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Epicardium fat

Mohamed Marwan, Michaela Hell, Annika Schuhbäck, Sören Gauss, Daniel Bittner, Tobias Pflederer, Stephan Achenbach
BACKGROUND: The factors influencing genesis of atherosclerosis at specific regions within the coronary arterial system are currently uncertain. Local mechanical factors such as shear stress as well as metabolic factors, including inflammatory mediators released from epicardial fat, have been proposed. We analyzed computed tomographic (CT) attenuation of pericoronary adipose tissue in normal versus atherosclerotic coronary segments as defined by intravascular ultrasound (IVUS). PATIENTS AND METHODS: We evaluated the data sets of 29 patients who were referred for invasive coronary angiography and in whom IVUS of 1 coronary vessel was performed for clinical reasons...
September 2017: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography
Alexios S Antonopoulos, Charalambos Antoniades
Classic concepts about the role of epicardial adipose tissue (EpAT) in heart physiology include its role in cardiac metabolism, mechanical protection of coronaries, innervation and possibly cryoprotection of the heart too. Nevertheless, recent evidence has revealed that epicardial adipose tissue regulates multiple aspects of cardiac biology including myocardial redox state, intracellular Ca(2+) cycling, the electrophysiological and contractile properties of cardiomyocytes, cardiac fibrosis as well as coronary atherosclerosis progression...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Physiology
Nadine Suffee, Thomas Moore-Morris, Patrick Farahmand, Catherine Rücker-Martin, Gilles Dilanian, Magali Fradet, Daigo Sawaki, Geneviève Derumeaux, Pascal LePrince, Karine Clément, Isabelle Dugail, Michel Puceat, Stéphane N Hatem
The abundance of epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) is associated with atrial fibrillation (AF), the most frequent cardiac arrhythmia. However, both the origin and the factors involved in EAT expansion are unknown. Here, we found that adult human atrial epicardial cells were highly adipogenic through an epithelial-mesenchymal transition both in vitro and in vivo. In a genetic lineage tracing the WT1(CreERT2+/-)Rosa(tdT+/-) mouse model subjected to a high-fat diet, adipocytes of atrial EAT derived from a subset of epicardial progenitors...
January 31, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Bai-Chin Lee, Wen-Jeng Lee, Shyh-Chyi Lo, Hsiu-Ching Hsu, Kuo-Liong Chien, Yeun-Chung Chang, Ming-Fong Chen
The association between epicardial fat and coronary artery disease (CAD) might be affected by general adiposity. We aimed to determine whether the percentage of epicardial adipose tissue (%EAT), defined as the mass ratio of epicardial fat to body fat, could improve prediction of asymptomatic CAD. We consecutively enrolled 846 adults who underwent coronary computed tomography angiography as part of a health check-up and assessed their coronary stenosis severity and epicardial fat mass. Body fat mass was measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis...
June 2016: International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging
Lianshan Zhang, Libin Liang, Tong Tong, Yuguo Qin, Yanping Xu, Xinglong Tong
Context Recently, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) was occasionally found to decrease the triglyceride (TG) levels in several hyperlipidemic patients in our clinical practice. Objective The study investigates the anti-hyperlipidemic effects of ATP in a high-fat fed rabbit model and hyperlipidemic patients. Materials and methods Twenty-four rabbits were randomly divided into three groups of eight animals each as follows: normal diet, high-fat diet and high-fat diet + ATP group. ATP supplementation (40 mg/day) was started at the 20th day and lasted for 10 days...
October 2016: Pharmaceutical Biology
Thomas A Csepe, Jichao Zhao, Brian J Hansen, Ning Li, Lidiya V Sul, Praise Lim, Yufeng Wang, Orlando P Simonetti, Ahmet Kilic, Peter J Mohler, Paul M L Janssen, Vadim V Fedorov
INTRODUCTION: Despite a century of extensive study on the human sinoatrial node (SAN), the structure-to-function features of specialized SAN conduction pathways (SACP) are still unknown and debated. We report a new method for direct analysis of the SAN microstructure in optically-mapped human hearts with and without clinical history of SAN dysfunction. METHODS: Two explanted donor human hearts were coronary-perfused and optically-mapped. Structural analyses of histological sections parallel to epicardium (∼13-21 μm intervals) were integrated with optical maps to create 3D computational reconstructions of the SAN complex...
