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Epicardial adipose tissue

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629772/impact-of-the-cardiovascular-system-associated-adipose-tissue-on-atherosclerotic-pathology
#1
REVIEW
Dimitry A Chistiakov, Andrey V Grechko, Veronika A Myasoedova, Alexandra A Melnichenko, Alexander N Orekhov
Cardiac obesity makes an important contribution to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. One of the important pathways of this contribution is the inflammatory process that takes place in the adipose tissue. In this review, we consider the role of the cardiovascular system-associated fat in atherosclerotic cardiovascular pathology and a non-atherosclerotic cause of coronary artery disease, such as atrial fibrillation. Cardiovascular system-associated fat not only serves as the energy store, but also releases adipokines that control local and systemic metabolism, heart/vascular function and vessel tone, and a number of vasodilating and anti-inflammatory substances...
June 8, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624865/bone-marrow-fat-contributes-to-insulin-sensitivity-and-adiponectin-secretion-in-premenopausal-women
#2
Federica Ermetici, Silvia Briganti, Alessandra Delnevo, Paola Cannaò, Giovanni Di Leo, Stefano Benedini, Ileana Terruzzi, Francesco Sardanelli, Livio Luzi
PURPOSE: Bone marrow fat is a functionally distinct adipose tissue that may contribute to systemic metabolism. This study aimed at evaluating a possible association between bone marrow fat and insulin sensitivity indices. METHODS: Fifty obese (n = 23) and non-obese (n = 27) premenopausal women underwent proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy to measure vertebral bone marrow fat content and unsaturation index at L4 level. Abdominal visceral, subcutaneous fat, and epicardial fat were also measured using magnetic resonance imaging...
June 17, 2017: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605281/re-plasminogen-activator-inhibitor-1-and-pericardial-fat-in-individuals-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-by-bayomi-et-al-metab-syndr-relat-disord-doi-10-1089-met-2017-0031
#3
Angelo Avogaro
Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is a member of the serine protease inhibitor (serpin) superfamily, which inactivates tissue plasminogen activator (tPA); therefore, increased level of PAI-1 antigen counteracts the anticoagulant effect of tPA and facilitates the fibrin clot formation. Plasma PAI-1 antigen and activity levels are associated with increased body mass index and with features of the insulin resistance syndrome like obesity and diabetes. Visceral adipose tissue produces more PAI-1 than subcutaneous adipose tissue: This increased production of PAI-1 from the visceral adipose tissue is one important link between visceral obesity and cardiovascular disease...
June 12, 2017: Metabolic Syndrome and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604567/epicardial-fat-pathophysiology-and-clinical-significance
#4
Elijah Douglass, Shana Greif, William Frishman
Over the last decade and a half there has been much interest in understanding the role of epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) in cardiac pathology. EAT is a visceral adipose deposit with putative paracrine function. In the non-diseased state, EAT releases cardioprotective cytokines and chemokines to the coronary vasculature. In pathological states, EAT releases an inflammatory cytokine profile that is believed to contribute to the development and progression of coronary artery disease (CAD). EAT imaging with echocardiography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging has demonstrated a correlation between EAT size and CAD...
May 3, 2017: Cardiology in Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598046/correlation-and-comparison-of-epicardial-adipose-tissue-with-sagittal-abdominal-diameter-and-other-anthropometric-and-biochemical-variables-of-metabolic-syndrome
#5
Meenaxi Sharda, Harish Nigam, S R Meena, Anil Soni, Anuraj Singh, Nitasha Sharma
OBJECTIVE: 1) To determine relation of epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) thickness with sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD) and other anthropometric measurements in metabolic syndrome (MetS). 2) To determine relation of epicardial adipose tissue with biochemical variables of metabolic syndrome. METHODS: Cases were recruited from the patients attending OPD in New Medical College Hospital, Govt. Medical College, Kota, Rajasthan, India between March 2015 to February 2016...
May 2017: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594865/gender-linked-impact-of-epicardial-adipose-tissue-volume-in-patients-who-underwent-coronary-artery-bypass-graft-surgery-or-non-coronary-valve-surgery
#6
Gulinu Maimaituxun, Michio Shimabukuro, Hotimah Masdan Salim, Minoru Tabata, Daisuke Yuji, Yoshihisa Morimoto, Takeshi Akasaka, Tomomi Matsuura, Shusuke Yagi, Daiju Fukuda, Hirotsugu Yamada, Takeshi Soeki, Takaki Sugimoto, Masashi Tanaka, Shuichiro Takanashi, Masataka Sata
BACKGROUND: Traditional and non-traditional risk factors for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) are different between men and women. Gender-linked impact of epicardial adipose tissue volume (EATV) in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) remains unknown. METHODS: Gender-linked impact of EATV, abdominal fat distribution and other traditional ASCVD risk factors were compared in 172 patients (men: 115; women: 57) who underwent CABG or non-coronary valvular surgery (non-CABG)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582578/proteomics-of-the-epicardial-fat-secretome-and-its-role-in-post-operative-atrial-fibrillation
#7
Alessandro Viviano, Xiaoke Yin, Anna Zampetaki, Marika Fava, Mark Gallagher, Manuel Mayr, Marjan Jahangiri
Aims: Post-operative atrial fibrillation (POAF) is a predictor of morbidity and mortality after cardiac surgery. Latent predisposing factors may reside in the epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) due to its anatomical position and high protein production rate. In order to explore a possible mechanistic link, we characterized proteins secreted by the EAT preceding the onset of POAF. Methods and results: Epicardial adipose tissue samples were collected from 76 consecutive patients with no history of AF undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery, 50 samples for proteomic analysis and 26 for gene expression studies, further divided according to development of POAF...
