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Epicardial adipose tissue and obesity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640441/adipose-tissue-derived-omentin-1-function-and-regulation
#1
Takuya Watanabe, Kaho Watanabe-Kominato, Yui Takahashi, Miho Kojima, Rena Watanabe
Omentin-1, also known as intelectin-1, is a recently identified novel adipocytokine of 313 amino acids, which is expressed in visceral (omental and epicardial) fat as well as mesothelial cells, vascular cells, airway goblet cells, small intestine, colon, ovary, and plasma. The level of omentin-1 expression in (pre)adipocytes is decreased by glucose/insulin and stimulated by fibroblast growth factor-21 and dexamethasone. Several lines of experimental evidence have shown that omentin-1 plays crucial roles in the maintenance of body metabolism and insulin sensitivity, and has anti-inflammatory, anti-atherosclerotic, and cardiovascular protective effects via AMP-activated protein kinase/Akt/nuclear factor-κB/mitogen-activated protein kinase (ERK, JNK, and p38) signaling...
June 18, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629772/impact-of-the-cardiovascular-system-associated-adipose-tissue-on-atherosclerotic-pathology
#2
REVIEW
Dimitry A Chistiakov, Andrey V Grechko, Veronika A Myasoedova, Alexandra A Melnichenko, Alexander N Orekhov
Cardiac obesity makes an important contribution to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. One of the important pathways of this contribution is the inflammatory process that takes place in the adipose tissue. In this review, we consider the role of the cardiovascular system-associated fat in atherosclerotic cardiovascular pathology and a non-atherosclerotic cause of coronary artery disease, such as atrial fibrillation. Cardiovascular system-associated fat not only serves as the energy store, but also releases adipokines that control local and systemic metabolism, heart/vascular function and vessel tone, and a number of vasodilating and anti-inflammatory substances...
June 8, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624865/bone-marrow-fat-contributes-to-insulin-sensitivity-and-adiponectin-secretion-in-premenopausal-women
#3
Federica Ermetici, Silvia Briganti, Alessandra Delnevo, Paola Cannaò, Giovanni Di Leo, Stefano Benedini, Ileana Terruzzi, Francesco Sardanelli, Livio Luzi
PURPOSE: Bone marrow fat is a functionally distinct adipose tissue that may contribute to systemic metabolism. This study aimed at evaluating a possible association between bone marrow fat and insulin sensitivity indices. METHODS: Fifty obese (n = 23) and non-obese (n = 27) premenopausal women underwent proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy to measure vertebral bone marrow fat content and unsaturation index at L4 level. Abdominal visceral, subcutaneous fat, and epicardial fat were also measured using magnetic resonance imaging...
June 17, 2017: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605281/re-plasminogen-activator-inhibitor-1-and-pericardial-fat-in-individuals-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-by-bayomi-et-al-metab-syndr-relat-disord-doi-10-1089-met-2017-0031
#4
Angelo Avogaro
Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is a member of the serine protease inhibitor (serpin) superfamily, which inactivates tissue plasminogen activator (tPA); therefore, increased level of PAI-1 antigen counteracts the anticoagulant effect of tPA and facilitates the fibrin clot formation. Plasma PAI-1 antigen and activity levels are associated with increased body mass index and with features of the insulin resistance syndrome like obesity and diabetes. Visceral adipose tissue produces more PAI-1 than subcutaneous adipose tissue: This increased production of PAI-1 from the visceral adipose tissue is one important link between visceral obesity and cardiovascular disease...
June 12, 2017: Metabolic Syndrome and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582523/the-interplay-between-adipose-tissue-and-the-cardiovascular-system-is-fat-always-bad
#5
Ioannis Akoumianakis, Charalambos Antoniades
Obesity is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, clinical research has revealed a paradoxically protective role for obesity in patients with chronic diseases including CVD, suggesting that the biological "quality" of adipose tissue (AT) may be more important than overall AT mass or body weight. Importantly, AT is recognized as a dynamic organ secreting a wide range of biologically active adipokines, microRNAs, gaseous messengers and other metabolites that affect the cardiovascular system in both endocrine and paracrine ways...
