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Epicardium fat

Milton Packer
Epicardial adipose tissue has unique properties that distinguish it from other depots of visceral fat. Rather than having distinct boundaries, the epicardium shares an unobstructed microcirculation with the underlying myocardium, and in healthy conditions, produces cytokines that nourish the heart. However, in chronic inflammatory disorders (especially those leading to heart failure with preserved ejection fraction), the epicardium becomes a site of deranged adipogenesis, leading to the secretion of proinflammatory adipokines that can cause atrial and ventricular fibrosis...
May 22, 2018: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
Jose R Garcia, Peter F Campbell, Gautam Kumar, Jonathan J Langberg, Liliana Cesar, Juline N Deppen, Eric Y Shin, Neal K Bhatia, Lanfang Wang, Kai Xu, Frank Schneider, Brian Robinson, Andrés J García, Rebecca D Levit
BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia. Although treatment options for AF exist, many patients cannot be maintained in normal sinus rhythm. Amiodarone is an effective medication for AF but has limited clinical utility because of off-target tissue toxicity. METHODS: Here, we use a pig model of AF to test the efficacy of an amiodarone-containing polyethylene glycol-based hydrogel. The gel is placed directly on the atrial epicardium through the pericardial space in a minimally invasive procedure using a specially designed catheter...
May 2018: Circulation. Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology
Justus M B Anumonwo, Todd Herron
Anatomical evidence in several species shows highly heterogeneous fat distribution in the atrial and ventricular myocardium. Atrial appendages have fat deposits, and more so on the posterior left atrium. Although such fat distributions are considered normal, fatty infiltration is regarded arrhythmogenic, and various cardiac pathophysiological conditions show excess myocardial fat deposits, especially in the epicardium. Hypotheses have been presented for the physiological and pathophysiological roles of epicardial fat, however this issue is poorly understood...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Mohamed Marwan, Michaela Hell, Annika Schuhbäck, Sören Gauss, Daniel Bittner, Tobias Pflederer, Stephan Achenbach
BACKGROUND: The factors influencing genesis of atherosclerosis at specific regions within the coronary arterial system are currently uncertain. Local mechanical factors such as shear stress as well as metabolic factors, including inflammatory mediators released from epicardial fat, have been proposed. We analyzed computed tomographic (CT) attenuation of pericoronary adipose tissue in normal versus atherosclerotic coronary segments as defined by intravascular ultrasound (IVUS). PATIENTS AND METHODS: We evaluated the data sets of 29 patients who were referred for invasive coronary angiography and in whom IVUS of 1 coronary vessel was performed for clinical reasons...
September 2017: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography
Alexios S Antonopoulos, Charalambos Antoniades
Classic concepts about the role of epicardial adipose tissue (EpAT) in heart physiology include its role in cardiac metabolism, mechanical protection of coronaries, innervation and possibly cryoprotection of the heart too. Nevertheless, recent evidence has revealed that epicardial adipose tissue regulates multiple aspects of cardiac biology including myocardial redox state, intracellular Ca(2+) cycling, the electrophysiological and contractile properties of cardiomyocytes, cardiac fibrosis as well as coronary atherosclerosis progression...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Physiology
Nadine Suffee, Thomas Moore-Morris, Patrick Farahmand, Catherine Rücker-Martin, Gilles Dilanian, Magali Fradet, Daigo Sawaki, Geneviève Derumeaux, Pascal LePrince, Karine Clément, Isabelle Dugail, Michel Puceat, Stéphane N Hatem
The abundance of epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) is associated with atrial fibrillation (AF), the most frequent cardiac arrhythmia. However, both the origin and the factors involved in EAT expansion are unknown. Here, we found that adult human atrial epicardial cells were highly adipogenic through an epithelial-mesenchymal transition both in vitro and in vivo. In a genetic lineage tracing the WT1CreERT2+/-RosatdT+/- mouse model subjected to a high-fat diet, adipocytes of atrial EAT derived from a subset of epicardial progenitors...
January 31, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Bai-Chin Lee, Wen-Jeng Lee, Shyh-Chyi Lo, Hsiu-Ching Hsu, Kuo-Liong Chien, Yeun-Chung Chang, Ming-Fong Chen
The association between epicardial fat and coronary artery disease (CAD) might be affected by general adiposity. We aimed to determine whether the percentage of epicardial adipose tissue (%EAT), defined as the mass ratio of epicardial fat to body fat, could improve prediction of asymptomatic CAD. We consecutively enrolled 846 adults who underwent coronary computed tomography angiography as part of a health check-up and assessed their coronary stenosis severity and epicardial fat mass. Body fat mass was measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis...
