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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683052/effect-of-transmit-beamforming-on-clutter-levels-in-transthoracic-echocardiography
#1
Vaibhav Kakkad, Melissa LeFevre, Kingshuk Roy Choudhury, Joseph Kisslo, Gregg E Trahey
Transmit beamforming has a strong impact on several factors that govern image quality, field-of-view, and frame-rate in ultrasound imaging. For cardiac applications, the visualization of fine structures and the ability to track their motion is equally important. Consequently, beamforming choices for echocardiography aim to optimize these trade-offs. Acoustic clutter can dramatically impact image quality and degrade the diagnostic value of cardiac ultrasound imaging. Clutter levels, however, are closely tied to the choice of beamforming configuration...
April 1, 2018: Ultrasonic Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682759/divergent-hydraulic-strategies-to-cope-with-freezing-in-co-occurring-temperate-tree-species-with-special-reference-to-root-and-stem-pressure-generation
#2
Xiao-Han Yin, Frank Sterck, Guang-You Hao
Some temperate tree species mitigate the negative impacts of frost-induced xylem cavitation by restoring impaired hydraulic function via positive pressures, and may therefore be more resistant to frost fatigue (the phenomenon that post-freezing xylem becomes more susceptible to hydraulic dysfunction) than nonpressure-generating species. We test this hypothesis and investigate underlying anatomical/physiological mechanisms. Using a common garden experiment, we studied key hydraulic traits and detailed xylem anatomical characteristics of 18 sympatric tree species...
April 23, 2018: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682599/microfluidic-flow-cytometry-the-role-of-microfabrication-methodologies-performance-and-functional-specification
#3
Anil B Shrirao, Zachary Fritz, Eric M Novik, Gabriel M Yarmush, Rene S Schloss, Jeffrey D Zahn, Martin L Yarmush
Flow cytometry is an invaluable tool utilized in modern biomedical research and clinical applications requiring high throughput, high resolution particle analysis for cytometric characterization and/or sorting of cells and particles as well as for analyzing results from immunocytometric assays. In recent years, research has focused on developing microfluidic flow cytometers with the motivation of creating smaller, less expensive, simpler, and more autonomous alternatives to conventional flow cytometers. These devices could ideally be highly portable, easy to operate without extensive user training, and utilized for research purposes and/or point-of-care diagnostics especially in limited resource facilities or locations requiring on-site analyses...
March 2018: Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682592/evidence-for-the-speed-value-trade-off-human-and-monkey-decision-making-is-magnitude-sensitive
#4
Angelo Pirrone, Habiba Azab, Benjamin Y Hayden, Tom Stafford, James A R Marshall
Complex natural systems from brains to bee swarms have evolved to make adaptive multifactorial decisions. Recent theoretical and empirical work suggests that many evolved systems may take advantage of common motifs across multiple domains. We are particularly interested in value sensitivity (i.e., sensitivity to the magnitude or intensity of the stimuli or reward under consideration) as a mechanism to resolve deadlocks adaptively. This mechanism favours long-term reward maximization over accuracy in a simple manner, because it avoids costly delays associated with ambivalence between similar options; speed-value trade-offs have been proposed to be evolutionarily advantageous for many kinds of decision...
April 2018: Decision (Washington)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682030/maximum-surgical-blood-order-schedule-for-elective-neurosurgery-in-a-university-teaching-hospital-in-northern-thailand
#5
Ananchanok Saringcarinkul, Siriwan Chuasuwan
Context: Preoperative blood bank testing should optimize the trade-off between intraoperative transfusion delay and blood wastage. Aims: This study aims to develop a maximal surgical blood order schedule (MSBOS) for elective neurosurgery. Settings and Design: Prospective data in University Teaching Hospital, Northern Thailand. Subjects and Methods: Blood transfusion data were collected on all adult patients satisfying inclusion/exclusion criteria in 2015...
April 2018: Asian Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681027/terminology-services-standard-terminologies-to-control-health-vocabulary
#6
Fernán González Bernaldo de Quirós, Carlos Otero, Daniel Luna
Healthcare Information Systems should capture clinical data in a structured and preferably coded format. This is crucial for data exchange between health information systems, epidemiological analysis, quality and research, clinical decision support systems, administrative functions, among others. Structured data entry is an obstacle for the usability of electronic health record (EHR) applications and their acceptance by physicians who prefer to document patient EHRs using "free text". Natural language allows for rich expressiveness but at the same time is ambiguous; it has great dependence on context and uses jargon and acronyms...
April 22, 2018: Yearbook of Medical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680454/effect-of-echo-time-and-t-2-weighting-on-grase-based-t-1-w-t-2-w-ratio-measurements-at-3t
#7
Md Nasir Uddin, Teresa D Figley, Chase R Figley
Tissue contrast can be enhanced by dividing T1 -weighted (T1 w) images by T2 -weighted (T2 w) images to map the so-called T1 w/T2 w ratio, which has become an increasingly popular technique for quantifying brain tissue changes associated with neurodevelopment, aging, and a variety of neurodegenerative diseases. However, although it is self-evident that T1 w/T2 w ratios increase with the amount of T2 -weighting in the T2 w image - which is determined by the echo time (TE), all else being equal - longer TEs also reduce the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the T2 w images, and it is not clear how these SNR characteristics affect the reliability of T1 w/T2 w measurements...
