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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457226/coordination-and-trade-offs-among-hydraulic-safety-efficiency-and-drought-avoidance-traits-in-amazonian-rainforest-canopy-tree-species
#1
Louis S Santiago, Mark E De Guzman, Christopher Baraloto, Jacob E Vogenberg, Max Brodie, Bruno Hérault, Claire Fortunel, Damien Bonal
Predicting responses of tropical forests to climate change-type drought is challenging because of high species diversity. Detailed characterization of tropical tree hydraulic physiology is necessary to evaluate community drought vulnerability and improve model parameterization. Here, we measured xylem hydraulic conductivity (hydraulic efficiency), xylem vulnerability curves (hydraulic safety), sapwood pressure-volume curves (drought avoidance) and wood density on emergent branches of 14 common species of Eastern Amazonian canopy trees in Paracou, French Guiana across species with the densest and lightest wood in the plot...
February 19, 2018: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456856/design-principles-of-perovskites-for-solar-driven-thermochemical-splitting-of-co-2
#2
Miriam Ezbiri, Michael Takacs, Boris Stolz, Jeffrey Lungthok, Aldo Steinfeld, Ronald Michalsky
Perovskites are attractive redox materials for thermo/electrochemical fuel synthesis. To design perovskites with balanced redox energetics for thermochemically splitting CO2 , the activity of lattice oxygen vacancies and stability against crystal phase changes and detrimental carbonate formation are predicted for a representative range of perovskites by electronic structure computations. Systematic trends in these materials properties when doping with selected metal cations are described in the free energy range defined for isothermal and temperature-swing redox cycles...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Materials Chemistry. A, Materials for Energy and Sustainability
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455866/cognition-action-trade-offs-reflect-organization-of-attention-in-infancy
#3
Sarah E Berger, Regina T Harbourne, Melissa N Horger
This chapter discusses what cognition-action trade-offs in infancy reveal about the organization and developmental trajectory of attention. We focus on internal attention because this aspect is most relevant to the immediate concerns of infancy, such as fluctuating levels of expertise, balancing multiple taxing skills simultaneously, learning how to control attention under variable conditions, and coordinating distinct psychological domains. Cognition-action trade-offs observed across the life span include perseveration during skill emergence, errors and inefficient strategies during decision making, and the allocation of resources when attention is taxed...
2018: Advances in Child Development and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455740/segregation-paradox-school-racial-ethnic-and-socioeconomic-composition-and-racial-ethnic-differences-in-engagement
#4
Elizabeth Ackert
This study examines the associations between school racial/ethnic and socioeconomic composition and school engagement levels among Mexican-origin Latinos/as, African Americans, and non-Latino/a whites. Prior research suggests that whiter and more affluent schools should promote engagement, but some studies reveal paradoxes of school segregation whereby minority and socioeconomically disadvantaged students exhibit worse outcomes in schools with white and socioeconomically advantaged peers. Using data from the Education Longitudinal Study of 2002, this study examines the associations between the percent of non-minority students in the school, average school socioeconomic status, and three engagement outcomes: Liking school, involvement in school-sponsored activities, and coursework engagement...
February 2018: Social Science Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454938/rare-cell-detection-by-single-cell-rna-sequencing-as-guided-by-single-molecule-rna-fish
#5
Eduardo Torre, Hannah Dueck, Sydney Shaffer, Janko Gospocic, Rohit Gupte, Roberto Bonasio, Junhyong Kim, John Murray, Arjun Raj
Although single-cell RNA sequencing can reliably detect large-scale transcriptional programs, it is unclear whether it accurately captures the behavior of individual genes, especially those that express only in rare cells. Here, we use single-molecule RNA fluorescence in situ hybridization as a gold standard to assess trade-offs in single-cell RNA-sequencing data for detecting rare cell expression variability. We quantified the gene expression distribution for 26 genes that range from ubiquitous to rarely expressed and found that the correspondence between estimates across platforms improved with both transcriptome coverage and increased number of cells analyzed...
