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CT imaging

Søren Hess, Evan C Frary, Oke Gerke, Poul Henning Madsen
Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a common, ubiquitous, and potentially lethal disease. As symptoms and clinical findings are notoriously nonspecific, diagnostic imaging is essential to avoid undertreatment as well as overtreatment. Controversies remain regarding first-line imaging in suspected PE. The two main contemporary contenders are ventilation/perfusion scintigraphy with single-photon emission computed tomography (V/Q SPECT) with or without additional low-dose CT (SPECT/CT) and CT angiography (CTA). We present our results from a systematic review and meta-analysis of the diagnostic performances of these modalities: V/Q SPECT, V/Q SPECT/CT, and CTA are all viable options, but we consider V/Q SPECT/CT to be superior in most clinical settings with better overall diagnostic performance, that is, pooled sensitivities (97...
October 20, 2016: Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis
Chao Fang, Chuanwen Fan, Cun Wang, Qiaorong Huang, Wentong Meng, Yongyang Yu, Lie Yang, Zhihai Peng, Jiankun Hu, Yuan Li, Xianming Mo, Zongguang Zhou
INTRODUCTION: Liver is the most common site of distant metastasis in colorectal cancer (CRC). Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment selection decides overall prognosis of patients. However, current diagnostic measures were basically imaging but not functional. Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) known as hold the key to understand the biology of metastatic mechanism provide a novel and auxiliary diagnostic strategy for CRC with liver metastasis (CRC-LM). RESULTS: The expression of CD133+ and CD133+CD54+CD44+ cellular subpopulations were higher in the peripheral blood of CRC-LM patients when compared with those without metastasis (P<0...
October 15, 2016: Oncotarget
Li Huo, Feng Feng, Quan Liao, Zhengyu Jin, Fang Li, Yupei Zhao
A 57-year-old man underwent FDG PET/CT to evaluate a mass in the head of the pancreas. The imaged revealed mildly, nonuniformly increased activity in the mass, but the exact location of the activity could not be determined on the low-dose noncontrast CT portion of the study. On subsequent PET/MRI images acquired 60 minutes after the FDG PET/CT study, the increased activity was clearly localized on the cystic wall. The pathological examination showed that the lesion was intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm of the pancreas with high degree of dysplasia...
October 18, 2016: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
Krishan Kant Agarwal, Anirban Mukherjee, ArunRaj St, Madhavi Tripathi, Chandrasekhar Bal
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the incremental value of technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate (Tc-MDP) single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) over planar bone scintigraphy (BS) and SPECT for the diagnosis of active condylar hyperplasia (CH). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Data of 21 patients (mean age: 21.9±5.3 years, 10 males, 11 females) who underwent Tc-MDP BS along with regional SPECT/CT for the diagnosis of active CH were retrospectively evaluated...
October 19, 2016: Nuclear Medicine Communications
Oholi Tovia-Brodie, Bernard Belhassen, Aharon Glick, Haim Shmilovich, Galit Aviram, Raphael Rosso, Yoav Michowitz
INTRODUCTION: A new imaging software (CARTO® Segmentation Module, Biosense Webster) allows pre-procedural 3-D reconstruction of all heart chambers based on cardiac CT. We describe our initial experience with the new module during ablation of ventricular arrhythmias. METHODS AND RESULTS: Eighteen consecutive patients with idiopathic ventricular arrhythmias or ischemic ventricular tachycardia (VT) were studied. In the latter group, a combined endocardial and epicardial ablation was performed...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology
Tanya Bogoslovsky, Jessica Gill, Andreas Jeromin, Cora Davis, Ramon Diaz-Arrastia
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the leading causes of death and disability around the world. The lack of validated biomarkers for TBI is a major impediment to developing effective therapies and improving clinical practice, as well as stimulating much work in this area. In this review, we focus on different settings of TBI management where blood or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers could be utilized for predicting clinically-relevant consequences and guiding management decisions. Requirements that the biomarker must fulfill differ based on the intended context of use (CoU)...
October 18, 2016: Diagnostics
A Shammas, A S Doria, A Amirabadi, H Gahunia, R Jong, M Charron, R Moineddin, U Metser
RATIONALE: (18) F-FDG-PET/CT has a potential role in the early detection of haemophilic arthritis, at a time when treatment may still avoid further joint degeneration. The purposes of this pilot study were to determine the ability of (18) F-FDG-PET/CT to detect inflammatory changes associated with blood-induced arthropathy in knees of a rabbit model. METHODS: Ten juvenile rabbits were imaged at baseline and weeks 5 and 17 post intraarticular autologous blood injections (ABI)...
