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Epicardial adipose tissue and obesity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720272/epicardial-adipose-tissue-volume-and-left-ventricular-myocardial-function-using-3-dimensional-speckle-tracking-echocardiography
#1
Arnold C T Ng, Shi Yi Goo, Nicole Roche, Rob J van der Geest, William Y S Wang
BACKGROUND: Although epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) volume is associated with increased incidence of coronary artery disease (CAD), its role in myocardial systolic dysfunction is unclear. The present study aimed to identify independent determinants of EAT volume in patients without obstructive CAD, and to evaluate the association between EAT volume (vs other measures of obesity) and myocardial systolic strain analysis. METHODS: We prospectively recruited 130 patients without obstructive CAD on contrast-enhanced cardiac computed tomography imaging and normal left ventricular ejection fraction on 3-dimensional (3D) echocardiography...
June 23, 2016: Canadian Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27699898/adipose-tissue-regulates-insulin-sensitivity-role-of-adipogenesis-de-novo-lipogenesis-and-novel-lipids
#2
U Smith, B B Kahn
Obesity, the major cause of the current global epidemic of type 2 diabetes (T2D), induces insulin resistance in peripheral insulin target tissues. Several mechanisms have been identified related to cross-talk between adipose tissue, skeletal muscle and liver. These mechanisms involve both increased free fatty acid release and altered secretion of adipokines from adipose tissue. A major determinant of metabolic health is the ability of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) to store excess fat rather than allowing it to accumulate in ectopic depots including liver (i...
November 2016: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27617176/ace2-ang-1-7-axis-a-critical-regulator-of-epicardial-adipose-tissue-inflammation-and-cardiac-dysfunction-in-obesity
#3
Vaibhav B Patel, Ratnadeep Basu, Gavin Y Oudit
Obesity is characterized by an excessive fat accumulation in adipose tissues leading to weight gain and is increasing in prevalence and is strongly associated with metabolic and cardiovascular disorders. The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) has emerged as a key pathogenic mechanism for these disorders; activated RAS and angiotensin (Ang) II production results in worsening of cardiovascular diseases and angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) negatively regulates RAS by metabolizing Ang II into Ang 1-7. ACE2 is expressed in the adipocytes and its expression is upregulated in response to high fat diet induced obesity in mice...
July 2016: Adipocyte
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27597954/role-of-mirnas-in-epicardial-adipose-tissue-in-cad-patients-with-t2dm
#4
Yang Liu, Wenbo Fu, Mu Lu, Shitao Huai, Yaqin Song, Yutao Wei
Background. Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) is identified as an atypical fat depot surrounding the heart with a putative role in the involvement of metabolic disorders, including obesity, type-2 diabetes mellitus, and atherosclerosis. We profiled miRNAs in EAT of metabolic patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) versus metabolically healthy patients by microarray. Compared to metabolically healthy patients, we identified forty-two miRNAs that are differentially expressed in patients with CAD and T2DM from Xinjiang, China...
2016: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27522371/relationship-between-soluble-receptor-for-advanced-glycation-end-products-srage-body-composition-and-fat-distribution-in-healthy-women
#5
Elena Dozio, Silvia Briganti, Alessandra Delnevo, Elena Vianello, Federica Ermetici, Francesco Secchi, Francesco Sardanelli, Lelio Morricone, Alexis E Malavazos, Massimiliano M Corsi Romanelli
PURPOSE: Soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE) is a decoy receptor which sequesters RAGE ligands and acts as a cytoprotective agent. To date, it is unclear whether the lower sRAGE levels observed in obesity are a marker of increased overall adiposity or reflect increases in particular fat depots. Therefore, we evaluated in healthy women the relationship among sRAGE and indicators of adiposity, including abdominal visceral (VAT) and epicardial visceral (EAT) adipose tissues, to explore the potential role of sRAGE as an earlier biomarker of cardiometabolic risk...
