsiveness to their internal fullness cues, increasing the risk of overeating and obesity (e.g., Johnson & Birch, 1994). Subsequent cross-sectional research on pressure to eat, however, has been inconsistent. Most studies have shown that maternal self-reports of pressure to eat are negatively associated with childhood obesity, and observational studies showed inconsistent relationships with child weight status...
September 9, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893283/perceived-fussy-eating-in-australian-children-at-14%C3%A2-months-of-age-and-subsequent-use-of-maternal-feeding-practices-at-2%C3%A2-years
#10
Rebecca Byrne, Elena Jansen, Lynne Daniels
BACKGROUND: Concerns about fussy eating are common amongst parents of young children. However, studies of the long-term impact of fussy eating show mixed results with regard to adequacy of dietary intake and child growth. This may be in part because there is no accepted definition of fussy eating and studies measure the construct in different ways, commonly relying on parent perception. This longitudinal analysis explores maternal and child characteristics associated with maternal perception of her toddler as a fussy eater in early toddlerhood and subsequent use of feeding practices at 2 years...
September 11, 2017: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888488/cognitive-interviews-for-validating-the-family-nutrition-physical-activity-instrument-for-korean-american-families-with-young-children
#11
So Hyun Park, Chang Gi Park, Linda McCreary, Kathleen F Norr
PURPOSE: Childhood obesity is a growing health concern for Korean-Americans (KA). The purpose of this study was to develop a culturally appropriate Korean-language version of the Family Nutrition Physical Activity (FNPA) instrument and evaluate its comprehensibility and cultural appropriateness of the FNPA for KAs. DESIGN AND METHODS: The FNPA was translated into Korean and cognitive interviews were conducted with 19 KA mothers in the Chicago metropolitan area. RESULTS: Overall, participants reported that the FNPA is easy to understand and said they had no difficulty answering items using a 4-point Likert scale...
September 2017: Journal of Pediatric Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887432/maternal-pregravid-obesity-remodels-the-dna-methylation-landscape-of-cord-blood-monocytes-disrupting-their-inflammatory-program
#12
Suhas Sureshchandra, Randall M Wilson, Maham Rais, Nicole E Marshall, Jonathan Q Purnell, Kent L Thornburg, Ilhem Messaoudi
Prepregnancy maternal obesity is associated with adverse outcomes for the offspring, including increased incidence of neonatal bacterial sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis. We recently reported that umbilical cord blood (UCB) monocytes from babies born to obese mothers generate a reduced IL-6/TNF-α response to TLR 1/2 and 4 ligands compared to those collected from lean mothers. These observations suggest altered development of the offspring's immune system, which in turn results in dysregulated function...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886253/female-offspring-born-to-obese-and-insulin-resistant-dams-are-not-at-increased-risk-for-obesity-and-metabolic-dysfunction-during-early-development
#13
Hanin Aburasayn, Rami Al Batran, Keshav Gopal, Malak Almutairi, Amina Eshreif, Farah Eaton, John Ussher
The percentage of women who are obese at the time of conception/pregnancy is increasing, with animal and human studies demonstrating that offspring born to obese dams/mothers are at increased risk for obesity and the metabolic syndrome. Our goal was to confirm in an experimental model of metabolic syndrome in the dam, whether the offspring would be at increased risk of obesity. Conversely, we observed that male offspring born to dams with metabolic syndrome had no alterations in their body weight profiles, whereas female offspring born to dams with metabolic syndrome were heavier at weaning, but exhibited no perturbations in energy metabolism...
September 8, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884449/insulin-resistance-and-hunger-in-childhood-obesity-a-patient-and-physician-s-perspective
#14
Wendy Scinta, Harold Bayes, Nicole Smith
This article is co-authored by the mother of a child with obesity and insulin resistance, who gives her perspective. It is also co-authored by the treating Obesity Medicine clinician and an investigator in obesity clinical research (both certified in Obesity Medicine), who give their perspectives. The discussion focuses upon the potential clinical use of metformin in managing young patients with obesity and insulin resistance. The article integrates what is scientifically known about the mechanisms of actions of metformin and how these mechanisms are reflected in the clinical response of young patients...
