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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156620/stretchable-highly-durable-ternary-nanocomposite-strain-sensor-for-structural-health-monitoring-of-flexible-aircraft
#1
Feng Yin, Dong Ye, Chen Zhu, Lei Qiu, YongAn Huang
Harmonious developments of electrical and mechanical performances are crucial for stretchable sensors in structural health monitoring (SHM) of flexible aircraft such as aerostats and morphing aircrafts. In this study, we prepared a highly durable ternary conductive nanocomposite made of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), carbon black (CB) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) to fabricate stretchable strain sensors. The nanocomposite has excellent electrical and mechanical properties by intensively optimizing the weight percentage of conducting fillers as well as the ratio of PDMS pre-polymer and curing agent...
November 20, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154046/simulation-of-guided-wave-ultrasound-propagation-in-composite-laminates-benchmark-comparisons-of-numerical-codes-and-experiment
#2
Cara A C Leckey, Kevin R Wheeler, Vasyl N Hafiychuk, Halyna Hafiychuk, Doğan A Timuçin
Ultrasonic wave methods constitute the leading physical mechanism for nondestructive evaluation (NDE) and structural health monitoring (SHM) of solid composite materials, such as carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) laminates. Computational models of ultrasonic wave excitation, propagation, and scattering in CFRP composites can be extremely valuable in designing practicable NDE and SHM hardware, software, and methodologies that accomplish the desired accuracy, reliability, efficiency, and coverage. The development and application of ultrasonic simulation approaches for composite materials is an active area of research in the field of NDE...
November 4, 2017: Ultrasonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136157/depletion-of-recombination-specific-co-factors-by-the-c-terminal-mutant-of-the-activation-induced-cytidine-deaminase-causes-the-dominant-negative-effect-on-class-switch-recombination
#3
Azza Al Ismail, Afzal Husain, Maki Kobayashi, Tasuku Honjo, Nasim A Begum
Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is essential for class-switch recombination (CSR) and somatic hypermutation (SHM) of immunoglobulin (Ig) genes. Studies on in vitro mutagenized AID as well as its mutations in human patients with Hyper-IgM (HIGM)-syndrome type II revealed that C-terminal AID mutations were defective in CSR whereas their DNA cleavage and SHM activities remained intact. The C-terminal mutants of AID were speculated to exert the dominant negative effect on wild type WT AID whereas its mechanism remains unknown...
November 10, 2017: International Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122947/phosphorylation-promotes-activation-induced-cytidine-deaminase-activity-at-the-myc-oncogene
#4
Yunxiang Mu, Monika A Zelazowska, Kevin M McBride
Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is a mutator enzyme that targets immunoglobulin (Ig) genes to initiate antibody somatic hypermutation (SHM) and class switch recombination (CSR). Off-target AID association also occurs, which causes oncogenic mutations and chromosome rearrangements. However, AID occupancy does not directly correlate with DNA damage, suggesting that factors beyond AID association contribute to mutation targeting. CSR and SHM are regulated by phosphorylation on AID serine38 (pS38), but the role of pS38 in off-target activity has not been evaluated...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098565/immunodeficiency-in-bloom-s-syndrome
#5
Michiel H D Schoenaker, Stefanie S Henriet, Jip Zonderland, Marcel van Deuren, Qiang Pan-Hammarström, Sandra J Posthumus-van Sluijs, Ingrid Pico-Knijnenburg, Corry M R Weemaes, Hanna IJspeert
Bloom's syndrome (BS) is an autosomal recessive disease, caused by mutations in the BLM gene. This gene codes for BLM protein, which is a helicase involved in DNA repair. DNA repair is especially important for the development and maturation of the T and B cells. Since BLM is involved in DNA repair, we aimed to study if BLM deficiency affects T and B cell development and especially somatic hypermutation (SHM) and class switch recombination (CSR) processes. Clinical data of six BS patients was collected, and immunoglobulin serum levels were measured at different time points...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080214/transcription-factor-yy1-can-control-aid-mediated-mutagenesis-in-mice
#6
Kristina Zaprazna, Arindam Basu, Nikola Tom, Vibha Jha, Suchita Hodawadekar, Lenka Radova, Jitka Malcikova, Boris Tichy, Sarka Pospisilova, Michael L Atchison
Activation-induced cytidine deminase (AID) is crucial for controlling the immunoglobulin (Ig) diversification processes of somatic hypermutation (SHM) and class switch recombination (CSR). AID initiates these processes by deamination of cytosine, ultimately resulting in mutations or double strand DNA breaks needed for SHM and CSR. Levels of AID control mutation rates, and off-target non-Ig gene mutations can contribute to lymphomagenesis. Therefore, factors that control AID levels in the nucleus can regulate SHM and CSR, and may contribute to disease...