August 13, 2016: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27456108/abnormal-peri-organ-or-intra-organ-fat-apifat-deposition-an-underestimated-predictor-of-vascular-risk
#6
Niki Katsiki, Vasilios G Athyros, Dimitri P Mikhailidis
Adipose tissue, a major endocrine organ, consists of brown and white adipocytes. Brown fatmay play a beneficialrole in cardiometabolic disordersBrown adipose tissue can also improve glucose and lipid metabolism. In contrast, the expansion of white adipose tissue has been related to obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Both the quantity and the quality of the white adipose tissue as well as its distribution may affect CVD risk. In this context, the link between adiposity and CVD risk is greater for visceral than subcutaneous fat...
July 22, 2016: Current Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27450783/increased-expression-of-the-adipocytokine-omentin-in-the-epicardial-adipose-tissue-of-coronary-artery-disease-patients
#7
Ken Harada, Rei Shibata, Noriyuki Ouchi, Yoshiyuki Tokuda, Hiroshi Funakubo, Mayu Suzuki, Takashi Kataoka, Tomoyuki Nagao, Satoshi Okumura, Norihiro Shinoda, Bunichi Kato, Shinichi Sakai, Masataka Kato, Nobuyuki Marui, Hideki Ishii, Tetsuya Amano, Tatsuaki Matsubara, Toyoaki Murohara
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Omentin, an adipocytokine secreted by visceral adipose tissue, protects against obesity-linked cardiovascular complications. However, little is known about its role in epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) and coronary artery disease (CAD). We investigated the expression of omentin in EAT from CAD subjects. METHODS: EAT, subcutaneous adipose tissue (SCAT), and plasma samples were collected from CAD (n = 15; 23.3 ± 3.1 kg/m(2)) and non-CAD patients (n = 10; 20...
August 2016: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27352781/association-between-omentin-1-expression-in-human-epicardial-adipose-tissue-and-coronary-atherosclerosis
#8
Yu Du, Qingwei Ji, Lun Cai, Fangjiong Huang, Yongqiang Lai, Yue Liu, Jianbo Yu, Bo Han, Enjun Zhu, Jinwei Zhang, Yujie Zhou, Zhijian Wang, Yingxin Zhao
BACKGROUND: Omentin-1, a novel adipocytokine mainly expressed in visceral adipose tissue, has been found to inhibit the inflammatory response and improve insulin resistance as well as other obesity-related disorders. This study investigated the association between omentin-1 expression in human epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) and coronary atherosclerosis. METHODS: Serum samples, and paired biopsies from EAT and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), were obtained from patients with and without coronary artery disease (CAD, n = 28 and NCAD, n = 12, respectively) during elective cardiac surgery...
June 28, 2016: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27294836/the-ratio-of-epicardial-to-body-fat-improves-the-prediction-of-coronary-artery-disease-beyond-calcium-and-framingham-risk-scores
#9
Bai-Chin Lee, Wen-Jeng Lee, Shyh-Chyi Lo, Hsiu-Ching Hsu, Kuo-Liong Chien, Yeun-Chung Chang, Ming-Fong Chen
The association between epicardial fat and coronary artery disease (CAD) might be affected by general adiposity. We aimed to determine whether the percentage of epicardial adipose tissue (%EAT), defined as the mass ratio of epicardial fat to body fat, could improve prediction of asymptomatic CAD. We consecutively enrolled 846 adults who underwent coronary computed tomography angiography as part of a health check-up and assessed their coronary stenosis severity and epicardial fat mass. Body fat mass was measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis...
June 2016: International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27165194/cardiac-remodeling-and-dysfunction-in-childhood-obesity-a-cardiovascular-magnetic-resonance-study
#10
Linyuan Jing, Cassi M Binkley, Jonathan D Suever, Nivedita Umasankar, Christopher M Haggerty, Jennifer Rich, Gregory J Wehner, Sean M Hamlet, David K Powell, Aurelia Radulescu, H Lester Kirchner, Frederick H Epstein, Brandon K Fornwalt
BACKGROUND: Obesity affects nearly one in five children and is associated with increased risk of premature death. Obesity-related heart disease contributes to premature death. We aimed to use cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) to comprehensively characterize the changes in cardiac geometry and function in obese children. METHODS AND RESULTS: Forty-one obese/overweight (age 12 ± 3 years, 56 % female) and 29 healthy weight children (age 14 ± 3 years, 41 % female) underwent CMR, including both standard cine imaging and displacement encoded imaging, for a complete assessment of left ventricular (LV) structure and function...
