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Epicardial adipose tissue

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773163/epicardial-adipose-tissue-may-mediate-deleterious-effects-of-obesity-and-inflammation-on-the-myocardium
#1
REVIEW
Milton Packer
Epicardial adipose tissue has unique properties that distinguish it from other depots of visceral fat. Rather than having distinct boundaries, the epicardium shares an unobstructed microcirculation with the underlying myocardium, and in healthy conditions, produces cytokines that nourish the heart. However, in chronic inflammatory disorders (especially those leading to heart failure with preserved ejection fraction), the epicardium becomes a site of deranged adipogenesis, leading to the secretion of proinflammatory adipokines that can cause atrial and ventricular fibrosis...
May 22, 2018: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764718/metabolic-syndrome-associates-with-left-atrial-dysfunction
#2
K Nyman, M Granér, M O Pentikäinen, J Lundbom, A Hakkarainen, R Sirén, M S Nieminen, M-R Taskinen, N Lundbom, K Lauerma
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS) are risk factors of atrial fibrillation (AF), but limited data exist on their effect on left atrial (LA) function. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of cardiac, hepatic and intra-abdominal ectopic fat depots and cardiometabolic risk factors on LA function in non-diabetic male subjects. METHODS AND RESULTS: Myocardial and hepatic triglyceride contents were measured with 1.5T 1 H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy and LA and left ventricular function, visceral adipose tissue (VAT), subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), epicardial and pericardial fat by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in 33 men with MetS and 40 men without MetS...
February 21, 2018: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757253/association-of-cardiovascular-health-with-epicardial-adipose-tissue-and-intima-media-thickness-the-kardiovize-study
#3
Jana Hruskova, Andrea Maugeri, Helena Podroužková, Tatiana Štípalová, Juraj Jakubík, Martina Barchitta, Jose R Medina-Inojosa, Martin Homolka, Antonella Agodi, Sarka Kunzova, Ondrej Sochor, Francisco Lopez-Jimenez, Manlio Vinciguerra
Background: Intima-media thickness (IMT) has been proposed as a measurement of subclinical atherosclerosis and has been associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) is a fat depot between the pericardium and myocardium and has been associated with coronary atherosclerosis. The relationship between IMT and EAT thickness has not been reported before. We investigated the relationship between EAT thickness, IMT, CVD risk factors, and ideal cardiovascular health (CVH) metrics using subjects from the Kardiovize Brno 2030 cohort study, a random urban sample population in Central Europe...
May 13, 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750183/serum-adiponectin-and-tnf%C3%AE-concentrations-are-closely-associated-with-epicardial-adipose-tissue-fatty-acid-profiles-in-patients-undergoing-cardiovascular-surgery
#4
Tatsuya Sawaguchi, Toshiaki Nakajima, Takaaki Hasegawa, Ikuko Shibasaki, Hiroyuki Kaneda, Syotaro Obi, Toshiyuki Kuwata, Masashi Sakuma, Shigeru Toyoda, Mitsuo Ohni, Shichiro Abe, Hirotsugu Fukuda, Teruo Inoue
Background: Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) releases both adiponectin and TNFα, and these two adipokines play important roles in heart diseases such as coronary arterial disease. The aim of the present study was to clarify whether fatty acid (FA) profiles in EAT are linked to the serum concentration of these adipokines. The relationships between serum adipokine levels and FA profiles in patients undergoing cardiovascular surgery were analyzed. Methods: Patients ( n  = 21) undergoing cardiovascular surgery (11 males, 70...
March 2018: IJC Heart & Vasculature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749246/helicobacter-pylori-can-be-related-to-carotid-intima-media-thickness-epicardial-adipose-tissue-thickness-and-serum-neutrophil-gelatinase-associated-lipocalin-ngal-levels
#5
Z Karadag, T Sehitoglu, M C Cure, H Rakici, M A Ayvaz, R Bedir, B Kizilkaya, O Z Şahin, E Cure
BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori (HP) affects the cardiovascular system. Our aim in this study was to evaluate, whether an infection with HP causes subclinical atherosclerosis. METHODS: We included 90 patients with dyspeptic symptoms in this study. The patients underwent an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and biopsies were taken. The patients were grouped according to histopathologic examination, as HP infection negative (n = 21), HP infection positive (+) (n = 23), HP infection (++) (n = 22), HP infection (+++), (n = 24)...
