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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107613/bet-hedging-against-male-caused-reproductive-failures-may-explain-ubiquitous-cuckoldry-in-female-birds
#1
Yukio Yasui, Jin Yoshimura
The origin and maintenance of polyandry is one of the key unresolved questions in evolutionary biology. In particular, extra-pair paternity (EPP) due to polyandry is observed in most (socially-) monogamous female birds and the frequency of EPP is surprisingly high (up to 72% in a clutch on average in some species). Many case-by-case hypotheses have been presented to explain this phenomenon but a ubiquitous explanation is still lacking. One possible general explanation is bet-hedging, which is a strategy to avoid the risk associated to mating with a single unsuitable male and thus to minimize the chances of complete reproductive failure by the female...
October 28, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052505/transcriptome-assembly-in-suaeda-aralocaspica-to-reveal-the-distinct-temporal-gene-mirna-alterations-between-the-dimorphic-seeds-during-germination
#2
Lei Wang, Hong-Ling Wang, Lan Yin, Chang-Yan Tian
BACKGROUND: Dimorphic seeds from Suaeda aralocaspica exhibit different germination behaviors that are thought to be a bet-hedging strategy advantageous in harsh and unpredictable environments. To understand the molecular mechanisms of Suaeda aralocaspica dimorphic seed germination, we applied RNA sequencing and small RNA sequencing for samples collected at three germination stages. RESULTS: A total of 79,414 transcripts were assembled using Trinity, of which 57...
October 19, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045649/understanding-evolutionary-impacts-of-seasonality-an-introduction-to-the-symposium
#3
Caroline M Williams, Gregory J Ragland, Gustavo Betini, Lauren B Buckley, Zachary A Cheviron, Kathleen Donohue, Joe Hereford, Murray M Humphries, Simeon Lisovski, Katie E Marshall, Paul S Schmidt, Kimberly S Sheldon, Øystein Varpe, Marcel E Visser
Seasonality is a critically important aspect of environmental variability, and strongly shapes all aspects of life for organisms living in highly seasonal environments. Seasonality has played a key role in generating biodiversity, and has driven the evolution of extreme physiological adaptations and behaviors such as migration and hibernation. Fluctuating selection pressures on survival and fecundity between summer and winter provide a complex selective landscape, which can be met by a combination of three outcomes of adaptive evolution: genetic polymorphism, phenotypic plasticity, and bet-hedging...
October 16, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28949168/bet-hedging-against-demographic-fluctuations
#4
BingKan Xue, Stanislas Leibler
Biological organisms have to cope with stochastic variations in both the external environment and the internal population dynamics. Theoretical studies and laboratory experiments suggest that population diversification could be an effective bet-hedging strategy for adaptation to varying environments. Here we show that bet hedging can also be effective against demographic fluctuations that pose a trade-off between growth and survival for populations even in a constant environment. A species can maximize its overall abundance in the long term by diversifying into coexisting subpopulations of both "fast-growing" and "better-surviving" individuals...
September 8, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943404/rethinking-the-evolution-of-specialization-a-model-for-the-evolution-of-phenotypic-heterogeneity
#5
Ilan N Rubin, Michael Doebeli
Phenotypic heterogeneity refers to genetically identical individuals that express different phenotypes, even when in the same environment. Traditionally, "bet-hedging" in fluctuating environments is offered as the explanation for the evolution of phenotypic heterogeneity. However, there are an increasing number of examples of microbial populations that display phenotypic heterogeneity in stable environments. Here we present an evolutionary model of phenotypic heterogeneity of microbial metabolism and a resultant theory for the evolution of phenotypic versus genetic specialization...
December 21, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902912/differential-response-to-mosquito-host-sex-and-parasite-dosage-suggest-mixed-dispersal-strategies-in-the-parasite-ascogregarina-taiwanensis
#6
John Soghigian, Todd Livdahl
Mixed dispersal strategies are a form of bet hedging in which a species or population utilizes different dispersal strategies dependent upon biotic or abiotic conditions. Here we provide an example of a mixed dispersal strategy in the Aedes albopictus / Ascogregarina taiwanensis host/parasite system, wherein upon host emergence, the gregarine parasite is either carried with an adult mosquito leaving the larval habitat, or released back into the larval habitat. We show that the parasite invests a larger proportion of its dispersing (oocyst) life stage into adult female mosquitoes as opposed to adult male mosquitoes at low parasite exposure levels...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827678/the-mean-and-variance-of-climate-change-in-the-oceans-hidden-evolutionary-potential-under-stochastic-environmental-variability-in-marine-sticklebacks
#7
Lisa N S Shama
Increasing climate variability may pose an even greater risk to species than climate warming because temperature fluctuations can amplify adverse impacts of directional warming on fitness-related traits. Here, the influence of directional warming and increasing climate variability on marine stickleback fish (Gasterosteus aculeatus) offspring size variation was investigated by simulating changes to the mean and variance of ocean temperatures predicted under climate change. Reproductive traits of mothers and offspring size reaction norms across four climate scenarios were examined to assess the roles of standing genetic variation, transgenerational and within-generation plasticity in adaptive potential...