June 5, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498891/adipose-tissue-depots-and-inflammation-effects-on-plasticity-and-resident-mesenchymal-stem-cell-function
#6
Lina Badimon, Judit Cubedo
Adipose tissue (AT) is a highly heterogeneous organ. Beside the heterogeneity associated to different tissue types (white, brown and "brite") and its location-related heterogeneity (subcutaneous, visceral, epicardial, and perivascular, etc), AT composition, structure and functionality is highly dependent on individual-associated factors. As such, the pro-inflammatory state associated to the presence of obesity and other cardiovascular risk factors directly affects AT metabolism. Furthermore, the adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) that reside in the stromal vascular fraction (SVF) of AT, besides being responsible for most of the plasticity attributed to AT, is an additional source of heterogeneity...
May 11, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438306/relation-of-quantity-of-subepicardial-adipose-tissue-to-infarct-size-in-patients-with-st-elevation-myocardial-infarction
#7
Loïc Bière, Vianney Behaghel, Victor Mateus, Antonildes Assunção, Christoph Gräni, Kais Ouerghi, Sylvain Grall, Serge Willoteaux, Fabrice Prunier, Raymond Kwong, Alain Furber
According to the so-called obesity paradox, obesity might present a protective role in patients with myocardial infarction. We aimed to assess the influence of the epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) volume on cardiac healing and remodeling in patients with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction. We prospectively included 193 consecutive patients presenting a first STEMI without known coronary artery disease. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging was performed at baseline and after a 3-month follow-up. EAT volume was computed, and the population was divided into quartiles: the highest quartile of EAT defining the high EAT group (h-EAT)...
March 29, 2017: American Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376896/regulation-of-visceral-and-epicardial-adipose-tissue-for-preventing-cardiovascular-injuries-associated-to-obesity-and-diabetes
#8
REVIEW
N González, Z Moreno-Villegas, A González-Bris, J Egido, Ó Lorenzo
Nowadays, obesity is seriously increasing in most of the populations all over the world, and is associated with the development and progression of high-mortality diseases such as type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and its subsequent cardiovascular pathologies. Recent data suggest that both body fat distribution and adipocyte phenotype, can be more determinant for fatal outcomes in obese patients than increased general adiposity. In particular, visceral adiposity is significantly linked to long term alterations on different cardiac structures, and in developed forms of myocardial diseases such as hypertensive and ischaemic heart diseases, and diabetic cardiomyopathy...
April 4, 2017: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144387/from-the-liver-to-the-heart-cardiac-dysfunction-in-obese-children-with-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#9
EDITORIAL
Anna Di Sessa, Giuseppina Rosaria Umano, Emanuele Miraglia Del Giudice, Nicola Santoro
In the last decades the prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has increased as a consequence of the childhood obesity world epidemic. The liver damage occurring in NAFLD ranges from simple steatosis to steatohepatitis, fibrosis and cirrhosis. Recent findings reported that fatty liver disease is related to early atherosclerosis and cardiac dysfunction even in the pediatric population. Moreover, some authors have shown an association between liver steatosis and cardiac abnormalities, including rise in left ventricular mass, systolic and diastolic dysfunction and epicardial adipose tissue thickness...
January 18, 2017: World Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124603/epicardial-adipose-tissue-another-tassel-in-the-complex-fabric-of-atherosclerosis
#10
Nikolaos Alexopoulos, Paolo Raggi
Atherosclerosis affects the majority of adult individuals in industrialized nations and it is beginning to affect even traditionally spared populations. The classic view has been that the precipitating events are intraluminal. However, good evidence supports the possibility that at least part of the atherosclerosis burden may be the consequence of extra-luminal noxious stimuli. Additionally, the epidemic of obesity, insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus has generated a strong interest in the potential role of visceral adipose tissue as an extra-luminal promoter of atherosclerosis...