October 20, 2016: Haemophilia: the Official Journal of the World Federation of Hemophilia
Christopher J Rizzi, Timothy Ortlip, Jewel D Greywoode, Kavita T Vakharia, Kalpesh T Vakharia
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: To describe a novel computer algorithm that can model mandibular fracture repair. To evaluate the algorithm as a tool to model mandibular fracture reduction and hardware selection. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective pilot study combined with cross-sectional survey. METHODS: A computer algorithm utilizing Aquarius Net (TeraRecon, Inc, Foster City, CA) and Adobe Photoshop CS6 (Adobe Systems, Inc, San Jose, CA) was developed to model mandibular fracture repair...
October 20, 2016: Laryngoscope
D J Murphy, A R Keraliya, M D Agrawal, A Aghayev, M L Steigner
Aortic infections are uncommon clinical entities, but are associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. In this review, we focus on the cross-sectional imaging appearance of aortic infections, including aortic valve endocarditis, pyogenic aortitis, mycotic aneurysm and aortic graft infections, with an emphasis on CT, MRI and PET/CT appearance. Teaching Points • Aortic infections are associated with high morbidity and mortality. • CT, MRI and FDG PET/CT play complementary roles in aortic infection imaging...
October 19, 2016: Insights Into Imaging
Naomi Winn, Radhesh Lalam, Victor Cassar-Pullicino
Paget's disease of bone is a disorder of bone remodelling, leading to changes in the architecture and overall appearance of the bone. The disorder may be monostotic or polyostotic and affect any bone in the body, although most commonly it involves the spine, pelvis, skull and femur. This article explores the different imaging modalities used in the assessment of Paget's disease of bone in its different phases. The relative merits of each imaging modality is discussed with illustrative examples, in particular with respect to radiographs, nuclear medicine bone scan, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)...
October 19, 2016: Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift
Jin Sil Kim, Hyun Jin Kim, Seong Ho Park, Jong Seok Lee, Ah Young Kim, Hyun Kwon Ha
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the CT features of ruptured GISTs and factors that might be predictive of rupture through comparison with CTs taken prior to rupture and CTs of non-ruptured GIST. METHODS: Forty-nine patients with ruptured GIST and forty-nine patients with non-ruptured GIST matched by age, gender and location were included. Clinical data including pharmacotherapy were reviewed. The imaging features were analyzed. Prior CT obtained before rupture were evaluated...
October 19, 2016: European Radiology
Mougnyan Cox, Manisha Patel, Zhenteng Li, Sarah Kamel, Sandeep Deshmukh, Christopher Roth, Laurence Needleman
Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a serious common disorder with substantial cost and morbidity to society and can be life threatening in some cases. The majority of VTE is diagnosed on lower extremity ultrasound or CT pulmonary angiography, but some cases of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) may be occasionally diagnosed on CT of the abdomen and pelvis by the alert radiologist. The purpose of our study was to determine the fraction of new/unsuspected DVTs diagnosed on CTAP and the subsequent management and clinical course of these patients...
October 19, 2016: Emergency Radiology
Yoshie Kurita, Kakuya Kitagawa, Yusuke Kurobe, Shiro Nakamori, Hiroshi Nakajima, Kaoru Dohi, Masaaki Ito, Hajime Sakuma
This article describes data related to a research article titled "Estimation of myocardial extracellular volume fraction with cardiac CT in subjects without clinical coronary artery disease: A feasibility study", Kurita et al. (in press) [1]. Myocardial extracellular volume fraction (ECV) is an imaging biomarker that can elevate in various heart diseases. This article describes correlation between CT-derived and MRI-derived ECV in 24 myocardial segments in 8 patients. CT-derived ECV was obtained from pre-contrast and delayed-phase images acquired by using dual-source CT system...
