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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696424/phenotypic-and-genotypic-richness-of-denitrifiers-revealed-by-a-novel-isolation-strategy
#1
Pawel Lycus, Kari Lovise Bøthun, Linda Bergaust, James Peele Shapleigh, Lars Reier Bakken, Åsa Frostegård
Present-day knowledge on the regulatory biology of denitrification is based on studies of selected model organisms. These show large variations in their potential contribution to NO2(-), NO, and N2O accumulation, attributed to lack of genes coding for denitrification reductases, but also to variations in their transcriptional regulation, as well as to post-transcriptional phenomena. To validate the relevance of these observations, there is a need to study a wider range of denitrifiers. We designed an isolation protocol that identifies all possible combinations of truncated denitrification chains (NO3(-)/NO2(-)/NO/N2O/N2)...
July 11, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659451/costs-and-benefits-of-maternally-inherited-algal-symbionts-in-coral-larvae
#2
Valérie F Chamberland, Kelly R W Latijnhouwers, Jef Huisman, Aaron C Hartmann, Mark J A Vermeij
Many marine invertebrates provide their offspring with symbionts. Yet the consequences of maternally inherited symbionts on larval fitness remain largely unexplored. In the stony coral Favia fragum (Esper 1797), mothers produce larvae with highly variable amounts of endosymbiotic algae, and we examined the implications of this variation in symbiont density on the performance of F. fragum larvae under different environmental scenarios. High symbiont densities prolonged the period that larvae actively swam and searched for suitable settlement habitats...
June 28, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647808/characterization-of-arabidopsis-thaliana-regrowth-patterns-suggests-a-trade-off-between-undamaged-fitness-and-damage-tolerance
#3
Daniel R Scholes, Erika N Rasnick, Ken N Paige
Herbivory is a fundamental type of plant-animal interaction that presents substantial selection pressure on plants to replace lost tissues and to prevent subsequent losses in fitness. Apical herbivory, which entails removal or damage to the apical meristem, causes a change in plant architecture by disrupting the balance of hormones produced in part by the apical meristem. Therefore, for an annual semelparous plant, the ability to preserve reproductive success following damage (i.e., to tolerate damage) is largely dependent on the plant's pre-damage investment into fitness and its regrowth pattern following damage...
July 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618624/delayed-bet-hedging-resilience-strategies-under-environmental-fluctuations
#4
Masaki Ogura, Masashi Wakaiki, Harvey Rubin, Victor M Preciado
Many biological populations, such as bacterial colonies, have developed through evolution a protection mechanism, called bet hedging, to increase their probability of survival under stressful environmental fluctuation. In this context, the concept of preadaptation refers to a common type of bet-hedging protection strategy in which a relatively small number of individuals in a population stochastically switch their phenotypes to a dormant metabolic state in which they increase their probability of survival against potential environmental shocks...
May 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618174/intraspecific-maternal-competition-induces-summer-diapause-in-insect-parasitoids
#5
Kevin Tougeron, George Hraoui, Cécile Le Lann, Joan van Baaren, Jacques Brodeur
Organisms often live in unpredictable environments and have to adopt life history strategies that optimize their fitness under these conditions. According to bet-hedging theory, individuals can reduce variation in fitness outcomes by investing in different strategies at the same time. For arthropods, facultative summer diapause enables survival during dry and hot periods of the year, and can be triggered by a decrease in resource abundance. However, the effect of resource depletion on diapause induction has never been disentangled from the effect of the perception of the presence of competitors...
June 15, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605016/flexibility-in-the-duration-of-parental-care-female-leopards-prioritise-cub-survival-over-reproductive-output
#6
Guy A Balme, Hugh S Robinson, Ross T Pitman, Luke T B Hunter
1.Deciding when to terminate care of offspring is a key consideration for parents. Prolonging care may increase fitness of current offspring, but it can also reduce opportunities for future reproduction. Despite its evolutionary importance, few studies have explored the optimal duration of parental care, particularly among large carnivores. 2.We used a 40-year dataset to assess the trade-offs associated with the length of maternal care in leopards in the Sabi Sand Game Reserve, South Africa. We compared the costs imposed by care on the survival and residual reproductive value of leopard mothers against the benefits derived from maternal care in terms of increased offspring survival, recruitment and reproduction...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543274/diel-and-seasonal-movements-of-silver-eels-anguilla-dieffenbachii-emigrating-from-a-lake-subject-to-hydro-electric-control
#7
D J Jellyman, M J Unwin
To investigate the behaviour and fate of silver female longfin eels Anguilla dieffenbachii in relation to flow variations from New Zealand's largest (700 MW) hydro-electric station, 210 A. dieffenbachii were tagged with acoustic transmitters during summer and autumn over 6 years from 2005 to 2010. A shoreline array of receivers (2005-2008) was supplemented by positioning systems near the power station and natural outlet (2009-2010) that enabled continuous tracking of A. dieffenbachii within these areas...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539459/social-bet-hedging-in-vampire-bats
#8
Gerald G Carter, Damien R Farine, Gerald S Wilkinson
Helping kin or nonkin can provide direct fitness benefits, but helping kin also benefits indirect fitness. Why then should organisms invest in cooperative partnerships with nonkin, if kin relationships are available and more beneficial? One explanation is that a kin-limited support network is too small and risky. Even if additional weaker partnerships reduce immediate net cooperative returns, individuals extending cooperation to nonkin can maintain a larger social network which reduces the potential costs associated with losing a primary cooperation partner...
