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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777947/aid-invited-to-the-g4-summit
#1
Joseph N Pucella, Jayanta Chaudhuri
In this issue of Molecular Cell, Qiao et al. (2017) use both biochemical and structural approaches to report AID-preferred nucleic acid substrates, illuminating AID targeting mechanisms during CSR and SHM.
August 3, 2017: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774064/a-bayesian-approach-for-sensor-optimisation-in-impact-identification
#2
Vincenzo Mallardo, Zahra Sharif Khodaei, Ferri M H Aliabadi
This paper presents a Bayesian approach for optimizing the position of sensors aimed at impact identification in composite structures under operational conditions. The uncertainty in the sensor data has been represented by statistical distributions of the recorded signals. An optimisation strategy based on the genetic algorithm is proposed to find the best sensor combination aimed at locating impacts on composite structures. A Bayesian-based objective function is adopted in the optimisation procedure as an indicator of the performance of meta-models developed for different sensor combinations to locate various impact events...
November 22, 2016: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28773910/a-multi-level-decision-fusion-strategy-for-condition-based-maintenance-of-composite-structures
#3
Zahra Sharif Khodaei, M H Aliabadi
In this work, a multi-level decision fusion strategy is proposed which weighs the Value of Information (VoI) against the intended functions of a Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) system. This paper presents a multi-level approach for three different maintenance strategies in which the performance of the SHM systems is evaluated against its intended functions. Level 1 diagnosis results in damage existence with minimum sensors covering a large area by finding the maximum energy difference for the guided waves propagating in pristine structure and the post-impact state; Level 2 diagnosis provides damage detection and approximate localization using an approach based on Electro-Mechanical Impedance (EMI) measures, while Level 3 characterizes damage (exact location and size) in addition to its detection by utilising a Weighted Energy Arrival Method (WEAM)...
September 21, 2016: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28773193/an-advanced-multi-sensor-acousto-ultrasonic-structural-health-monitoring-system-development-and-aerospace-demonstration
#4
Joel Smithard, Nik Rajic, Stephen van der Velden, Patrick Norman, Cedric Rosalie, Steve Galea, Hanfei Mei, Bin Lin, Victor Giurgiutiu
A key longstanding objective of the Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) research community is to enable the embedment of SHM systems in high value assets like aircraft to provide on-demand damage detection and evaluation. As against traditional non-destructive inspection hardware, embedded SHM systems must be compact, lightweight, low-power and sufficiently robust to survive exposure to severe in-flight operating conditions. Typical Commercial-Off-The-Shelf (COTS) systems can be bulky, costly and are often inflexible in their configuration and/or scalability, which militates against in-service deployment...
July 20, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772912/the-feasibility-of-structural-health-monitoring-using-the-fundamental-shear-horizontal-guided-wave-in-a-thin-aluminum-plate
#5
Jorge Franklin Mansur Rodrigues Filho, Nicolas Tremblay, Gláucio Soares da Fonseca, Pierre Belanger
Structural health monitoring (SHM) is emerging as an essential tool for constant monitoring of safety-critical engineering components. Ultrasonic guided waves stand out because of their ability to propagate over long distances and because they can offer good estimates of location, severity, and type of damage. The unique properties of the fundamental shear horizontal guided wave (SH₀) mode have recently generated great interest among the SHM community. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the feasibility of omnidirectional SH₀ SHM in a thin aluminum plate using a three-transducer sparse array...
May 19, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772879/on-line-multi-damage-scanning-spatial-wavenumber-filter-based-imaging-method-for-aircraft-composite-structure
#6
Yuanqiang Ren, Lei Qiu, Shenfang Yuan, Qiao Bao
Structural health monitoring (SHM) of aircraft composite structure is helpful to increase reliability and reduce maintenance costs. Due to the great effectiveness in distinguishing particular guided wave modes and identifying the propagation direction, the spatial-wavenumber filter technique has emerged as an interesting SHM topic. In this paper, a new scanning spatial-wavenumber filter (SSWF) based imaging method for multiple damages is proposed to conduct on-line monitoring of aircraft composite structures...
May 11, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772431/inspection-of-piezoceramic-transducers-used-for-structural-health-monitoring
#7
Inka Mueller, Claus-Peter Fritzen
The use of piezoelectric wafer active sensors (PWAS) for structural health monitoring (SHM) purposes is state of the art for acousto-ultrasonic-based methods. For system reliability, detailed information about the PWAS itself is necessary. This paper gives an overview on frequent PWAS faults and presents the effects of these faults on the wave propagation, used for active acousto-ultrasonics-based SHM. The analysis of the wave field is based on velocity measurements using a laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV). New and established methods of PWAS inspection are explained in detail, listing advantages and disadvantages...