June 2016: Data in Brief
Yasheng Chen, Rajat Dhar, Laura Heitsch, Andria Ford, Israel Fernandez-Cadenas, Caty Carrera, Joan Montaner, Weili Lin, Dinggang Shen, Hongyu An, Jin-Moo Lee
Although cerebral edema is a major cause of death and deterioration following hemispheric stroke, there remains no validated biomarker that captures the full spectrum of this critical complication. We recently demonstrated that reduction in intracranial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) volume (∆ CSF) on serial computed tomography (CT) scans provides an accurate measure of cerebral edema severity, which may aid in early triaging of stroke patients for craniectomy. However, application of such a volumetric approach would be too cumbersome to perform manually on serial scans in a real-world setting...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
Fabiana Policeni, Brittany Pakalniskis, Limin Yang
Metastatic tumors are rare in the breast. Well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumors (WDNETs) are slow-growing neoplasms that arise from neuroendocrine cells, particularly in the gastrointestinal tract and bronchial tree. Metastatic WDNET to the breast is a rare entity. We present a case report of ileal WDNET metastatic to the breast which was initially identified as a small mass in the patient's left breast on screening mammography. Targeted ultrasound identified a suspicious mass, and ultrasound-guided percutaneous core biopsy was performed...
2016: Journal of Clinical Imaging Science
Asif Ali Fakhri, Paul David Rodrigue, Amena Fatima Fakhri
Extramedullary plasmacytoma is rare in patients with diagnosed multiple myeloma. Soft tissue plasmacytoma of the gallbladder is particularly uncommon and has been described in only a handful of cases. Diagnosis of gallbladder plasmacytoma with fluorine 18-fluorodeoxyglucose (F18-FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) has not previously been reported. We present a 65-year-old female with a history of multiple myeloma who underwent a restaging F18-FDG-PET/CT which showed a focal area of hypermetabolic activity, corresponding to a nodular lesion within the posterior gallbladder wall...
2016: Journal of Clinical Imaging Science
Jeffrey Gnerre, Yankai Sun, Andrzej Jedynak, Anthony Gilet
Gallbladder varices are a rare form of collateralization that develop in patients with portal hypertension. We present here a case of gallbladder varices accurately diagnosed by contrast enhanced CT imaging of the abdomen and confirmed by Color Doppler Sonography. A 76-year-old patient with hepatocellular carcinoma developed portal vein thrombosis due to tumor extension during the course of treatment and was incidentally discovered to have gallbladder varices. While most commonly asymptomatic, gallbladder varices are associated with increased risk of massive bleeding, either spontaneously or during cholecystectomy...
May 2016: Journal of Radiology Case Reports
Chad S Cox, Summer J Decker, Mark Rolfe, Todd R Hazelton, Carlos A Rojas
Lobar torsion is well documented after pneumonectomy, but is very rare after lung transplant. To the best of our knowledge, this is the twelfth reported case of lobar torsion after lung transplant. In our case, bronchoscopies and chest radiographs were inconclusive; however, CT scan clearly demonstrated findings consistent with right middle lobe torsion. We review the literature and discuss the epidemiology, clinical presentation, imaging features, and treatment considerations for this condition. We also propose that if a clinical picture could be secondary to torsion and bronchoscopies and chest x ray are inconclusive that a CT scan should be obtained as soon as possible since early recognition increases the likelihood of being able to successfully detorse the lung and avoid lobectomy...
May 2016: Journal of Radiology Case Reports
Jui-Hung Hung, Ching Hsueh, Chiung-Ying Liao, Shang-Yun Ho, Yuan-Chun Huang
Pulmonary sclerosing hemangioma is an uncommon benign tumor of the lung; however, on rare occasions it can arise from the pulmonary hilar region. Herein, we report a 53-year-old female patient who presented with a round opacity in the right upper lung field on a radiograph. Chest computed tomography scanning revealed a 3.1 cm mass in the right pulmonary hilum. Thoracoscopic tumor excision was subsequently performed. On pathohistologic study, the tumor was well defined and composed of round stromal cells and surface cells arranged in a papillary, sclerotic, solid, and hemorrhagic pattern...
2016: Case Reports in Medicine
Yoriaki Matsumoto, Takanori Masuda, Yukari Yamashita, Takayuki Oku, Hirofumi Uyama, Tomoyasu Sato, Naoyuki Imada
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the association of vessel visibility and radiation dose using contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) method with low tube voltage in coronary computed tomography angiography (c-CTA). METHODS: We performed electrocardiogram-gated scan of 2.0-mm diameter simulated vessel in the center of the cardiac phantom by the use of a 64-detector CT scanner. Reference CNR was calculated from the target coronary CT number (CTnumberA; 350 Hounsfield units [HU]), epicardial fat CT number (CTnumberB; -100 HU), and target epicardial fat standard deviation (SD) number (SDB; 25 HU) at the 120 kV...
2016: Nihon Hoshasen Gijutsu Gakkai Zasshi
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