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Gerhard G Grabenbauer, Göbel Holger
Possible toxic effects following radiation and chemotherapy of gastrointestinal tumours may cause a depletion of the mucosal barrier within the radiation volumes with severe mucositis. Diarrhoea, nausea, emesis and severe malabsorption followed by infections with dehydration and electrolyte disorders have to be encountered. For prevention and treatment of oropharyngeal mucositis an oral care protocol, oral cryotherapy together with benzydamine mouthwash may be recommended. Lower gastrointestinal diarrhoea is best treated by Octreotide (>100 μg s...
August 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Gastroenterology
Chongliang Gao, Gianluca Catucci, Giovanna Di Nardo, Gianfranco Gilardi, Sheila J Sadeghi
Human hepatic flavin-containing monooxygenase 3 (hFMO3) catalyses the monooxygenation of carbon-bound reactive heteroatoms and plays an important role in the metabolism of drugs and xenobiotics. Although numerous hFMO3 allelic variants have been identified in patients and their biochemical properties well-characterised in vitro, the molecular mechanisms underlying loss-of-function mutations have still not been elucidated due to lack of detailed structural information of hFMO3. Therefore, in this work a 3D structural model of hFMO3 was generated by homology modeling, evaluated by a variety of different bioinformatics tools, refined by molecular dynamics simulations and further assessed based on in vitro biochemical data...
November 15, 2016: Gene
Tomasz Zaprutko, Dorota Koligat, Michał Michalak, Marta Wieczorek, Malwina Józiak, Monika Ratajczak, Kinga Szydłowska, Joanna Miazek, Krzysztof Kus, Elżbieta Nowakowska
INTRODUCTION: The misuse of over-the-counter (OTC) drugs became a global public health concern. Although abuse with dextrometorphan (DXM), pseudoefedrine (PSD), codeine (COD) or benzydamine (BND) may lead even to psychosis, drugs containing these substances are relatively cheap and freely available. In Poland the Act on Counteracting Drug Addiction was amended in 2015, however it seems that there are still some points which could be improved. METHODS: Study was conducted between October 2014 and June 2015 using a specially designed questionnaire delivered to pharmacists from the Greater Poland region...
August 2016: Health Policy
Nashwa Abdallah Mekhemar, Ahmed Samy El-Agwany, Wafaa Kamel Radi, Sherif Mohammed El-Hady
Postoperative sore throat is a common complication after endotracheal intubation. After tracheal intubation, the incidence of sore throat varies from 14.4% to 50%. The aim of the study was to compare between benzydamine hydrochloride gel, lidocaine 5% gel and lidocaine 10% spray on the endotracheal tube cuff as regards postoperative sore throat. The present study was carried out on 124 patients admitted to Alexandria university hospitals for lumbar fixation surgery requiring general anesthesia. Patients were randomly allocated into 4 groups...
May 2016: Brazilian Journal of Anesthesiology
Nashwa Abdallah Mekhemar, Ahmed Samy El-Agwany, Wafaa Kamel Radi, Sherif Mohammed El-Hady
Postoperative sore throat is a common complication after endotracheal intubation. After tracheal intubation, the incidence of sore throat varies from 14.4% to 50%. The aim of the study was to compare between benzydamine hydrochloride gel, lidocaine 5% gel and lidocaine 10% spray on the endotracheal tube cuff as regards postoperative sore throat. The present study was carried out on 124 patients admitted to Alexandria university hospitals for lumbar fixation surgery requiring general anesthesia. Patients were randomly allocated into 4 groups...
May 2016: Revista Brasileira de Anestesiologia
Basak Ceyda Meco, Menekse Ozcelik, Cigdem Yildirim Guclu, Suha Beton, Yuce Islamoglu, Aysegul Turgay, Cem Meco, Yesim Batislam
OBJECTIVE: Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) is a common problem that affects up to 30% of all surgical patients after general anaesthesia, which increases in sinonasal surgery due the very potent emetic effect of ingested blood that is swallowed during the procedures. Therefore, a hypo/oropharyngeal packing is commonly placed in an effort to prevent blood ingestion. The primary aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of 3 packing types in preventing PONV and to compare the results with patients who received no packing...
April 2016: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
Joanna Zakrzewska, John A G Buchanan
INTRODUCTION: Burning mouth syndrome mainly affects women, particularly after the menopause, when its prevalence may be 18% to 33%. METHODS AND OUTCOMES: We conducted a systematic overview, aiming to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of selected treatments for burning mouth syndrome? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to January 2015 (Clinical Evidence overviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this overview)...