June 5, 2017: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582523/the-interplay-between-adipose-tissue-and-the-cardiovascular-system-is-fat-always-bad
#8
Ioannis Akoumianakis, Charalambos Antoniades
Obesity is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, clinical research has revealed a paradoxically protective role for obesity in patients with chronic diseases including CVD, suggesting that the biological "quality" of adipose tissue (AT) may be more important than overall AT mass or body weight. Importantly, AT is recognized as a dynamic organ secreting a wide range of biologically active adipokines, microRNAs, gaseous messengers and other metabolites that affect the cardiovascular system in both endocrine and paracrine ways...
June 5, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559657/epicardial-adipose-tissue-thickness-and-carotid-intima-media-thickness-in-hemodialysis-patients
#9
Elcin Aydın, Cihan Altın, Onur Sakallıoğlu, Mustafa Yılmaz, Esin Gezmiş, Leyla Elif Sade, Haldun Müderrisoğlu
BACKGROUND: It is well-known that cardiovascular risk and all-cause mortality is increased in hemodialysis patients. Epicardial fat thickness (EFT), which reflects visceral adiposity, has been suggested as a new cardiometabolic risk factor. The purpose of this study was to investigate EFT in hemodialysis patients. METHODS: A total of 144 consecutive patients (60 hemodialysis patients and 84 controls) were enrolled into the study, and patients with diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) were excluded...
May 2017: Acta Cardiologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550587/epicardial-adipose-tissue-is-associated-with-high-risk-plaque-feature-progression-in-non-culprit-lesions
#10
Yahang Tan, Jia Zhou, Ying Zhou, Xiaobo Yang, Jing Wang, Yundai Chen
Several studies have suggested a link between epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) volume and high-risk plaques (HRPs); however, little is known about the association between EAT volume and HRP progression in non-culprit lesions (NCLs). Therefore, we evaluated whether EAT can independently predict HRP characteristic progression in NCLs by coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA). In this single-centre trial, we analysed 131 consecutive patients (median age 61 years, male 72.52%) undergoing CCTA with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for culprit lesions...
May 26, 2017: International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514806/human-epicardial-fat-expresses-glucagon-like-peptide-1-and-2-receptors-genes
#11
Gianluca Iacobellis, Vladimir Camarena, David W Sant, Gaofeng Wang
Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) is an easily measurable visceral fat of the heart with unique anatomy, functionality, and transcriptome. EAT can serve as a therapeutic target for pharmaceutical agents targeting the fat. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and GLP-2 analogues are newer drugs showing beneficial cardiovascular and metabolic effects. Whether EAT expresses GLP- 1 and 2 receptors (GLP-1R and GLP-2R) is unknown. RNA-seq analysis and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) were performed to evaluate the presence of GLP-1R and GLP-2R in EAT and subcutaneous fat (SAT) obtained from 8 subjects with coronary artery disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus undergoing elective cardiac surgery...
May 17, 2017: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511336/-research-update-on-the-regulation-between-epicardial-adipose-tissue-and-coronary-artery-disease
#12
C P Hu, Y X Zhao
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 24, 2017: Zhonghua Xin Xue Guan Bing za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498891/adipose-tissue-depots-and-inflammation-effects-on-plasticity-and-resident-mesenchymal-stem-cell-function
#13
Lina Badimon, Judit Cubedo
Adipose tissue (AT) is a highly heterogeneous organ. Beside the heterogeneity associated to different tissue types (white, brown and "brite") and its location-related heterogeneity (subcutaneous, visceral, epicardial, and perivascular, etc), AT composition, structure and functionality is highly dependent on individual-associated factors. As such, the pro-inflammatory state associated to the presence of obesity and other cardiovascular risk factors directly affects AT metabolism. Furthermore, the adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) that reside in the stromal vascular fraction (SVF) of AT, besides being responsible for most of the plasticity attributed to AT, is an additional source of heterogeneity...
May 11, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494499/evaluation-of-epicardial-adipose-tissue-in-patients-of-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-by-echocardiography-and-its-correlation-with-intimal-medial-thickness-of-carotid-artery
#14
Zihang Wang, Yuhong Zhang, Weiwei Liu, Benli Su
The present study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic value of echocardiography in measuring the thickness of epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) of the patients of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and its correlation with the intimal-medial thickness of the carotid artery (cIMT) to investigate the relationship between EAT and cIMT. 68 patients of T2DM were enrolled and were divided into 2 groups: group of T2DM with duration≤10 years (35 cases) and group of T2DM with duration>10 years (33 cases). And 30 healthy subjects were enrolled as the control group...
