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Epicardial adipose tissue and obesity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762019/epicardial-adipose-tissue-as-a-metabolic-transducer-role-in-heart-failure-and-coronary-artery-disease
#1
REVIEW
Vaibhav B Patel, Saumya Shah, Subodh Verma, Gavin Y Oudit
Obesity and diabetes are strongly associated with metabolic and cardiovascular disorders including dyslipidemia, coronary artery disease, hypertension, and heart failure. Adipose tissue is identified as a complex endocrine organ, which by exerting a wide array of regulatory functions at the cellular, tissue and systemic levels can have profound effects on the cardiovascular system. Different terms including "epicardial," "pericardial," and "paracardial" have been used to describe adipose tissue deposits surrounding the heart...
July 31, 2017: Heart Failure Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761018/dynamic-thiol-disulphide-homeostasis-as-a-novel-indicator-of-oxidative-stress-in-obese-children-and-its-relationship-with-inflammatory-cardiovascular-markers
#2
Bahri Elmas, Mehmet Karacan, Pınar Dervişoğlu, Mustafa Kösecik, Şükriye Pınar İşgüven, Ceylan Bal
OBJECTIVE: Childhood obesity is an important cause of cardiovascular risk with chronic inflammation. Oxidative stress may contribute to the pathogenesis of obesity-related cardiovascular pathologies. We aimed to evaluate thiol/disulphide homeostasis as a novel and sensitive marker of oxidative stress and to evaluate its relationship with some inflammatory and cardiovascular markers in obese children. METHODS: In this case-controlled study, 65 children with exogenous obesity and 64 healthy children, as a control group, were included...
July 25, 2017: Anatolian Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699484/immune-response-to-native-lipoproteins-induces-visceral-obesity-and-aortic-wall-injury-in-rats-the-role-of-testosterone
#3
Kseniya Fomina, Liubov Beduleva, Igor Menshikov, Marina Marina Anikaeva, Daria Suntsova, Alexandr Sidorov, Elena Stolyarova
OBJECTIVES: The underlying mechanism of atherosclerosis and visceral obesity remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that atherosclerosis and visceral obesity are caused by an immune response to native plasma lipoproteins, and the atherogenic and adipogenic effects of the antibodies to native lipoproteins stem from the androgen deficiency that is created. METHODS: Wistar rats were immunized with native human (nh) low-density (LDL) or high-density lipoproteins (HDL)...
July 11, 2017: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687077/joint-analysis-of-left-ventricular-expression-and-circulating-plasma-levels-of-omentin-after-myocardial-ischemia
#4
Louis A Saddic, Sarah M Nicoloro, Olga T Gupta, Michael P Czech, Joshua Gorham, Stanton K Shernan, Christine E Seidman, Jon G Seidman, Sary F Aranki, Simon C Body, Timothy P Fitzgibbons, Jochen D Muehlschlegel
BACKGROUND: Omentin-1, also known as Intelectin-1 (ITLN1), is an adipokine with plasma levels associated with diabetes, obesity, and coronary artery disease. Recent studies suggest that ITLN1 can mitigate myocardial ischemic injury but the expression of ITLN1 in the heart itself has not been well characterized. The purpose of this study is to discern the relationship between the expression pattern of ITLN1 RNA in the human heart and the level of circulating ITLN1 protein in plasma from the same patients following myocardial ischemia...
July 7, 2017: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664417/epicardial-adipose-tissue-at-the-heart-of-the-obesity-complications
#5
Valeria Guglielmi, Paolo Sbraccia
In recent years, the anatomic and functional contiguity of epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) to myocardium and coronary arteries has gained increasing interest for its potential pathogenetic role in obesity-related cardiac diseases. Besides its known and attributed biochemical cardioprotective properties, it is becoming evident that, in metabolic disease states, EAT-secreted bioactive molecules may play an important role in the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease and cardiac arrhythmias. EAT-derived inflammatory cytokines and reactive oxidative species may, indeed, play a part in the development of a local proatherogenic milieu by paracrine and vasocrine mechanisms of interaction...