February 7, 2018: Cell Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453525/correction-to-genetic-analysis-of-multi-environmental-spring-wheat-trials-identifies-genomic-regions-for-locus-specific-trade-offs-for-grain-weight-and-grain-number
#6
Sivakumar Sukumaran, Marta Lopes, Susanne Dreisigacker, Matthew Reynolds
Unfortunately, the Fig. 1 of this original article was incorrectly published. The corrected Fig. 1 is given below.
February 16, 2018: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453424/genetic-control-and-evolutionary-potential-of-a-constitutive-resistance-mechanism-against-the-spruce-budworm-choristoneura-fumiferana-in-white-spruce-picea-glauca
#7
Claudia Méndez-Espinoza, Geneviève J Parent, Patrick Lenz, André Rainville, Laurence Tremblay, Greg Adams, Andrew McCartney, Éric Bauce, John MacKay
Insect herbivory may drive evolution by selecting for trees with heritable resistance against defoliation. The spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana, SBW) is a highly damaging forest insect pest that can affect population structure of white spruce (Picea glauca) in North America. Resistance against SBW was recently described in white spruce and was linked to three constitutive resistance biomarkers: the phenolic compounds piceol and pungenol, and expression of a beta-glucosidase encoding gene (Pgβglu-1)...
February 17, 2018: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453294/public-preferences-for-interventions-to-prevent-emerging-infectious-disease-threats-a-discrete-choice-experiment
#8
Alex R Cook, Xiahong Zhao, Mark I C Chen, Eric A Finkelstein
OBJECTIVE: When faced with an emergent epidemic with high mortality and morbidity potential, policy makers must decide what public health interventions to deploy at different stages of the outbreak. However, almost nothing is known about how the public view these interventions or how they trade off risks (of disease) with inconvenience (of interventions). In this paper, we aim to understand public perceptions on pandemic interventions, as well as to identify if there are any distinct respondent preference classes...
February 16, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452274/control-of-thiol-maleimide-reaction-kinetics-in-peg-hydrogel-networks
#9
Lauren E Jansen, Lenny J Negrón-Piñeiro, Sualyneth Galarza, Shelly R Peyton
Michael-type addition reactions are widely used to polymerize biocompatible hydrogels. The thiol-maleimide modality achieves the highest macromer coupling efficiency of the reported Michael-type pairs, but the resulting hydrogel networks are heterogeneous, because polymerization is faster than the individual components can be manually mixed. The reactivity of the thiol dictates the overall reaction speed, which can be slowed in organic solvents and acidic buffers. Since these modifications also reduce the biocompatibility of resulting hydrogels, we investigated a series of biocompatible buffers and crosslinkers to decelerate gelation while maintaining high cell viability...
February 13, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451895/metabolic-enzyme-cost-explains-variable-trade-offs-between-microbial-growth-rate-and-yield
#10
Meike T Wortel, Elad Noor, Michael Ferris, Frank J Bruggeman, Wolfram Liebermeister
Microbes may maximize the number of daughter cells per time or per amount of nutrients consumed. These two strategies correspond, respectively, to the use of enzyme-efficient or substrate-efficient metabolic pathways. In reality, fast growth is often associated with wasteful, yield-inefficient metabolism, and a general thermodynamic trade-off between growth rate and biomass yield has been proposed to explain this. We studied growth rate/yield trade-offs by using a novel modeling framework, Enzyme-Flux Cost Minimization (EFCM) and by assuming that the growth rate depends directly on the enzyme investment per rate of biomass production...
