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CT imaging

Tristan Pascart, Frédéric Lioté
This review article summarizes the relevant English literature on gout from 2010 through April 2017. It emphasizes that the current epidemiology of gout indicates a rising prevalence worldwide, not only in Western countries but also in Southeast Asia, in close relationship with the obesity and metabolic syndrome epidemics. New pathogenic mechanisms of chronic hyperuricaemia focus on the gut (microbiota, ABCG2 expression) after the kidney. Cardiovascular and renal comorbidities are the key points to consider in terms of management...
March 13, 2018: Rheumatology
Radosław Mrówczyński, Artur Jędrzak, Kosma Szutkowski, Bartosz F Grześkowiak, Emerson Coy, Roksana Markiewicz, Teofil Jesionowski, Stefan Jurga
Polydopamine (PDA)-coated magnetic nanoparticles functionalized with mono-6-thio-β-cyclodextrin (SH-βCD) were obtained and characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Nuclear and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (NMR and MRI), and doxorubicin (DOXO)-loading experiments. The liver cancer cellular internalization of DOXO-loaded nanoparticles was investigated by confocal imaging microscopy. Synthesized nanomaterials bearing a chemotherapeutic drug and a layer of polydopamine capable of absorbing near-infrared light show high performance in the combined chemo- and photothermal therapy (CT-PTT) of liver cancer due to the synergistic effect of both modalities as demonstrated in vitro...
March 16, 2018: Nanomaterials
Kurtis H Dekker, Rubin Hazarika, Matheus A Silveira, Kevin J Jordan
Optical cone beam computed tomography (CT) scanning of radiochromic gel dosimeters, using a CCD camera and a low stray light convergent source, provides fast, truly 3D radiation dosimetry with high accuracy. However, a key limiting factor in radiochromic gel dosimetry at large (⩾10 cm diameter) volumes is the initial attenuation of the dosimeters. It is not unusual to observe a 5-10×  difference in signal intensity through the dosimeter center versus through the surrounding medium in pre-irradiation images...
March 16, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Binit Sureka, Aliza Mittal, Mahesh K Mittal, Kanhaiya Agarwal, Mukul Sinha, Brij Bhushan Thukral
Background: Accurate and detailed measurements of spinal canal diameter (SCD) and transverse foraminal morphometry are essential for understanding spinal column-related diseases and for surgical planning, especially for transpedicular screw fixation. This is especially because lateral cervical radiographs do not provide accurate measurements. Aim: This study was conducted to measure the dimensions of the transverse foramen sagittal and transverse diameters (SFD, TFD), SCD, and the distance of spinal canal from the transverse foramina (dSC-TF) at C1-C7 level in the Indian population...
March 2018: Neurology India
Ryota Tamura, Ryosuke Tomio, Farrag Mohammad, Masahiro Toda, Kazunari Yoshida
OBJECTIVE The anterior transpetrosal approach (ATPA) was established in 1984 and has been particularly effective for petroclival tumors. Although some complications associated with this approach, such as venous hemorrhage in the temporal lobe and nervous disturbances, have been resolved over the years, the incidence rate of CSF leaks has not greatly improved. In this study, some varieties of air cell tracts that are strongly related to CSF leaks are demonstrated. In addition, other pre- and postoperative risk factors for CSF leakage after ATPA are discussed...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
Joseph P Herbert, Sidish S Venkataraman, Ali H Turkmani, Liang Zhu, Marcia L Kerr, Rajan P Patel, Irma T Ugalde, Stephen A Fletcher, David I Sandberg, Charles S Cox, Ryan S Kitagawa, Arthur L Day, Manish N Shah
OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to assess the incidence, diagnosis, and treatment of pediatric blunt cerebrovascular injury (BCVI) at a busy Level 1 trauma center and to develop a tool for accurately predicting pediatric BCVI and the need for diagnostic testing. METHODS This is a retrospective cohort study of a prospectively collected database of pediatric patients who had sustained blunt trauma (patient age range 0-15 years) and were treated at a Level 1 trauma center between 2005 and 2015. Digital subtraction angiography, MR angiography, or CT angiography was used to confirm BCVI...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
Elizabeth G Mosher, John A Butman, Les R Folio, Nadia M Biassou, Choonsik Lee
OBJECTIVE: Radiation exposure of the lens during neck CT may increase a patient's risk of developing cataracts. Radiologists at the National Institutes of Health worked with technicians to modify the neck CT scanning procedure to include a reduction in the scanning range, a reduction in the tube potential (kilovoltage), and a change in neck positioning using a head tilt. We objectively quantified the organ dose changes after this procedure modification using a computer simulation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed CT images of 40 patients (20 men and 20 women) scanned before and after the procedure change...