August 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798729/in-silico-evolution-of-lysis-lysogeny-strategies-reproduces-observed-lysogeny-propensities-in-temperate-bacteriophages
#8
Vaibhhav Sinha, Akshit Goyal, Sine L Svenningsen, Szabolcs Semsey, Sandeep Krishna
Bacteriophages are the most abundant organisms on the planet and both lytic and temperate phages play key roles as shapers of ecosystems and drivers of bacterial evolution. Temperate phages can choose between (i) lysis: exploiting their bacterial hosts by producing multiple phage particles and releasing them by lysing the host cell, and (ii) lysogeny: establishing a potentially mutually beneficial relationship with the host by integrating their chromosome into the host cell's genome. Temperate phages exhibit lysogeny propensities in the curiously narrow range of 5-15%...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790201/division-of-labor-bet-hedging-and-the-evolution-of-mixed-biofilm-investment-strategies
#9
Nick Vallespir Lowery, Luke McNally, William C Ratcliff, Sam P Brown
Bacterial cells, like many other organisms, face a tradeoff between longevity and fecundity. Planktonic cells are fast growing and fragile, while biofilm cells are often slower growing but stress resistant. Here we ask why bacterial lineages invest simultaneously in both fast- and slow-growing types. We develop a population dynamic model of lineage expansion across a patchy environment and find that mixed investment is favored across a broad range of environmental conditions, even when transmission is entirely via biofilm cells...
August 8, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743819/positive-autoregulation-of-an-acyl-homoserine-lactone-quorum-sensing-circuit-synchronizes-the-population-response
#10
Rebecca L Scholz, E Peter Greenberg
Many proteobacteria utilize acyl-homoserine lactone quorum-sensing signals. At low population densities, cells produce a basal level of signal, and when sufficient signal has accumulated in the surrounding environment, it binds to its receptor, and quorum-sensing-dependent genes can be activated. A common characteristic of acyl-homoserine lactone quorum sensing is that signal production is positively autoregulated. We have examined the role of positive signal autoregulation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa We compared population responses and individual cell responses in populations of wild-type P...
July 25, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696424/phenotypic-and-genotypic-richness-of-denitrifiers-revealed-by-a-novel-isolation-strategy
#11
Pawel Lycus, Kari Lovise Bøthun, Linda Bergaust, James Peele Shapleigh, Lars Reier Bakken, Åsa Frostegård
Present-day knowledge on the regulatory biology of denitrification is based on studies of selected model organisms. These show large variations in their potential contribution to NO2(-), NO, and N2O accumulation, attributed to lack of genes coding for denitrification reductases, but also to variations in their transcriptional regulation, as well as to post-transcriptional phenomena. To validate the relevance of these observations, there is a need to study a wider range of denitrifiers. We designed an isolation protocol that identifies all possible combinations of truncated denitrification chains (NO3(-)/NO2(-)/NO/N2O/N2)...
October 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659451/costs-and-benefits-of-maternally-inherited-algal-symbionts-in-coral-larvae
#12
Valérie F Chamberland, Kelly R W Latijnhouwers, Jef Huisman, Aaron C Hartmann, Mark J A Vermeij
Many marine invertebrates provide their offspring with symbionts. Yet the consequences of maternally inherited symbionts on larval fitness remain largely unexplored. In the stony coral Favia fragum (Esper 1797), mothers produce larvae with highly variable amounts of endosymbiotic algae, and we examined the implications of this variation in symbiont density on the performance of F. fragum larvae under different environmental scenarios. High symbiont densities prolonged the period that larvae actively swam and searched for suitable settlement habitats...
June 28, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647808/characterization-of-arabidopsis-thaliana-regrowth-patterns-suggests-a-trade-off-between-undamaged-fitness-and-damage-tolerance
#13
Daniel R Scholes, Erika N Rasnick, Ken N Paige
Herbivory is a fundamental type of plant-animal interaction that presents substantial selection pressure on plants to replace lost tissues and to prevent subsequent losses in fitness. Apical herbivory, which entails removal or damage to the apical meristem, causes a change in plant architecture by disrupting the balance of hormones produced in part by the apical meristem. Therefore, for an annual semelparous plant, the ability to preserve reproductive success following damage (i.e., to tolerate damage) is largely dependent on the plant's pre-damage investment into fitness and its regrowth pattern following damage...