February 16, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451894/trade-off-between-synergy-and-efficacy-in-combinations-of-hiv-1-latency-reversing-agents
#11
Vipul Gupta, Narendra M Dixit
Eradicating HIV-1 infection is difficult because of the reservoir of latently infected cells that gets established soon after infection, remains hidden from antiretroviral drugs and host immune responses, and retains the capacity to reignite infection following the cessation of treatment. Drugs called latency-reversing agents (LRAs) are being developed to reactivate latently infected cells and render them susceptible to viral cytopathicity or immune killing. Whereas individual LRAs have failed to induce adequate reactivation, pairs of LRAs have been identified recently that act synergistically and hugely increase reactivation levels compared to individual LRAs...
February 16, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451878/control-fast-or-control-smart-when-should-invading-pathogens-be-controlled
#12
Robin N Thompson, Christopher A Gilligan, Nik J Cunniffe
The intuitive response to an invading pathogen is to start disease management as rapidly as possible, since this would be expected to minimise the future impacts of disease. However, since more spread data become available as an outbreak unfolds, processes underpinning pathogen transmission can almost always be characterised more precisely later in epidemics. This allows the future progression of any outbreak to be forecast more accurately, and so enables control interventions to be targeted more precisely...
February 16, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451727/impact-of-zeolite-structure-on-entropic-enthalpic-contributions-to-alkane-monomolecular-cracking-an-ir-operando-study
#13
Shashikant A Kadam, Haoguang Li, Richard F Wormsbecher, Arnaud Travert
The monomolecular cracking rates of propane and n-butane over MFI, CHA, FER and TON zeolites were determined simultaneously with the coverage of active sites at reaction condition using IR operando spectroscopy. This allowed direct determination of adsorption thermodynamics and intrinsic rate parameters. The results show that the zeolite confinement mediates enthalpy-entropy trade-offs only at the adsorbed state, leaving the true activation energy insensitive to the zeolite or alkane structure while the activation entropy was found to increase with the confinement...
February 16, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451289/multi-molecular-emission-of-a-cationic-pt-ii-complex-through-hydrogen-bonding-interactions
#14
Kaho Yamaguchi, Kazuma Yamawaki, Takuya Kimura, Junpei Kuwabara, Takeshi Yasuda, Yoshinobu Nishimura, Takaki Kanbara
The cationic Pt complexes with amide groups have been found to show dimer emission through hydrogen bonding interactions with counter anions even at low concentration. In order to investigate further details of dimer emission, we prepared three Pt complexes, Pt·B(C6F5)4, Pt·Cl, and Pt·PF6, whose counter anions possess different strengths of a hydrogen bonding acceptor. Hydrogen bonding interactions in the ground state and excited-state dynamics of the Pt complexes were evaluated by NMR analysis, temperature dependence, and kinetics of dimer emission...
February 16, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450980/prediction-of-enteric-methane-production-yield-and-intensity-in-dairy-cattle-using-an-intercontinental-database
#15
Mutian Niu, Ermias Kebreab, Alexander N Hristov, Joonpyo Oh, Claudia Arndt, André Bannink, Ali R Bayat, André F Brito, Tommy Boland, David Casper, Les A Crompton, Jan Dijkstra, Maguy A Eugène, Phil C Garnsworthy, Md Najmul Haque, Anne L F Hellwing, Pekka Huhtanen, Michael Kreuzer, Bjoern Kuhla, Peter Lund, Jørgen Madsen, Cécile Martin, Shelby C McClelland, Mark McGee, Peter J Moate, Stefan Muetzel, Camila Muñoz, Padraig O'Kiely, Nico Peiren, Christopher K Reynolds, Angela Schwarm, Kevin J Shingfield, Tonje M Storlien, Martin R Weisbjerg, David R Yáñez-Ruiz, Zhongtang Yu
Enteric methane (CH 4 ) production from cattle contributes to global greenhouse gas emissions. Measurement of enteric CH 4 is complex, expensive and impractical at large scales; therefore, models are commonly used to predict CH 4 production. However, building robust prediction models requires extensive data from animals under different management systems worldwide. The objectives of this study were to (1) collate a global database of enteric CH 4 production from individual lactating dairy cattle; (2) determine the availability of key variables for predicting enteric CH 4 production (g/d per cow), yield [g/kg dry matter intake (DMI)], and intensity (g/kg energy corrected milk) and their respective relationships; (3) develop intercontinental and regional models and cross-validate their performance; and (4) assess the trade-off between availability of on-farm inputs and CH 4 prediction accuracy...
