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Benzydamine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258069/marmoset-flavin-containing-monooxygenase-3-in-liver-is-a-major-benzydamine-and-sulindac-sulfide-oxygenase
#1
Shotaro Uehara, Makiko Shimizu, Yasuhiro Uno, Takashi Inoue, Erika Sasaki, Hiroshi Yamazaki
Common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) are potentially primate models for preclinical drug metabolism studies because the molecular characteristics of cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes have similarities between this species and humans. However, characterization of non-P450 enzymes have not been clarified in marmosets. Here, we report characterization of flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO) 1-5 identified in marmoset tissues. Marmoset FMO forms shared high amino acid sequence identities (93-95%) and phylogenetic closeness with human homologue FMO forms...
March 3, 2017: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247977/burning-mouth-syndrome-a-systematic-review-of-treatments
#2
REVIEW
Yuan F Liu, Yohanan Kim, Timothy Yoo, Peter Han, Jared C Inman
Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a chronic oral pain syndrome that primarily affects peri- and postmenopausal women. It is characterized by oral mucosal burning and may be associated with dysgeusia, paresthesia, dysesthesia, and xerostomia. The etiology of the disease process is unknown, but is thought to be neuropathic in origin. The goal of this systematic review was to assess the efficacy of the various treatments for BMS. Literature searches were conducted through PubMed, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library databases, which identified 22 randomized, controlled trials...
March 1, 2017: Oral Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195065/effect-of-econazole-and-benzydamine-on-sensory-neurons-in-culture
#3
S Mathivanan, R de la Torre-Martinez, C Wolf, G Mangano, L Polenzani, C Milanese, A Ferrer-Montiel
Econazole is an anti-mycotic agent widely used for the treatment of cutaneous fungal infections, and for the therapy of vaginal candidiasis. Topical application of this azole is generally safe, although some patients have complained of mild burning sensation/cutaneous irritation and itching, especially when administered intravaginally. The underlying mechanisms responsible of these adverse effects are poorly understood, though they suggest excitation of cutaneous nociceptor terminals. We report that exposure of primary cultures of rat nociceptors to econazole augments neuronal excitability...
December 2016: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145791/human-plasma-metabolic-profiles-of-benzydamine-a-flavin-containing-monooxygenase-probe-substrate-simulated-with-pharmacokinetic-data-from-control-and-humanized-liver-mice
#4
Miho Yamazaki-Nishioka, Makiko Shimizu, Hiroshi Suemizu, Megumi Nishiwaki, Marina Mitsui, Hiroshi Yamazaki
1. Benzydamine is used clinically as a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug in oral rinses and is employed in preclinical research as a flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO) probe substrate. In this study, plasma concentrations of benzydamine and its primary N-oxide and N-demethylated metabolites were investigated in control TK-NOG mice, in humanized-liver mice, and in mice whose liver cells had been ablated with ganciclovir. 2. Following oral administration of benzydamine (10 mg/kg) in humanized-liver TK-NOG mice, plasma concentrations of benzydamine N-oxide were slightly higher than those of demethyl benzydamine...
February 1, 2017: Xenobiotica; the Fate of Foreign Compounds in Biological Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137602/identification-of-human-flavin-containing-monooxygenase-3-substrates-by-a-colorimetric-screening-assay
#5
Gianluca Catucci, Isabelle Polignano, Debora Cusumano, Claudio Medana, Gianfranco Gilardi, Sheila J Sadeghi
Human hepatic flavin-containing monooxygenase 3 is a phase I drug-metabolizing enzyme that is responsible for the oxidation of a variety of drugs and xenobiotics. This work reports on a high throughput rapid colorimetric assay for the screening of substrates or inhibitors of this enzyme. The method is based on the competition of two substrates for access to the active site of hFMO3 whereby the enzymatic product of the first drug converts nitro-5-thiobenzoate (TNB, yellow) to 5,5'-dithiobis (2-nitrobenzoate) (DTNB, colourless)...