January 16, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772393/monitoring-the-damage-state-of-fiber-reinforced-composites-using-an-fbg-network-for-failure-prediction
#8
Esat Selim Kocaman, Erdem Akay, Cagatay Yilmaz, Halit Suleyman Turkmen, Ibrahim Burc Misirlioglu, Afzal Suleman, Mehmet Yildiz
A structural health monitoring (SHM) study of biaxial glass fibre-reinforced epoxy matrix composites under a constant, high strain uniaxial fatigue loading is performed using fibre Bragg grating (FBG) optical sensors embedded in composites at various locations to monitor the evolution of local strains, thereby understanding the damage mechanisms. Concurrently, the temperature changes of the samples during the fatigue test have also been monitored at the same locations. Close to fracture, significant variations in local temperatures and strains are observed, and it is shown that the variations in temperature and strain can be used to predict imminent fracture...
January 3, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768193/immunogenetic-profiling-for-gastric-cancers-identifies-sulfated-glycosaminoglycans-as-major-and-functional-b-cell-antigens-in-human-malignancies
#9
Hiroto Katoh, Daisuke Komura, Hiroki Konishi, Ryohei Suzuki, Asami Yamamoto, Miwako Kakiuchi, Reiko Sato, Tetsuo Ushiku, Shogo Yamamoto, Kenji Tatsuno, Takashi Oshima, Sachiyo Nomura, Yasuyuki Seto, Masashi Fukayama, Hiroyuki Aburatani, Shumpei Ishikawa
Recent successes in tumor immunotherapies have highlighted the importance of tumor immunity. However, most of the work conducted to date has been on T cell immunity, while the role of B cell immunity in cancer remains more elusive. In this study, immunogenetic repertoire profiling for tumor-infiltrating B and T cells in gastric cancers was carried out to help reveal the architecture of B cell immunity in cancer. Humoral immunity in cancer was shown to involve oligoclonal expansions of tumor-specific and private B cell repertoires...
August 1, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757211/aid-recognizes-structured-dna-for-class-switch-recombination
#10
Qi Qiao, Li Wang, Fei-Long Meng, Joyce K Hwang, Frederick W Alt, Hao Wu
Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) initiates both class switch recombination (CSR) and somatic hypermutation (SHM) in antibody diversification. Mechanisms of AID targeting and catalysis remain elusive despite its critical immunological roles and off-target effects in tumorigenesis. Here, we produced active human AID and revealed its preferred recognition and deamination of structured substrates. G-quadruplex (G4)-containing substrates mimicking the mammalian immunoglobulin switch regions are particularly good AID substrates in vitro...
August 3, 2017: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750410/loss-of-the-protein-cystathionine-%C3%AE-synthase-during-kidney-injury-promotes-renal-tubulointerstitial-fibrosis
#11
Xiangning Yuan, Jin Zhang, Feifei Xie, Wenqing Tan, Shuting Wang, Ling Huang, Lijian Tao, Qiqi Xing, Qiongjing Yuan
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis (TIF) is the common pathway of progressive chronic kidney disease. Inflammation has been widely accepted as the major driving force of TIF. Cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) is the first and rate-limiting enzyme in the transsulfuration pathway. CBS is considered to play protective role in liver and pulmonary fibrosis, but its role in TIF remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential role and mechanism of CBS in renal inflammation and TIF...
July 27, 2017: Kidney & Blood Pressure Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747530/sequence-intrinsic-somatic-mutation-mechanisms-contribute-to-affinity-maturation-of-vrc01-class-hiv-1-broadly-neutralizing-antibodies
#12
Joyce K Hwang, Chong Wang, Zhou Du, Robin M Meyers, Thomas B Kepler, Donna Neuberg, Peter D Kwong, John R Mascola, M Gordon Joyce, Mattia Bonsignori, Barton F Haynes, Leng-Siew Yeap, Frederick W Alt
Variable regions of Ig chains provide the antigen recognition portion of B-cell receptors and derivative antibodies. Ig heavy-chain variable region exons are assembled developmentally from V, D, J gene segments. Each variable region contains three antigen-contacting complementarity-determining regions (CDRs), with CDR1 and CDR2 encoded by the V segment and CDR3 encoded by the V(D)J junction region. Antigen-stimulated germinal center (GC) B cells undergo somatic hypermutation (SHM) of V(D)J exons followed by selection for SHMs that increase antigen-binding affinity...
July 26, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714927/development-and-application-of-a-structural-health-monitoring-system-based-on-wireless-smart-aggregates
#13
Shi Yan, Haoyan Ma, Peng Li, Gangbing Song, Jianxin Wu
Structural health monitoring (SHM) systems can improve the safety and reliability of structures, reduce maintenance costs, and extend service life. Research on concrete SHMs using piezoelectric-based smart aggregates have reached great achievements. However, the newly developed techniques have not been widely applied in practical engineering, largely due to the wiring problems associated with large-scale structural health monitoring. The cumbersome wiring requires much material and labor work, and more importantly, the associated maintenance work is also very heavy...
