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Tiffany Y Chen, Ivan Garza, David W Dodick, Carrie E Robertson
BACKGROUND: OnabotulinumtoxinA has been demonstrated to be effective for the preventive treatment of headache in individuals with chronic migraine and has been approved and recommended for this patient population. While the therapeutic effect of onabotulinumtoxinA on migraine headache is well documented, there is limited information on the effect of onabotulinumtoxinA on migraine aura. OBJECTIVE: Given the prolonged and often debilitating nature of aura in patients with hemiplegic migraine, our group sought to examine the effect of onabotulinumtoxinA on aura frequency and severity in this specific subset of migraine patients...
May 15, 2018: Headache
Jhonatan Camacho Navarro, Magda Ruiz, Rodolfo Villamizar, Luis Mujica, Jabid Quiroga
This work discusses the advantage of using cross-correlation analysis in a data-driven approach based on principal component analysis (PCA) and piezodiagnostics to obtain successful diagnosis of events in structural health monitoring (SHM). In this sense, the identification of noisy data and outliers, as well as the management of data cleansing stages can be facilitated through the implementation of a preprocessing stage based on cross-correlation functions. Additionally, this work evidences an improvement in damage detection when the cross-correlation is included as part of the whole damage assessment approach...
May 15, 2018: Sensors
Michal Dziendzikowski, Patryk Niedbala, Artur Kurnyta, Kamil Kowalczyk, Krzysztof Dragan
One of the ideas for development of Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) systems is based on excitation of elastic waves by a network of PZT piezoelectric transducers integrated with the structure. In the paper, a variant of the so-called Transfer Impedance (TI) approach to SHM is followed. Signal characteristics, called the Damage Indices (DIs), were proposed for data presentation and analysis. The idea underlying the definition of DIs was to maintain most of the information carried by the voltage induced on PZT sensors by elastic waves...
May 11, 2018: Sensors
Gwanghee Heo, Byungjik Son, Chunggil Kim, Seunggon Jeon, Joonryong Jeon
A disaster preventive structural health monitoring (SHM) system needs to be equipped with the following abilities: First, it should be able to simultaneously measure diverse types of data (e.g., displacement, velocity, acceleration, strain, load, temperature, humidity, etc.) for accurate diagnosis. Second, it also requires standalone power supply to guarantee its immediate response in crisis (e.g., sudden interruption of normal AC power in disaster situations). Furthermore, it should be capable of prompt processing and realtime wireless communication of a huge amount of data...
May 9, 2018: Sensors
Laura Nicolas, Montserrat Cols, Jee Eun Choi, Jayanta Chaudhuri, Bao Vuong
Adaptive immune responses require the generation of a diverse repertoire of immunoglobulins (Igs) that can recognize and neutralize a seemingly infinite number of antigens. V(D)J recombination creates the primary Ig repertoire, which subsequently is modified by somatic hypermutation (SHM) and class switch recombination (CSR). SHM promotes Ig affinity maturation whereas CSR alters the effector function of the Ig. Both SHM and CSR require activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) to produce dU:dG mismatches in the Ig locus that are transformed into untemplated mutations in variable coding segments during SHM or DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in switch regions during CSR...
2018: F1000Research
See Yenn Chong, Michael D Todd
Numerous Lamb wave dispersion curve estimation methods have been developed to support damage detection and localization strategies in non-destructive evaluation/structural health monitoring (NDE/SHM) applications. In this paper, the covariance matrix is used to extract features from an ultrasonic wavefield imaging (UWI) scan in order to estimate the phase and group velocities of S0 and A0 modes. A laser ultrasonic interrogation method based on a Q-switched laser scanning system was used to interrogate full-field ultrasonic signals in a 2-mm aluminum plate at five different frequencies...
May 1, 2018: Ultrasonics
Ting-Yu Hsu, Ren-Cheng Yin, Yih-Min Wu
The earthquake early warning (EEW)-research group at National Taiwan University has been developing a microelectromechanical system-based accelerometer called “P-Alert”, designed for issuing EEWs. The main advantage of P-Alert is that it is a relatively economical seismometer. However, because of the expensive nature of commercial hardware for structural health monitoring (SHM) systems, the application of SHM to buildings remains limited. To determine the performance of P-Alert for evaluating post-earthquake building safety, we conducted a series of steel-frame shaking table tests with incremental damage...
