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Wei Lu, Jin Xu, Hui-Ming Wang, Fu-Ming He
PURPOSE: To verify whether lateral sinus floor elevation (LSFE) with the vertical height of the osteotomy decreased to 3 to 5 mm can achieve improvement compared with a conventional lateral window in terms of implant survival, graft stability, and related complications. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Of the 49 patients who were selected for inclusion in this retrospective study, 25 patients were in the test group and 24 were in the control group based on the vertical height of the lateral window...
May 2018: International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants
Brent J Sinicrope, Craig S Roberts, Lyle Sussman
Health care is a business. Health care providers must become familiar with terms such as opportunity costs, the potential loss or gain when one choice is made in lieu of another. The purpose of this study was to calculate the opportunity cost of two orthopaedic surgery society board meetings and discuss these in the context of behavioral economics and regret. A literature search was conducted to determine an orthopaedic surgeon's average yearly salary, hours worked per week, and weeks worked per year. The details of two orthopaedic surgery professional society meetings that one senior author (CSR) attended were used to calculate opportunity cost...
2018: Journal of Surgical Orthopaedic Advances
Laura Nicolas, Montserrat Cols, Jee Eun Choi, Jayanta Chaudhuri, Bao Vuong
Adaptive immune responses require the generation of a diverse repertoire of immunoglobulins (Igs) that can recognize and neutralize a seemingly infinite number of antigens. V(D)J recombination creates the primary Ig repertoire, which subsequently is modified by somatic hypermutation (SHM) and class switch recombination (CSR). SHM promotes Ig affinity maturation whereas CSR alters the effector function of the Ig. Both SHM and CSR require activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) to produce dU:dG mismatches in the Ig locus that are transformed into untemplated mutations in variable coding segments during SHM or DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in switch regions during CSR...
2018: F1000Research
Gennaro Civero, Vincenzo Rusciano, Debora Scarpato
BACKGROUND: Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is the most important tool for implementing Sustainability Guidelines for Business (US20030018487A1), delivering economic, social and environmental benefits for all the stakeholders and is currently the focus of international studies and debates (US7260559B1), especially in the agri-food sector as demonstrated by recent patents (CA2862273A1). In most agri-food businesses operating in Italy, there is little effectiveness in the communication strategies of this instrument to the stakeholders since they are often not advanced...
May 7, 2018: Recent Patents on Food, Nutrition & Agriculture
Claudia Ribeiro de Almeida, Somdutta Dhir, Ashish Dhir, Amin E Moghaddam, Quentin Sattentau, Anton Meinhart, Nicholas J Proudfoot
Class switch recombination (CSR) at the immunoglobulin heavy-chain (IgH) locus is associated with the formation of R-loop structures over switch (S) regions. While these often occur co-transcriptionally between nascent RNA and template DNA, we now show that they also form as part of a post-transcriptional mechanism targeting AID to IgH S-regions. This depends on the RNA helicase DDX1 that is also required for CSR in vivo. DDX1 binds to G-quadruplex (G4) structures present in intronic switch transcripts and converts them into S-region R-loops...
April 30, 2018: Molecular Cell
Chaojun Zheng, Yu Zhu, Cong Nie, Feizhou Lu, Dongqing Zhu, Robert Weber, Jianyuan Jiang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the changes in motor axonal excitability properties in cervical spondylotic amyotrophy (CSA). METHODS: Threshold tracking was used to measure the median motor axons in 21 patients with CSA, 10 patients with cervical spondylotic radiculopathy (CSR) and 16 normal controls. RESULTS: Compared with normal controls, patients with distal-type CSA showed increased threshold electrotonus hyperpolarization (TEh [90-100]) and increased superexcitability on the symptomatic side (P < 0...
April 20, 2018: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Anjani Kumar, Anshu Priya, Tanzeel Ahmed, Christine Grundström, Neema Negi, Thomas Grundström
B lymphocytes optimize Ab responses by somatic hypermutation (SH), which introduces point mutations in the variable regions of the Ab genes and by class-switch recombination (CSR), which changes the expressed C region exon of the IgH. These Ab diversification processes are initiated by the deaminating enzyme activation-induced cytidine deaminase followed by many DNA repair enzymes, ultimately leading to deletions and a high mutation rate in the Ab genes, whereas DNA lesions made by activation-induced cytidine deaminase are repaired with low error rate on most other genes...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Fengqi Hao, Miaomiao Tian, Yunpeng Feng, Chao Quan, Yixi Chen, Shuai Chen, Min Wei
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease posing threats to multiple organs in the human body. As a typical manifestation of SLE, lupus nephritis is characterized by a series of pathological changes in glomerulus as well as accumulation of pathogenic autoreactive IgG with complement in the kidney that dramatically disrupts renal functions. Activation-induced deaminase (AID), which governs both somatic hypermutation (SHM) and class-switch recombination (CSR), has been shown to be essential for the regulation of SLE...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Barbara Zupančič
Modern surgical training, better understanding of the biomechanics of traumatic brain injury, and precise quantification of the difference between mechanical response of healthy and disease-modified brain tissue, require reliable experimental data and efficient mathematical/computational models. In this paper, a new methodology is proposed for prediction of the nonlinear viscoelastic behaviour of porcine brain. Time-strain superposition is applied to the brain stress relaxation data for construction of the overall master curve...
