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Robert Ekblom, Birte Brechlin, Jens Persson, Linnéa Smeds, Malin Johansson, Jessica Magnusson, Øystein Flagstad, Hans Ellegren
Genetic approaches have proved valuable to the study and conservation of endangered populations, especially for monitoring programs, and there is potential for further developments in this direction by extending analyses to the genomic level. We assembled the genome of the wolverine (Gulo gulo), a mustelid that in Scandinavia has recently recovered from a significant population decline, and obtained a 2.42 Gb draft sequence representing >85% of the genome and including >21,000 protein-coding genes. We then performed whole-genome re-sequencing of 10 Scandinavian wolverines and found that genetic diversity was among the lowest detected in a red-listed population (mean genome-wide nucleotide diversity of 0...
June 23, 2018: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
Mandy Gutknecht, Marthe-Lisa Schaarschmidt, Marion Danner, Marina Otten, Matthias Augustin
In psoriasis, several patient-relevant treatment goals must be met to be able to consider a treatment beneficial. To assess treatment benefit, the validated questionnaire Patient Benefit Index (PBI) can be used. Its global score summarizes the degree of patient-relevant treatment goals achieved after treatment, weighted by their individual importance on rating scales. These treatment goals have empirically been assigned to five dimensions. While the weighting procedure of the PBI provides information about the importance patients attach to treatment goals on a rating scale from 0 to 4, methods of preference elicitation provide information on how patients would trade off certain treatment goals against each other...
June 23, 2018: Archives of Dermatological Research
Fergus I M Craik, Eldar Eftekhari, Malcolm A Binns
Division of attention (DA) at the time of learning has large detrimental effects on subsequent memory performance, but DA at retrieval has much smaller effects (Baddeley, Lewis, Eldridge, & Thomson, 1984, Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 113, 518-540; Craik, Govoni, Naveh-Benjamin, & Anderson, 1996, Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 125, 159-180). Experiment 1 confirmed the relatively small effects of DA on retrieval and also showed that retrieval operations do consume processing resources...
June 22, 2018: Memory & Cognition
R Trafford Crump, Ryan Lau, Elizabeth Cox, Gillian Currie, Julie Panepinto
BACKGROUND: Measuring adolescents' preferences for health states can play an important role in evaluating the delivery of pediatric healthcare. However, formal evaluation of the common direct preference elicitation methods for health states has not been done with adolescents. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to test how these methods perform in terms of their feasibility, reliability, and validity for measuring health state preferences in adolescents. METHODS: This study used a web-based survey of adolescents, 18 years of age or younger, living in the United States...
June 22, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
John Kandulu, Peter Thorburn, Jody Biggs, Kirsten Verburg
Use of chemical agricultural inputs such as nitrogen fertilisers (N) in agricultural production can cause diffuse source pollution thereby degrading the health of coastal and marine ecosystems in coastal river catchments. Previous reviewed economic assessments of N management in agricultural production seldom consider broader environmental impacts and uncertain climatic and economic conditions. This paper presents an economic risk framework for assessing economic and environmental trade-offs of N management strategies taking into account variable climatic and economic conditions...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Santiago Coelho, Jose M Pozo, Marina Costantini, J Robin Highley, Meghdoot Mozumder, Julie E Simpson, Paul G Ince, Alejandro F Frangi
This study aims to statistically describe histologically stained white matter brain sections to subsequently inform and validate diffusion MRI techniques. For the first time, we characterise volume fraction distributions of three of the main structures in deep subcortical white matter (axons, astrocytes, and myelinated axons) in a representative cohort of an ageing population for which well-characterized neuropathology data is available. We analysed a set of samples from 90 subjects of the Cognitive Function and Ageing Study (CFAS), stratified into three groups of 30 subjects each, in relation to the presence of age-associated deep subcortical lesions...