2018: Bratislavské Lekárske Listy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748196/interleukin-10-treatment-ameliorates-high-fat-diet-induced-inflammatory-atrial-remodeling-and-fibrillation
#6
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Obesity, characterized by systemic low-grade inflammation, is considered a well-known risk for atrial fibrillation. In fact, IL-10 (interleukin 10), which is a potent anti-inflammatory cytokine, has been reported to decrease in obese and diabetic patients. We tested the hypotheses forwarding that genetic deletion of IL-10 exacerbates high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity-caused atrial inflammation, lipidosis, fibrosis, and fibrillation and that IL-10 therapy inhibits this pathology...
May 2018: Circulation. Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723863/epicardial-fat-thickness-in-patients-with-autosomal-dominant-polycystic-kidney-disease
#7
Antonio Concistrè, Luigi Petramala, Gianmarco Scoccia, Susanna Sciomer, Valeria Bisogni, Vincenza Saracino, Gino Iannucci, Silvia Lai, Daniela Mastroluca, Gianluca Iacobellis, Claudio Letizia
INTRODUCTION: Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is associated with early organ damage such as left ventricular hypertrophy and higher cardiovascular risk when compared to essential hypertension (EH). Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) is a new cardiovascular risk factor, but its role and correlation with left ventricular mass (LVM) in ADPKD is unknown. AIMS: we sought to investigate whether EAT is higher and related to LVM indexed by body surface area (LVMi) in hypertensive patients with ADPKD compared to those with EH...
May 3, 2018: Cardiorenal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721664/echocardiographic-measurements-of-epicardial-adipose-tissue-and-comparative-ability-to-predict-adverse-cardiovascular-outcomes-in-patients-with-coronary-artery-disease
#8
Julieta D Morales-Portano, Juan Ángel Peraza-Zaldivar, Juan A Suárez-Cuenca, Rocío Aceves-Millán, Lilia Amezcua-Gómez, Carlos H Ixcamparij-Rosales, Rafael Trujillo-Cortés, Rogelio Robledo-Nolasco, Paul Mondragón-Terán, Rebeca Pérez-Cabeza de Vaca, Rolando Hernández-Muñoz, Alberto Melchor-López, Mani A Vannan, Alberto Francisco Rubio-Guerra
The present study aimed to compare echocardiography measurements of epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) thickness and other risk factors regarding their ability to predict adverse cardiovascular outcomes in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Outcomes of 107 patients (86 males, 21 females, mean age 63.6 years old) submitted to diagnostic echocardiography and coronary angiography were prospectively analyzed. EAT (measures over the right ventricle, interventricular groove and complete bulk of EAT) and left ventricle ejection fraction (LVEF) were performed by echocardiography...
May 2, 2018: International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720225/the-role-of-exercise-combined-with-tocilizumab-in-visceral-and-epicardial-adipose-tissue-and-gastric-emptying-rate-in-abdominally-obese-participants-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#9
Regitse Højgaard Christensen, Anne-Sophie Wedell-Neergaard, Louise Lang Lehrskov, Grit Elster Legård, Emma Berndt Dorph, Stine Nymand, Maria Korf Ball, Morten Zacho, Robin Christensen, Helga Ellingsgaard, Jaya Birgitte Rosenmeier, Rikke Krogh-Madsen, Bente Klarlund Pedersen, Kristian Karstoft
BACKGROUND: Exercise reduces the amount of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and the risk of cardiometabolic diseases. The underlying mechanisms responsible for these exercise-induced adaptations are unclear, but they may involve lipolytic actions of interleukin-6 (IL-6). Contracting skeletal muscles secrete IL-6, leading to increased circulating IL-6 levels in response to exercise. The aim of this study is to investigate whether IL-6 is involved in mediating the effects of exercise on visceral and epicardial adipose tissue volume and glycaemic control...