July 17, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698163/selective-effect-of-hydroxyapatite-nanoparticles-on-osteoporotic-and-healthy-bone-formation-correlates-with-intracellular-calcium-homeostasis-regulation
#14
Rui Zhao, Pengfei Xie, Kun Zhang, Zhurong Tang, Xuening Chen, Xiangdong Zhu, Yujiang Fan, Xiao Yang, Xingdong Zhang
Adequate bone substitutes osseointegration has been difficult to achieve in osteoporosis. Hydroxyapatite of the osteoporotic bone, secreted by pathologic osteoblasts, had a smaller crystal size and lower crystallinity than that of the normal. To date, little is known regarding the interaction of synthetic hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (HANPs) with osteoblasts born in bone rarefaction. The present study investigated the biological effects of HANPs on osteoblastic cells derived from osteoporotic rat bone (OVX-OB), in comparison with the healthy ones (SHM-OB)...
September 1, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677511/-mapping-hiv-prevalence-in-the-netherlands-with-geographic-information-systems
#15
E L M Op de Coul, I K Joore, A van Sighem, B C J Bom, M Hillebregt, J M Prins, S E Geerlings, J E A M van Bergen
OBJECTIVE: To map regions of the Netherlands with high HIV prevalence for surveillance and prevention purposes. METHOD: Information on numbers of HIV patients receiving clinical care on 31 December 2014 per postcode region was requested from the HIV monitoring foundation (SHM). These details were related to data from Statistics Netherlands on the number of residents per municipal area or district with the aid of a geographic information system (GIS). RESULTS: Distribution mapping showed that ten municipal areas in the Netherlands have an HIV prevalence of 2 or more per 1000 residents aged 15-60 years...
2017: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653072/from-graphite-to-interconnected-reduced-graphene-oxide-one-pot-synthesis-and-supercapacitor-application
#16
Boopathi Sidhureddy, Antony Raj Thiruppathi, Aicheng Chen
An innovative one-pot approach for the scalable production of novel interconnected reduced graphene oxide (IC-RGO) is demonstrated, and we name it the streamlined Hummers method (SHM). The formed IC-RGO represents a new type of three-dimensional platform, promising for many graphene related energy, environmental and medical applications.
July 6, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630079/what-are-the-primary-limitations-in-b-cell-affinity-maturation-and-how-much-affinity-maturation-can-we-drive-with-vaccination-lessons-from-the-antibody-response-to-hiv-1
#17
Gabriel D Victora, Hugo Mouquet
Most broadly neutralizing antibodies to HIV-1 have in common an extreme degree of somatic hypermutation (SHM), which correlates with their ability to neutralize multiple viral strains. However, achieving such extreme SHM by immunization remains a challenge. Here, we discuss how antigenic variation during HIV-1 infection may work to exacerbate SHM by permitting multiple iterative cycles of affinity maturation in germinal centers, and speculate on how this could be recapitulated through vaccination.
June 19, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587161/structural-health-monitoring-for-a-z-type-special-vehicle
#18
Chaolin Yuan, Liang Ren, Hongnan Li
Nowadays there exist various kinds of special vehicles designed for some purposes, which are different from regular vehicles in overall dimension and design. In that case, accidents such as overturning will lead to large economical loss and casualties. There are still no technical specifications to follow to ensure the safe operation and driving of these special vehicles. Owing to the poor efficiency of regular maintenance, it is more feasible and effective to apply real-time monitoring during the operation and driving process...
June 1, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586748/haematological-malignancies-following-temozolomide-treatment-for-paediatric-high-grade-glioma
#19
Michael Karremann, Nadja Krämer, Marion Hoffmann, Maria Wiese, Andreas Beilken, Selim Corbacioglu, Dagmar Dilloo, Pablo Hernáiz Driever, Wolfram Scheurlen, Andreas Kulozik, Gerrit H Gielen, André O von Bueren, Matthias Dürken, Christof M Kramm
BACKGROUND: Temozolomide (TMZ) is widely used in high-grade glioma (HGG). There is a major concern of treatment-induced secondary haematological malignancies (SHMs). Due to the poor overall survival of HGG patients, the true incidence is yet elusive. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the risk of SHMs following TMZ in paediatric HGG. METHODS: We analysed 487 patients from the HIT-HGG database of the German-speaking Society of Pediatric Oncology and Hematology with follow up beyond 1 year...
August 2017: European Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584254/whole-genome-sequencing-of-chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia-reveals-distinct-differences-in-the-mutational-landscape-between-ighv-mut-and-ighv-unmut-subgroups
#20
A Burns, R Alsolami, J Becq, A Timbs, D Bruce, P Robbe, D Vavoulis, M Cabes, H Dreau, J Taylor, S J L Knight, R Mansson, D Bentley, R Beekman, J I Martín-Subero, E Campo, R S Houlston, K E Ridout, A Schuh
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) consists of two biologically and clinically distinct subtypes defined by the abundance of somatic hypermutation (SHM) affecting the Ig variable heavy chain locus (IgHV). The molecular mechanisms underlying these subtypes are incompletely understood. Here, we present a comprehensive whole genome sequencing (WGS) analysis of somatically acquired genetic events from 46 CLL patients, including a systematic comparison of coding and non-coding SNVs, CNVs and structural variants, regions of kataegis and mutation signatures between IgHV(mut) and IgHV(unmut) subtypes...
June 6, 2017: Leukemia: Official Journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K
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