June 19, 2018: NeuroImage
Igor Akushevich, Julia Kravchenko, Arseniy P Yashkin, Anatoliy I Yashin
Longer lifespan is accompanied by a larger number of chronic diseases among older adults. Because of a growing proportion of older adults in the U.S., this brings the problem of age-related morbidity to the forefront as a major contributor to rising medical expenditures. We evaluated 15-year time trends (from 1998 to 2013) in the prevalence of 48 acute and chronic non-cancer diseases and cancers in older U.S. adults aged 65+ and estimated the annual percentage changes of these prevalence trends using SEER-Medicare and HRS-Medicare data...
June 19, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
Yu Shi, Hong Koo Kim
Surface plasmons (SPs) carry electromagnetic energy in the form of collective oscillation of electrons at metal surface and commonly demonstrate two important features: strong lateral confinement and short propagation lengths. In this work we have investigated the trade-off relationship existing between propagation length and lateral confinement of SP fields in a hyperbolic metamaterial system, and explored loosening of lateral confinement as a means of increasing propagation length. By performing finite-difference time-domain analysis of Ag/SiO2 thin-film stacked structure we demonstrate long range (~ 100 mm) propagation of SPs at 1...
2018: Nano Convergence
M Schnedler, V Portz, U Semmler, M Moors, R Waser, R E Dunin-Borkowski, Ph Ebert
Resistive switching random access memories (ReRAM) are promising candidates for energy efficient, fast, and non-volatile universal memories that unite the advantages of RAM and hard drives. Unfortunately, the current ReRAM materials are incompatible with optical interconnects and wires. Optical signal transmission is, however, inevitable for next generation memories in order to overcome the capacity-bandwidth trade-off. Thus, we present here a proof-of-concept of a new type of resistive switching realized in III-V semiconductors, which meet all requirements for the implementation of optoelectronic circuits...
June 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
Mads Aage Toft Kristensen, Ann Dorrit Guassora, Anne Beiter Arreskov, Frans Boch Waldorff, Bibi Hølge-Hazelton
OBJECTIVE: This paper investigated patients' experiences of disease and self-care as well as perceptions of the general practitioner's role in supporting patients with impaired self-care ability. DESIGN: Qualitative interviews with 13 patients with type 2 diabetes, concurrent chronic diseases, and impaired self-care ability assessed by a general practitioner. We analyzed our data using systematic text condensation. The shifting perspectives model of chronic illness formed the theoretical background for the study...
June 22, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Primary Health Care
Stephen M Hovick, Andrea McArdle, S Kent Harrison, Emilie E Regnier
Spatial patterns of trait variation across a species' range have implications for population success and evolutionary change potential, particularly in range-expanding and weedy species that encounter distinct selective pressures at large and small spatial scales simultaneously. We investigated intraspecific trait variation in a common garden experiment with giant ragweed ( Ambrosia trifida ), a highly variable agricultural weed with an expanding geographic range and broad ecological amplitude. Our study included paired populations from agricultural and natural riparian habitats in each of seven regions ranging east to west from the core of the species' distribution in central Ohio to southeastern Minnesota, which is nearer the current invasion front...
July 2018: Evolutionary Applications
Tiago Veiga-Malta, Jordan Feekings, Bent Herrmann, Ludvig Ahm Krag
There is general pressure throughout the world's fisheries for the industry to have greater involvement not only in the development of fishing gears but also in the testing and documentation of their effect. In the European Union, the Common Fisheries Policy of 2013, together with the proposed reform of the technical measures regulation, highlights the need for greater flexibility in fisheries through increased stakeholder involvement. To achieve this flexibility, there is a need for additional fishing gears available to the fishermen...
2018: PloS One
Olga V Matveeva, Aleksey Y Ogurtsov, Nafisa N Nazipova, Svetlana A Shabalina
Off-target oligoprobe's interaction with partially complementary nucleotide sequences represents a problem for many bio-techniques. The goal of the study was to identify oligoprobe sequence characteristics that control the ratio between on-target and off-target hybridization. To understand the complex interplay between specific and genome-wide off-target (cross-hybridization) signals, we analyzed a database derived from genomic comparison hybridization experiments performed with an Affymetrix tiling array. The database included two types of probes with signals derived from (i) a combination of specific signal and cross-hybridization and (ii) genomic cross-hybridization only...