February 16, 2018: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450820/overlapping-and-distinct-cognitive-impairments-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-and-autism-spectrum-disorder-without-intellectual-disability
#16
Sarah L Karalunas, Elizabeth Hawkey, Hanna Gustafsson, Meghan Miller, Marybeth Langhorst, Michaela Cordova, Damien Fair, Joel T Nigg
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are commonly comorbid, share genetic liability, and often exhibit overlapping cognitive impairments. Clarification of shared and distinct cognitive effects while considering comorbid symptoms across disorders has been lacking. In the current study, children ages 7-15 years assigned to three diagnostic groups:ADHD (n = 509), ASD (n = 97), and controls (n = 301) completed measures spanning the cognitive domains of attention/arousal, working memory, set-shifting, inhibition, and response variability...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449800/robustness-and-vulnerability-of-the-autoregulatory-system-that-maintains-nuclear-tdp-43-levels-a-trade-off-hypothesis-for-als-pathology-based-on-in-silico-data
#17
Akihiro Sugai, Taisuke Kato, Akihide Koyama, Yuka Koike, Sou Kasahara, Takuya Konno, Tomohiko Ishihara, Osamu Onodera
Abnormal accumulation of TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) in the cytoplasm and its disappearance from the nucleus are pathological features of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia (ALS/FTD) and are directly involved in the pathogenesis of these conditions. TDP-43 is an essential nuclear protein that readily aggregates in a concentration-dependent manner. Therefore, cells must strictly maintain an appropriate amount of nuclear TDP-43. In one relevant maintenance mechanism, TDP-43 binds to its pre-mRNA and promotes alternative splicing, resulting in mRNA degradation via nonsense-mediated mRNA decay...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448834/single-occupancy-patient-rooms-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature-since-2006
#18
Ellen Taylor, Alan J Card, Melissa Piatkowski
AIM: Our review evaluated both the effects of single-occupancy patient rooms (SPRs) on patient outcomes for hospitalized adults and user opinion related to SPRs. BACKGROUND: In 2006, a requirement for SPRs in hospitals was instituted in the United States. This systematic literature review evaluates research published since that time to evaluate the impact of SPRs. METHODS: The review adheres to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement...
January 1, 2018: HERD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447219/optimization-of-prophylaxis-for-hemophilia-a
#19
Robert D Herbert, Carolyn R Broderick, Chris Barnes, Laurent Billot, Albert Zhou, Jane Latimer
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Prophylactic injections of factor VIII reduce the incidence of bleeds and slow the development of joint damage in people with hemophilia. The aim of this study was to identify optimal person-specific prophylaxis regimens for children with hemophilia A. METHODS: Analytic and numerical methods were used to identify prophylaxis regimens which maximize the time for which plasma factor VIII concentrations exceed a threshold, maximize the lowest plasma factor VIII concentrations, and minimize risk of bleeds...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446179/genomic-diversity-of-a-nectar-yeast-clusters-into-metabolically-but-not-geographically-distinct-lineages
#20
Manpreet K Dhami, Thomas Hartwig, Andrew D Letten, Michael Banf, Tadashi Fukami
Both dispersal limitation and environmental sorting can affect genetic variation in populations, but their contribution remains unclear, particularly in microbes. We sought to determine the contribution of geographic distance (as a proxy for dispersal limitation) and phenotypic traits (as a proxy for environmental sorting), including morphology, metabolic ability, and interspecific competitiveness, to the genotypic diversity in a nectar yeast species, Metschnikowia reukaufii. To measure genotypic diversity, we sequenced the genomes of 102 strains of M...
February 15, 2018: Molecular Ecology
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