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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933967/aid-biology-a-pathological-and-clinical-perspective
#1
Meenal Choudhary, Anubhav Tamrakar, Amit Kumar Singh, Monika Jain, Ankit Jaiswal, Prashant Kodgire
Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), primarily expressed in activated mature B lymphocytes in germinal centers, is the key factor in adaptive immune response against foreign antigens. AID is responsible for producing high-affinity and high-specificity antibodies against an infectious agent, through the physiological DNA alteration processes of antibody genes by somatic hypermutation (SHM) and class-switch recombination (CSR) and functions by deaminating deoxycytidines (dC) to deoxyuridines (dU), thereby introducing point mutations and double-stranded chromosomal breaks (DSBs)...
September 21, 2017: International Reviews of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928742/a-streamlined-approach-to-antibody-novel-germline-allele-prediction-and-validation
#2
Ben S Wendel, Chenfeng He, Peter D Crompton, Susan K Pierce, Ning Jiang
Advancements in high-throughput sequencing and molecular identifier-based error correction have opened the door to antibody repertoire sequencing with single mutation precision, increasing both the breadth and depth of immune response characterization. However, improvements in sequencing technology cannot resolve one key aspect of antibody repertoire sequencing accuracy: the possibility of undocumented novel germline alleles. Somatic hypermutation (SHM) calling requires a reference germline sequence, and the antibody variable region gene alleles collected by the IMGT database, although large in number, are not comprehensive...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927259/generation-diversity-determination-and-application-to-antibody-selection-of-a-human-na%C3%A3-ve-fab-library
#3
Sangkyu Kim, Insoo Park, Seung Gu Park, Seulki Cho, Jin Hong Kim, Nagesh S Ipper, Sun Shim Choi, Eung Suk Lee, Hyo Jeong Hong
We constructed a large naïve human Fab library (3 x 1010 colonies) from the lymphocytes of 809 human donors, assessed available diversities of the heavy-chain variable (VH) and κ light-chain variable (VK) domain repertoires, and validated the library by selecting Fabs against 10 therapeutically relevant antigens by phage display. We obtained a database of unique 7,373 VH and 41,804 VK sequences by 454 pyrosequencing, and analyzed the repertoires. The distribution of VH and VK subfamilies and germline genes in our antibody repertoires slightly differed from those in earlier published natural antibody libraries...
September 20, 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925943/deployment-of-a-smart-structural-health-monitoring-system-for-long-span-arch-bridges-a-review-and-a-case-study
#4
REVIEW
Zengshun Chen, Xiao Zhou, Xu Wang, Lili Dong, Yuanhao Qian
Structural health monitoring (SHM) technology for surveillance and evaluation of existing and newly built long-span bridges has been widely developed, and the significance of the technique has been recognized by many administrative authorities. The paper reviews the recent progress of the SHM technology that has been applied to long-span bridges. The deployment of a SHM system is introduced. Subsequently, the data analysis and condition assessment including techniques on modal identification, methods on signal processing, and damage identification were reviewed and summarized...