April 19, 2018: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678114/vertical-stratification-engineering-for-organic-bulk-heterojunction-devices
#8
Liqiang Huang, Gang Wang, Weihua Zhou, Boyi Fu, Xiaofang Cheng, Lifu Zhang, Zhibo Yuan, Sixing Xiong, Lin Zhang, Yuanpeng Xie, Andong Zhang, Youdi Zhang, Wei Ma, Weiwei Li, Yinhua Zhou, Elsa Reichmanis, Yiwang Chen
High efficiency organic solar cells (OSCs) can be produced through optimization of component molecular design, coupled with interfacial engineering and control of active layer morphology. However, vertical stratification of the bulk-heterojunction (BHJ), a spontaneous activity which occurs during the drying process, remains an intricate problem yet to be solved. Routes toward regulating the vertical separation profile and evaluating the effects on the final device should be explored to further enhance the performance of OSCs...
April 20, 2018: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677667/co-evolutionary-dynamics-of-the-human-environment-system-in-the-heihe-river-basin-in-the-past-2000years
#9
Zhixiang Lu, Yongping Wei, Qi Feng, Jiali Xie, Honglang Xiao, Guodong Cheng
There is limited quantitative understanding of interactions between human and environmental systems over the millennial scale. We aim to reveal the co-evolutionary dynamics of the human-environment system in a river basin by simulating the water use and net primary production (NPP) allocation for human and environmental systems over the last 2000years in Heihe River basin (HRB) in northwest China. We partition the catchment total evapotranspiration (ET) into ET for human and environmental systems with a social-hydrological framework and estimate the NPP for human and environmental systems using the Box-Lieth model, then classify the co-evolutionary processes of the human-environment system into distinct phases using the rate of changes of NPP over time, and discover the trade-offs or synergies relationships between them based on the elasticity of change of the NPP for humans to the change of NPP for environment...
April 17, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677324/endogenous-attention-improves-perception-in-amblyopic-macaques
#10
Amelie Pham, Marisa Carrasco, Lynne Kiorpes
Amblyopia, a developmental disorder of vision, affects many aspects of spatial vision as well as motion perception and some cognitive skills. Current models of amblyopic vision based on known neurophysiological deficiencies have yet to provide an understanding of the wide range of amblyopic perceptual losses. Visual spatial attention is known to enhance performance in a variety of detection and discrimination tasks in visually typical humans and nonhuman primates. We investigated whether and how voluntary spatial attention affected psychophysical performance in amblyopic macaques...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676439/oral-and-sublingual-immunotherapy-for-egg-allergy
#11
REVIEW
Olga Romantsik, Maria Angela Tosca, Simona Zappettini, Maria Grazia Calevo
BACKGROUND: Clinical egg allergy is a common food allergy. Current management relies upon strict allergen avoidance. Oral immunotherapy might be an optional treatment, through desensitization to egg allergen. OBJECTIVES: To determine the efficacy and safety of oral and sublingual immunotherapy in children and adults with immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated egg allergy as compared to a placebo treatment or an avoidance strategy. SEARCH METHODS: We searched 13 databases for journal articles, conference proceedings, theses and trials registers using a combination of subject headings and text words (last search 31 March 2017)...
April 20, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676438/the-influence-of-digit-size-and-proportions-on-dexterity-during-cold-exposure
#12
Stephanie Payne, Alison Macintosh, Jay Stock
OBJECTIVES: The current study investigated whether size and proportions of the hands and digits affect dexterity during severe cold exposure. As wide hands are known to lose less heat than narrow hands, and narrow digits are associated with greater dexterity, this study aimed to test whether there was a direct trade-off between dexterity and thermoregulation that shapes hand morphology. METHODS: Participants (25 women, 15 men) carried out the Purdue Pegboard test before and after a 3-min ice-water immersion of the hand...
April 20, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675962/dual-wavelength-hybrid-optoacoustic-ultrasound-biomicroscopy-for-functional-imaging-of-large-scale-cerebral-vascular-networks
#13
Johannes Rebling, Héctor Estrada, Sven Gottschalk, Gali Sela, Michael Zwack, Georg Wissmeyer, Vasilis Ntziachristos, Daniel Razansky
A critical link exists between pathological changes of cerebral vasculature and diseases affecting brain function. Microscopic techniques have played an indispensable role in the study of neurovascular anatomy and functions. Yet, investigations are often hindered by sub-optimal trade-offs between the spatiotemporal resolution, field-of-view and type of contrast offered by the existing optical microscopy techniques. We present a hybrid dual-wavelength optoacoustic biomicroscope capable of rapid transcranial visualization of large-scale cerebral vascular networks...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Biophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675882/diffusion-tensor-imaging-using-multiple-coils-for-mouse-brain-connectomics
#14
John C Nouls, Alexandra Badea, Robert B J Anderson, Gary P Cofer, G Allan Johnson
The correlation between brain connectivity and psychiatric or neurological diseases has intensified efforts to develop brain connectivity mapping techniques on mouse models of human disease. The neural architecture of mouse brain specimens can be shown non-destructively and three-dimensionally by diffusion tensor imaging, which enables tractography, the establishment of a connectivity matrix and connectomics. However, experiments on cohorts of animals can be prohibitively long. To improve throughput in a 7-T preclinical scanner, we present a novel two-coil system in which each coil is shielded, placed off-isocenter along the axis of the magnet and connected to a receiver circuit of the scanner...