May 5, 2018: Sensors
Fengqi Hao, Miaomiao Tian, Yunpeng Feng, Chao Quan, Yixi Chen, Shuai Chen, Min Wei
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease posing threats to multiple organs in the human body. As a typical manifestation of SLE, lupus nephritis is characterized by a series of pathological changes in glomerulus as well as accumulation of pathogenic autoreactive IgG with complement in the kidney that dramatically disrupts renal functions. Activation-induced deaminase (AID), which governs both somatic hypermutation (SHM) and class-switch recombination (CSR), has been shown to be essential for the regulation of SLE...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Hongchen Miao, Qiang Huan, Faxin Li, Guozheng Kang
Focusing the incident wave beam along a given direction is very useful in guided wave based structural health monitoring (SHM), as it will not only save input power but also simplify the interpretation of signals. Although the fundamental shear horizontal (SH0 ) wave is of practical importance in SHM due to its non-dispersive characteristics so far there have been very limited transducers which can control the radiation patterns of SH0 wave. In this work, a variable-frequency bidirectional SH0 wave piezoelectric transducer (BSH-PT) is proposed, which consists of two rectangular face-shear (d24 ) PZT wafers...
April 24, 2018: Ultrasonics
Wongi S Na, Jongdae Baek
The birth of smart materials such as piezoelectric (PZT) transducers has aided in revolutionizing the field of structural health monitoring (SHM) based on non-destructive testing (NDT) methods. While a relatively new NDT method known as the electromechanical (EMI) technique has been investigated for more than two decades, there are still various problems that must be solved before it is applied to real structures. The technique, which has a significant potential to contribute to the creation of one of the most effective SHM systems, involves the use of a single PZT for exciting and sensing of the host structure...
April 24, 2018: Sensors
Xiaohua Wang, Zhi Duan, Guojun Yu, Manxia Fan, Matthew D Scharff
Long-term survivors of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection have been shown to have a greatly increased incidence of B cell lymphomas. This increased lymphomagenesis suggests some link between HIV infection and the destabilization of the host B cell genome, a phenomenon also suggested by the extraordinary high frequency of mutation, insertion, and deletion in the broadly neutralizing HIV antibodies. Since HIV does not infect B cells, the molecular mechanisms of this genomic instability remain to be fully defined...
April 17, 2018: MBio
Jeannine A Ott, Caitlin D Castro, Thaddeus C Deiss, Yuko Ohta, Martin F Flajnik, Michael F Criscitiello
Since the discovery of the T cell receptor (TcR), immunologists have assigned somatic hypermutation (SHM) as a mechanism employed solely by B cells to diversify their antigen receptors. Remarkably, we found SHM acting in the thymus on α chain locus of shark TcR. SHM in developing shark T cells likely is catalyzed by activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) and results in both point and tandem mutations that accumulate non-conservative amino acid replacements within complementarity-determining regions (CDRs)...
April 17, 2018: ELife
Simone Rizzetto, David N P Koppstein, Jerome Samir, Mandeep Singh, Joanne H Reed, Curtis H Cai, Andrew R Lloyd, Auda A Eltahla, Christopher C Goodnow, Fabio Luciani
Motivation: The B-cell receptor (BCR) performs essential functions for the adaptive immune system including recognition of pathogen-derived antigens. The vast repertoire and adaptive variation of BCR sequences due to V(D)J recombination and somatic hypermutation (SHM) necessitates single-cell characterization of BCR sequences. Single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) presents the opportunity for simultaneous capture of paired BCR heavy and light chains and the transcriptomic signature. Results: We developed VDJPuzzle, a novel bioinformatic tool that reconstructs productive, full-length B-cell receptor sequences of both heavy and light chains and extract somatic mutations on the VDJ region...