September 19, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910363/impaired-bone-formation-in-ovariectomized-mice-reduces-implant-integration-as-indicated-by-longitudinal-in-vivo-micro-computed-tomography
#5
Zihui Li, Gisela Kuhn, Michael Schirmer, Ralph Müller, Davide Ruffoni
Although osteoporotic bone, with low bone mass and deteriorated bone architecture, provides a less favorable mechanical environment than healthy bone for implant fixation, there is no general agreement on the impact of osteoporosis on peri-implant bone (re)modeling, which is ultimately responsible for the long term stability of the bone-implant system. Here, we inserted an implant in a mouse model mimicking estrogen deficiency-induced bone loss and we monitored with longitudinal in vivo micro-computed tomography the spatio-temporal changes in bone (re)modeling and architecture, considering the separate contributions of trabecular, endocortical and periosteal surfaces...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878078/potent-plasmablast-derived-antibodies-elicited-by-the-nih-dengue-vaccine
#6
Diogo M Magnani, Cassia G T Silveira, Michael J Ricciardi, Lucas Gonzalez-Nieto, Núria Pedreño-Lopez, Varian K Bailey, Martin J Gutman, Helen S Maxwell, Aline Domingues, Priscilla R Costa, Lilian Ferrari, Raphaella Goulart, Mauricio A Martins, José M Martinez-Navio, Sebastian P Fuchs, Jorge Kalil, Maria do Carmo Timenetsky, Jens Wrammert, Stephen S Whitehead, Dennis R Burton, Ronald C Desrosiers, Esper G Kallas, David I Waktins
Exposure to dengue virus (DENV) is thought to elicit lifelong immunity, mediated by DENV-neutralizing antibodies (nAbs). However, Abs generated by primary infections confer serotype-specific protection, and immunity against other serotypes only develops after subsequent infections. Accordingly, the induction of these nAb responses acquired after serial DENV infections has been a long sought-after goal for vaccination. Nonetheless, it is still unclear if tetravalent vaccines can elicit or recall nAbs. Here, we have characterized the responses from a volunteer who had been previously exposed to DENV and was immunized with the live attenuated tetravalent vaccine Butantan-DV, developed by the NIH and Butantan...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867784/the-complex-interplay-between-dna-injury-and-repair-in-enzymatically-induced-mutagenesis-and-dna-damage-in-b-lymphocytes
#7
REVIEW
Mahnoush Bahjat, Jeroen E J Guikema
Lymphocytes are endowed with unique and specialized enzymatic mutagenic properties that allow them to diversify their antigen receptors, which are crucial sensors for pathogens and mediators of adaptive immunity. During lymphocyte development, the antigen receptors expressed by B and T lymphocytes are assembled in an antigen-independent fashion by ordered variable gene segment recombinations (V(D)J recombination), which is a highly ordered and regulated process that requires the recombination activating gene products 1 & 2 (RAG1, RAG2)...
August 30, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855898/quantitative-analysis-of-repertoire-scale-immunoglobulin-properties-in-vaccine-induced-b-cell-responses
#8
Ilja V Khavrutskii, Sidhartha Chaudhury, Sabrina M Stronsky, Donald W Lee, Jacqueline G Benko, Anders Wallqvist, Sina Bavari, Christopher L Cooper
Recent advances in the next-generation sequencing of B-cell receptors (BCRs) enable the characterization of humoral responses at a repertoire-wide scale and provide the capability for identifying unique features of immune repertoires in response to disease, vaccination, or infection. Immunosequencing now readily generates 10(3)-10(5) sequences per sample; however, statistical analysis of these repertoires is challenging because of the high genetic diversity of BCRs and the elaborate clonal relationships among them...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841186/fatigue-performance-of-ti-6al-4v-additively-manufactured-specimens-with-integrated-capillaries-of-an-embedded-structural-health-monitoring-system
#9
Michaël Hinderdael, Maria Strantza, Dieter De Baere, Wim Devesse, Iris De Graeve, Herman Terryn, Patrick Guillaume
Additive manufacturing (AM) of metals offers new possibilities for the production of complex structures. Up to now, investigations on the mechanical response of AM metallic parts show a significant spread and unexpected failures cannot be excluded. In this work, we focus on the detection of fatigue cracks through the integration of a Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) system in Ti-6Al-4V specimens. The working principle of the presented system is based on the integration of small capillaries that are capable of detecting fatigue cracks...
August 25, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836329/the-effect-of-professional-tooth-cleaning-or-non-surgical-periodontal-therapy-on-oral-halitosis-in-patients-with-periodontal-diseases-a-systematic-review
#10
REVIEW
Hcd Deutscher, Shm Derman, A G Barbe, R Seemann, M J Noack
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this systematic review was to give the best available evidence on the impact of professional tooth cleaning (PTC) and scaling and root planing (SRP) on oral halitosis in patients with periodontal diseases. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Three databases were screened for relevant studies. Only randomized controlled trials (RCTs) or controlled clinical trials (CCT) were included. The primary outcome in all included studies was volatile sulphur compounds (VSC) measured by Halimeter or OralChroma and organoleptic scores as secondary outcome...