May 11, 2017: Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464933/fat-deposition-in-the-left-ventricle-descriptive-and-observacional-study-in-autopsy
#15
Ricella Maria Souza da Silva, Roberto José Vieira de Mello
BACKGROUND: The human heart contains varying amounts of fat deposits. Cardiac physiological fat occurs predominantly in the right ventricle (RV). The discovery and characterization of adipose tissue along the left ventricle (LV) has been rarely reported. This study aimed to determine the occurrence of fatty deposits in epicardial, pericoronay and myocardial compartments in the LV, and to trace the epidemiological profile and clinical associations with this finding. METHODS: Epidemiological and morphological data and heart samples were collected from corpses submitted to necropsy...
May 2, 2017: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464274/association-between-echocardiographic-epicardial-fat-thickness-and-circulating-endothelial-progenitor-cell-level-in-patients-with-stable-angina-pectoris
#16
Ting-Yung Chang, Chien-Yi Hsu, Chun-Chih Chiu, Ruey-Hsing Chou, Hsin-Lei Huang, Chin-Chou Huang, Hsin-Ban Leu, Po-Hsun Huang, Jaw-Wen Chen, Shing-Jong Lin
BACKGROUND: Epicardial adipose tissue is associated with coronary artery disease (CAD). Circulating endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) level represents a marker of endothelial dysfunction and vascular health. However, the relationship between epicardial fat and circulating EPC remains unknown. This study aimed to investigate association between echocardiographic epicardial fat thickness (EFT) and circulating EPC level. HYPOTHESIS: Epicardial fat causes inflammation and contributes to progression of CAD...
May 2, 2017: Clinical Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458601/characteristics-detected-on-computed-tomography-angiography-predict-coronary-artery-plaque-progression-in-non-culprit-lesions
#17
Yahang Tan, Jia Zhou, Ying Zhou, Xiaobo Yang, Junjie Yang, Yundai Chen
OBJECTIVE: This study sought to determine whether variables detected on coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) would predict plaque progression in non-culprit lesions (NCL). MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this single-center trial, we analyzed 103 consecutive patients who were undergoing CCTA and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for culprit lesions. Follow-up CCTA was scheduled 12 months after the PCI, and all patients were followed for 3 years after their second CCTA examination...
May 2017: Korean Journal of Radiology: Official Journal of the Korean Radiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453382/flow-cytometric-single-cell-analysis-reveals-heterogeneity-between-adipose-depots
#18
Badwi B Boumelhem, Stephen J Assinder, Kim S Bell-Anderson, Stuart T Fraser
Understanding adipose tissue heterogeneity is hindered by the paucity of methods to analyze mature adipocytes at the single cell level. Here, we report a system for analyzing live adipocytes from different adipose depots in the adult mouse. Single cell suspensions of buoyant adipocytes were separated from the stromal vascular fraction and analyzed by flow cytometry. Compared to other lipophilic dyes, Nile Red uptake effectively distinguished adipocyte populations. Nile Red fluorescence increased with adipocyte size and granularity and could be combined with MitoTracker® Deep Red or fluorescent antibody labeling to further dissect adipose populations...
April 3, 2017: Adipocyte
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438306/relation-of-quantity-of-subepicardial-adipose-tissue-to-infarct-size-in-patients-with-st-elevation-myocardial-infarction
#19
Loïc Bière, Vianney Behaghel, Victor Mateus, Antonildes Assunção, Christoph Gräni, Kais Ouerghi, Sylvain Grall, Serge Willoteaux, Fabrice Prunier, Raymond Kwong, Alain Furber
According to the so-called obesity paradox, obesity might present a protective role in patients with myocardial infarction. We aimed to assess the influence of the epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) volume on cardiac healing and remodeling in patients with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction. We prospectively included 193 consecutive patients presenting a first STEMI without known coronary artery disease. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging was performed at baseline and after a 3-month follow-up. EAT volume was computed, and the population was divided into quartiles: the highest quartile of EAT defining the high EAT group (h-EAT)...
March 29, 2017: American Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429889/omentin-treatment-of-epicardial-fat-improves-its-anti-inflammatory-activity-and-paracrine-benefit-on-smooth-muscle-cells
#20
Ángel Fernández-Trasancos, Rosa María Agra, Jose María García-Acuña, Ángel Luis Fernández, José Ramón González-Juanatey, Sonia Eiras
OBJECTIVE: Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) in coronary artery disease is insulin resistant and has a proinflammatory profile. This study examined the regulation of EAT by exogenous omentin and its consequence on vascular cells. METHODS: Stromal vascular cells (SC) of EAT and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) from patients who underwent heart surgery were cultured and exposed to adipogenic factors with or without omentin. Proinflammatory cytokine regulation by omentin was analyzed in SC and mature adipocytes...
June 2017: Obesity
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