May 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536035/seasonality-can-induce-coexistence-of-multiple-bet-hedging-strategies-in-dictyostelium-discoideum-via-storage-effect
#9
Ricardo Martínez-García, Corina E Tarnita
The social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum has been recently suggested as an example of bet-hedging in microbes. In the presence of resources, amoebae reproduce as unicellular organisms. Resource depletion, however, leads to a starvation phase in which the population splits between aggregators, which form a fruiting body made of a stalk and resistant spores, and non-aggregators, which remain as vegetative cells. Spores are favored when starvation periods are long, but vegetative cells can exploit resources in environments where food replenishes quickly...
May 20, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514627/what-kind-of-maternal-effects-can-be-selected-for-in-fluctuating-environments
#10
Stephen R Proulx, Henrique Teotónio
Just as phenotypic plasticity can evolve when developing individuals get informational cues about their future adult environment, deterministic maternal effects, where offspring trait values depend on the maternal environment, can evolve when mothers gain reliable information about the environments their offspring will face. Randomizing maternal effects (a type of diversifying bet hedging), where offspring trait values are randomized, can evolve by natural selection even when information about future environments is unavailable...
June 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508297/adaptation-to-stochastic-temporal-variations-in-intratumoral-blood-flow-the-warburg-effect-as-a-bet-hedging-strategy
#11
Curtis A Gravenmier, Miriam Siddique, Robert A Gatenby
While most cancers promote ingrowth of host blood vessels, the resulting vascular network usually fails to develop a mature organization, resulting in abnormal vascular dynamics with stochastic variations that include slowing, cessation, and even reversal of flow. Thus, substantial spatial and temporal variations in oxygen concentration are commonly observed in most cancers. Cancer cells, like all living systems, are subject to Darwinian dynamics such that their survival and proliferation are dependent on developing optimal phenotypic adaptations to local environmental conditions...
May 15, 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507815/a-new-molecular-diagnostic-tool-for-surveying-and-monitoring-triops-cancriformis-populations
#12
Graham S Sellers, Larry R Griffin, Bernd Hänfling, Africa Gómez
The tadpole shrimp, Triops cancriformis, is a freshwater crustacean listed as endangered in the UK and Europe living in ephemeral pools. Populations are threatened by habitat destruction due to land development for agriculture and increased urbanisation. Despite this, there is a lack of efficient methods for discovering and monitoring populations. Established macroinvertebrate monitoring methods, such as net sampling, are unsuitable given the organism's life history, that include long lived diapausing eggs, benthic habits and ephemerally active populations...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493325/developmental-ecology-of-annual-killifish-millerichthys-robustus-cyprinodontiformes-cynolebiidae
#13
REVIEW
Omar Domínguez-Castanedo, Stefano Valdesalici, Ana María Rosales-Torres
Populations of annual killifishes persist in temporary water bodies over the dry season through the expression of diapause in their drought resistant embryos. Environmental cues may influence expression of the diapause phenotype during embryonic incubation. Millerichthys robustus is the only annual killifish distributed in North America. The aim of this review is to analyze the ecology of M. robustus development and to contrast this with that of annual killifishes in austral locations. The temporary water bodies inhabited M...
May 10, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480017/the-evolution-of-different-maternal-investment-strategies-in-two-closely-related-desert-vertebrates
#14
Joshua R Ennen, Jeffrey E Lovich, Roy C Averill-Murray, Charles B Yackulic, Mickey Agha, Caleb Loughran, Laura Tennant, Barry Sinervo
We compared egg size phenotypes and tested several predictions from the optimal egg size (OES) and bet-hedging theories in two North American desert-dwelling sister tortoise taxa, Gopherus agassizii and G. morafkai, that inhabit different climate spaces: relatively unpredictable and more predictable climate spaces, respectively. Observed patterns in both species differed from the predictions of OES in several ways. Mean egg size increased with maternal body size in both species. Mean egg size was inversely related to clutch order in G...