August 24, 2017: International Journal of Dental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835674/soy-improves-cardiometabolic-health-and-cecal-microbiota-in-female-low-fit-rats
#11
Tzu-Wen L Cross, Terese M Zidon, Rebecca J Welly, Young-Min Park, Steven L Britton, Lauren G Koch, George E Rottinghaus, Maria R Cattai de Godoy, Jaume Padilla, Kelly S Swanson, Victoria J Vieira-Potter
Phytoestrogen-rich soy is known to ameliorate menopause-associated obesity and metabolic dysfunction for reasons that are unclear. The gut microbiota have been linked with the development of obesity and metabolic dysfunction. We aimed to determine the impact of soy on cardiometabolic health, adipose tissue inflammation, and the cecal microbiota in ovariectomized (OVX) rats bred for low-running capacity (LCR), a model that has been previously shown to mimic human menopause compared to sham-operated (SHM) intact control LCR rats...
August 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804121/lamin-b1-regulates-somatic-mutations-and-progression-of-b-cell-malignancies
#12
T Klymenko, J Bloehdorn, J Bahlo, S Robrecht, G Akylzhanova, K Cox, S Estenfelder, J Wang, J Edelmann, J C Strefford, T K Wojdacz, K Fischer, M Hallek, S Stilgenbauer, M Cragg, J Gribben, A Braun
Somatic hypermutation (SHM) is a pivotal process in adaptive immunity that occurs in the germinal centre and allows B cells to change their primary DNA sequence and diversify their antigen receptors. Here, we report that genome binding of Lamin B1, a component of the nuclear envelope involved in epigenetic chromatin regulation, is reduced during B-cell activation and formation of lymphoid germinal centres. Chromatin immunoprecipitation-Seq analysis showed that kappa and heavy variable immunoglobulin domains were released from the Lamin B1 suppressive environment when SHM was induced in B cells...
August 14, 2017: Leukemia: Official Journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777947/aid-invited-to-the-g4-summit
#13
Joseph N Pucella, Jayanta Chaudhuri
In this issue of Molecular Cell, Qiao et al. (2017) use both biochemical and structural approaches to report AID-preferred nucleic acid substrates, illuminating AID targeting mechanisms during CSR and SHM.
August 3, 2017: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774064/a-bayesian-approach-for-sensor-optimisation-in-impact-identification
#14
Vincenzo Mallardo, Zahra Sharif Khodaei, Ferri M H Aliabadi
This paper presents a Bayesian approach for optimizing the position of sensors aimed at impact identification in composite structures under operational conditions. The uncertainty in the sensor data has been represented by statistical distributions of the recorded signals. An optimisation strategy based on the genetic algorithm is proposed to find the best sensor combination aimed at locating impacts on composite structures. A Bayesian-based objective function is adopted in the optimisation procedure as an indicator of the performance of meta-models developed for different sensor combinations to locate various impact events...
November 22, 2016: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28773910/a-multi-level-decision-fusion-strategy-for-condition-based-maintenance-of-composite-structures
#15
Zahra Sharif Khodaei, M H Aliabadi
In this work, a multi-level decision fusion strategy is proposed which weighs the Value of Information (VoI) against the intended functions of a Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) system. This paper presents a multi-level approach for three different maintenance strategies in which the performance of the SHM systems is evaluated against its intended functions. Level 1 diagnosis results in damage existence with minimum sensors covering a large area by finding the maximum energy difference for the guided waves propagating in pristine structure and the post-impact state; Level 2 diagnosis provides damage detection and approximate localization using an approach based on Electro-Mechanical Impedance (EMI) measures, while Level 3 characterizes damage (exact location and size) in addition to its detection by utilising a Weighted Energy Arrival Method (WEAM)...