June 29, 2017: Acta Diabetologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640441/adipose-tissue-derived-omentin-1-function-and-regulation
#6
Takuya Watanabe, Kaho Watanabe-Kominato, Yui Takahashi, Miho Kojima, Rena Watanabe
Omentin-1, also known as intelectin-1, is a recently identified novel adipocytokine of 313 amino acids, which is expressed in visceral (omental and epicardial) fat as well as mesothelial cells, vascular cells, airway goblet cells, small intestine, colon, ovary, and plasma. The level of omentin-1 expression in (pre)adipocytes is decreased by glucose/insulin and stimulated by fibroblast growth factor-21 and dexamethasone. Several lines of experimental evidence have shown that omentin-1 plays crucial roles in the maintenance of body metabolism and insulin sensitivity, and has anti-inflammatory, anti-atherosclerotic, and cardiovascular protective effects via AMP-activated protein kinase/Akt/nuclear factor-κB/mitogen-activated protein kinase (ERK, JNK, and p38) signaling...
June 18, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629772/impact-of-the-cardiovascular-system-associated-adipose-tissue-on-atherosclerotic-pathology
#7
REVIEW
Dimitry A Chistiakov, Andrey V Grechko, Veronika A Myasoedova, Alexandra A Melnichenko, Alexander N Orekhov
Cardiac obesity makes an important contribution to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. One of the important pathways of this contribution is the inflammatory process that takes place in the adipose tissue. In this review, we consider the role of the cardiovascular system-associated fat in atherosclerotic cardiovascular pathology and a non-atherosclerotic cause of coronary artery disease, such as atrial fibrillation. Cardiovascular system-associated fat not only serves as the energy store, but also releases adipokines that control local and systemic metabolism, heart/vascular function and vessel tone, and a number of vasodilating and anti-inflammatory substances...
June 8, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624865/bone-marrow-fat-contributes-to-insulin-sensitivity-and-adiponectin-secretion-in-premenopausal-women
#8
Federica Ermetici, Silvia Briganti, Alessandra Delnevo, Paola Cannaò, Giovanni Di Leo, Stefano Benedini, Ileana Terruzzi, Francesco Sardanelli, Livio Luzi
PURPOSE: Bone marrow fat is a functionally distinct adipose tissue that may contribute to systemic metabolism. This study aimed at evaluating a possible association between bone marrow fat and insulin sensitivity indices. METHODS: Fifty obese (n = 23) and non-obese (n = 27) premenopausal women underwent proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy to measure vertebral bone marrow fat content and unsaturation index at L4 level. Abdominal visceral, subcutaneous fat, and epicardial fat were also measured using magnetic resonance imaging...
June 17, 2017: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605281/re-plasminogen-activator-inhibitor-1-and-pericardial-fat-in-individuals-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-by-bayomi-et-al-metab-syndr-relat-disord-doi-10-1089-met-2017-0031
#9
Angelo Avogaro
Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is a member of the serine protease inhibitor (serpin) superfamily, which inactivates tissue plasminogen activator (tPA); therefore, increased level of PAI-1 antigen counteracts the anticoagulant effect of tPA and facilitates the fibrin clot formation. Plasma PAI-1 antigen and activity levels are associated with increased body mass index and with features of the insulin resistance syndrome like obesity and diabetes. Visceral adipose tissue produces more PAI-1 than subcutaneous adipose tissue: This increased production of PAI-1 from the visceral adipose tissue is one important link between visceral obesity and cardiovascular disease...
June 12, 2017: Metabolic Syndrome and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582523/the-interplay-between-adipose-tissue-and-the-cardiovascular-system-is-fat-always-bad
#10
Ioannis Akoumianakis, Charalambos Antoniades
Obesity is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, clinical research has revealed a paradoxically protective role for obesity in patients with chronic diseases including CVD, suggesting that the biological "quality" of adipose tissue (AT) may be more important than overall AT mass or body weight. Importantly, AT is recognized as a dynamic organ secreting a wide range of biologically active adipokines, microRNAs, gaseous messengers and other metabolites that affect the cardiovascular system in both endocrine and paracrine ways...
