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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822737/printing-nature-unraveling-the-role-of-nacre-s-mineral-bridges
#1
Grace X Gu, Flavia Libonati, Susan D Wettermark, Markus J Buehler
Creating materials with strength and toughness has been a long-sought goal. Conventional engineering materials often face a trade-off between strength and toughness, prompting researchers seeking to overcome these limitations to explore more sophisticated materials, such as composites. This paradigm shift in material design is spurred by nature, which exhibits a plethora of heterogeneous materials that offer outstanding material properties, and many natural materials are widely regarded as examples of high-performing hybrid materials...
May 4, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822482/towards-an-integrated-species-and-habitat-management-of-crop-pollination
#2
REVIEW
Lucas A Garibaldi, Fabrice Requier, Orianne Rollin, Georg Ks Andersson
Pollination deficits are widespread in current agriculture, so improving management for crop pollination is critical. Here we review the two most common management approaches to enhance crop pollination, species and habitat management, by providing referenced lists of successful examples. We pinpoint that these approaches have been studied in isolation from each other, with little discussion on potential synergies and trade-offs between them. The potential costs of species management (e.g., loss of biodiversity due to biological invasion), as well as the potential benefits to managed pollinator species from habitat restoration, are rarely quantified...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821739/ultrafast-photonic-reinforcement-learning-based-on-laser-chaos
#3
Makoto Naruse, Yuta Terashima, Atsushi Uchida, Song-Ju Kim
Reinforcement learning involves decision making in dynamic and uncertain environments and constitutes an important element of artificial intelligence (AI). In this work, we experimentally demonstrate that the ultrafast chaotic oscillatory dynamics of lasers efficiently solve the multi-armed bandit problem (MAB), which requires decision making concerning a class of difficult trade-offs called the exploration-exploitation dilemma. To solve the MAB, a certain degree of randomness is required for exploration purposes...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819686/the-sensory-substrate-of-multimodal-communication-in-brown-headed-cowbirds-are-females-sensory-specialists-or-generalists
#4
Kelly L Ronald, Timothy M Sesterhenn, Esteban Fernandez-Juricic, Jeffrey R Lucas
Many animals communicate with multimodal signals. While we have an understanding of multimodal signal production, we know relatively less about receiver filtering of multimodal signals and whether filtering capacity in one modality influences filtering in a second modality. Most multimodal signals contain a temporal element, such as change in frequency over time or a dynamic visual display. We examined the relationship in temporal resolution across two modalities to test whether females are (1) sensory 'specialists', where a trade-off exists between the sensory modalities, (2) sensory 'generalists', where a positive relationship exists between the modalities, or (3) whether no relationship exists between modalities...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819206/network-robustness-assessed-within-a-dual-connectivity-framework-joint-dynamics-of-the-active-and-idle-networks
#5
Alejandro Tejedor, Anthony Longjas, Ilya Zaliapin, Samuel Ambroj, Efi Foufoula-Georgiou
Network robustness against attacks has been widely studied in fields as diverse as the Internet, power grids and human societies. But current definition of robustness is only accounting for half of the story: the connectivity of the nodes unaffected by the attack. Here we propose a new framework to assess network robustness, wherein the connectivity of the affected nodes is also taken into consideration, acknowledging that it plays a crucial role in properly evaluating the overall network robustness in terms of its future recovery from the attack...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819099/the-genetic-basis-of-natural-variation-in-a-phoretic-behavior
#6
Daehan Lee, Heeseung Yang, Jun Kim, Shannon Brady, Stefan Zdraljevic, Mostafa Zamanian, Heekyeong Kim, Young-Ki Paik, Leonid Kruglyak, Erik C Andersen, Junho Lee
Phoresy is a widespread form of commensalism that facilitates dispersal of one species through an association with a more mobile second species. Dauer larvae of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans exhibit a phoretic behavior called nictation, which could enable interactions with animals such as isopods or snails. Here, we show that natural C. elegans isolates differ in nictation. We use quantitative behavioral assays and linkage mapping to identify a genetic locus (nict-1) that mediates the phoretic interaction with terrestrial isopods...