July 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618624/delayed-bet-hedging-resilience-strategies-under-environmental-fluctuations
#14
Masaki Ogura, Masashi Wakaiki, Harvey Rubin, Victor M Preciado
Many biological populations, such as bacterial colonies, have developed through evolution a protection mechanism, called bet hedging, to increase their probability of survival under stressful environmental fluctuation. In this context, the concept of preadaptation refers to a common type of bet-hedging protection strategy in which a relatively small number of individuals in a population stochastically switch their phenotypes to a dormant metabolic state in which they increase their probability of survival against potential environmental shocks...
May 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618174/intraspecific-maternal-competition-induces-summer-diapause-in-insect-parasitoids
#15
Kevin Tougeron, George Hraoui, Cécile Le Lann, Joan van Baaren, Jacques Brodeur
Organisms often live in unpredictable environments and have to adopt life history strategies that optimize their fitness under these conditions. According to bet-hedging theory, individuals can reduce variation in fitness outcomes by investing in different strategies at the same time. For arthropods, facultative summer diapause enables survival during dry and hot periods of the year, and can be triggered by a decrease in resource abundance. However, the effect of resource depletion on diapause induction has never been disentangled from the effect of the perception of the presence of competitors...
June 15, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605016/flexibility-in-the-duration-of-parental-care-female-leopards-prioritise-cub-survival-over-reproductive-output
#16
Guy A Balme, Hugh S Robinson, Ross T Pitman, Luke T B Hunter
Deciding when to terminate care of offspring is a key consideration for parents. Prolonging care may increase fitness of current offspring, but it can also reduce opportunities for future reproduction. Despite its evolutionary importance, few studies have explored the optimal duration of parental care, particularly among large carnivores. We used a 40-year dataset to assess the trade-offs associated with the length of maternal care in leopards in the Sabi Sand Game Reserve, South Africa. We compared the costs imposed by care on the survival and residual reproductive value of leopard mothers against the benefits derived from maternal care in terms of increased offspring survival, recruitment and reproduction...
September 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543274/diel-and-seasonal-movements-of-silver-eels-anguilla-dieffenbachii-emigrating-from-a-lake-subject-to-hydro-electric-control
#17
D J Jellyman, M J Unwin
To investigate the behaviour and fate of silver female longfin eels Anguilla dieffenbachii in relation to flow variations from New Zealand's largest (700 MW) hydro-electric station, 210 A. dieffenbachii were tagged with acoustic transmitters during summer and autumn over 6 years from 2005 to 2010. A shoreline array of receivers (2005-2008) was supplemented by positioning systems near the power station and natural outlet (2009-2010) that enabled continuous tracking of A. dieffenbachii within these areas...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539459/social-bet-hedging-in-vampire-bats
#18
Gerald G Carter, Damien R Farine, Gerald S Wilkinson
Helping kin or nonkin can provide direct fitness benefits, but helping kin also benefits indirect fitness. Why then should organisms invest in cooperative partnerships with nonkin, if kin relationships are available and more beneficial? One explanation is that a kin-limited support network is too small and risky. Even if additional weaker partnerships reduce immediate net cooperative returns, individuals extending cooperation to nonkin can maintain a larger social network which reduces the potential costs associated with losing a primary cooperation partner...
May 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536035/seasonality-can-induce-coexistence-of-multiple-bet-hedging-strategies-in-dictyostelium-discoideum-via-storage-effect
#19
Ricardo Martínez-García, Corina E Tarnita
The social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum has been recently suggested as an example of bet-hedging in microbes. In the presence of resources, amoebae reproduce as unicellular organisms. Resource depletion, however, leads to a starvation phase in which the population splits between aggregators, which form a fruiting body made of a stalk and resistant spores, and non-aggregators, which remain as vegetative cells. Spores are favored when starvation periods are long, but vegetative cells can exploit resources in environments where food replenishes quickly...
May 20, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514627/what-kind-of-maternal-effects-can-be-selected-for-in-fluctuating-environments
#20
Stephen R Proulx, Henrique Teotónio
Just as phenotypic plasticity can evolve when developing individuals get informational cues about their future adult environment, deterministic maternal effects, where offspring trait values depend on the maternal environment, can evolve when mothers gain reliable information about the environments their offspring will face. Randomizing maternal effects (a type of diversifying bet hedging), where offspring trait values are randomized, can evolve by natural selection even when information about future environments is unavailable...
June 2017: American Naturalist
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