June 5, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498891/adipose-tissue-depots-and-inflammation-effects-on-plasticity-and-resident-mesenchymal-stem-cell-function
#11
Lina Badimon, Judit Cubedo
Adipose tissue (AT) is a highly heterogeneous organ. Beside the heterogeneity associated to different tissue types (white, brown and "brite") and its location-related heterogeneity (subcutaneous, visceral, epicardial, and perivascular, etc), AT composition, structure and functionality is highly dependent on individual-associated factors. As such, the pro-inflammatory state associated to the presence of obesity and other cardiovascular risk factors directly affects AT metabolism. Furthermore, the adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) that reside in the stromal vascular fraction (SVF) of AT, besides being responsible for most of the plasticity attributed to AT, is an additional source of heterogeneity...
May 11, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438306/relation-of-quantity-of-subepicardial-adipose-tissue-to-infarct-size-in-patients-with-st-elevation-myocardial-infarction
#12
Loïc Bière, Vianney Behaghel, Victor Mateus, Antonildes Assunção, Christoph Gräni, Kais Ouerghi, Sylvain Grall, Serge Willoteaux, Fabrice Prunier, Raymond Kwong, Alain Furber
According to the so-called obesity paradox, obesity might present a protective role in patients with myocardial infarction. We aimed to assess the influence of the epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) volume on cardiac healing and remodeling in patients with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction. We prospectively included 193 consecutive patients presenting a first STEMI without known coronary artery disease. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging was performed at baseline and after a 3-month follow-up. EAT volume was computed, and the population was divided into quartiles: the highest quartile of EAT defining the high EAT group (h-EAT)...
June 15, 2017: American Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376896/regulation-of-visceral-and-epicardial-adipose-tissue-for-preventing-cardiovascular-injuries-associated-to-obesity-and-diabetes
#13
REVIEW
N González, Z Moreno-Villegas, A González-Bris, J Egido, Ó Lorenzo
Nowadays, obesity is seriously increasing in most of the populations all over the world, and is associated with the development and progression of high-mortality diseases such as type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and its subsequent cardiovascular pathologies. Recent data suggest that both body fat distribution and adipocyte phenotype, can be more determinant for fatal outcomes in obese patients than increased general adiposity. In particular, visceral adiposity is significantly linked to long term alterations on different cardiac structures, and in developed forms of myocardial diseases such as hypertensive and ischaemic heart diseases, and diabetic cardiomyopathy...
April 4, 2017: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144387/from-the-liver-to-the-heart-cardiac-dysfunction-in-obese-children-with-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#14
EDITORIAL
Anna Di Sessa, Giuseppina Rosaria Umano, Emanuele Miraglia Del Giudice, Nicola Santoro
In the last decades the prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has increased as a consequence of the childhood obesity world epidemic. The liver damage occurring in NAFLD ranges from simple steatosis to steatohepatitis, fibrosis and cirrhosis. Recent findings reported that fatty liver disease is related to early atherosclerosis and cardiac dysfunction even in the pediatric population. Moreover, some authors have shown an association between liver steatosis and cardiac abnormalities, including rise in left ventricular mass, systolic and diastolic dysfunction and epicardial adipose tissue thickness...
January 18, 2017: World Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124603/epicardial-adipose-tissue-another-tassel-in-the-complex-fabric-of-atherosclerosis
#15
Nikolaos Alexopoulos, Paolo Raggi
Atherosclerosis affects the majority of adult individuals in industrialized nations and it is beginning to affect even traditionally spared populations. The classic view has been that the precipitating events are intraluminal. However, good evidence supports the possibility that at least part of the atherosclerosis burden may be the consequence of extra-luminal noxious stimuli. Additionally, the epidemic of obesity, insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus has generated a strong interest in the potential role of visceral adipose tissue as an extra-luminal promoter of atherosclerosis...
