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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527671/inferences-about-moral-character-moderate-the-impact-of-consequences-on-blame-and-praise
#1
Jenifer Z Siegel, Molly J Crockett, Raymond J Dolan
Moral psychology research has highlighted several factors critical for evaluating the morality of another's choice, including the detection of norm-violating outcomes, the extent to which an agent caused an outcome, and the extent to which the agent intended good or bad consequences, as inferred from observing their decisions. However, person-centered accounts of moral judgment suggest that a motivation to infer the moral character of others can itself impact on an evaluation of their choices. Building on this person-centered account, we examine whether inferences about agents' moral character shape the sensitivity of moral judgments to the consequences of agents' choices, and agents' role in the causation of those consequences...
May 17, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527403/interplay-between-bacillus-subtilis-recd2-and-the-recg-or-ruvab-helicase-in-recombinational-repair
#2
Rubén Torres, Hector Romero, Violeta Rodríguez-Cerrato, Juan C Alonso
Bacillus subtilis AddAB, RecS, RecQ, PcrA, HelD, DinG, RecG, RuvAB, PriA and RecD2 are genuine recombinational repair enzymes, but the biological role of RecD2 is poorly defined. A ΔrecD2 mutation sensitizes cells to DNA-damaging agents that stall or collapse replication forks. We found that this ΔrecD2 mutation impaired growth, and that a mutation in the pcrA gene (pcrA596) relieved this phenotype. The ΔrecD2 mutation was not epistatic to ΔaddAB, ΔrecQ, ΔrecS, ΔhelD, pcrA596 and ΔdinG, but epistatic to recA...
May 12, 2017: DNA Repair
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525882/interfacially-crosslinked-composite-porous-membranes-for-ultrafast-removal-of-anionic-dyes-from-water-through-permeating-adsorption
#3
Cuijing Liu, Liang Cheng, Yifan Zhao, Liping Zhu
The dye wastewater is one of the most difficult industrial wastewaters to treat. It keeps a big challenge to realize fast removal of dyes from water by membrane filtration due to the trade-off between separation selectivity and permeation flux for ultrafiltration or nanofiltration (NF) process. Here we report novel composite porous membranes which can remove anionic dyes from water by ultrafast permeating adsorption. A crosslinked polyethyleneimine (PEI) polymer with strong adsorption ability was incorporated onto a nylon microfiltration membrane by the interfacial amidation reaction between PEI and trimesoyl chloride...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524822/simultaneous-delivery-time-and-aperture-shape-optimization-for-the-volumetric-modulated-arc-therapy-vmat-treatment-planning-problem
#4
Mehdi Mahnam, Michel Gendreau, Nadia Lahrichi, Louis-Martin Rousseau
In this paper, we propose a novel heuristic algorithm for the volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) treatment planning problem, optimizing the trade-off between delivery time and treatment quality. We present a new mixed integer programming model in which the multi-leaf collimator leaf positions, gantry speed, and dose rate are determined simultaneously. Our heuristic is based on column generation; the aperture conguration is modeled in the columns and the dose distribution and time restriction in the rows...
May 19, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524791/sagittal-craniosynostosis-a-utility-outcomes-study
#5
Victoria Kuta, P Daniel McNeely, Simon Walling, Michael Bezuhly
OBJECTIVE Sagittal craniosynostosis results in a characteristic scaphocephalic head shape that is typically corrected surgically during a child's 1st year of life. The authors' objective was to determine the potential impact of being born with sagittal craniosynostosis by using validated health state utility assessment measures. METHODS An online utility assessment was designed to generate health utility scores for scaphocephaly, monocular blindness, and binocular blindness using standardized utility assessment tools, namely the visual analog scale (VAS) and the standard gamble (SG) and time trade-off (TTO) tests...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524078/measuring-dynamic-signals-with-direct-sensor-to-microcontroller-interfaces-applied-to-a-magnetoresistive-sensor
#6
Ernesto Sifuentes, Rafael Gonzalez-Landaeta, Juan Cota-Ruiz, Ferran Reverter
This paper evaluates the performance of direct interface circuits (DIC), where the sensor is directly connected to a microcontroller, when a resistive sensor subjected to dynamic changes is measured. The theoretical analysis provides guidelines for the selection of the components taking into account both the desired resolution and the bandwidth of the input signal. Such an analysis reveals that there is a trade-off between the sampling frequency and the resolution of the measurement, and this depends on the selected value of the capacitor that forms the RC circuit together with the sensor resistance...
