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Pain illusion

Avner Bergstein
Experiences with autistic and primitive mental states have significant implications for our understanding of obsessionality. Consequently, obsessionality is seen as an attempt at a massive simplification of experience, in order to deal with the pain inherent in the encounter with intense emotional experience and with the separateness of an enigmatic object that eludes one's omnipotent control. Moreover, early loss and a precocious awareness of separateness often play roles in the withdrawal to obsessional thinking and verbosity, and to an illusion of omnipotent control of the object...
October 14, 2016: Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association
Jessie Barbin, Vanessa Seetha, Jean-Marie Casillas, Jean Paysant, Dominic Perennou
OBJECTIVE: Phantom limb pain (PLP) is a major problem after limb amputation. Mirror therapy (MT) is a non-pharmacological treatment using representations of movement, the efficacy of which in reducing PLP remains to be clarified. Here, we present the first systematic review on MT efficacy in phantom limb pain (PLP) and phantom limb movement (PLM) in amputees (lower or upper limb). MATERIAL/PATIENTS AND METHODS: A search on MEDLINE, COCHRANE DATABASE and EMBASE, crossing the key words "phantom limb" and "mirror therapy" found studies which were read and analyzed according the PRISMA statement...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Michael Shulman
Analysts have often described their work as depriving, painful, and hard to endure, while its pleasures have been the subject of little commentary. The real history and ongoing temptations of boundary violation long ago made the gratifications of psychoanalytic work a matter of anxiety. Analysts' pleasure in their work was problematized. Some of this problematizing is necessary because of real risk, but much of it is not only unnecessary but misleading and destructive. Psychoanalysts pursue achievement of a unique form of human intimacy, yet acquired habits of professional modesty and humility have encouraged the illusion that analyzing can occur without desire or ambition on the analyst's part...
August 2016: Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association
J Pamment, J E Aspell
BACKGROUND: Chronic pain is a growing societal concern that warrants scientific investigation, especially given the ineffectiveness of many treatments. Given evidence that pain experience relies on multisensory integration, there is interest in using body ownership illusions for reducing acute pain. AIM: In the present study, we investigate whether patients' experience of chronic pain could be reduced by full body illusions (FBIs) that cause participants to dissociate from their own body...
August 10, 2016: European Journal of Pain: EJP
Michael K Boettger, Günter Ditze, Karl-Juergen Bär, Eva Maria Krüdewagen, Hans-Georg Schaible
Simultaneous presentation of alternating innocuous warm and cold stimuli induces in most humans a painful sensation called thermal grill illusion (TGI). Here, pain is elicited although nociceptors are not activated. Upon back-translation of behavioural correlates from humans to animals, we found that neither cats nor rodents show adverse reactions when exposed to TGI stimulation. These results question that a TGI observed as a pain-related change in behaviour can be elicited in animals. While distinct neuronal patterns as previously reported may be measurable in animals upon TGI stimulation, their translational meaning towards the sensation elicited in humans is unclear...
October 15, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
Matteo Martini
In the last few years a branch of pain research has been focussing on the modulatory effects of the vision of the body on pain perception. So, for instance, the vision of one's own real body has been proven to induce analgesic effects. On the other hand, bodily illusions such as the rubber hand illusion have provided new tools for the study of perceptual processes during altered body ownership states. Recently, new paradigms of body ownership made use of a technology that is going places both in clinical and in experimental settings, i...
July 2016: Consciousness and Cognition
J Barbin, V Seetha, J M Casillas, J Paysant, D Pérennou
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Phantom limb pain (PLP) is a major problem after limb amputation. Mirror therapy (MT) is a non-pharmacological treatment using representations of movement, the efficacy of which in reducing PLP remains to be clarified. Here, we present the first systematic review on MT efficacy in PLP and phantom limb movement (PLM) in amputees (lower or upper limb). METHODS: A search on Medline, Cochrane Database and Embase, crossing the keywords "Phantom Limb" and "Mirror Therapy" found studies which were read and analyzed according the PRISMA statement...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Pierre-Henri Castel
From two semi-popularised, but scientifically correct, texts, that provide a typical look of academic awareness of depressive phenomena, an attempt will be made to show what spontaneous medical naturalism involves, including the moral aspect of mental symptoms. The concept of moral from its common use that circles around the social and relational rules that make up the fabric of civilisation. This medical naturalism disqualifies, as an epiphenomenon, this fact: the intentional dimension of psychic facts, but also cases where the intention contained in a state of mind counts as intended, i...
April 2016: Revista Colombiana de Psiquiatría
Eduardo Rendón-Quintero, Rodolfo Rodríguez-Gómez
INTRODUCTION: Suicide is a major public health problem. It covers about half of violent deaths and results in approximately one million deaths annually. Although completed suicide rates in Colombia are relatively low when compared with other countries, suicidal behavior, represented not only by completed suicide, is a significant mental health problem. OBJECTIVE: To understand life experiences of a group of subjects related to the phenomenon of ideation and suicide attempt...
April 2016: Revista Colombiana de Psiquiatría
Mariella Pazzaglia, Patrick Haggard, Giorgio Scivoletto, Marco Molinari, Bigna Lenggenhager
PURPOSE: Spinal cord injury (SCI), a profound impairment of sensorimotor functions, is often associated with pain related phenomena, including mechanical allodynia, a condition in which non-painful tactile sensation is perceived as pain. Pain and somatic sensation are undeniable markers of normal bodily awareness. However, the mechanism by which they are integrated into a coherent sense of the bodily self remains largely unclear. In this study, we investigated the effect of high-level multisensory manipulation on subjective experiences of pain, touch, and body-ownership...