October 28, 2017: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066468/choosing-wisely-campaign-report-card-and-achievable-benchmarks-of-care-for-children-s-hospitals
#7
Mario Reyes, Evan Paulus, Carla Hronek, Veronica Etinger, Matt Hall, Joyee Vachani, Jennifer Lusk, Christopher Emerson, Patty Huddleson, Ricardo A Quinonez
OBJECTIVES: In 2013, the Society of Hospital Medicine (SHM) released 5 pediatric recommendations for the Choosing Wisely Campaign (CWC). Our goals were to develop a report card on the basis of those recommendations, calculate achievable benchmarks of care (ABCs), and analyze performance among hospitals participating in the Pediatric Health Information System. METHODS: Children hospitalized between January 2013 and September 2015 from 32 Pediatric Health Information System hospitals were studied...
October 24, 2017: Hospital Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047989/bi-directional-ultrasonic-wave-coupling-to-fbgs-in-continuously-bonded-optical-fiber-sensing
#8
Junghyun Wee, Drew Hackney, Philip Bradford, Kara Peters
Fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors are typically spot-bonded onto the surface of a structure to detect ultrasonic waves in laboratory demonstrations. However, to protect the rest of the optical fiber from any environmental damage during real applications, bonding the entire length of fiber, called continuous bonding, is commonly done. In this paper, we investigate the impact of continuously bonding FBGs on the measured Lamb wave signal. In theory, the ultrasonic wave signal can bi-directionally transfer between the optical fiber and the plate at any adhered location, which could potentially produce output signal distortion for the continuous bonding case...
September 1, 2017: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994753/genome-wide-analysis-of-hdac-inhibitor-mediated-modulation-of-micrornas-and-mrnas-in-b-cells-induced-to-undergo-class-switch-dna-recombination-and-plasma-cell-differentiation
#9
Helia N Sanchez, Tian Shen, Dawn Garcia, Zhao Lai, Paolo Casali, Hong Zan
Antibody responses are accomplished through several critical B cell-intrinsic processes, including somatic hypermutation (SHM), class-switch DNA recombination (CSR), and plasma cell differentiation. In recent years, epigenetic modifications or factors, such as histone deacetylation and microRNAs (miRNAs), have been shown to interact with B-cell genetic programs to shape antibody responses, while the dysfunction of epigenetic factors has been found to lead to autoantibody responses. Analyzing genome-wide miRNA and mRNA expression in B cells in response to epigenetic modulators is important for understanding the epigenetic regulation of B-cell function and antibody response...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983794/somatic-hypermutation-defects-in-common-variable-immune-deficiency
#10
REVIEW
María Belén Almejun, Mercedes Borge
Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is a heterogeneous disorder characterized by impaired antibody production and recurrent infections. In the last 20 years, several groups have reported that B cells from CVID patients have an impaired somatic hypermutation (SHM). The reported frequency of this defect among CVID patient cohorts is highly variable and so is the methodology used to evaluate this process. Interestingly, the low level of SHM on B cells from CVID patients has been correlated with the presence of infectious and non-infectious complications...
October 5, 2017: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972550/a-novel-differential-time-of-arrival-estimation-technique-for-impact-localization-on-carbon-fiber-laminate-sheets
#11
Eugenio Marino Merlo, Andrea Bulletti, Pietro Giannelli, Marco Calzolai, Lorenzo Capineri
Composite material structures are commonly used in many industrial sectors (aerospace, automotive, transportation), and can operate in harsh environments where impacts with other parts or debris may cause critical safety and functionality issues. This work presents a method for improving the accuracy of impact position determination using acoustic source triangulation schemes based on the data collected by piezoelectric sensors attached to the structure. A novel approach is used to estimate the Differential Time-of-Arrival (DToA) between the impact response signals collected by a triplet of sensors, overcoming the limitations of classical methods that rely on amplitude thresholds calibrated for a specific sensor type...