May 18, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520770/life-history-trade-off-moderates-model-predictions-of-diversity-loss-from-climate-change
#7
Helen Moor
Climate change can trigger species range shifts, local extinctions and changes in diversity. Species interactions and dispersal capacity are important mediators of community responses to climate change. The interaction between multispecies competition and variation in dispersal capacity has recently been shown to exacerbate the effects of climate change on diversity and to increase predictions of extinction risk dramatically. Dispersal capacity, however, is part of a species' overall ecological strategy and are likely to trade off with other aspects of its life history that influence population growth and persistence...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520644/trade-offs-of-personal-vs-more-proxy-exposure-measures-in-environmental-epidemiology
#8
Marc G Weisskopf, Thomas F Webster
The technological ability to make personal measurements of toxicant exposures is growing rapidly. While this can decrease measurement error and therefore help reduce attenuation of effect estimates, we argue that as measures of exposure or dose become more personal, threats to validity of study findings can increase in ways that more proxy measures may avoid. We use Directed Acyclic Graphs (DAGs) to describe conditions where confounding is introduced by use of more personal measures of exposure and avoided via more proxy measures of personal exposure or target tissue dose...
May 17, 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518220/postdonation-iron-replacement-for-maintaining-iron-stores-in-female-whole-blood-donors-in-routine-donor-practice-results-of-two-feasibility-studies-in-australia
#9
Sant-Rayn Pasricha, Denese C Marks, Hannah Salvin, Tania Brama, Anthony J Keller, Joanne Pink, Joanna Speedy
BACKGROUND: Iron deficiency represents a risk to donor health and the blood supply. Efficacy trials indicate that postdonation iron replacement improves iron stores but they do not account for complexities of implementation in the routine collection context. We therefore conducted two prospective feasibility studies in Australian donor centers. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: In both studies we recruited female donors between 18 and 45 years who had made at least one donation in the previous 12 months...
May 18, 2017: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516320/how-does-the-presence-of-a-conspecific-individual-change-the-behavioral-game-that-a-predator-plays-with-its-prey
#10
Reut Vardi, Zvika Abramsky, Burt P Kotler, Ofir Altstein, Michael L Rosenzweig
Behavioral games predators play among themselves may have profound effects on behavioral games predators play with their prey. We studied the behavioral game between predators and prey within the framework of social foraging among predators. We tested how conspecific interactions among predators (little egret) change the predator-prey behavioral game and foraging success. To do so, we examined foraging behavior of egrets alone and in pairs (male and female) in a specially designed aviary consisting of three equally spaced pools with identical initial prey (comet goldfish) densities...
May 17, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515879/sexual-signals-reflect-telomere-dynamics-in-a-wild-bird
#11
Conor Claverie Taff, Corey R Freeman-Gallant
Telomere dynamics in natural populations have been linked to survival, reproduction, and energetic investment. Given their putative role in mediating life-history trade-offs, telomeres are also a likely candidate for maintaining honesty in sexually selected signals; few studies to date, however, have demonstrated a correlation between sexual signals and telomere dynamics. Here, we show that plumage coloration in male common yellowthroats (Geothlypis trichas) is correlated with both relative telomere length and with the rate of telomere loss between years...
May 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515871/wolf-in-sheep-s-clothing-model-misspecification-undermines-tests-of-the-neutral-theory-for-life-histories
#12
Matthieu Authier, Lise M Aubry, Emmanuelle Cam
Understanding the processes behind change in reproductive state along life-history trajectories is a salient research program in evolutionary ecology. Two processes, state dependence and heterogeneity, can drive the dynamics of change among states. Both processes can operate simultaneously, begging the difficult question of how to tease them apart in practice. The Neutral Theory for Life Histories (NTLH) holds that the bulk of variations in life-history trajectories is due to state dependence and is hence neutral: Once previous (breeding) state is taken into account, variations are mostly random...
May 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515699/active-involvement-of-end-users-when-developing-web-based-mental-health-interventions
#13
Derek de Beurs, Inge van Bruinessen, Janneke Noordman, Roland Friele, Sandra van Dulmen
BACKGROUND: Although many web-based mental health interventions are being released, the actual uptake by end users is limited. The marginal level of engagement of end users when developing these interventions is recognized as an important cause for uptake problems. In this paper, we offer our perceptive on how to improve user engagement. By doing so, we aim to stimulate a discourse on user involvement within the field of online mental health interventions. METHODS: We shortly describe three different methods (the expert-driven method, intervention mapping, and scrum) that were currently used to develop web-based health interventions...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514626/influence-of-early-reproductive-success-on-longevity-and-late-reproductive-success-in-an-alpine-ungulate
#14
Andrea Panagakis, Sandra Hamel, Steeve D Côté
The life-history theories of aging predict lifetime trade-offs between early reproductive allocation and late-life survival, reproduction, or both components of fitness. Recent studies in wild populations have found evidence for these early-late life trade-offs, but rarely have they been found across multiple traits while exploring the additional effects of variation in environmental conditions and individual quality. Benefiting from longitudinal data on adult female mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus), we investigated the influence of age at first reproduction (AFR) and early reproductive success (ERS) on longevity, late reproductive success, and senescence rates while accounting for the influence of natal environmental conditions and individual quality...