September 7, 2017: Advances in Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881823/hypertriglyceridemia-in-female-rats-during-pregnancy-induces-obesity-in-male-offspring-via-altering-hypothalamic-leptin-signaling
#15
Tanzil Ur Rahman, Kamran Ullah, Zhang-Hong Ke, Meng-Xi Guo, Lu-Yang Jin, Jun Ren, Yu-Zhong Zhou, Yi Cheng, Xin-Yan Dong, Hai-Yan Pang, Ting-Ting Wang, Jian-Zhong Sheng, He-Feng Huang
Maternal obesity influence the child's long-term development and health. Though, the mechanism concerned in this process is still uncertain. In the present study, we explored whether overfeeding of a high-fat diet during pregnancy in female rats altered metabolic phenotypes in an F1 generation and authenticated the contribution of hypothalamic leptin signaling. Leptin responsiveness and the number of immunopositive neurons for phosphorylated signal transducer and activator transcription 3 (pSTAT3) were analyzed...
August 8, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878109/socioeconomic-inequality-in-childhood-obesity
#16
Ghobad Moradi, Farideh Mostafavi, Namamali Azadi, Nader Esmaeilnasab, Ebrahim Ghaderi
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to assess the socioeconomic inequalities in obesity and overweight in children aged 10 to 12 yr old. STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. METHODS: This study was conducted on 2506 children aged 10 to 12 yr old in the city of Sanandaj, western Iran in 2015. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Considering household situation and assets, socioeconomic status (SES) of the subjects was determined using Principal Component Analysis (PCA)...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Research in Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877946/cohort-profile-maternal-lifestyle-and-diet-in-relation-to-pregnancy-postpartum-and-infant-health-outcomes-in-vietnam-a-multicentre-prospective-cohort-study
#17
Cong Luat Nguyen, Phung Thi Hoang Nguyen, Tan Khac Chu, Anh Vo Van Ha, Ngoc Minh Pham, Dat Van Duong, Dung Van Do, Hong Kim Tang, Colin W Binns, Andy H Lee
PURPOSE: To determine modifiable maternal risk factors for adverse pregnancy, postpartum maternal and child health outcomes in Vietnam. PARTICIPANTS: This prospective cohort study included pregnant women seeking prenatal care at six hospitals in three large cities in Vietnam. After enrolment, eligible participants who gave their consent to participate in the study were interviewed at 24-28 weeks' gestation. Glucose testing was conducted and blood pressure was measured during this period...
September 5, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877895/trajectories-of-maternal-weight-from-before-pregnancy-through-postpartum-and-associations-with-childhood-obesity
#18
Stephanie A Leonard, Kathleen M Rasmussen, Janet C King, Barbara Abrams
Background: Prepregnancy body mass index [BMI (in kg/m(2))], gestational weight gain, and postpartum weight retention may have distinct effects on the development of child obesity, but their combined effect is currently unknown.Objective: We described longitudinal trajectories of maternal weight from before pregnancy through the postpartum period and assessed the relations between maternal weight trajectories and offspring obesity in childhood.Design: We analyzed data from 4436 pairs of mothers and their children in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (1981-2014)...
September 6, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876657/colorectal-cancer-in-a-south-africa-urban-setting-a-preliminary-analysis
#19
L M Prodehl, B Bebington, J Fabian, E Singh, P Ruff
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second most common cancer in the world, with an estimated incidence in South Africa of 4-5% of all cancers . Studies show that whites account for the majority of South African patients but blacks for the majority of patients under the age of 50. METHOD: This was a preliminary analysis of the first 113 patients enrolled in a prospective longitudinal study. All CRC patients presenting to the teaching hospitals of the Department of Surgery, University of the Witwatersrand were eligible for inclusion...
June 2017: South African Journal of Surgery. Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876514/maternal-concerns-and-perceptions-of-elementary-school-age-children-s-weight-status
#20
Daphne C Hernandez, Layton Reesor, Laura S Kabiri
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to identify characteristics associated with maternal concerns for her child becoming overweight, and how these concerns are related to her perceptions of her child's weight. DESIGN: A school-based sample of 55 children and their mothers from Houston, Texas, participated in a cross-sectional survey. Mothers reported on their concerns and perceptions regarding their child's weight. Child and mother height and weight were directly assessed to calculate body mass index (BMI)...
September 6, 2017: Journal for Specialists in Pediatric Nursing: JSPN
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