October 3, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971394/chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia-patient-clustering-based-on-somatic-hypermutation-shm-analysis
#12
Eleftheria Polychronidou, Aliki Xochelli, Panagiotis Moschonas, Stavros Papadopoulos, Anastasia Hatzidimitriou, Panayiotis Vlamos, Kostas Stamatopoulos, Dimitrios Tzovaras
Somatic Hypermutation (SHM) load in the immunoglobulin heavy variable (IGHV) gene of the clonotypic B cell receptor immunoglobulin (BcR IG) is one of the most important prognostic markers in CLL, segregating patients into two distinct categories, with contrariwise disease course. Over the last years, immunogenetic studies have identified that ∼30% of CLL patients carry (quasi)identical BcR IG and thus can be assigned to different subsets with distinct clinicobiological profiles. This characterization was achieved by applying rules mainly concerning the diversity of the VH complementarity determining region 3 (CDR3)...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28955333/accelerated-systemic-autoimmunity-in-the-absence-of-somatic-hypermutation-in-564igi-a-mouse-model-of-systemic-lupus-with-knocked-in-heavy-and-light-chain-genes
#13
Gabrielle McDonald, Carlos O Medina, Monika Pilichowska, John F Kearney, Reiko Shinkura, Erik Selsing, Henry H Wortis, Tasuku Honjo, Thereza Imanishi-Kari
564Igi mice have knocked-in immunoglobulin (Ig) heavy (H) and light (L) chain genes that encode an autoantibody recognizing RNA. Previously, we showed that these mice produce pathogenic IgG autoantibodies when activation-induced deaminase (AID) is expressed in pre-B and immature B cells but not when it is expressed only in mature B cells. AID has two functions; it is necessary for somatic hypermutation (SHM) and class switch recombination (CSR). To determine the role of each of these functions in the generation of pathogenic autoantibodies, we generated 564Igi mice that carry a mutant AID-encoding gene, Aicda (Aicda(G23S)), which is capable of promoting CSR but not SHM...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939756/efficient-induction-of-ig-gene-hypermutation-in-ex-vivo-activated-primary-b-cells
#14
Jun Liu, Ermeng Xiong, Hanying Zhu, Hiromi Mori, Shoya Yasuda, Kazuo Kinoshita, Takeshi Tsubata, Ji-Yang Wang
Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) initiates both somatic hypermutation (SHM) and class switch recombination (CSR) of Ig genes. How AID is targeted to the Ig V gene and switch region to trigger SHM and CSR remains elusive. Primary B cells stimulated with CD40L plus IL-4 or LPS plus IL-4 undergo efficient CSR, but it has been difficult to induce SHM in these cells. In the current study, we used B cells from B1-8(hi) mice carrying a prerecombined VH186.2DFL16.1JH2 Ab gene to investigate the induction of SHM under in vitro culture conditions...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933967/aid-biology-a-pathological-and-clinical-perspective
#15
Meenal Choudhary, Anubhav Tamrakar, Amit Kumar Singh, Monika Jain, Ankit Jaiswal, Prashant Kodgire
Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), primarily expressed in activated mature B lymphocytes in germinal centers, is the key factor in adaptive immune response against foreign antigens. AID is responsible for producing high-affinity and high-specificity antibodies against an infectious agent, through the physiological DNA alteration processes of antibody genes by somatic hypermutation (SHM) and class-switch recombination (CSR) and functions by deaminating deoxycytidines (dC) to deoxyuridines (dU), thereby introducing point mutations and double-stranded chromosomal breaks (DSBs)...