August 17, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818966/meta-analysis-using-individual-participant-data-from-randomised-trials-opportunities-and-limitations-created-by-access-to-raw-data
#7
Ewelina Rogozińska, Nadine Marlin, Shakila Thangaratinam, Khalid S Khan, Javier Zamora
Meta-analysis based on individual participant data (IPD), often described as the 'gold standard' for effectiveness evidence synthesis, is increasingly being deployed despite being more resource intensive than collating study-level results. Its professed virtues include the ability to incorporate unreported data and to standardise variables and their definitions across trials. In reality, the unreported data, although present in shared datasets, might still not be usable in the analysis. The characteristics of trial participants and their outcomes may be too diversely captured for harmonisation and too time and resource consuming to standardise...
August 17, 2017: Evidence-based Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816476/benefits-of-flexible-prioritization-in-working-memory-can-arise-without-costs
#8
Nicholas E Myers, Sammi R Chekroud, Mark G Stokes, Anna C Nobre
Most recent models conceptualize working memory (WM) as a continuous resource, divided up according to task demands. When an increasing number of items need to be remembered, each item receives a smaller chunk of the memory resource. These models predict that the allocation of attention to high-priority WM items during the retention interval should be a zero-sum game: improvements in remembering cued items come at the expense of uncued items because resources are dynamically transferred from uncued to cued representations...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814569/the-impact-of-urban-speed-reduction-programmes-on-health-system-cost-and-utilities
#9
Babak Mohit, Zohn Rosen, Peter A Muennig
BACKGROUND: Vehicle speed changes impact the probability of injuring a pedestrian in ways that differ from the way that it impacts the probability of a collision or of death. Therefore, return on investment in speed reduction programmes has complex and unpredictable manifests. The objective of this study is to analyse the impact of motor vehicle speed reduction on the collision-related morbidity and mortality rates of urban pedestrians. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We created a simple way to estimate the public health impacts of traffic speed changes using a Markov model...
August 16, 2017: Injury Prevention: Journal of the International Society for Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813963/novel-neural-interface-electrode-array-for-the-peripheral-nerve
#10
Ockchul Kim, Wonsuk Choi, Woohyun Jung, Sunyoung Jung, HyungDal Park, Jong Woong Park, Jinseok Kim
Peripheral neural interface (PNI) is becoming an essential technology in the field of robotic prosthesis due to its potential for providing bidirectional neural signal communication between the prosthetic arm and the brain. However, current PNIs inefficiently trade off neural signal selectivity and the invasiveness of the device. We designed and fabricated a new PNI electrode array that has high signal selectivity yet maintains low invasiveness by incorporating a design that allows for three-dimensional spiral insertion around the peripheral nerve...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813797/improving-motor-skill-transfer-during-dyadic-robot-training-through-the-modulation-of-the-expert-role
#11
Elisa Galofaro, Pietro Morasso, Jacopo Zenzeri
In daily life it is necessary to learn skills that can be applied in different tasks and different contexts. Usually these skills are acquired by observation or by direct physical training with another expert person. The critical point is to know which is the best possible way to achieve this knowledge acquisition. In this work we have proposed a collaborative environment where subjects with different levels of expertise have to interact through the use of a robotic platform. A motor skill learning algorithm has been designed in order to allow the less skilled subjects-naïves-to explore the virtual environment and to exploit the advantages of working with a skilled partner...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813786/prediction-of-gait-events-in-walking-activities-with-a-bayesian-perception-system
#12
Uriel Martinez-Hernandez, Mohammed I Awad, Imran Mahmood, Abbas A Dehghani-Sanij
In this paper, a robust probabilistic formulation for prediction of gait events from human walking activities using wearable sensors is presented. This approach combines the output from a Bayesian perception system with observations from actions and decisions made over time. The perception system makes decisions about the current gait events, while observations from decisions and actions allow to predict the most probable gait event during walking activities. Furthermore, our proposed method is capable to evaluate the accuracy of its predictions, which permits to obtain a better performance and trade-off between accuracy and speed...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812802/diplomacy-and-health-the-end-of-the-utilitarian-era
#13
Sebastian Kevany, Marcus Matthews
Cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA), as a system of allocative efficiency for global health programs, is an influential criterion for resource allocation in the context of diplomacy and inherent foreign policy decisions therein. This is because such programs have diplomatic benefits and costs that can be uploaded from the recipient and affect the broader foreign policy interests of the donor and the diplomacy landscape between both parties. These diplomatic implications are vital to the long-term success of both the immediate program and any subsequent programs; hence it is important to articulate them alongside program performance, in terms of how well their interrelated interventions were perceived by the communities served...