April 19, 2018: NMR in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675693/inference-procedures-to-quantify-the-efficiency-equality-trade-off-in-health-from-stated-preferences-a-case-study-in-portugal
#15
Micaela Pinho, Anabela Botelho
OBJECTIVES: This article develops two inference procedures to calculate the inequality aversion and alpha parameters of a health-related social welfare function with constant elasticity (CES-HRSWF) using stated preferences. Based on the relative concept of inequality, a range of values were proposed for the trade-offs between improving total population health and reducing health inequalities. METHODS: A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data from a sample of 422 college students in Portugal...
April 20, 2018: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674852/long-term-prospective-outcomes-after-minimally-invasive-trans-iliac-sacroiliac-joint-fusion-using-triangular-titanium-implants
#16
Emily Darr, S Craig Meyer, Peter G Whang, Don Kovalsky, Clay Frank, Harry Lockstadt, Robert Limoni, Andy Redmond, Philip Ploska, Michael Y Oh, Daniel Cher, Abhineet Chowdhary
Background: Minimally invasive sacroiliac joint fusion (SIJF) has become an increasingly accepted surgical option for chronic sacroiliac (SI) joint dysfunction, a prevalent cause of unremitting low back/buttock pain. Objective: The objective of this study was to report clinical and functional outcomes of SIJF using triangular titanium implants (TTI) in the treatment of chronic SI joint dysfunction due to degenerative sacroiliitis or sacroiliac joint (SIJ) disruption at 3 years postoperatively...
2018: Medical Devices: Evidence and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674587/probing-the-ultimate-plasmon-confinement-limits-with-a-van-der-waals-heterostructure
#17
David Alcaraz Iranzo, Sébastien Nanot, Eduardo J C Dias, Itai Epstein, Cheng Peng, Dmitri K Efetov, Mark B Lundeberg, Romain Parret, Johann Osmond, Jin-Yong Hong, Jing Kong, Dirk R Englund, Nuno M R Peres, Frank H L Koppens
The ability to confine light into tiny spatial dimensions is important for applications such as microscopy, sensing, and nanoscale lasers. Although plasmons offer an appealing avenue to confine light, Landau damping in metals imposes a trade-off between optical field confinement and losses. We show that a graphene-insulator-metal heterostructure can overcome that trade-off, and demonstrate plasmon confinement down to the ultimate limit of the length scale of one atom. This is achieved through far-field excitation of plasmon modes squeezed into an atomically thin hexagonal boron nitride dielectric spacer between graphene and metal rods...
April 20, 2018: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674412/comparison-of-3t-intracranial-vessel-wall-mri-sequences
#18
A Lindenholz, A A Harteveld, J J M Zwanenburg, J C W Siero, J Hendrikse
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Intracranial vessel wall MR imaging plays an increasing role in diagnosing intracranial vascular diseases. For a complete assessment, pre- and postcontrast sequences are required, and including other sequences, these result in a long scan duration. Ideally, the scan time of the vessel wall sequence should be reduced. The purpose of this study was to evaluate different intracranial vessel wall sequence variants to reduce scan duration, provided an acceptable image quality can be maintained...
April 19, 2018: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673526/genetic-reporters-of-neuronal-activity-c-fos-and-g-camp6
#19
Andrew E Hudson
The majority of 20th century investigations into anesthetic effects on the nervous system have used electrophysiology. Yet some fundamental limitations to electrophysiologic recordings, including the invasiveness of the technique, the need to place (potentially several) electrodes in every site of interest, and the difficulty of selectively recording from individual cell types, have driven the development of alternative methods for detecting neuronal activation. Two such alternative methods with cellular scale resolution have matured in the last few decades and will be reviewed here: the transcription of immediate early genes, foremost c-fos, and the influx of calcium into neurons as reported by genetically encoded calcium indicators, foremost GCaMP6...
2018: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673233/lower-order-compensation-chain-threshold-reduction-technique-for-multi-stage-voltage-multipliers
#20
Francesco Dell' Anna, Tao Dong, Ping Li, Yumei Wen, Mehdi Azadmehr, Mario Casu, Yngvar Berg
This paper presents a novel threshold-compensation technique for multi-stage voltage multipliers employed in low power applications such as passive and autonomous wireless sensing nodes (WSNs) powered by energy harvesters. The proposed threshold-reduction technique enables a topological design methodology which, through an optimum control of the trade-off among transistor conductivity and leakage losses, is aimed at maximizing the voltage conversion efficiency (VCE) for a given ac input signal and physical chip area occupation...
April 17, 2018: Sensors
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