2016: Clinical Evidence
Saurabh Samdariya, Shirley Lewis, Heena Kauser, Iqbal Ahmed, Dewesh Kumar
BACKGROUND: There are various drugs tried for relieving pain associated with radiation-induced mucositis. This paper aims to study role of honey in relieving pain due to radiation induced mucositis in head and neck cancer patients receiving concomitant chemoradiation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A randomized controlled trial on 78 subjects (40 in test group and 38 in control group) was undertaken to study the analgesic effect of honey, but the analysis of 69 patients was done as nine patients (four in test and five in control group) were lost to follow-up or left treatment in between the study...
September 2015: Indian Journal of Palliative Care
Jee-Eun Chang, Seong-Won Min, Chong-Soo Kim, Sung-Hee Han, Yong-Suk Kwon, Jin-Young Hwang
PURPOSE: We evaluated the prophylactic effect of benzydamine hydrochloride (BH) spray on postoperative sore throat and hoarseness secondary to intubation with a double-lumen endobronchial tube (DLT). METHODS: Ninety-two adult patients undergoing thoracic surgery using DLT intubation were studied. The DLT cuff and oropharyngeal cavity were sprayed with normal saline (Group S; n = 46) or BH (Group BH; n = 46) prior to intubation. Postoperative sore throat and hoarseness were evaluated at one, six, and 24 hr after surgery...
October 2015: Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia, Journal Canadien D'anesthésie
A Hashemi, Z Bahrololoumi, Y Khaksar, N Saffarzadeh, H Neamatzade, E Foroughi
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this review was to evaluate studies in basic oral care interventions to update evidence based practice guidelines for preventing oral mucositis (OM) in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. MATERIAL & METHODS: Pub Med database and Google Scholar were searched for all papers published between 2000 and December 2014 in English that were conducted using the search terms including ''mocusitis, chemotherapy, mouth-rinses, oral care, oral care protocol, dental care,dental cleaning, oral decontamination, oral hygiene", and the combined phrases in order to obtain all relevant studies...
2015: Iranian Journal of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology
Supriya Mallick, Rony Benson, G K Rath
Oral mucositis (OM) is a major limiting acute side effect of radiotherapy for head and neck cancer. The spectrum of problems associated with mucositis includes oral pain, odynophagia, reduced oral intake, and secondary infections. Incidence of mucositis is increased with addition of concurrent chemotherapy as well as altered fractionation schedules. This leads to treatment interruption and suboptimal disease control. Hence, prevention as well as timely management of OM is necessary for optimum tumor control...
September 2016: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
Sheena Derry, R Andrew Moore, Helen Gaskell, Mairead McIntyre, Philip J Wiffen
BACKGROUND: Use of topical NSAIDs to treat acute musculoskeletal conditions has become widely accepted because they can provide pain relief without associated systemic adverse events. This review is an update of 'Topical NSAIDs for acute pain in adults' originally published in Issue 6, 2010. OBJECTIVES: To determine the efficacy and safety of topically applied NSAIDs in acute musculoskeletal pain in adults. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Register of Studies Online, MEDLINE, and EMBASE to February 2015...
2015: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Mehmet İbiş, Mehmet Arhan, Tuba İbiş, İbrahim Koral Önal, Harun Erdal, Özlem Gül Utku
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The aim was to assess the efficacy of adding benzydamine (B) spray to standard treatment with a lidocaine (L) spray before upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (UGE) as a topical anaesthetic regimen. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 118 adult patients undergoing outpatient UGE were randomly assigned to receive L (n=44), LB (n=38) or B (n=36) before the procedure. The primary outcome was the patient tolerance score, which represents a summative evaluation of the taste of the anesthetic agent, the intensity of pharyngeal numbness, the amount of coughing or gagging and the degree of discomfort during oesophageal intubation...
May 2015: Turkish Journal of Gastroenterology: the Official Journal of Turkish Society of Gastroenterology
Makiko Shimizu, Arisa Shiraishi, Ayumi Sato, Satomi Nagashima, Hiroshi Yamazaki
Human flavin-containing monooxygenase 3 (FMO3) in the liver catalyzes a variety of oxygenations of nitrogen- and sulfur-containing medicines and xenobiotic substances. Because of growing interest in drug interactions mediated by polymorphic FMO3, benzydamine N-oxygenation by human FMO3 was investigated as a model reaction. Among the 41 compounds tested, trimethylamine, methimazole, itopride, and tozasertib (50 μM) suppressed benzydamine N-oxygenation at a substrate concentration of 50 μM by approximately 50% after co-incubation...