January 24, 2017: Cardiovascular & Hematological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007022/impact-of-obesity-and-epicardial-fat-on-early-left-atrial-dysfunction-assessed-by-cardiac-mri-strain-analysis
#11
Morgane Evin, Kathryn M Broadhouse, Fraser M Callaghan, Rachel T McGrath, Sarah Glastras, Rebecca Kozor, Samantha L Hocking, Jérôme Lamy, Alban Redheuil, Nadjia Kachenoura, Greg R Fulcher, Gemma A Figtree, Stuart M Grieve
BACKGROUND: Diastolic dysfunction is a major cause of morbidity in obese individuals. We aimed to assess the ability of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) derived left atrial (LA) strain to detect early diastolic dysfunction in individuals with obesity and type 2 diabetes, and to explore the association between cardiac adipose tissue and LA function. METHODS: Twenty patients with obesity and T2D (55 ± 8 years) and nineteen healthy controls (48 ± 13 years) were imaged using cine steady state free precession and 2-point Dixon cardiovascular magnetic resonance...
December 22, 2016: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999858/frailty-syndrome-visceral-adipose-tissue-and-frailty-in-patients-with-symptomatic-severe-aortic-stenosis
#12
M Pinheiro, J Mancio, G Conceição, W Ferreira, M Carvalho, A Santos, L Vouga, V Gama Ribeiro, A Leite-Moreira, I Falcão-Pires, N Bettencourt
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: In patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS), frailty is a clinically relevant measure of increased vulnerability that should be included in the preoperative risk assessment. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) derived phase angle (PA) reflects cell membrane integrity and function. Few studies are available on the relative contribution of adiposity distribution on frailty, and about the influences of frailty and visceral obesity in PA value. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate associations among frailty, visceral fat depots and PA in patients with symptomatic severe AS...
2017: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720272/epicardial-adipose-tissue-volume-and-left-ventricular-myocardial-function-using-3-dimensional-speckle-tracking-echocardiography
#13
Arnold C T Ng, Shi Yi Goo, Nicole Roche, Rob J van der Geest, William Y S Wang
BACKGROUND: Although epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) volume is associated with increased incidence of coronary artery disease (CAD), its role in myocardial systolic dysfunction is unclear. The present study aimed to identify independent determinants of EAT volume in patients without obstructive CAD, and to evaluate the association between EAT volume (vs other measures of obesity) and myocardial systolic strain analysis. METHODS: We prospectively recruited 130 patients without obstructive CAD on contrast-enhanced cardiac computed tomography imaging and normal left ventricular ejection fraction on 3-dimensional (3D) echocardiography...
June 23, 2016: Canadian Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27699898/adipose-tissue-regulates-insulin-sensitivity-role-of-adipogenesis-de-novo-lipogenesis-and-novel-lipids
#14
REVIEW
U Smith, B B Kahn
Obesity, the major cause of the current global epidemic of type 2 diabetes (T2D), induces insulin resistance in peripheral insulin target tissues. Several mechanisms have been identified related to cross-talk between adipose tissue, skeletal muscle and liver. These mechanisms involve both increased free fatty acid release and altered secretion of adipokines from adipose tissue. A major determinant of metabolic health is the ability of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) to store excess fat rather than allowing it to accumulate in ectopic depots including liver (i...
November 2016: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27617176/ace2-ang-1-7-axis-a-critical-regulator-of-epicardial-adipose-tissue-inflammation-and-cardiac-dysfunction-in-obesity
#15
Vaibhav B Patel, Ratnadeep Basu, Gavin Y Oudit
Obesity is characterized by an excessive fat accumulation in adipose tissues leading to weight gain and is increasing in prevalence and is strongly associated with metabolic and cardiovascular disorders. The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) has emerged as a key pathogenic mechanism for these disorders; activated RAS and angiotensin (Ang) II production results in worsening of cardiovascular diseases and angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) negatively regulates RAS by metabolizing Ang II into Ang 1-7. ACE2 is expressed in the adipocytes and its expression is upregulated in response to high fat diet induced obesity in mice...