2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27152170/physiological-determinants-and-impacts-of-the-adipocyte-phenotype
#11
A Tchernof, D Richard
The properties of adipose tissues accumulating in various compartments and ectopic sites around the body represent critical determinants of the relationship between obesity and metabolic disease. The increasingly recognized plasticity of the adipose cell phenotype led to many articles on the cellular characteristics and origins on brown, white and also of 'beige' or 'brite' adipocytes in recent years. This overview is a summary of manuscripts that were prepared by speakers at the 16th International Symposium of the Laval University Research Chair in Obesity...
August 2015: International Journal of Obesity Supplements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27139713/adipokine-imbalance-in-the-pericardial-cavity-of-cardiac-and-vascular-disease-patients
#12
Atlanta G I M Elie, Pia S Jensen, Katrine D Nissen, Ilvy M E Geraets, Aimin Xu, Erfei Song, Maria L Hansen, Akhmadjon Irmukhamedov, Lars M Rasmussen, Yu Wang, Jo G R De Mey
AIM: Obesity and especially hypertrophy of epicardial adipose tissue accelerate coronary atherogenesis. We aimed at comparing levels of inflammatory and atherogenic hormones from adipose tissue in the pericardial fluid and circulation of cardiovascular disease patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: Venous plasma (P) and pericardial fluid (PF) were obtained from elective cardiothoracic surgery patients (n = 37). Concentrations of leptin, adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein (A-FABP) and adiponectin (APN) were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27106272/exenatide-decreases-liver-fat-content-and-epicardial-adipose-tissue-in-patients-with-obesity-and-type-2-diabetes-a-prospective-randomized-clinical-trial-using-magnetic-resonance-imaging-and-spectroscopy
#13
A Dutour, I Abdesselam, P Ancel, F Kober, G Mrad, P Darmon, O Ronsin, V Pradel, N Lesavre, J C Martin, A Jacquier, Y Lefur, M Bernard, B Gaborit
AIM: To conduct a prospective randomized trial to investigate the effect of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogues on ectopic fat stores. METHODS: A total of 44 obese subjects with type 2 diabetes uncontrolled on oral antidiabetic drugs were randomly assigned to receive exenatide or reference treatment according to French guidelines. Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT), myocardial triglyceride content (MTGC), hepatic triglyceride content (HTGC) and pancreatic triglyceride content (PTGC) were assessed 45 min after a standardized meal with 3T magnetic resonance imaging and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy before and after 26 weeks of treatment...
September 2016: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27081428/epicardial-adipose-tissue-thickness-and-its-association-with-the-presence-and-severity-of-coronary-artery-disease-in-clinical-setting-a-cross-sectional-observational-study
#14
Santosh Kumar Sinha, Ramesh Thakur, Mukesh Jitendra Jha, Amit Goel, Varun Kumar, Ashutosh Kumar, Vikas Mishra, Chandra Mohan Varma, Vinay Krishna, Avinash Kumar Singh, Mohit Sachan
BACKGROUND: Obesity is an important risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). Estimation of visceral adipose tissue is important and several methods are available as its surrogate. Although correlation of epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) with visceral adipose tissue as estimated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and/or CT is excellent, it is costlier and cumbersome. EAT can be accurately measured by two-dimensional (2D) echocardiography. It tends to be higher in patients with acute coronary syndrome than in subjects without coronary artery disease (CAD) and in those with stable angina...
May 2016: Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26995737/perivascular-adipose-tissue-an-unique-fat-compartment-relevant-for-the-cardiometabolic-syndrome
#15
REVIEW
D I Siegel-Axel, H U Häring
Type 2 diabetes and its major risk factor, obesity, are an increasing worldwide health problem. The exact mechanisms that link obesity with insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular complications and renal diseases, are still not clarified sufficiently. Adipose tissue in general is an active endocrine and paracrine organ that may influence the development of these disorders. Excessive body fat in general obesity may also cause quantitative and functional alterations of specific adipose tissue compartments...