January 8, 2017: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812728/antibiotic-resistance-evolution-without-trade-offs
#14
David Reznick, Kayla King
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 30, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812723/the-unconstrained-evolution-of-fast-and-efficient-antibiotic-resistant-bacterial-genomes
#15
Carlos Reding-Roman, Mark Hewlett, Sarah Duxbury, Fabio Gori, Ivana Gudelj, Robert Beardmore
Evolutionary trajectories are constrained by trade-offs when mutations that benefit one life history trait incur fitness costs in other traits. As resistance to tetracycline antibiotics by increased efflux can be associated with an increase in length of the Escherichia coli chromosome of 10% or more, we sought costs of resistance associated with doxycycline. However, it was difficult to identify any because the growth rate (r), carrying capacity (K) and drug efflux rate of E. coli increased during evolutionary experiments where the species was exposed to doxycycline...
January 30, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811878/magellanic-penguin-telomeres-do-not-shorten-with-age-with-increased-reproductive-effort-investment-and-basal-corticosterone
#16
Jack A Cerchiara, Rosa Ana Risques, Donna Prunkard, Jeffrey R Smith, Olivia J Kane, P Dee Boersma
All species should invest in systems that enhance longevity; however, a fundamental adult life-history trade-off exists between the metabolic resources allocated to maintenance and those allocated to reproduction. Long-lived species will invest more in reproduction than in somatic maintenance as they age. We investigated this trade-off by analyzing correlations among telomere length, reproductive effort and output, and basal corticosterone in Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus). Telomeres shorten with age in most species studied to date, and may affect adult survival...
August 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810960/talk-to-the-hand-u-s-army-biophysical-testing
#17
William R Santee, Adam W Potter, Karl E Friedl
BACKGROUND: Many people are unaware of the science underlying the biophysical properties of Soldier clothing and personal protective equipment, yet there is a well-refined biomedical methodology initiated by Army physiologists in World War II. This involves a methodical progression of systematic material testing technologies, computer modeling, and human testing that enables more efficient development and rapid evaluation of new concepts for Soldier health and performance. Sophisticated manikins that sweat and move are a central part of this testing continuum...
July 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810509/spatiotemporal-assessment-and-trade-offs-of-multiple-ecosystem-services-based-on-land-use-changes-in-zengcheng-china
#18
Xiao Sun, Feng Li
Driven by rapid urbanization, land use change has become a significant factor influencing ecosystem services (ESs). To support the decision-making process of city planners and policy makers, assessing the spatiotemporal changes associated with multiple ESs is vital. In this study, we developed a general structure to assess the changes of multiple ESs in Zengcheng, China. A new index also was developed to measure the comprehensive ecosystem service (CES). Trade-offs of various ESs were analyzed by using correlation analysis...
August 8, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810465/valuing-health-for-oneself-versus-one-s-child-or-elderly-parent
#19
Aaron E Carroll, Chandan Saha, Susan Ofner, Stephen M Downs
The aim of this study was to determine if adults value health states or are willing to accept risk differently for themselves than for their children or elderly parents. Participants (701) were asked to rate four hypothetical health states for themselves using both the standard gamble and time trade-off methodologies. They then did the same assessments for a real or hypothetical child as well as an elderly parent. Participants were willing to take more risk or trade more years of life to avoid bilateral vision loss and mental impairment for themselves than they were for their children and elderly parents...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Health Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809894/high-sensitivity-and-large-dynamic-range-refractive-index-sensors-employing-weak-composite-fabry-perot-cavities
#20
Pengcheng Chen, Xuewen Shu, Haoran Cao, Kate Sugden
Most sensors face a common trade-off between high sensitivity and a large dynamic range. We demonstrate here an all-fiber refractometer based on a dual-cavity Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) that possesses the advantage of both high sensitivity and a large dynamic range. Since the two composite cavities have a large cavity length difference, one can observe both fine and coarse fringes, which correspond to the long cavity and the short cavity, respectively. The short-cavity FPI and the use of an intensity demodulation method mean that the individual fine fringe dips correspond to a series of quasi-continuous highly sensitive zones for refractive index measurement...
August 15, 2017: Optics Letters
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