May 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474820/the-long-term-persistence-of-phytoplankton-resting-stages-in-aquatic-seed-banks
#15
Marianne Ellegaard, Sofia Ribeiro
In the past decade, research on long-term persistence of phytoplankton resting stages has intensified. Simultaneously, insight into life-cycle variability in the diverse groups of phytoplankton has also increased. Aquatic 'seed banks' have tremendous significance and show many interesting parallels to terrestrial seed beds of vascular plants, but are much less studied. It is therefore timely to review the phenomenon of long-term persistence of aquatic resting stages in sediment seed banks. Herein we compare function, morphology and physiology of phytoplankton resting stages to factors central for persistence of terrestrial seeds...
May 5, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419281/expression-of-the-plasmodium-falciparum-clonally-variant-clag3-genes-in-human-infections
#16
Sofía Mira-Martínez, Evi van Schuppen, Alfred Amambua-Ngwa, Emmanuel Bottieau, Muna Affara, Marjan Van Esbroeck, Erika Vlieghe, Pieter Guetens, Núria Rovira-Graells, Gloria P Gómez-Pérez, Pedro L Alonso, Umberto D'Alessandro, Anna Rosanas-Urgell, Alfred Cortés
Background.: Many genes of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum show clonally variant expression regulated at the epigenetic level. These genes participate in fundamental host-parasite interactions and contribute to adaptive processes. However, little is known about their expression patterns during human infections. A peculiar case of clonally variant genes are the 2 nearly identical clag3 genes, clag3.1 and clag3.2, which mediate nutrient uptake and are linked to resistance to some toxic compounds...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419148/how-long-to-rest-in-unpredictably-changing-habitats
#17
Mirosław Slusarczyk, Jacek Starzyński, Piotr Bernatowicz
In the present study, we investigated the optimum length of prolonged dormancy (developmental arrest extending over favourable periods) of organisms under uncertain environmental conditions. We used an artificial life model to simulate the evolution of suspended development in the ontogenesis of organisms inhabiting unpredictably changing habitats. A virtual population of semelparous parthenogenetic individuals that varied in a duration of developmental arrest competed for limited resources. At a constant level of available resources, uninterrupted development was the superior life strategy...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28355056/deconvolution-of-gene-expression-noise-into-spatial-dynamics-of-transcription-factor-promoter-interplay
#18
Ángel Goñi-Moreno, Ilaria Benedetti, Juhyun Kim, Víctor de Lorenzo
Gene expression noise is not only the mere consequence of stochasticity, but also a signal that reflects the upstream physical dynamics of the cognate molecular machinery. Soil bacteria facing recalcitrant pollutants exploit noise of catabolic promoters to deploy beneficial phenotypes such as metabolic bet-hedging and/or division of biochemical labor. Although the role of upstream promoter-regulator interplay in the origin of this noise is little understood, its specifications are probably ciphered in flow cytometry data patterns...
April 17, 2017: ACS Synthetic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342010/aridity-promotes-bet-hedging-via-delayed-hatching-a-case-study-with-two-temporary-pond-crustaceans-along-a-latitudinal-gradient
#19
Tom Pinceel, Bram Vanschoenwinkel, Wouter Hawinkel, Karen Tuytens, Luc Brendonck
Climate change does affect not only average rainfall and temperature but also their variation, which can reduce the predictability of suitable conditions for growth and reproduction. This situation is problematic for inhabitants of temporary waters whose reproductive success depends on rainfall and evaporation that determine the length of the aquatic phase. For organisms with long-lived dormant life stages, bet hedging models suggest that a fraction of these should stay dormant during each growing season to buffer against the probability of total reproductive failure in variable environments...
May 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329006/dimorphic-cocoons-of-the-cecropia-moth-hyalophora-cecropia-morphological-behavioral-and-biophysical-differences
#20
Patrick A Guerra, Steven M Reppert
The larvae of the giant silk moth (Hyalophora cecropia) spin strikingly dimorphic, multilayered cocoons that are either large and fluffy (baggy) or significantly smaller and tightly woven (compact). Although these cocoon-morphs share the same function (i.e., housing for pupal to adult development during overwintering), previous work has been unable to determine why cocoon dimorphism exists. We addressed this issue in cecropia moth cocoons collected along power line right-of-way habitats in Massachusetts. We first characterized the architectural differences between cocoon-morphs for all three cocoon sections (outer and inner envelopes, and the intermediate layer separating the two)...
2017: PloS One
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