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René Winkler, Christian Kosan
Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) are used as therapeutics for several B cell-derived malignancies. Furthermore, they have been shown to modulate the response of the immune system, like the B cell function. HDACi treatment affects differentiation, proliferation, and survival of B cells. Here we describe how to investigate the effects of HDACi treatment on naïve B cells regarding class-switch recombination (CSR) in vitro using flow cytometry.
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Arnaldina Sampaio, Elisa A Marques, Jorge Mota, Joana Carvalho
This study examined the effect of a Multicomponent Training (MT) intervention on cognitive function, functional fitness and anthropometric variables in institutionalized patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Thirty-seven institutionalized elders (84.05 ± 5.58 years) clinically diagnosed with AD (mild and moderate stages) were divided into two groups: Experimental Group (EG, n = 19) and Control Group (CG, n = 18). The EG participated in a six-month supervised MT program (aerobic, muscular resistance, flexibility and postural exercises) of 45-55 minutes/session, twice/week...
October 18, 2016: Dementia
Daisuke Murai, Satoshi Yamada, Taichi Hayashi, Kazunori Okada, Hisao Nishino, Masahiro Nakabachi, Shinobu Yokoyama, Ayumu Abe, Ayako Ichikawa, Kota Ono, Sanae Kaga, Hiroyuki Iwano, Taisei Mikami, Hiroyuki Tsutsui
Whether and how left ventricular (LV) strain and strain rate correlate with wall stress is not known. Furthermore, it is not determined whether strain or strain rate is less dependent on the afterload. In 41 healthy young adults, LV global peak strain and systolic peak strain rate in the longitudinal direction (LS and LSR, respectively) and circumferential direction (CS and CSR, respectively) were measured layer-specifically using speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) before and during a handgrip exercise...
October 12, 2016: Heart and Vessels
Andrew D Jones
BACKGROUND: On-farm crop species richness (CSR) may be important for maintaining the diversity and quality of diets of smallholder farming households. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to 1) determine the association of CSR with the diversity and quality of household diets in Malawi and 2) assess hypothesized mechanisms for this association via both subsistence- and market-oriented pathways. METHODS: Longitudinal data were assessed from nationally representative household surveys in Malawi between 2010 and 2013 (n = 3000 households)...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Nutrition
Hanen Ouadani, Imen Ben-Mustapha, Meriem Ben-Ali, Beya Larguèche, Tihana Jovanic, Sylvie Garcia, Benoit Arcangioli, Houda Elloumi-Zghal, Dahmani Fathallah, Mongia Hachicha, Hatem Masmoudi, François Rougeon, Mohamed-Ridha Barbouche
Activation induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is an essential enzyme for class switch recombination (CSR) and somatic hypermutation (SHM) during secondary immune response. Mutations in the AICDA gene are responsible for Hyper IgM 2 syndrome where both CSR and SHM or only CSR are affected. Indeed, triggering either of the two mechanisms requires the DNA deamination activity of AID. Besides, different domains of AID may be differentially involved in CSR and SHM through their interaction with specific cofactors...
October 4, 2016: Molecular Immunology
Shouliang Yin, Zilong Li, Xuefeng Wang, Huizhuan Wang, Xiaole Jia, Guomin Ai, Zishang Bai, Mingxin Shi, Fang Yuan, Tiejun Liu, Weishan Wang, Keqian Yang
Heterologous expression is an important strategy to activate biosynthetic gene clusters of secondary metabolites. Here, it is employed to activate and manipulate the oxytetracycline (OTC) gene cluster and to alter OTC fermentation process. To achieve these goals, a fast-growing heterologous host Streptomyces venezuelae WVR2006 was rationally selected among several potential hosts. It shows rapid and dispersed growth and intrinsic high resistance to OTC. By manipulating the expression of two cluster-situated regulators (CSR) OtcR and OtrR and precursor supply, the OTC production level was significantly increased in this heterologous host from 75 to 431 mg/l only in 48 h, a level comparable to the native producer Streptomyces rimosus M4018 in 8 days...