January 2016: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
Yukiko Yamaguchi, Susana Cavallero, Michaela Patterson, Hua Shen, Jian Xu, S Ram Kumar, Henry M Sucov
The hearts of many mammalian species are surrounded by an extensive layer of fat called epicardial adipose tissue (EAT). The lineage origins and determinative mechanisms of EAT development are unclear, in part because mice and other experimentally tractable model organisms are thought to not have this tissue. In this study, we show that mouse hearts have EAT, localized to a specific region in the atrial-ventricular groove. Lineage analysis indicates that this adipose tissue originates from the epicardium, a multipotent epithelium that until now is only established to normally generate cardiac fibroblasts and coronary smooth muscle cells...
February 17, 2015: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
H Raju, S V de Noronha, S Rothery, L Robinson, M Papadakis, S Sharma, M N Sheppard, E R Behr
BACKGROUND: Brugada syndrome (BrS) is considered an inherited arrhythmia syndrome, though it may represent a concealed cardiomyopathy confined to the right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT). We aimed to ascertain fibrosis and gap junction expression in ventricular myocardium following sudden cardiac death (SCD) due to BrS. METHODS: The BrS cohort consisted of 6 cases of unexplained SCD referred for specialist whole heart autopsy whose family were diagnosed with BrS...
October 2014: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
Qiaozhen Liu, Xiuzhen Huang, Jin-Hee Oh, Ruei-Zeng Lin, Shengzhong Duan, Ying Yu, Rui Yang, Ju Qiu, Juan M Melero-Martin, William T Pu, Bin Zhou
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2014: Cell Research
Yang Yu, Cao Wei, Li Liu, Ai Ling Lian, Xiu Fen Qu, Guang Yu
BACKGROUND: Chronic atrial fibrillation (AF) leads to heterogeneous autonomic nerve innervation termed neural remodeling. The quantitative changes in neural density as a function of autonomic remodeling and its association with sustained AF has not been previously determined. METHOD AND RESULTS: Seven dogs (paced group) were chronically paced with electrodes sutured to the epicardium of left atrial appendages. Seven dogs (control animals) were not paced. All paced dogs developed sustained AF by 5 weeks of pacing...
November 2014: Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology: PACE
Muhammed Bora Demircelik, Omer Caglar Yilmaz, Ozgul Malcok Gurel, Yusuf Selcoki, Inci Asli Atar, Alper Bozkurt, Kayihan Akin, Beyhan Eryonucu
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between pericoronary fat and the severity and extent of atherosclerosis, quantified using 64-multidetector computed tomography, in patients with suspected coronary artery disease. METHODS: The study population consisted of 131 patients who were clinically referred for noninvasive multislice computed tomography coronary angiography for the evaluation of coronary artery disease. Patients were classified as follows: no atherosclerosis, Group 1; nonobstructive atherosclerosis (luminal narrowing <50% in diameter), Group 2; and obstructive atherosclerosis (luminal narrowing ≥ 50%) in a single vessel or obstructive atherosclerosis in the left main coronary artery and/or multiple vessels, Group 3...
June 2014: Clinics
Yuki Komatsu, Matthew Daly, Frédéric Sacher, Hubert Cochet, Arnaud Denis, Nicolas Derval, Laurence Jesel, Stephan Zellerhoff, Han S Lim, Amir Jadidi, Isabelle Nault, Ashok Shah, Laurent Roten, Patrizio Pascale, Daniel Scherr, Valerie Aurillac-Lavignolle, Mélèze Hocini, Michel Haïssaguerre, Pierre Jaïs
OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the feasibility and safety of epicardial substrate elimination with endocardial radiofrequency (RF) delivery in patients with scar-related ventricular tachycardia (VT). BACKGROUND: Epicardial RF delivery is limited by fat or associated with bleeding, extra-cardiac damages, coronary vessels and phrenic nerve injury. Alternative ablation approaches might be desirable. METHODS: Forty-six patients (18 ischemic cardiomyopathy [ICM], 13 nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy [NICM], 15 arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy [ARVC]) with sustained VT underwent combined endo- and epicardial mapping...
April 15, 2014: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
X Liu, W S Post, J McLenithan, M Terrin, L Magder, I Zeb, M Budoff, B D Mitchell
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Hypothesizing that intrathoracic fat might exert local effects on the coronary vasculature, we assessed the association of intrathoracic fat volume and its two subcomponents with coronary artery calcification (CAC) in 909 relatively healthy Amish adults. METHODS AND RESULTS: Intrathoracic fat, which is comprised of fat between the surface of the heart and the visceral epicardium (epicardial fat) and fat around the heart but outside of the fibrous pericardium (pericardial fat), was measured from electron beam CT scans...