January 27, 2017: Analytical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054999/interaction-between-dna-and-drugs-having-protonable-basic-groups-characterization-through-affinity-constants-drug-release-kinetics-and-conformational-changes
#6
Liliana P Alarcón, Yolima Baena, Rubén H Manzo
This paper reports the in vitro characterization of the interaction between the phosphate groups of DNA and the protonated species of drugs with basic groups through the determination of the affinity constants, the reversibility of the interaction, and the effect on the secondary structure of the macromolecule. Affinity constants of the counterionic condensation DNA-drug were in the order of 10⁶. The negative electrokinetic potential of DNA decreased with the increase of the proportion of loading drugs. The drugs were slowly released from the DNA-drug complexes and had release kinetics consistent with the high degree of counterionic condensation...
January 4, 2017: Scientia Pharmaceutica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987094/role-of-benzydamine-hydrochloride-in-the-prevention-of-oral-mucositis-in-head-and-neck-cancer-patients-treated-with-radiotherapy-50%C3%A2-gy-with-or-without-chemotherapy
#7
Madhup Rastogi, Rohini Khurana, Swaroop Revannasiddaiah, Isha Jaiswal, Sambit S Nanda, Pooja Gupta, Kundan S Chufal, M L Bhatt
PURPOSE: Benzydamine is recommended for prophylaxis of oral mucositis (OM) in head and neck cancer (HNC) patients for radiation doses (<50 Gy). This study evaluates role of benzydamine for higher radiation doses (>50 Gy) with or without chemotherapy. METHODS: One hundred twenty patients of HNC with planned radiation doses of ≥60 Gy were randomized to group A (control radiotherapy alone), group B (study radiotherapy alone), group C (control chemoradiotherapy), or to group D (study chemoradiotherapy)...
December 16, 2016: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918734/protocols-for-management-of-oral-complications-of-chemotherapy-and-or-radiotherapy-for-oral-cancer-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-current
#8
J-N Carneiro-Neto, J-D-S de-Menezes, L-B Moura, E-M-S Massucato, C-R de-Andrade
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Considering the high possibility of dentist consult a patient with oral complications of chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy for oral cancer because of the advances in this area, this study aims to systematically review the literature to identify and suggest effective and safe protocols for the managements of oral complications in oncology patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The systematic review was designed by PICO and PRISMA including eligibility and exclusion criteria; the source of information and search strategy in PubMed according MeSH: "Mouth Neoplasms and Radiotherapy" and "Mouth Neoplasms and Drug Therapy" the period from 2010 to 2015; selection and data collection of study was carried form blind and independently by two researchers; risk of bias and methodological quality: ensured by the PEDro scale; synthesis of data: of oral complications were evaluated by adapted version of associative direction classification proposed by Costigan and collaborators; and data analysis was performed by the meta-analysis of BioEstat program (5...
January 1, 2017: Medicina Oral, Patología Oral y Cirugía Bucal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27644912/management-of-radiation-and-chemotherapy-related-acute-toxicity-in-gastrointestinal-cancer
#9
REVIEW
Gerhard G Grabenbauer, Göbel Holger
Possible toxic effects following radiation and chemotherapy of gastrointestinal tumours may cause a depletion of the mucosal barrier within the radiation volumes with severe mucositis. Diarrhoea, nausea, emesis and severe malabsorption followed by infections with dehydration and electrolyte disorders have to be encountered. For prevention and treatment of oropharyngeal mucositis an oral care protocol, oral cryotherapy together with benzydamine mouthwash may be recommended. Lower gastrointestinal diarrhoea is best treated by Octreotide (>100 μg s...
August 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27523475/human-flavin-containing-monooxygenase-3-structural-mapping-of-gene-polymorphisms-and-insights-into-molecular-basis-of-drug-binding
#10
Chongliang Gao, Gianluca Catucci, Giovanna Di Nardo, Gianfranco Gilardi, Sheila J Sadeghi
Human hepatic flavin-containing monooxygenase 3 (hFMO3) catalyses the monooxygenation of carbon-bound reactive heteroatoms and plays an important role in the metabolism of drugs and xenobiotics. Although numerous hFMO3 allelic variants have been identified in patients and their biochemical properties well-characterised in vitro, the molecular mechanisms underlying loss-of-function mutations have still not been elucidated due to lack of detailed structural information of hFMO3. Therefore, in this work a 3D structural model of hFMO3 was generated by homology modeling, evaluated by a variety of different bioinformatics tools, refined by molecular dynamics simulations and further assessed based on in vitro biochemical data...