June 2016: International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging
Lianshan Zhang, Libin Liang, Tong Tong, Yuguo Qin, Yanping Xu, Xinglong Tong
Context Recently, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) was occasionally found to decrease the triglyceride (TG) levels in several hyperlipidemic patients in our clinical practice. Objective The study investigates the anti-hyperlipidemic effects of ATP in a high-fat fed rabbit model and hyperlipidemic patients. Materials and methods Twenty-four rabbits were randomly divided into three groups of eight animals each as follows: normal diet, high-fat diet and high-fat diet + ATP group. ATP supplementation (40 mg/day) was started at the 20th day and lasted for 10 days...
October 2016: Pharmaceutical Biology
Thomas A Csepe, Jichao Zhao, Brian J Hansen, Ning Li, Lidiya V Sul, Praise Lim, Yufeng Wang, Orlando P Simonetti, Ahmet Kilic, Peter J Mohler, Paul M L Janssen, Vadim V Fedorov
INTRODUCTION: Despite a century of extensive study on the human sinoatrial node (SAN), the structure-to-function features of specialized SAN conduction pathways (SACP) are still unknown and debated. We report a new method for direct analysis of the SAN microstructure in optically-mapped human hearts with and without clinical history of SAN dysfunction. METHODS: Two explanted donor human hearts were coronary-perfused and optically-mapped. Structural analyses of histological sections parallel to epicardium (∼13-21 μm intervals) were integrated with optical maps to create 3D computational reconstructions of the SAN complex...
January 2016: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
Yukiko Yamaguchi, Susana Cavallero, Michaela Patterson, Hua Shen, Jian Xu, S Ram Kumar, Henry M Sucov
The hearts of many mammalian species are surrounded by an extensive layer of fat called epicardial adipose tissue (EAT). The lineage origins and determinative mechanisms of EAT development are unclear, in part because mice and other experimentally tractable model organisms are thought to not have this tissue. In this study, we show that mouse hearts have EAT, localized to a specific region in the atrial-ventricular groove. Lineage analysis indicates that this adipose tissue originates from the epicardium, a multipotent epithelium that until now is only established to normally generate cardiac fibroblasts and coronary smooth muscle cells...
February 17, 2015: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
H Raju, S V de Noronha, S Rothery, L Robinson, M Papadakis, S Sharma, M N Sheppard, E R Behr
BACKGROUND: Brugada syndrome (BrS) is considered an inherited arrhythmia syndrome, though it may represent a concealed cardiomyopathy confined to the right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT). We aimed to ascertain fibrosis and gap junction expression in ventricular myocardium following sudden cardiac death (SCD) due to BrS. METHODS: The BrS cohort consisted of 6 cases of unexplained SCD referred for specialist whole heart autopsy whose family were diagnosed with BrS...
October 2014: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
Qiaozhen Liu, Xiuzhen Huang, Jin-Hee Oh, Ruei-Zeng Lin, Shengzhong Duan, Ying Yu, Rui Yang, Ju Qiu, Juan M Melero-Martin, William T Pu, Bin Zhou
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2014: Cell Research
Yang Yu, Cao Wei, Li Liu, Ai Ling Lian, Xiu Fen Qu, Guang Yu
BACKGROUND: Chronic atrial fibrillation (AF) leads to heterogeneous autonomic nerve innervation termed neural remodeling. The quantitative changes in neural density as a function of autonomic remodeling and its association with sustained AF has not been previously determined. METHOD AND RESULTS: Seven dogs (paced group) were chronically paced with electrodes sutured to the epicardium of left atrial appendages. Seven dogs (control animals) were not paced. All paced dogs developed sustained AF by 5 weeks of pacing...
November 2014: Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology: PACE
Muhammed Bora Demircelik, Omer Caglar Yilmaz, Ozgul Malcok Gurel, Yusuf Selcoki, Inci Asli Atar, Alper Bozkurt, Kayihan Akin, Beyhan Eryonucu
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between pericoronary fat and the severity and extent of atherosclerosis, quantified using 64-multidetector computed tomography, in patients with suspected coronary artery disease. METHODS: The study population consisted of 131 patients who were clinically referred for noninvasive multislice computed tomography coronary angiography for the evaluation of coronary artery disease. Patients were classified as follows: no atherosclerosis, Group 1; nonobstructive atherosclerosis (luminal narrowing <50% in diameter), Group 2; and obstructive atherosclerosis (luminal narrowing ≥ 50%) in a single vessel or obstructive atherosclerosis in the left main coronary artery and/or multiple vessels, Group 3...