March 2014: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
T W K Fraser, I Mayer, T Hansen, T T Poppe, J E Skjaeraasen, E O Koppang, P G Fjelldal
Heart morphology is particularly plastic in teleosts and differs between farmed and wild Atlantic salmon. However, little is known about how different culture practices and sex affect heart morphology. This study investigated how vaccination, triploidy and sex affected heart size and heart morphology (ventricle shape, angle of the bulbus arteriosus) in farmed Atlantic salmon for 18 months following vaccination (from c. 50-3000 g body weight). In addition, hearts were examined histologically after 7 months in sea water...
February 2015: Journal of Fish Diseases
Michael C G Wong, Glenn Edwards, Steven J Spence, Jonathan M Kalman, Saurabh Kumar, Stephen A Joseph, Joseph B Morton
BACKGROUND: Contact force (CF) during radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is an important determinant of endocardial lesion size with limited data on epicardial RFA and CF. We evaluated CF characteristics using irrigated RFA on the epicardium in an ovine model. METHODS AND RESULTS: In 12 sheep, a 7-F irrigated RFA catheter with CF sensor was introduced via a pericardial incision onto/in parallel with ventricular epicardium. RFA (30 W per 30 second duration) was applied at 5g, 10g, 20g, 40g, and 70g: (1) over left and right ventricular myocardium with or without fat, (2) either directly over or adjacent to a coronary artery, or directly over the phrenic nerve...
December 2013: Circulation. Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology
Peter Alter, Jens H Figiel, Thomas P Rupp, Georg F Bachmann, Bernhard Maisch, Marga B Rominger
Although echocardiography remains the standard diagnostic tool for identifying pericardial diseases, procedures with better delineation of morphology and heart function are often required. The pericardium consists of an inner visceral (epicardium) and outer parietal layer (pericardium), which constitute for the pericardial cavity. Pericardial effusion can occur as transudate, exudate, pyopneumopericardium, or hemopericardium. Potential causes are inflammatory processes, that is, pericarditis due to autoimmune or infective reasons, neoplasms, irradiation, or systemic disorders, chronic renal failure, endocrine, or metabolic diseases...
May 2013: Heart Failure Reviews
A Wronska, Z Kmiec
It is now widely accepted that white adipose tissue (WAT) is not merely a fuel storage organ, but also a key component of metabolic homoeostatic mechanisms. Apart from its major role in lipid and glucose metabolism, adipose tissue is also involved in a wide array of other biological processes. The hormones and adipokines, as well as other biologically active agents released from fat cells, affect many physiological and pathological processes. WAT is neither uniform nor inflexible because it undergoes constant remodelling, adapting the size and number of adipocytes to changes in nutrients' availability and hormonal milieu...
June 2012: Acta Physiologica
Juan F Viles-Gonzalez, Reynaldo de Castro Miranda, Mauricio Scanavacca, Eduardo Sosa, Andre d'Avila
BACKGROUND: Epicardial coronary injury is by far the most feared complication of epicardial ablation. Little information is available regarding the chronic effects of delivering radiofrequency in the vicinity of large coronary vessels, and the long-term impact of this approach for mapping and ablation on epicardial vessel integrity is poorly understood. Therefore, the aim of this study was to characterize the acute and chronic histopathologic changes produced by in vivo epicardial pulses of radiofrequency ablation on coronary artery of porcine hearts...
August 2011: Circulation. Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology
Yin Wu, Li-Juan Zhang, Chao Zou, Hung-Fat Tse, Ed X Wu
PURPOSE: To investigate the transmural heterogeneity of left ventricular myocardium structural remodeling. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ex vivo diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was performed in six adult porcine heart samples with apical septum infarction collected 13 weeks after permanent left anterior descending coronary artery ligation and six age-matched intact controls. Alterations in diffusion indices and myocardial fiber orientation, including fractional anisotropy (FA), mean apparent diffusion coefficient (mean ADC), axial diffusivity (λ(∥) ), radial diffusivity (λ(⟂) ), and fiber helix angle were investigated at five transmural zones across myocardium wall in regions adjacent and remote to the infarct...
July 2011: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
Angeliki Asimaki, Jeffrey E Saffitz
The Role of Endomyocardial Biopsy in ARVC.  Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) is characterized by a high incidence of ventricular tachyarrhythmias and sudden cardiac death that appear early in the natural history of the disease and may precede significant ventricular remodeling. The classical pathology of ARVC is degeneration of right ventricular free wall myocardium and its replacement by fat and fibrous tissue. The clinical presentation may be highly variable, however, and genetic penetrance is typically low which makes definitive diagnosis difficult, especially in early stages of the disease...
January 2011: Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology
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