July 2016: Adipocyte
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27597954/role-of-mirnas-in-epicardial-adipose-tissue-in-cad-patients-with-t2dm
#16
Yang Liu, Wenbo Fu, Mu Lu, Shitao Huai, Yaqin Song, Yutao Wei
Background. Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) is identified as an atypical fat depot surrounding the heart with a putative role in the involvement of metabolic disorders, including obesity, type-2 diabetes mellitus, and atherosclerosis. We profiled miRNAs in EAT of metabolic patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) versus metabolically healthy patients by microarray. Compared to metabolically healthy patients, we identified forty-two miRNAs that are differentially expressed in patients with CAD and T2DM from Xinjiang, China...
2016: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27522371/relationship-between-soluble-receptor-for-advanced-glycation-end-products-srage-body-composition-and-fat-distribution-in-healthy-women
#17
Elena Dozio, Silvia Briganti, Alessandra Delnevo, Elena Vianello, Federica Ermetici, Francesco Secchi, Francesco Sardanelli, Lelio Morricone, Alexis E Malavazos, Massimiliano M Corsi Romanelli
PURPOSE: Soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE) is a decoy receptor which sequesters RAGE ligands and acts as a cytoprotective agent. To date, it is unclear whether the lower sRAGE levels observed in obesity are a marker of increased overall adiposity or reflect increases in particular fat depots. Therefore, we evaluated in healthy women the relationship among sRAGE and indicators of adiposity, including abdominal visceral (VAT) and epicardial visceral (EAT) adipose tissues, to explore the potential role of sRAGE as an earlier biomarker of cardiometabolic risk...
August 13, 2016: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27456108/abnormal-peri-organ-or-intra-organ-fat-apifat-deposition-an-underestimated-predictor-of-vascular-risk
#18
Niki Katsiki, Vasilios G Athyros, Dimitri P Mikhailidis
Adipose tissue, a major endocrine organ, consists of brown and white adipocytes. Brown fatmay play a beneficialrole in cardiometabolic disordersBrown adipose tissue can also improve glucose and lipid metabolism. In contrast, the expansion of white adipose tissue has been related to obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Both the quantity and the quality of the white adipose tissue as well as its distribution may affect CVD risk. In this context, the link between adiposity and CVD risk is greater for visceral than subcutaneous fat...
July 22, 2016: Current Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27450783/increased-expression-of-the-adipocytokine-omentin-in-the-epicardial-adipose-tissue-of-coronary-artery-disease-patients
#19
Ken Harada, Rei Shibata, Noriyuki Ouchi, Yoshiyuki Tokuda, Hiroshi Funakubo, Mayu Suzuki, Takashi Kataoka, Tomoyuki Nagao, Satoshi Okumura, Norihiro Shinoda, Bunichi Kato, Shinichi Sakai, Masataka Kato, Nobuyuki Marui, Hideki Ishii, Tetsuya Amano, Tatsuaki Matsubara, Toyoaki Murohara
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Omentin, an adipocytokine secreted by visceral adipose tissue, protects against obesity-linked cardiovascular complications. However, little is known about its role in epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) and coronary artery disease (CAD). We investigated the expression of omentin in EAT from CAD subjects. METHODS: EAT, subcutaneous adipose tissue (SCAT), and plasma samples were collected from CAD (n = 15; 23.3 ± 3.1 kg/m(2)) and non-CAD patients (n = 10; 20...
August 2016: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27352781/association-between-omentin-1-expression-in-human-epicardial-adipose-tissue-and-coronary-atherosclerosis
#20
Yu Du, Qingwei Ji, Lun Cai, Fangjiong Huang, Yongqiang Lai, Yue Liu, Jianbo Yu, Bo Han, Enjun Zhu, Jinwei Zhang, Yujie Zhou, Zhijian Wang, Yingxin Zhao
BACKGROUND: Omentin-1, a novel adipocytokine mainly expressed in visceral adipose tissue, has been found to inhibit the inflammatory response and improve insulin resistance as well as other obesity-related disorders. This study investigated the association between omentin-1 expression in human epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) and coronary atherosclerosis. METHODS: Serum samples, and paired biopsies from EAT and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), were obtained from patients with and without coronary artery disease (CAD, n = 28 and NCAD, n = 12, respectively) during elective cardiac surgery...
June 28, 2016: Cardiovascular Diabetology
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