November 15, 2016: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27344198/misuse-of-otc-drugs-in-poland
#11
Tomasz Zaprutko, Dorota Koligat, Michał Michalak, Marta Wieczorek, Malwina Józiak, Monika Ratajczak, Kinga Szydłowska, Joanna Miazek, Krzysztof Kus, Elżbieta Nowakowska
INTRODUCTION: The misuse of over-the-counter (OTC) drugs became a global public health concern. Although abuse with dextrometorphan (DXM), pseudoefedrine (PSD), codeine (COD) or benzydamine (BND) may lead even to psychosis, drugs containing these substances are relatively cheap and freely available. In Poland the Act on Counteracting Drug Addiction was amended in 2015, however it seems that there are still some points which could be improved. METHODS: Study was conducted between October 2014 and June 2015 using a specially designed questionnaire delivered to pharmacists from the Greater Poland region...
August 2016: Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27108819/comparative-study-between-benzydamine-hydrochloride-gel-lidocaine-5-gel-and-lidocaine-10-spray-on-endotracheal-tube-cuff-as-regards-postoperative-sore-throat
#12
Nashwa Abdallah Mekhemar, Ahmed Samy El-Agwany, Wafaa Kamel Radi, Sherif Mohammed El-Hady
Postoperative sore throat is a common complication after endotracheal intubation. After tracheal intubation, the incidence of sore throat varies from 14.4% to 50%. The aim of the study was to compare between benzydamine hydrochloride gel, lidocaine 5% gel and lidocaine 10% spray on the endotracheal tube cuff as regards postoperative sore throat. The present study was carried out on 124 patients admitted to Alexandria university hospitals for lumbar fixation surgery requiring general anesthesia. Patients were randomly allocated into 4 groups...
May 2016: Brazilian Journal of Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26993406/-comparative-study-between-benzydamine-hydrochloride-gel-lidocaine-5-gel-and-lidocaine-10-spray-on-endotracheal-tube-cuff-as-regards-postoperative-sore-throat
#13
Nashwa Abdallah Mekhemar, Ahmed Samy El-Agwany, Wafaa Kamel Radi, Sherif Mohammed El-Hady
Postoperative sore throat is a common complication after endotracheal intubation. After tracheal intubation, the incidence of sore throat varies from 14.4% to 50%. The aim of the study was to compare between benzydamine hydrochloride gel, lidocaine 5% gel and lidocaine 10% spray on the endotracheal tube cuff as regards postoperative sore throat. The present study was carried out on 124 patients admitted to Alexandria university hospitals for lumbar fixation surgery requiring general anesthesia. Patients were randomly allocated into 4 groups...
May 2016: Revista Brasileira de Anestesiologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26786266/does-type-of-pharyngeal-packing-during-sinonasal-surgery-have-an-effect-on-ponv-and-throat-pain
#14
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Basak Ceyda Meco, Menekse Ozcelik, Cigdem Yildirim Guclu, Suha Beton, Yuce Islamoglu, Aysegul Turgay, Cem Meco, Yesim Batislam
OBJECTIVE: Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) is a common problem that affects up to 30% of all surgical patients after general anaesthesia, which increases in sinonasal surgery due the very potent emetic effect of ingested blood that is swallowed during the procedures. Therefore, a hypo/oropharyngeal packing is commonly placed in an effort to prevent blood ingestion. The primary aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of 3 packing types in preventing PONV and to compare the results with patients who received no packing...
April 2016: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26745781/burning-mouth-syndrome
#15
Joanna Zakrzewska, John A G Buchanan
INTRODUCTION: Burning mouth syndrome mainly affects women, particularly after the menopause, when its prevalence may be 18% to 33%. METHODS AND OUTCOMES: We conducted a systematic overview, aiming to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of selected treatments for burning mouth syndrome? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to January 2015 (Clinical Evidence overviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this overview)...