January 24, 2017: Cardiovascular & Hematological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007022/impact-of-obesity-and-epicardial-fat-on-early-left-atrial-dysfunction-assessed-by-cardiac-mri-strain-analysis
#16
Morgane Evin, Kathryn M Broadhouse, Fraser M Callaghan, Rachel T McGrath, Sarah Glastras, Rebecca Kozor, Samantha L Hocking, Jérôme Lamy, Alban Redheuil, Nadjia Kachenoura, Greg R Fulcher, Gemma A Figtree, Stuart M Grieve
BACKGROUND: Diastolic dysfunction is a major cause of morbidity in obese individuals. We aimed to assess the ability of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) derived left atrial (LA) strain to detect early diastolic dysfunction in individuals with obesity and type 2 diabetes, and to explore the association between cardiac adipose tissue and LA function. METHODS: Twenty patients with obesity and T2D (55 ± 8 years) and nineteen healthy controls (48 ± 13 years) were imaged using cine steady state free precession and 2-point Dixon cardiovascular magnetic resonance...
December 22, 2016: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999858/frailty-syndrome-visceral-adipose-tissue-and-frailty-in-patients-with-symptomatic-severe-aortic-stenosis
#17
M Pinheiro, J Mancio, G Conceição, W Ferreira, M Carvalho, A Santos, L Vouga, V Gama Ribeiro, A Leite-Moreira, I Falcão-Pires, N Bettencourt
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: In patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS), frailty is a clinically relevant measure of increased vulnerability that should be included in the preoperative risk assessment. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) derived phase angle (PA) reflects cell membrane integrity and function. Few studies are available on the relative contribution of adiposity distribution on frailty, and about the influences of frailty and visceral obesity in PA value. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate associations among frailty, visceral fat depots and PA in patients with symptomatic severe AS...
2017: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720272/epicardial-adipose-tissue-volume-and-left-ventricular-myocardial-function-using-3-dimensional-speckle-tracking-echocardiography
#18
Arnold C T Ng, Shi Yi Goo, Nicole Roche, Rob J van der Geest, William Y S Wang
BACKGROUND: Although epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) volume is associated with increased incidence of coronary artery disease (CAD), its role in myocardial systolic dysfunction is unclear. The present study aimed to identify independent determinants of EAT volume in patients without obstructive CAD, and to evaluate the association between EAT volume (vs other measures of obesity) and myocardial systolic strain analysis. METHODS: We prospectively recruited 130 patients without obstructive CAD on contrast-enhanced cardiac computed tomography imaging and normal left ventricular ejection fraction on 3-dimensional (3D) echocardiography...
December 2016: Canadian Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27699898/adipose-tissue-regulates-insulin-sensitivity-role-of-adipogenesis-de-novo-lipogenesis-and-novel-lipids
#19
REVIEW
U Smith, B B Kahn
Obesity, the major cause of the current global epidemic of type 2 diabetes (T2D), induces insulin resistance in peripheral insulin target tissues. Several mechanisms have been identified related to cross-talk between adipose tissue, skeletal muscle and liver. These mechanisms involve both increased free fatty acid release and altered secretion of adipokines from adipose tissue. A major determinant of metabolic health is the ability of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) to store excess fat rather than allowing it to accumulate in ectopic depots including liver (i...
November 2016: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27617176/ace2-ang-1-7-axis-a-critical-regulator-of-epicardial-adipose-tissue-inflammation-and-cardiac-dysfunction-in-obesity
#20
Vaibhav B Patel, Ratnadeep Basu, Gavin Y Oudit
Obesity is characterized by an excessive fat accumulation in adipose tissues leading to weight gain and is increasing in prevalence and is strongly associated with metabolic and cardiovascular disorders. The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) has emerged as a key pathogenic mechanism for these disorders; activated RAS and angiotensin (Ang) II production results in worsening of cardiovascular diseases and angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) negatively regulates RAS by metabolizing Ang II into Ang 1-7. ACE2 is expressed in the adipocytes and its expression is upregulated in response to high fat diet induced obesity in mice...
July 2016: Adipocyte
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