June 2014: Clinics
Yuki Komatsu, Matthew Daly, Frédéric Sacher, Hubert Cochet, Arnaud Denis, Nicolas Derval, Laurence Jesel, Stephan Zellerhoff, Han S Lim, Amir Jadidi, Isabelle Nault, Ashok Shah, Laurent Roten, Patrizio Pascale, Daniel Scherr, Valerie Aurillac-Lavignolle, Mélèze Hocini, Michel Haïssaguerre, Pierre Jaïs
OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the feasibility and safety of epicardial substrate elimination with endocardial radiofrequency (RF) delivery in patients with scar-related ventricular tachycardia (VT). BACKGROUND: Epicardial RF delivery is limited by fat or associated with bleeding, extra-cardiac damages, coronary vessels and phrenic nerve injury. Alternative ablation approaches might be desirable. METHODS: Forty-six patients (18 ischemic cardiomyopathy [ICM], 13 nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy [NICM], 15 arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy [ARVC]) with sustained VT underwent combined endo- and epicardial mapping...
April 15, 2014: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
X Liu, W S Post, J McLenithan, M Terrin, L Magder, I Zeb, M Budoff, B D Mitchell
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Hypothesizing that intrathoracic fat might exert local effects on the coronary vasculature, we assessed the association of intrathoracic fat volume and its two subcomponents with coronary artery calcification (CAC) in 909 relatively healthy Amish adults. METHODS AND RESULTS: Intrathoracic fat, which is comprised of fat between the surface of the heart and the visceral epicardium (epicardial fat) and fat around the heart but outside of the fibrous pericardium (pericardial fat), was measured from electron beam CT scans...
March 2014: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
T W K Fraser, I Mayer, T Hansen, T T Poppe, J E Skjaeraasen, E O Koppang, P G Fjelldal
Heart morphology is particularly plastic in teleosts and differs between farmed and wild Atlantic salmon. However, little is known about how different culture practices and sex affect heart morphology. This study investigated how vaccination, triploidy and sex affected heart size and heart morphology (ventricle shape, angle of the bulbus arteriosus) in farmed Atlantic salmon for 18 months following vaccination (from c. 50-3000 g body weight). In addition, hearts were examined histologically after 7 months in sea water...
February 2015: Journal of Fish Diseases
Michael C G Wong, Glenn Edwards, Steven J Spence, Jonathan M Kalman, Saurabh Kumar, Stephen A Joseph, Joseph B Morton
BACKGROUND: Contact force (CF) during radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is an important determinant of endocardial lesion size with limited data on epicardial RFA and CF. We evaluated CF characteristics using irrigated RFA on the epicardium in an ovine model. METHODS AND RESULTS: In 12 sheep, a 7-F irrigated RFA catheter with CF sensor was introduced via a pericardial incision onto/in parallel with ventricular epicardium. RFA (30 W per 30 second duration) was applied at 5g, 10g, 20g, 40g, and 70g: (1) over left and right ventricular myocardium with or without fat, (2) either directly over or adjacent to a coronary artery, or directly over the phrenic nerve...
December 2013: Circulation. Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology
Peter Alter, Jens H Figiel, Thomas P Rupp, Georg F Bachmann, Bernhard Maisch, Marga B Rominger
Although echocardiography remains the standard diagnostic tool for identifying pericardial diseases, procedures with better delineation of morphology and heart function are often required. The pericardium consists of an inner visceral (epicardium) and outer parietal layer (pericardium), which constitute for the pericardial cavity. Pericardial effusion can occur as transudate, exudate, pyopneumopericardium, or hemopericardium. Potential causes are inflammatory processes, that is, pericarditis due to autoimmune or infective reasons, neoplasms, irradiation, or systemic disorders, chronic renal failure, endocrine, or metabolic diseases...
May 2013: Heart Failure Reviews
A Wronska, Z Kmiec
It is now widely accepted that white adipose tissue (WAT) is not merely a fuel storage organ, but also a key component of metabolic homoeostatic mechanisms. Apart from its major role in lipid and glucose metabolism, adipose tissue is also involved in a wide array of other biological processes. The hormones and adipokines, as well as other biologically active agents released from fat cells, affect many physiological and pathological processes. WAT is neither uniform nor inflexible because it undergoes constant remodelling, adapting the size and number of adipocytes to changes in nutrients' availability and hormonal milieu...
June 2012: Acta Physiologica
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