May 2, 2018: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704210/epicardial-adipose-tissue-new-parameter-for-cardiovascular-risk-assessment-in-high-risk-populations
#10
REVIEW
Roberta Russo, Biagio Di Iorio, Luca Di Lullo, Domenico Russo
Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) is localized between the myocardial surface and visceral layer of the pericardium. It is a metabolically active organ that secretes several cytokines which modulate cardiovascular morphology and function. EAT may interact locally with coronary arteries through paracrine secretion mechanisms. Cytokines from peri-adventitial EAT may pass through the coronary wall by diffusion from the outside to the inside, interacting with cells. An additional potential mechanism by which EAT interacts locally with coronary arteries may be the vasocrine secretion...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702973/epicardial-adipose-tissue-and-carotid-artery-disease-protocol-for-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#11
Leonardo Roever, Elmiro Santos Resende, Angélica Lemos Debs Diniz, Nilson Penha-Silva, João Lucas O'Connell, Paulo Fernando Silva Gomes, Hugo Ribeiro Zanetti, Anaisa Silva Roerver-Borges, Fernando César Veloso, Fernanda Rodrigues de Souza, Poliana Rodrigues Alves Duarte, Thiago Montes Fidale, Antonio Casella-Filho, Paulo Magno Martins Dourado, Antonio Carlos Palandri Chagas, Sadeq Ali-Hasan-Al-Saegh, Paulo Eduardo Ocke Reis, Rogério de Melo Costa Pinto, Gustavo B F Oliveira, Álvaro Avezum, Mansueto Neto, André Durães, Rose Mary Ferreira Lisboa da Silva, Antonio José Grande, Celise Denardi, Renato Delascio Lopes, Nitesh Nerlekar, Shahab Alizadeh, Adrian V Hernandez, Maria Inês da Rosa, Giuseppe Biondi-Zoccai
BACKGROUND: Atherosclerosis is now widely recognized as a multifactorial disease with outcomes that arise from complex factors such as plaque components, blood flow, and inflammation. Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) is a metabolically active fat depot, abundant in proinflammatory cytokines, and has been correlated with the extent and severity of carotid artery disease (CD). The locations most frequently affected by carotid atherosclerosis are the proximal internal carotid artery (ie, the origin) and the common carotid artery bifurcation...
April 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29700862/the-quantitative-assessment-of-epicardial-fat-distribution-on-human-hearts-implications-for-epicardial-electrophysiology
#12
Alexander R Mattson, Mario J Soto, Paul A Iaizzo
INTRODUCTION: Epicardial electrophysiological procedures rely on dependable interfacing with the myocardial tissue. For example, epicardial pacing systems must generate sustainable chronic pacing capture, while epicardial ablations must effectively deliver energy to the target hyper-excitable myocytes. The human heart has a significant adipose layer which may impede epicardial procedures. The objective of this study was to quantitatively assess the relative location of epicardial adipose on the human heart, in order to define locations where epicardial therapies might be performed successfully...
April 26, 2018: Clinical Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694442/epicardial-and-visceral-adipose-tissue-in-relation-to-subclinical-atherosclerosis-in-a-chinese-population
#13
Nang Ei Ei Khaing, Tai E Shyong, Jeannette Lee, Cinnie Yentia Soekojo, Alvin Ng, Rob M Van Dam
BACKGROUND: Body fatness is associated with risk of coronary heart disease and it has been postulated that epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) may have a particularly detrimental effect because of its localized toxic effects. We therefore aimed to examine the association between EAT and coronary artery calcification and compared this with associations for visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and other regional fat depots. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 487 Chinese participants aged 50 years old and above, living in Singapore...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688734/assessing-the-relation-of-epicardial-fat-thickness-and-volume-quantified-by-256-slice-computed-tomography-scan-with-coronary-artery-disease-and-cardiovascular-risk-factors
#14
Maryam Mohammadzadeh, Vahid Mohammadzadeh, Madjid Shakiba, Marzieh Motevalli, Azadeh Abedini, Sakineh Kadivar, Pouya Entezari, Ali Mohammadzadeh
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate the association between epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) and coronary artery disease (CAD) as well as cardiovascular risk factors. METHODS: Complete medical records of subjects were reviewed and cardiovascular risk factors were recorded. Epicardial fat volume (EFV) and epicardial fat thickness (EFT) were measured using digital volumetry of acquired images using a 256-slice CT-scanner. Calcium score was measured using Agatston method in non-contrast images...
March 1, 2018: Archives of Iranian Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675684/the-role-of-epicardial-fat-in-pericardial-diseases
#15
REVIEW
George Lazaros, Alexios Antonopoulos, Charalambos Antoniades, Dimitris Tousoulis
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Despite the recent advancements in diagnostic modalities and therapeutic options available, the pathophysiology of pericardial syndromes remains poorly understood. In this review article, we explore the possible links between cardiac adiposity and pericardial syndromes. RECENT FINDINGS: Over the last years, the notion of cardiac adipose tissue has radically changed, and its pivotal role in myocardial diseases has been acknowledged. Recent evidence suggests a cross-talk between epicardial fat and the heart...