March 16, 2018: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
Bhavik N Patel, Alfredo Farjat, Christoph Schabel, Petar Duvnjak, Achille Mileto, Juan Carlos Ramirez-Giraldo, Daniele Marin
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine in vitro and in vivo the optimal threshold for renal lesion vascularity at low-energy (40-60 keV) virtual monoenergetic imaging. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A rod simulating unenhanced renal parenchymal attenuation (35 HU) was fitted with a syringe containing water. Three iodinated solutions (0.38, 0.57, and 0.76 mg I/mL) were inserted into another rod that simulated enhanced renal parenchyma (180 HU). Rods were inserted into cylindric phantoms of three different body sizes and scanned with single- and dual-energy MDCT...
March 16, 2018: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
Mark O Wielpütz, Ho Yun Lee, Hisanobu Koyama, Takeshi Yoshikawa, Shinichiro Seki, Yuji Kishida, Yasuhiro Sakai, Hans-Ulrich Kauczor, Kazuro Sugimura, Yoshiharu Ohno
OBJECTIVE: Ultrashort TE (UTE) MRI has been shown to deliver high-resolution images comparable to CT images. Here we evaluate the potential of UTE-MRI for precise lung nodule characterization. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Fifty-one patients (mean [± SD] age, 68.7 ± 10.8 years) with 119 nodules or masses (mean size, 17.4 ± 16.3 mm; range, 4-88 mm) prospectively underwent CT (1-mm slice thickness) and UTE-MRI (TE, 192 μs; 1 mm3 resolution). Two radiologists assessed nodule dimensions and morphologic features (i...
March 16, 2018: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
Andrés Retamal C, Giancarlo Schiappacasse F, Lizbet Pérez M, Pablo Alvayay Q, Isabel Schild W
Pediatric cancer is the second cause of death in children older than 5 years in our country, after trauma. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) is a hybrid technique that involves radiation, which has been used for some time in adults and is being progressively imple mented in children. This technique allows morphological and functional assessments of the body with applications in neoplastic and non-neoplastic pathology. Its main role in oncology is in the evaluation and control of lymphomas, sarcomas and neuroblastomas, among others...
December 2017: Revista Chilena de Pediatría
D Valenzuela, F Moya, M Luco, J L Tapia
50 years ago, Northway described Broncopulmonary Dysplasia (BPD) in preterm infants exposed to mechanical ventilation. Since then, their survival has increased, nevertheless a "new BPD" has appeared and its incidence has not diminished. One of the characteristics of this pathology is the the abnormal vascular remodeling, which in its most severe expression is known as Pulmonary Hyper tension (PH); with an incidence of 17% in patients with BPD, which is proportional to the severity of the disease (33% in severe BPD), and as mortality factor (up to 48% 2-year mortality in PH-BPD)...
December 2017: Revista Chilena de Pediatría
Andrew R Christiansen, Rami M Shorti, Cory D Smith, William C Prows, Jay T Bishoff
PURPOSE: Despite the increasing use of advanced 3D imaging techniques and 3D printing, these techniques have not yet been comprehensively compared in a surgical setting. The purpose of this study is to explore the effectiveness of five different advanced imaging modalities during a complex renal surgical procedure. METHODS: A patient with a horseshoe kidney and multiple large, symptomatic stones that had failed Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy (ESWL) and ureteroscopy treatment was used for this evaluation...
March 15, 2018: World Journal of Urology
Mohamed A Mohamed, Kewan A Hamid
Acute aortic dissection (AAD) classically manifests with sudden, severe chest pain radiating to the back or abdomen, often described as ripping or tearing sensation. Considering its abrupt onset, the diagnosis requires a high index of suspicion prompting immediate imaging using computed tomography (CT) with contrast. However, the use of contrast is a relative contraindication in the patients with renal compromise and acute care physicians are often deterred from contrast use in these patients. Herein, we present an unusual case of hematuria as the presenting symptom of a developing the Stanford type-A AAD...