October 5, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Tineke Cantaert, Jean-Nicolas Schickel, Jason M Bannock, Yen-Shing Ng, Christopher Massad, Fabien R Delmotte, Natsuko Yamakawa, Salome Glauzy, Nicolas Chamberlain, Tuure Kinnunen, Laurence Menard, Aubert Lavoie, Jolan E Walter, Luigi D Notarangelo, Julie Bruneau, Waleed Al-Herz, Sara Sebnem Kilic, Hans D Ochs, Charlotte Cunningham-Rundles, Mirjam van der Burg, Taco W Kuijpers, Sven Kracker, Hideo Kaneko, Yujin Sekinaka, Shigeaki Nonoyama, Anne Durandy, Eric Meffre
Patients with mutations in AICDA, which encodes activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), display an impaired peripheral B cell tolerance. AID mediates class-switch recombination (CSR) and somatic hypermutation (SHM) in B cells, but the mechanism by which AID prevents the accumulation of autoreactive B cells in blood is unclear. Here, we analyzed B cell tolerance in AID-deficient patients, patients with autosomal dominant AID mutations (AD-AID), asymptomatic AICDA heterozygotes (AID+/-), and patients with uracil N-glycosylase (UNG) deficiency, which impairs CSR but not SHM...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Clinical Investigation
David Ellwood, Jeremy Oats
Caesarean section rates (CSR) have climbed over the last three decades but some authors have argued that there is no reason to count them, claiming that this practice may lead to inappropriate attempts to lower CSR. However, there are many adverse effects of CS and these are short, medium and long-term for both mother and baby. There is likely to be an optimal CSR which gives the best perinatal outcomes and unless each caesarean counts, and is counted, CSR will be higher than they need to be for best perinatal outcomes...
October 2016: Australian & New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology
Tadas Povilaitis, Gediminas Alzbutas, Rasa Sukackaite, Juozas Siurkus, Remigijus Skirgaila
Compartmentalized self replication (CSR) is widely used for in vitro evolution of thermostable DNA polymerases able to perform PCR in emulsion. We have modified and adapted CSR technique for isothermal DNA amplification using mezophilic phi29 DNA polymerase and whole genome amplification (WGA) reaction. In standard CSR emulsified bacterial cells are disrupted during denaturation step (94-96°C) in the first circles of PCR. Released plasmid DNA that encodes target polymerase and the thermophilic enzyme complement the emulsified PCR reaction mixture and start polymerase gene amplification...
September 26, 2016: Protein Engineering, Design & Selection: PEDS
David French, Mehdi Noroozi, Batoul Shariati, Hannu Larjava
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this retrospective study was to investigate whether self-reported allergy to penicillin may contribute to a higher rate of postsurgical infection and implant failure. METHOD AND MATERIALS: This retrospective, non-interventional, open cohort study reports on implant survival and infection complications of 5,576 implants placed in private practice by one periodontist, and includes 4,132 implants that were followed for at least 1 year. Logistic regression was applied to examine the relationship between self-reported allergy to penicillin and implant survival, while controlling for potential confounders such as smoking, implant site, bone augmentation, loading protocol, immediate implantation, and bone level at baseline...
September 26, 2016: Quintessence International
Daniela Pantani, Raquel Peltzer, Mariana Cremonte, Katherine Robaina, Thomas Babor, Ilana Pinsky
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: To 1) identify, monitor and analyze the Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) practices of the alcohol industry in Latin American and the Caribbean (LAC) and 2) examine whether the alcohol industry is using these actions to market their products and brands. METHODS: Nine health experts from Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay conducted a content analysis of 218 CSR activities using a standardized protocol. A content rating procedure was used to evaluate the marketing potential of CSR activities as well as their likely population reach and effectiveness...
September 23, 2016: Addiction
Liséte Celina Lange, Alison Frederico Medeiros Ferreira
This study assessed the effects of adding plastics and waste vegetable oil on the quality of coke in the coking process, on a pilot scale. A typical composition of the main plastics found in municipal solid waste was prepared using 33% HDPE, 5% LDPE, 10% PP, 21% PET, 24.8% PS, 5.2% PVC, 1% cellulose and also a 0.5% waste vegetable oil was added. The wastes were added to the coal blends in the proportions of 1%, 2% and 3% for plastics and 0.5% for vegetable oil. Two types of experiments were performed. The first was carried out in a hearth heating furnace (HHF) at temperatures of up to 900°C for a 7 h period...
September 19, 2016: Waste Management
Sung-Bum Kim, Dae-Young Kim
This research explored a conceptual framework incorporating interrelationships among corporate social responsibility (CSR), corporate ability (CA), corporate reputation (CR), and CSR-related transparency on customer loyalty within the hotel context. In this study, we also analyzed consumers' propensity to support CSR initiatives through the socio-demographic indicator of gender. We used independent sample t test and multiple regression analysis to test hypotheses based on 487 responses from American participants...