2018: PloS One
Michael P Moore, Cassandra Lis, Ryan A Martin
While deploying immune defenses early in ontogeny can trade-off with the production and maintenance of other important traits across the entire life cycle, it remains largely unexplored how features of the environment shape the magnitude or presence of these lifetime costs. Greater predation risk during the juvenile stage may particularly influence such costs by 1) magnifying the survival costs that arise from any handicap of juvenile avoidance traits and/or 2) intensifying allocation trade-offs with important adult traits...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Ben Ashby, Emily Bruns
Infection prior to reproduction usually carries greater fitness costs for hosts than infection later in life, suggesting selection should tend to favour juvenile resistance. Yet, juveniles are generally more susceptible than adults across a wide spectrum of host taxa. While physiological constraints and a lack of prior exposure can explain some of this pattern, studies in plants and insects suggest that hosts may trade off juvenile susceptibility against other life-history traits. However, it is unclear precisely how trade-offs shape the evolution of juvenile susceptibility...
June 27, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
James R Whiting, Isabel S Magalhaes, Abdul R Singkam, Shaun Robertson, Daniele D'Agostino, Janette E Bradley, Andrew D C MacColl
Understanding how wild immune variation covaries with other traits can reveal how costs and trade-offs shape immune evolution in the wild. Divergent life history strategies may increase or alleviate immune costs, helping shape immune variation in a consistent, testable way. Contrasting hypotheses suggest that shorter life histories may alleviate costs by offsetting them against increased mortality; or increase the effect of costs if immune responses are traded off against development or reproduction. We investigated the evolutionary relationship between life history and immune responses within an island radiation of three-spined stickleback, with discrete populations of varying life histories and parasitism...
June 20, 2018: Molecular Ecology
Ehsan Rahimi, Jeffrey R Reimers
The use of molecules to enact quantum cellular automata (QCA) cells has been proposed as a new way for performing electronic logic operations at sub-nm dimensions. A key question that arises concerns whether chemical or physical processes are to be exploited. The use of chemical reactions allows the state of a switch element to be latched in molecular form, making the output of a cell independent of its inputs, but costs energy to do the reaction. Alternatively, if purely electronic polarization is manipulated then no internal latching occurs, but no power is dissipated provided the fields from the inputs change slowly compared to the molecular response times...
June 20, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Masaki Yamawaki, Masato Ohnishi, Shenghong Ju, Junichiro Shiomi
Materials development often confronts a dilemma as it needs to satisfy multifunctional, often conflicting, demands. For example, thermoelectric conversion requires high electrical conductivity, a high Seebeck coefficient, and low thermal conductivity, despite the fact that these three properties are normally closely correlated. Nanostructuring techniques have been shown to break the correlations to some extent; however, optimal design has been a major challenge due to the extraordinarily large degrees of freedom in the structures...
June 2018: Science Advances
Louis S Matza, Kristina S Boye, Jessica B Jordan, Kirsi Norrbacka, Raffaella Gentilella, Amara R Tiebout, Chantelle Browne, Marco Orsini Federici, Giovanni Biricolti, Katie D Stewart
Objectives: Several glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists are administered as weekly injections for treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2D). These medications vary in their injection processes, and a recent study in the UK found that these differences had an impact on patient preference and health state utilities. The purpose of this study was to replicate the UK study in Italy to examine preferences of an Italian patient sample, while allowing for comparison between utilities in the UK and Italy...
2018: Patient Preference and Adherence
Bing Chen, Martin E Feder, Le Kang
Heat-shock proteins (Hsps) and their cognates are primary mitigators of cell stress. With increasingly severe impacts of climate change and other human modifications of the biosphere, the ability of the heat-shock system to affect evolutionary fitness in environments outside the laboratory and to evolve in response are topics of growing importance. Since the last major reviews, several advances have occurred. First, demonstrations of the heat-shock response outside the laboratory now include many additional taxa and environments...
June 19, 2018: Molecular Ecology
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