September 21, 2016: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28773193/an-advanced-multi-sensor-acousto-ultrasonic-structural-health-monitoring-system-development-and-aerospace-demonstration
#16
Joel Smithard, Nik Rajic, Stephen van der Velden, Patrick Norman, Cedric Rosalie, Steve Galea, Hanfei Mei, Bin Lin, Victor Giurgiutiu
A key longstanding objective of the Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) research community is to enable the embedment of SHM systems in high value assets like aircraft to provide on-demand damage detection and evaluation. As against traditional non-destructive inspection hardware, embedded SHM systems must be compact, lightweight, low-power and sufficiently robust to survive exposure to severe in-flight operating conditions. Typical Commercial-Off-The-Shelf (COTS) systems can be bulky, costly and are often inflexible in their configuration and/or scalability, which militates against in-service deployment...
July 20, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772912/the-feasibility-of-structural-health-monitoring-using-the-fundamental-shear-horizontal-guided-wave-in-a-thin-aluminum-plate
#17
Jorge Franklin Mansur Rodrigues Filho, Nicolas Tremblay, Gláucio Soares da Fonseca, Pierre Belanger
Structural health monitoring (SHM) is emerging as an essential tool for constant monitoring of safety-critical engineering components. Ultrasonic guided waves stand out because of their ability to propagate over long distances and because they can offer good estimates of location, severity, and type of damage. The unique properties of the fundamental shear horizontal guided wave (SH₀) mode have recently generated great interest among the SHM community. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the feasibility of omnidirectional SH₀ SHM in a thin aluminum plate using a three-transducer sparse array...
May 19, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772879/on-line-multi-damage-scanning-spatial-wavenumber-filter-based-imaging-method-for-aircraft-composite-structure
#18
Yuanqiang Ren, Lei Qiu, Shenfang Yuan, Qiao Bao
Structural health monitoring (SHM) of aircraft composite structure is helpful to increase reliability and reduce maintenance costs. Due to the great effectiveness in distinguishing particular guided wave modes and identifying the propagation direction, the spatial-wavenumber filter technique has emerged as an interesting SHM topic. In this paper, a new scanning spatial-wavenumber filter (SSWF) based imaging method for multiple damages is proposed to conduct on-line monitoring of aircraft composite structures...
May 11, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772431/inspection-of-piezoceramic-transducers-used-for-structural-health-monitoring
#19
Inka Mueller, Claus-Peter Fritzen
The use of piezoelectric wafer active sensors (PWAS) for structural health monitoring (SHM) purposes is state of the art for acousto-ultrasonic-based methods. For system reliability, detailed information about the PWAS itself is necessary. This paper gives an overview on frequent PWAS faults and presents the effects of these faults on the wave propagation, used for active acousto-ultrasonics-based SHM. The analysis of the wave field is based on velocity measurements using a laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV). New and established methods of PWAS inspection are explained in detail, listing advantages and disadvantages...
January 16, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772393/monitoring-the-damage-state-of-fiber-reinforced-composites-using-an-fbg-network-for-failure-prediction
#20
Esat Selim Kocaman, Erdem Akay, Cagatay Yilmaz, Halit Suleyman Turkmen, Ibrahim Burc Misirlioglu, Afzal Suleman, Mehmet Yildiz
A structural health monitoring (SHM) study of biaxial glass fibre-reinforced epoxy matrix composites under a constant, high strain uniaxial fatigue loading is performed using fibre Bragg grating (FBG) optical sensors embedded in composites at various locations to monitor the evolution of local strains, thereby understanding the damage mechanisms. Concurrently, the temperature changes of the samples during the fatigue test have also been monitored at the same locations. Close to fracture, significant variations in local temperatures and strains are observed, and it is shown that the variations in temperature and strain can be used to predict imminent fracture...
January 3, 2017: Materials
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