2016: SpringerPlus
Rayshang G Yadav, Nandita Maitra
BACKGROUND: To examine Cesarean delivery rates based on the Robson's Ten-group classification system (TGCS), over a 10-year period. METHODS: All Vaginal Deliveries and cesarean sections (CSs) performed over a 10-year period from 2004 to 2013 were included in the analysis. The data were compiled according to Robson's TGCS of cesarean section for every year. Risk Ratios (crude RRs) with 95 % confidence intervals for delivery by cesarean section were calculated for each Robson's group...
October 2016: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of India
Kelley Lee, Natalia Carrillo Botero, Thomas Novotny
BACKGROUND: Deforestation due to tobacco farming began to raise concerns in the mid 1970s. Over the next 40 years, tobacco growing increased significantly and shifted markedly to low- and middle-income countries. The percentage of deforestation caused by tobacco farming reached 4 % globally by the early 2000s, although substantially higher in countries such as China (18 %), Zimbabwe (20 %), Malawi (26 %) and Bangladesh (>30 %). Transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) have argued that tobacco-attributable deforestation is not a serious problem, and that the industry has addressed the issue through corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives...
2016: Globalization and Health
Jackson K B Cahn, Caroline A Werlang, Armin Baumschlager, Sabine Brinkmann-Chen, Stephen L Mayo, Frances H Arnold
The ability to control enzymatic nicotinamide cofactor utilization is critical for engineering efficient metabolic pathways. However, the complex interactions that determine cofactor-binding preference render this engineering particularly challenging. Physics-based models have been insufficiently accurate and blind directed evolution methods too inefficient to be widely adopted. Building on a comprehensive survey of previous studies and our own prior engineering successes, we present a structure-guided, semirational strategy for reversing enzymatic nicotinamide cofactor specificity...
October 5, 2016: ACS Synthetic Biology
Mark Petticrew, Niamh Fitzgerald, Mary Alison Durand, Cécile Knai, Martin Davoren, Ivan Perry
BACKGROUND: It has been argued that the alcohol industry uses corporate social responsibility activities to influence policy and undermine public health, and that every opportunity should be taken to scrutinise such activities. This study analyses a controversial Diageo-funded 'responsible drinking' campaign ("Stop out of Control Drinking", or SOOCD) in Ireland. The study aims to identify how the campaign and its advisory board members frame and define (i) alcohol-related harms, and their causes, and (ii) possible solutions...
2016: PloS One
Silvio Mario Meloni, Marco Tallarico, Milena Pisano, Erta Xhanari, Luigi Canullo
BACKGROUND: High primary implant stability is considered one of the main factors necessary for achieving predictable treatment outcomes with immediately loaded implant-supported screw-retained fixed complete denture prosthesis (FCDP). PURPOSE: To evaluate the 5-year clinical and radiographic outcomes of immediately loaded implants placed in edentulous patients using computer-assisted template-guided surgery to support a FCDP. MATERIALS & METHODS: Patients in need to be restored with a FCDP in the mandible or maxilla were included in this prospective study/ and treated using computer-assisted template-guided surgery...
September 15, 2016: Clinical Implant Dentistry and related Research
Michele Cassetta, Alfonso Di Mambro, Matteo Giansanti, Giulia Brandetti
PURPOSE: The aim of this prospective clinical study was to evaluate the survival up to 5 years of Morse cone-connection implants with platform switch considering the influence of biologically relevant, anatomical, and stress-related variables. STROBE guidelines were followed. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seven hundred forty-eight implants were inserted in 350 patients. Follow-up visits were scheduled at the time of stagetwo surgery (2 months later) and at 6, 12, 24, 36, and 60 months...
September 2016: International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants
Henrik Lindholm, Niklas Egels-Zandén, Christina Rudén
BACKGROUND: In managing chemical risks to the environment and human health in supply chains, voluntary corporate social responsibility (CSR) measures, such as auditing code of conduct compliance, play an important role. OBJECTIVES: To examine how well suppliers' chemical health and safety performance complies with buyers' CSR policies and whether audited factories improve their performance. METHODS: CSR audits (n = 288) of garment factories conducted by Fair Wear Foundation (FWF), an independent non-profit organization, were analyzed using descriptive statistics and statistical modeling...
September 9, 2016: International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health
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