April 11, 2016: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
Raymonde Scheuren, Stefan Duschek, André Schulz, Stefan Sütterlin, Fernand Anton
Numerous studies have documented an inverse relationship between blood pressure and sensitivity to experimental nociceptive stimulation. The present study aimed to investigate possible associations between blood pressure and the occurrence and intensity of paradoxical pain induced by the thermal grill paradigm. Thirty-one healthy subjects were stimulated three times for 1 min with the nonnoxious temperatures of 15°C and 41°C set at the interlaced cold and warm bars of a water bath-driven thermal grill. Blood pressure and heart rate were recorded concomitantly...
August 2016: Psychophysiology
Flavia Cardini, Matthew R Longo
Chronic pain and impaired tactile sensitivity are frequently associated with "blurred" representations in the somatosensory cortex. The factors that produce such somatosensory blurring, however, remain poorly understood. We manipulated visuo-tactile congruence to investigate its role in promoting somatosensory reorganization. To this aim we used the mirror box illusion that produced in participants the subjective feeling of looking directly at their left hand, though they were seeing the reflection of their right hand...
April 2016: Neuropsychologia
Eva Boesch, Valeria Bellan, G Lorimer Moseley, Tasha R Stanton
This systematic review and meta-analysis critically examined the evidence for bodily illusions to modulate pain. Six databases were searched; 2 independent reviewers completed study inclusion, risk of bias assessment, and data extraction. Included studies evaluated the effect of a bodily illusion on pain, comparing results with a control group/condition. Of the 2213 studies identified, 20 studies (21 experiments) were included. Risk of bias was high due to selection bias and lack of blinding. Consistent evidence of pain decrease was found for illusions of the existence of a body part (myoelectric/Sauerbruch prosthesis vs cosmetic/no prosthesis; standardized mean differences = -1...
March 2016: Pain
Michel Aguilar
Buddhism has an original anthropology without dolorism or sacrifice, based on which a care ethic is deployed. The Buddhist way leads to freeing the spirit of the illusions that lead it astray and considers the body as a precious material support for the spirit. Pain and illness are treated while paying great attention to the person's suffering, whether conscious or not.
October 2015: Soins; la Revue de Référence Infirmière
Nadia Bolognini, Cristina Russo, Giuseppe Vallar
In everyday life, many diverse bits of information, simultaneously derived from the different sensory channels, converge into discrete brain areas, and are ultimately synthetized into unified percepts. Such multisensory integration can dramatically alter the phenomenal experience of both environmental events and our own body. Crossmodal illusions are one intriguing product of multisensory integration. This review describes and discusses the main clinical applications of the most known crossmodal illusions in rehabilitation settings...
2015: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Shane Neilson
Like many other disciplines, medicine often resorts to metaphor in order to explain complicated concepts that are imperfectly understood. But what happens when medicine's metaphors close off thinking, restricting interpretations and opinions to those of the negative kind? This paper considers the deleterious effects of destructive metaphors that cluster around pain. First, the metaphoric basis of all knowledge is introduced. Next, a particular subset of medical metaphors in the domain of neurology (doors/keys/wires) are shown to encourage mechanistic thinking...
March 2016: Medical Humanities
Melita J Giummarra, Nellie Georgiou-Karistianis, Antonio Verdejo-Garcia, Stephen J Gibson
We examined changes in pain sensitivity in the rubber hand illusion (RHI). Experiment 1 investigated changes in pain tolerance immediately after a "healthy" and "wounded" RHI when immersing the hand in a cold pressor ice bath. There was 19% increased pain tolerance and increased perception detection threshold after the healthy RHI, but 11% reduction after the wounded RHI. Experiment 2 examined pain experience during the wounded RHI with capsaicin-induced hyperalgesia. Pain intensity and unpleasantness was higher on the illusion arm during the synchronous RHI, compared with asynchronous trials...
November 2015: Consciousness and Cognition
Ryota Imai, Michihiro Osumi, Shu Morioka
OBJECTIVES: We investigated the effects of inducing an illusion of motion by tendon vibration on sensory and emotional aspects of pain and range of motion in patients with fractures of the distal radius. DESIGN: A quasi-randomized controlled trial. SETTING: Kawachi General Hospital, Japan. SUBJECTS: A total of 26 patients with fractures of the distal radius were distributed quasi-randomly to either the illusory kinesthesia group (n = 13) or control group (n = 13)...
June 2016: Clinical Rehabilitation
Robin Bekrater-Bodmann, Boo Young Chung, Ingmarie Richter, Manon Wicking, Jens Foell, Falk Mancke, Christian Schmahl, Herta Flor
It is well documented that borderline personality disorder (BPD) is characterized by reduced pain sensitivity, which might be related to nonsuicidal self-injury and dissociative experiences in patients with BPD. However, it remains an open question whether this insensitivity relies at least partly on altered sensory integration or on an altered evaluation of pain or a combination of both. In this study, we used the thermal grill illusion (TGI), describing a painful sensation induced by the application of alternating cold and warm nonnoxious stimuli, in patients with either current or remitted BPD as well as matched healthy controls...
October 2015: Pain
Christopher Milde, Mariela Rance, Pinar Kirsch, Jörg Trojan, Xaver Fuchs, Jens Foell, Robin Bekrater-Bodmann, Herta Flor, Martin Diers
Since its original proposal, mirror therapy has been established as a successful neurorehabilitative intervention in several neurological disorders to recover motor function or to relieve pain. Mirror therapy seems to operate by reactivating the contralesional representation of the non-mirrored limb in primary motor- and somatosensory cortex. However, mirror boxes have some limitations which prompted the use of additional mirror visual feedback devices. The present study evaluated the utility of mirror glasses compared to a mirror box...
2015: PloS One
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