April 19, 2018: Current Cardiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668593/epicardial-adipose-tissue-and-metabolic-syndrome-an-update-protocol-for-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#16
Leonardo Roever, Elmiro Santos Resende, Angélica Lemos Debs Diniz, Nilson Penha-Silva, João Lucas O'Connell, Paulo Fernando Silva Gomes, Hugo Ribeiro Zanetti, Anaisa Silva Roerver-Borges, Fernando César Veloso, Fernanda Rodrigues de Souza, Poliana Rodrigues Alves Duarte, Thiago Montes Fidale, Antonio Casella-Filho, Paulo Magno Martins Dourado, Antonio Carlos Palandri Chagas, Sadeq Ali-Hasan-Al-Saegh, Paulo Eduardo Ocke Reis, Rogério de Melo Costa Pinto, Gustavo B F Oliveira, Álvaro Avezum, Mansueto Neto, André Durães, Rose Mary Ferreira Lisboa da Silva, Antonio José Grande, Celise Denardi, Renato Delascio Lopes, Nitesh Nerlekar, Shahab Alizadeh, Adrian V Hernandez, Maria Inês da Rosa, Giuseppe Biondi-Zoccai
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and MetS-related stroke is set to increase dramatically in coming decades. MetS is a complex disease that includes endothelial dysfunction, insulin resistance, diabetes, hypertension, ectopic obesity, and dyslipidaemia, and an increased risk of cardiovascular events. However, there are no systematic analyses, or well-conducted meta-analyses to evaluate the relationship between epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) and (MetS). The aim of this study is to examine this association of EAT with MetS in different ages and sex...
April 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657599/association-between-epicardial-adipose-tissue-and-coronary-artery-vasospasm-during-pulmonary-vein-isolation
#17
Kentaro Minami, Koji Kumagai, Yoshinao Sugai, Kohki Nakamura, Shigeto Naito, Shigeru Oshima
Coronary artery vasospasms (CAVs) during pulmonary vein isolation have been reported, but the mechanism remains unclear. We experienced a rare case of CAVs caused by radiofrequency (RF) applications to sites with massive epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) attached. Because EAT contains ganglionated plexuses, RF application may have caused an autonomic nervous system imbalance, which thereby provoked severe CAVs.
April 2018: Journal of Arrhythmia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650237/relation-between-wrist-circumference-and-left-ventricular-structure-in-overweight-children
#18
Simona Zampetti, Giuseppe Campagna, Gaetano Leto, Federica Lucantoni, Luca D'Onofrio, Lidia Marandola, Chiara Moretti, Claudio Chiesa, Lucia Pacifico, Raffaella Buzzetti
The aim of this study was to assess the relation of wrist circumference with changes in left ventricular (LV) structure in a population of overweight/obese children and adolescents. One hundred and six children and adolescents were consecutively enrolled. In all subjects body weight, height, wrist circumference, waist circumference, body mass index-standard deviation score, fasting glucose, insulin, lipid profile, and blood pressure were evaluated. All subjects underwent echocardiographic assessment, and the following parameters were evaluated: LV dimension at end diastole and LV dimension at end systole, LV posterior wall thickness at end diastole and LV posterior wall thickness at end systole, interventricular septal thickness at end diastole and interventricular septal thickness at end systole, LV mass, and epicardial adipose tissue (EAT)...
March 14, 2018: American Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625530/epicardial-adipose-tissue-and-atrial-fibrillation-pathophysiological-mechanisms-clinical-implications-and-potential-therapies
#19
Christos A Goudis, Ioannis E Vasileiadis, Tong Liu
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common arrhythmia in clinical practice and is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) serves as a biologically active organ with important endocrine and inflammatory function. An accumulating body of evidence suggests that EAT is associated with the initiation, perpetuation and recurrence of AF, but the precise role of EAT in AF pathogenesis is not completely elucidated. Pathophysiological mechanisms involve adipocyte infiltration, profibrotic and pro-inflammatory paracrine effects, oxidative stress, neural mechanisms and genetic factors...
April 6, 2018: Current Medical Research and Opinion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625179/proteostasis-in-epicardial-versus-subcutaneous-adipose-tissue-in-heart-failure-subjects-with-and-without-diabetes
#20
A Burgeiro, A C Fonseca, D Espinoza, L Carvalho, N Lourenço, M Antunes, E Carvalho
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are leading cause of death and primary cause of morbidity and mortality in diabetic population. Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) covers the heart's surface and is a source of biomolecules regulating heart and blood vessel physiology. The protective activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR) and autophagy allows the cardiomyocyte reticular network to restore energy and/or nutrient homeostasis and to avoid cell death. However, an excessive or prolonged UPR activation can trigger cell death...
April 3, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
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