January 12, 2018: Curēus
Dexin Zou, Junlin Zhou, Xiaobing Jiang
Tuberculosis combined with brucellosis is a very rare condition. Overlapping clinical presentation and laboratory parameters of tuberculosis and brucellosis may lead to misdiagnosis or delayed diagnosis of the condition. The current study presents the case of a 45-year-old male with symptoms of lower back pain, non-tender swelling in the right flank, intermittent hyperpyrexia, sweating, body aches and numbness and weakness of right lower limb. A lumbar computed tomograph (CT) scan and magnetic resonance imaging indicated vertebral destruction and the formation of sequestra and thecal sac compression...
April 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Daisuke Nakashima, Tsukasa Kanchiku, Norihiro Nishida, Saki Ito, Junji Ohgi, Hidenori Suzuki, Yasuaki Imajo, Masahiro Funaba, Xian Chen, Toshihiko Taguchi
Vertebral fractures commonly occur at the thoracolumbar junction. These fractures can be treated with mild residual deformity in many cases, but are reportedly associated with increased risk of secondary vertebral fractures. In the present study, a three-dimensional (3D) whole spine model was constructed using the finite element method to explore the mechanism of development of compression fractures. The 3D model of the whole spine, from the cervical spine to the pelvis, was constructed from computed tomography (CT) images of an adult male...
April 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Lingfu Zhang, Chunsheng Hou, Zhi Xu, Lixin Wang, Xiaofeng Ling, Dianrong Xiu
Objective: Although laparoscopic treatment of gallbladder cancer (GBC) has been explored in the last decade, long-term results are still rare. This study evaluates long-term results of intended laparoscopic treatment for suspected GBC confined to the gallbladder wall, based on our experience over 10 years. Methods: Between August 2006 and December 2015, 164 patients with suspected GBC confined to the wall were enrolled in the protocol for laparoscopic surgery. The process for GBC treatment was analyzed to evaluate the feasibility of computed tomography (CT) and/or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) combined with frozen-section examination in identifying GBC confined to the wall...
February 2018: Chinese Journal of Cancer Research, Chung-kuo Yen Cheng Yen Chiu
Barry H Smith, Lawrence S Gazda, Thomas J Fahey, Angelica Nazarian, Melissa A Laramore, Prithy Martis, Zoe P Andrada, Joanne Thomas, Tapan Parikh, Sudipta Sureshbabu, Nathaniel Berman, Allyson J Ocean, Richard D Hall, David J Wolf
Objective: The complexity, heterogeneity and capacity of malignant neoplastic cells and tumors for rapid change and evolution suggest that living-cell-based biological-systems approaches to cancer treatment are merited. Testing this hypothesis, the tumor marker, metabolic activity, and overall survival (OS) responses, to the use of one such system, implantable macrobeads [RENCA macrobeads (RMBs)], in phase I and IIa clinical trials in advanced, treatment-resistant metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) are described here...
February 2018: Chinese Journal of Cancer Research, Chung-kuo Yen Cheng Yen Chiu
Feng Feng, Fulin Qiang, Aijun Shen, Donghui Shi, Aiyan Fu, Haiming Li, Mingzhu Zhang, Ganlin Xia, Peng Cao
Objective: To prospectively compare the discriminative capacity of dynamic contrast enhanced-magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) with that of18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18 F-FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) in the differentiation of malignant and benign solitary pulmonary nodules (SPNs). Methods: Forty-nine patients with SPNs were included in this prospective study. Thirty-two of the patients had malignant SPNs, while the other 17 had benign SPNs...
February 2018: Chinese Journal of Cancer Research, Chung-kuo Yen Cheng Yen Chiu
Elise Chua, Valerie Udom, Dean Y Huang
We report the case of a 48-year-old man with a right fusiform internal jugular venous aneurysm, presenting as a unilateral painless neck swelling on coughing or laughing. This is a rare condition, more commonly seen in the paediatric population and can be diagnosed using non-invasive modalities such as Doppler ultrasound and contrast-enhanced CT. This anomaly is frequently misdiagnosed or overlooked, and our case highlights the importance of considering venous aneurysm as a differential to prevent invasive imaging and inappropriate management...
March 15, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Kenneth A Miles, Stefan A Voo, Ashley M Groves
Initial clinical research comparing the diagnostic performance of Positron Emission Tomography (PET)/ Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and PET/ Computed Tomography (PET/CT) has largely shown equivalent diagnostic capabilities for these modalities in oncology. These uncertainties about the magnitude of diagnostic benefit are compounded by the considerable health economic challenges associated with clinical implementation. Therefore, there is a need to identify ways to extend the use of this technology beyond simple diagnosis so that PET/MRI can add sufficient clinical value beyond PET/CT or MRI alone, and become a cost-effective imaging modality in clinical practice...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
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