March 2016: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26935271/epicardial-fat-and-atrial-fibrillation-current-evidence-potential-mechanisms-clinical-implications-and-future-directions
#16
Christopher X Wong, Anand N Ganesan, Joseph B Selvanayagam
Obesity is increasingly recognized as a major modifiable determinant of atrial fibrillation (AF). Although body mass index and other clinical measures are useful indications of general adiposity, much recent interest has focused on epicardial fat, a distinct adipose tissue depot that can be readily assessed using non-invasive imaging techniques. A growing body of data from epidemiological and clinical studies has demonstrated that epicardial fat is consistently associated with the presence, severity, and recurrence of AF across a range of clinical settings...
March 1, 2016: European Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26858794/epicardial-adipose-tissue-thickness-in-patients-with-subclinical-hypothyroidism-and-the-relationship-thereof-with-visceral-adipose-tissue-thickness
#17
Dilek Arpaci, Aysel Gurkan Tocoglu, Sabiye Yilmaz, Sumeyye Korkmaz, Hasan Ergenc, Huseyin Gunduz, Nurgul Keser, Ali Tamer
BACKGROUND: Subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) is associated with cardiovascular metabolic syndromes, especially dislipidemia and abdominal obesity. Visceral abdominal adipose tissue (VAAT) and epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) have the same ontogenic origin and produce many proinflammatory and proatherogenic cytokines. We evaluated EAT and VAAT thickness in patients with SH. METHODS: Forty-one patients with SH and 35 controls were included in the study. Demographical and anthropometric features of both patients and controls were recorded...
March 2016: Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26848373/evaluation-of-epicardial-fat-and-carotid-intima-media-thickness-in-obese-children
#18
Hatem Hamed Elshorbagy, ElSaeed R Fouda, Naglaa M Kamal, Mohammed M Bassiouny, Waleed M Fathi
BACKGROUND: Epicardial fat has a role in cardiovascular diseases. OBJECTIVES: To assess epicardial fat and its relation with carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) in obese adolescents with metabolic syndrome (MetS). PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study included 60 obese adolescents and 25 control subjects. According to the presence or absence of MetS, obese subjects were divided into two subgroups. We measured weight, height, calculated Body Mass Index, waist circumference, hip circumference, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and biochemical parameters (fasting glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, and low density lipoprotein cholesterol, High sensitivity C-reactive protein, fasting insulin, a homeostasis model assessment index of insulin resistance...
February 2016: Iranian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26844473/differential-effects-of-bariatric-surgery-versus-exercise-on-excessive-visceral-fat-deposits
#19
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Fu-Zong Wu, Yi-Luan Huang, Carol C Wu, Yen-Chi Wang, Hsiang-Ju Pan, Chin-Kun Huang, Lee-Ren Yeh, Ming-Ting Wu
The aim of the present study was to compare differential impacts of bariatric surgery and exercise-induced weight loss on excessive abdominal and cardiac fat deposition.Excessive fat accumulation around the heart may play an important role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. Recent evidences have suggested that bariatric surgery results in relatively less decrease in epicardial fat compared with abdominal visceral fat and paracardial fat.Sixty-four consecutive overweight or obese subjects were enrolled in the study...
February 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26830392/obesity-ultrasound-indexes-of-fat-depots-and-lipid-goal-attainment-in-patients-with-high-and-very-high-cardiovascular-risk-a-novel-approach-towards-better-risk-reduction
#20
M Haberka, B Okopień, Z Gąsior
AIM: Our aim was to assess the attainment of primary (low density lipoprotein cholesterol; LDL-C) and secondary (non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol; non-HDL-C) lipid therapeutic goals in relation to obesity, clinical measures of adiposity and ultrasound indexes of fat depots, including the novel index of periarterial adipose tissue (PAT): carotid artery extra media thickness (EMT). METHODS AND RESULTS: High and very high cardiovascular (CV) risk patients (n = 420; F/M: 34/66%; age: 61...
February 2016: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
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