September 21, 2017: International Reviews of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928742/a-streamlined-approach-to-antibody-novel-germline-allele-prediction-and-validation
#16
Ben S Wendel, Chenfeng He, Peter D Crompton, Susan K Pierce, Ning Jiang
Advancements in high-throughput sequencing and molecular identifier-based error correction have opened the door to antibody repertoire sequencing with single mutation precision, increasing both the breadth and depth of immune response characterization. However, improvements in sequencing technology cannot resolve one key aspect of antibody repertoire sequencing accuracy: the possibility of undocumented novel germline alleles. Somatic hypermutation (SHM) calling requires a reference germline sequence, and the antibody variable region gene alleles collected by the IMGT database, although large in number, are not comprehensive...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927259/generation-diversity-determination-and-application-to-antibody-selection-of-a-human-na%C3%A3-ve-fab-library
#17
Sangkyu Kim, Insoo Park, Seung Gu Park, Seulki Cho, Jin Hong Kim, Nagesh S Ipper, Sun Shim Choi, Eung Suk Lee, Hyo Jeong Hong
We constructed a large naïve human Fab library (3 × 10(10) colonies) from the lymphocytes of 809 human donors, assessed available diversities of the heavy-chain variable (VH) and κ light-chain variable (VK) domain repertoires, and validated the library by selecting Fabs against 10 therapeutically relevant antigens by phage display. We obtained a database of unique 7,373 VH and 41,804 VK sequences by 454 pyrosequencing, and analyzed the repertoires. The distribution of VH and VK subfamilies and germline genes in our antibody repertoires slightly differed from those in earlier published natural antibody libraries...
September 30, 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925943/deployment-of-a-smart-structural-health-monitoring-system-for-long-span-arch-bridges-a-review-and-a-case-study
#18
REVIEW
Zengshun Chen, Xiao Zhou, Xu Wang, Lili Dong, Yuanhao Qian
Structural health monitoring (SHM) technology for surveillance and evaluation of existing and newly built long-span bridges has been widely developed, and the significance of the technique has been recognized by many administrative authorities. The paper reviews the recent progress of the SHM technology that has been applied to long-span bridges. The deployment of a SHM system is introduced. Subsequently, the data analysis and condition assessment including techniques on modal identification, methods on signal processing, and damage identification were reviewed and summarized...
September 19, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910363/impaired-bone-formation-in-ovariectomized-mice-reduces-implant-integration-as-indicated-by-longitudinal-in-vivo-micro-computed-tomography
#19
Zihui Li, Gisela Kuhn, Michael Schirmer, Ralph Müller, Davide Ruffoni
Although osteoporotic bone, with low bone mass and deteriorated bone architecture, provides a less favorable mechanical environment than healthy bone for implant fixation, there is no general agreement on the impact of osteoporosis on peri-implant bone (re)modeling, which is ultimately responsible for the long term stability of the bone-implant system. Here, we inserted an implant in a mouse model mimicking estrogen deficiency-induced bone loss and we monitored with longitudinal in vivo micro-computed tomography the spatio-temporal changes in bone (re)modeling and architecture, considering the separate contributions of trabecular, endocortical and periosteal surfaces...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878078/potent-plasmablast-derived-antibodies-elicited-by-the-national-institutes-of-health-dengue-vaccine
#20
MULTICENTER STUDY
Diogo M Magnani, Cassia G T Silveira, Michael J Ricciardi, Lucas Gonzalez-Nieto, Núria Pedreño-Lopez, Varian K Bailey, Martin J Gutman, Helen S Maxwell, Aline Domingues, Priscilla R Costa, Lilian Ferrari, Raphaella Goulart, Mauricio A Martins, José M Martinez-Navio, Sebastian P Fuchs, Jorge Kalil, Maria do Carmo Timenetsky, Jens Wrammert, Stephen S Whitehead, Dennis R Burton, Ronald C Desrosiers, Esper G Kallas, David I Watkins
Exposure to dengue virus (DENV) is thought to elicit lifelong immunity, mediated by DENV-neutralizing antibodies (nAbs). However, Abs generated by primary infections confer serotype-specific protection, and immunity against other serotypes develops only after subsequent infections. Accordingly, the induction of these nAb responses acquired after serial DENV infections has been a long-sought-after goal for vaccination. Nonetheless, it is still unclear if tetravalent vaccines can elicit or recall nAbs. In this study, we have characterized the responses from a volunteer who had been previously exposed to DENV and was immunized with the live attenuated tetravalent vaccine Butantan-DV, developed by the NIH and Butantan Institute...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Virology
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