April 5, 2018: Bioinformatics
Chao Chen, Sulan Zhai, Le Zhang, Jingjing Chen, Xuehui Long, Jun Qin, Jianhua Li, Ran Huo, Xiaoming Wang
The production of high-affinity antibody is essential for pathogen clearance. Antibody affinity is increased through germinal center (GC) affinity maturation, which relies on BCR somatic hypermutation (SHM) followed by antigen-based selection. GC B cell proliferation is essentially involved in these processes; it provides enough templates for SHM and also serves as a critical mechanism of positive selection. In this study, we show that expression of epigenetic regulator ubiquitin-like with PHD and RING finger domains 1 (Uhrf1) was markedly up-regulated by c-Myc-AP4 in GC B cells, and it was required for GC response...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Experimental Medicine
Xiangxiong Kong, Jian Li
Self-loosening of bolts caused by repetitive loads and vibrations is one of the common defects that can weaken the structural integrity of bolted steel joints in civil structures. Many existing approaches for detecting loosening bolts are based on physical sensors and, hence, require extensive sensor deployment, which limit their abilities to cost-effectively detect loosened bolts in a large number of steel joints. Recently, computer vision-based structural health monitoring (SHM) technologies have demonstrated great potential for damage detection due to the benefits of being low cost, easy to deploy, and contactless...
March 28, 2018: Sensors
Tyler Epp, Dagmar Svecova, Young-Jin Cha
Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) has moved to data-dense systems, utilizing numerous sensor types to monitor infrastructure, such as bridges and dams, more regularly. One of the issues faced in this endeavour is the scale of the inspected structures and the time it takes to carry out testing. Installing automated systems that can provide measurements in a timely manner is one way of overcoming these obstacles. This study proposes an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) application that determines intact and damaged locations from a small training sample of impact-echo data, using air-coupled microphones from a reinforced concrete beam in lab conditions and data collected from a field experiment in a parking garage...
March 29, 2018: Sensors
Stephen P Methot, Ludivine C Litzler, Poorani Ganesh Subramani, Anil K Eranki, Heather Fifield, Anne-Marie Patenaude, Julian C Gilmore, Gabriel E Santiago, Halil Bagci, Jean-François Côté, Mani Larijani, Ramiro E Verdun, Javier M Di Noia
Activation-induced deaminase (AID) mutates the immunoglobulin (Ig) genes to initiate somatic hypermutation (SHM) and class switch recombination (CSR) in B cells, thus underpinning antibody responses. AID mutates a few hundred other loci, but most AID-occupied genes are spared. The mechanisms underlying productive deamination versus non-productive AID targeting are unclear. Here we show that three clustered arginine residues define a functional AID domain required for SHM, CSR, and off-target activity in B cells without affecting AID deaminase activity or Escherichia coli mutagenesis...
March 28, 2018: Nature Communications
Kumar Anubhav Tiwari, Renaldas Raisutis, Liudas Mazeika, Vykintas Samaitis
In this paper, a novel 2D analytical model based on the Huygens's principle of wave propagation is proposed in order to predict the directivity patterns of contact type ultrasonic transducers in the generation of guided waves (GWs). The developed model is able to estimate the directivity patterns at any distance, at any excitation frequency and for any configuration and shape of the transducers with prior information of phase dispersive characteristics of the guided wave modes and the behavior of transducer...
March 26, 2018: Sensors
Madalyn G Neuwirth, Andrew J Epstein, Giorgos C Karakousis, Ronac Mamtani, E Carter Paulson
Background: Evidence suggests that resection of synchronous hepatic metastases (SHM) in stage IV colon cancer is safe and can improve survival in select patients. Little is known, however, about the use of hepatic resection in this setting on a population level. The aim of this study was to describe trends in resection rates of SHM in patients with stage IV colon cancer using a large national cohort database. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was performed of stage IV colon cancer patients during 2000-2011 in Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) Medicare data who had diagnosis codes confirming SHM...
February 2018: Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology
Jing Wang, Sichen Liu, Baidong Hou, Meixiang Yang, Zhongjun Dong, Hai Qi, Wanli Liu
Class-switch recombination (CSR) and somatic hypermutation (SHM) occur during the differentiation of germinal center B cells (GCBs). Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is responsible for both CSR and SHM in GCBs. Here, we show that ablation of PTEN through the Cγ1-Cre mediated recombination significantly influences the CSR and SHM responses. The GCs fail to produce the IgG1 B cells, the high affinity antibodies and nearly lost the dark zone (DZ) in Ptenfl/fl Cγ1Cre/+ mice after immunization, suggesting the impaired GC structure...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
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