June 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513433/distributing-tasks-via-multiple-input-pathways-increase-cellular-survival-in-stress
#15
Alejandro A Granados, Matthew M Crane, Luis F Montano-Gutierrez, Reiko J Tanaka, Margaritis Voliotis, Peter Swain
Improving in one aspect of a task can undermine performance in another, but how such opposing demands play out in single cells and impact on fitness is mostly unknown. Here we study budding yeast in dynamic environments of hyperosmotic stress and show how the corresponding signalling network increases cellular survival both by assigning the requirements of high response speed and high response accuracy to two separate input pathways and by having these pathways interact to converge on Hog1, a p38 MAP kinase...
May 17, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513143/interactive-effects-of-corrosion-copper-and-chloramines-on-legionella-and-mycobacteria-in-hot-water-plumbing
#16
William J Rhoads, Amy Pruden, Marc A Edwards
Complexities associated with drinking water plumbing systems can result in undesirable interactions among plumbing components, undermining engineering controls for opportunistic pathogens (OPs). In this study, we examine the effects of plumbing system materials and two commonly applied disinfectants, copper and chloramines, on water chemistry and the growth of Legionella and mycobacteria across a transect of bench- and pilot-scale hot water experiments carried out with the same municipal water supply. We discovered that copper released from corrosion of plumbing materials can initiate evolution of >1,100 times more hydrogen (H2) from water heater sacrificial anode rods than does presence of copper dosed as soluble cupric ions...
May 17, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512709/influence-of-low-temperature-combustion-and-dimethyl-ether-diesel-blends-on-performance-combustion-and-emission-characteristics-of-common-rail-diesel-engine-a-cfd-study
#17
Venkatesh Tavareppa Lamani, Ajay Kumar Yadav, Kumar Gottekere Narayanappa
Due to presence of more oxygen, absence of carbon-carbon (C-C) bond in chemical structure, and high cetane number of dimethyl ether (DME), pollution from DME operated engine is less compared to diesel engine. Hence, the DME can be a promising alternative fuel for diesel engine. The present study emphasizes the effect of various exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) rates (0-20%) and DME/Diesel blends (0-20%) on combustion characteristics and exhaust emissions of common rail direct injection (CRDI) engine using three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation...
May 16, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512316/phenotypic-plasticity-trade-offs-and-gene-expression-changes-accompanying-dietary-restriction-and-switches-in-bactrocera-dorsalis-hendel-diptera-tephritidae
#18
Er-Hu Chen, Qiu-Li Hou, Dan-Dan Wei, Hong-Bo Jiang, Jin-Jun Wang
In this study, we investigated the effects of dietary restriction (DR) and variable diets on phenotypes and gene expression in oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), one of the most economically important pests in the family Tephritidae around the world. As expected, we found that DR altered the B. dorsalis phenotypes by significantly increasing stress resistance and lifespan, but reduced egg production when compared with the control diet. The results suggested a trade-off between reproduction versus somatic maintenance (stress resistance) and lifespan in B...
May 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510498/deficits-in-go-no-go-task-performance-in-male-undergraduate-high-risk-alcohol-users-are-driven-by-speeded-responding-to-go-stimuli
#19
Xin Zhao, Wang Qian, Lily Fu, Joseph H R Maes
BACKGROUND: Response disinhibition plays an important role in addictive behaviors. However, results of studies on the performance on response inhibition tasks of individuals evidencing potentially problematic levels of alcohol drinking are mixed. OBJECTIVES: We assessed conditions under which persons with a relatively high risk of alcohol dependence show inhibition deficits in such tasks and investigated the nature of those deficits. METHODS: Fifty-eight male undergraduate students, 27 of which were high-risk drinkers according to the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, performed a go/no-go inhibition task with differing percentages of no-go trials (50% vs...
February 17, 2017: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510261/constraints-on-trait-combinations-explain-climatic-drivers-of-biodiversity-the-importance-of-trait-covariance-in-community-assembly
#20
John M Dwyer, Daniel C Laughlin
Trade-offs maintain diversity and structure communities along environmental gradients. Theory indicates that if covariance among functional traits sets a limit on the number of viable trait combinations in a given environment, then communities with strong multidimensional trait constraints should exhibit low species diversity. We tested this prediction in winter annual plant assemblages along an aridity gradient using multilevel structural equation modelling. Univariate and multivariate functional diversity measures were poorly explained by aridity, and were surprisingly poor predictors of community richness...
May 16, 2017: Ecology Letters
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