February 2015: Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
Tomomi Taniguchi-Takizawa, Makiko Shimizu, Toshiyuki Kume, Hiroshi Yamazaki
Benzydamine is an anti-inflammatory drug that undergoes flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO)-dependent metabolism to benzydamine N-oxide; however, benzydamine N-demethylation is also catalyzed by liver microsomes. In this study, benzydamine N-oxygenation and N-demethylation mediated by liver microsomes from rats, dogs, monkeys, and humans were characterized comprehensively. Values of the maximum velocity/Michaelis constant ratio for benzydamine N-oxygenation by liver microsomes from dogs and rats were higher than those from monkeys and humans, despite roughly similar rates of N-demethylation in the four species...
February 2015: Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
Hsing-Won Wang, Pin-Zhir Chao, Fei-Peng Lee, Jia-Yi Wang
OBJECTIVES: Benzydamine is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents agent with anti-inflammatory and local anesthesia properties that is available in the entire world as an oral spray for oral mucositis patients who are suffering from radiation effects. The effect of benzydamine on oral mucositis in vivo is well known; however, the effect of the drug on tracheal smooth muscle has rarely been explored. During administration of the benzydamine for oral symptoms, it might affect the trachea via oral intake or inhalation...
March 2015: Clinical and Experimental Otorhinolaryngology
Waldemar Krzeszowski, Jan Wilczyński, Mariusz Grzesiak, Dorota Nowakowska
We report 3 cases of prenatal diagnosis of premature constriction of the ductus arteriosus after maternal benzydamine hydrochloride therapy (3-mg lozenges) in third-trimester pregnancies. In each case, fetal echocardiography revealed a dilated, hypocontractile right ventricle with severe tricuspid regurgitation and constriction of the ductus arteriosus. Although the effect of indomethacin and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on prenatal ductal constriction is well known, readily available over-the-counter nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as benzydamine can have an equally deleterious effect and are best avoided in the third trimester of pregnancy...
March 2015: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
Silvia Castrignanò, Gianfranco Gilardi, Sheila J Sadeghi
Human flavin-containing monooxygenase 3 (hFMO3), a membrane-bound hepatic protein, belonging to the second most important class of phase-1 drug-metabolizing enzymes, was immobilized in its active form on graphene oxide (GO) for enhanced electrochemical response. To improve protein stabilization and to ensure the electrocatalytic activity of the immobilized enzyme, didodecyldimethylammonium bromide (DDAB) was used to mimic lipid layers of biological membranes and acted as an interface between GO nanomaterial and the hFMO3 biocomponent...
March 3, 2015: Analytical Chemistry
Khosro M Sheibani, Ahmad R Mafi, Shiva Moghaddam, Farnaz Taslimi, Ahmadreza Amiran, Ahmad Ameri
AIM: Several studies have demonstrated positive effects of benzydamine oral rinse in prevention of radiation-induced oral mucositis. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of this medication in reducing the signs and symptoms of oral mucositis in patients receiving radiotherapy for head and neck cancer. METHODS: Fifty-one patients with head and neck carcinoma 2012 received external beam radiotherapy for 5 days/week to total planned cumulative radiotherapy doses of at least 5000 cGy...
March 2015: Asia-Pacific Journal of Clinical Oncology
Mahnaz Sahebjamee, Arash Mansourian, Mohammad Hajimirzamohammad, Haji Mirza Mohammad Mohammad, Mohsen Taghi Zadeh, Reza Bekhradi, Ali Kazemian, Soheila Manifar, Sajjad Ashnagar, Kiavash Doroudgar
PURPOSE: To compare the efficacy of an Aloe vera mouthwash with a benzydamine mouthwash in the alleviation of radiation- induced mucositis in head and neck cancer patients using a triple-blind, randomised controlled trial. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-six eligible head and neck cancer patients who were to receive conventional radiation therapy at the radiation oncology department were randomised to receive an Aloe vera mouthwash or a benzydamine mouthwash. Mucositis severity was assessed during the course of radiation therapy using the WHO grading system...
2015: Oral Health & Preventive Dentistry
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