2016: Clinical Evidence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26600693/a-randomized-controlled-trial-evaluating-the-role-of-honey-in-reducing-pain-due-to-radiation-induced-mucositis-in-head-and-neck-cancer-patients
#16
Saurabh Samdariya, Shirley Lewis, Heena Kauser, Iqbal Ahmed, Dewesh Kumar
BACKGROUND: There are various drugs tried for relieving pain associated with radiation-induced mucositis. This paper aims to study role of honey in relieving pain due to radiation induced mucositis in head and neck cancer patients receiving concomitant chemoradiation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A randomized controlled trial on 78 subjects (40 in test group and 38 in control group) was undertaken to study the analgesic effect of honey, but the analysis of 69 patients was done as nine patients (four in test and five in control group) were lost to follow-up or left treatment in between the study...
September 2015: Indian Journal of Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26149601/effect-of-prophylactic-benzydamine-hydrochloride-on-postoperative-sore-throat-and-hoarseness-after-tracheal-intubation-using-a-double-lumen-endobronchial-tube-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#17
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Jee-Eun Chang, Seong-Won Min, Chong-Soo Kim, Sung-Hee Han, Yong-Suk Kwon, Jin-Young Hwang
PURPOSE: We evaluated the prophylactic effect of benzydamine hydrochloride (BH) spray on postoperative sore throat and hoarseness secondary to intubation with a double-lumen endobronchial tube (DLT). METHODS: Ninety-two adult patients undergoing thoracic surgery using DLT intubation were studied. The DLT cuff and oropharyngeal cavity were sprayed with normal saline (Group S; n = 46) or BH (Group BH; n = 46) prior to intubation. Postoperative sore throat and hoarseness were evaluated at one, six, and 24 hr after surgery...
October 2015: Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia, Journal Canadien D'anesthésie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26131350/mouth-rinses-for-the-prevention-of-chemotherapy-induced-oral-mucositis-in-children-a-systematic-review
#18
A Hashemi, Z Bahrololoumi, Y Khaksar, N Saffarzadeh, H Neamatzade, E Foroughi
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this review was to evaluate studies in basic oral care interventions to update evidence based practice guidelines for preventing oral mucositis (OM) in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. MATERIAL & METHODS: Pub Med database and Google Scholar were searched for all papers published between 2000 and December 2014 in English that were conducted using the search terms including ''mocusitis, chemotherapy, mouth-rinses, oral care, oral care protocol, dental care,dental cleaning, oral decontamination, oral hygiene", and the combined phrases in order to obtain all relevant studies...
2015: Iranian Journal of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26116012/radiation-induced-oral-mucositis-a-review-of-current-literature-on-prevention-and-management
#19
REVIEW
Supriya Mallick, Rony Benson, G K Rath
Oral mucositis (OM) is a major limiting acute side effect of radiotherapy for head and neck cancer. The spectrum of problems associated with mucositis includes oral pain, odynophagia, reduced oral intake, and secondary infections. Incidence of mucositis is increased with addition of concurrent chemotherapy as well as altered fractionation schedules. This leads to treatment interruption and suboptimal disease control. Hence, prevention as well as timely management of OM is necessary for optimum tumor control...
September 2016: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26068955/topical-nsaids-for-acute-musculoskeletal-pain-in-adults
#20
REVIEW
Sheena Derry, R Andrew Moore, Helen Gaskell, Mairead McIntyre, Philip J Wiffen
BACKGROUND: Use of topical NSAIDs to treat acute musculoskeletal conditions has become widely accepted because they can provide pain relief without associated systemic adverse events. This review is an update of 'Topical NSAIDs for acute pain in adults' originally published in Issue 6, 2010. OBJECTIVES: To determine the efficacy and safety of topically applied NSAIDs in acute musculoskeletal pain in adults. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Register of Studies Online, MEDLINE, and EMBASE to February 2015...
June 11, 2015: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
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