April 21, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Bhakti Patel, Rajanya Banerjee, Mrinal Samanta, Surajit Das
The disparate diversity in immunoglobulin (Ig) repertoire has been a subject of fascination since the emergence of prototypic adaptive immune system in vertebrates. The carboxy terminus region of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) has been well established in tetrapod lineage and is crucial for its function in class switch recombination (CSR) event of Ig diversification. The absence of CSR in the paraphyletic group of fish is probably due to changes in catalytic domain of AID and lack of cis-elements in IgH locus...
April 27, 2018: Molecular Biotechnology
Jingyun Chen, Yi Li, Elizabeth Pirraglia, Nobuyuki Okamura, Henry Rusinek, Mony J de Leon
PURPOSE: Off-target binding in the reference region is a challenge for recent tau tracers 18 F-AV-1451 and 18 F-THK5351. The conventional standardized uptake value ratio (SUVR) method relies on the average uptake from an unaffected tissue sample, and therefore is susceptible to biases from off-target binding as well as variability among individuals in the reference region. We propose a new method, standardized uptake value peak-alignment (SUVP), to reduce the bias of the SUVR, and improve the quantitative assessment of tau deposition...
April 27, 2018: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Melissa Mialon, Jim McCambridge
Background: There is growing awareness of the detrimental effects of alcohol industry commercial activities, and concern about possible adverse impacts of its corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives, on public health. The aims of this systematic review were to summarize and examine what is known about CSR initiatives undertaken by alcohol industry actors in respect of harmful drinking globally. Methods: We searched for peer-reviewed studies published since 1980 of alcohol industry CSR initiatives in seven electronic databases...
April 25, 2018: European Journal of Public Health
Martin J Barwood, Jo Corbett, Heather Massey, Terry McMorris, Mike Tipton, Christopher R D Wagstaff
Introduction: Drowning is a leading cause of accidental death. In cold-water, sudden skin cooling triggers the life-threatening cold shock response (CSR). The CSR comprises tachycardia, peripheral vasoconstriction, hypertension, inspiratory gasp, and hyperventilation with the hyperventilatory component inducing hypocapnia and increasing risk of aspirating water to the lungs. Some CSR components can be reduced by habituation (i.e., reduced response to stimulus of same magnitude) induced by 3-5 short cold-water immersions (CWI)...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Chang-Feng Lu, Lei Yu, Yun Jing, Yun-Feng Zhang, Ji Ke
Background: The co-existence of myasthenia gravis (MG) and thymoma makes the surgical treatment more complicated and adjuvant radiation more controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate adjuvant radiotherapy for thymoma with MG after extended thymectomy. Methods: A total of 181 patients with both MG and thymoma were recruited between 2003 and 2014 at Tongren Hospital, China. Among all the patients, 157 patients received radiation therapy after surgery (Group A); whereas the other 24 patients did not receive radiation therapy (Group B)...
April 20, 2018: Chinese Medical Journal
Rajat Gupta, Kumar Somyajit, Takeo Narita, Elina Maskey, Andre Stanlie, Magdalena Kremer, Dimitris Typas, Michael Lammers, Niels Mailand, Andre Nussenzweig, Jiri Lukas, Chunaram Choudhary
Repair of damaged DNA is essential for maintaining genome integrity and for preventing genome-instability-associated diseases, such as cancer. By combining proximity labeling with quantitative mass spectrometry, we generated high-resolution interaction neighborhood maps of the endogenously expressed DNA repair factors 53BP1, BRCA1, and MDC1. Our spatially resolved interaction maps reveal rich network intricacies, identify shared and bait-specific interaction modules, and implicate previously concealed regulators in this process...
May 3, 2018: Cell
Zhangli Sun, Xiufang Zhu, Yaozhong Pan, Jinshui Zhang, Xianfeng Liu
Droughts are some of the worst natural disasters that bring significant water shortages, economic losses, and adverse social consequences. Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite data are widely used to characterize and evaluate droughts. In this work, we evaluate drought situations in the Yangtze River Basin (YRB) using the GRACE Texas Center for Space Research (CSR) mascon (mass concentration) data from 2003 to 2015. Drought events are identified by water storage deficits (WSDs) derived from GRACE data, while the drought severity evaluation is based on the water storage deficit index (WSDI), standardized WSD time series, and total water storage deficit (TWSD)...
April 9, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
John N Milligan, Raghav Shroff, Daniel J Garry, Andrew D Ellington
Strand-displacing polymerases are a crucial component of isothermal amplification (IA) reactions where the lack of thermal cycling reduces equipment needs and improves time-to-answer, especially for point of care applications. In order to improve the function of strand displacing polymerases, we have developed an emulsion-based directed evolution scheme, high temperature isothermal compartmentalized self-replication (HTI-CSR) that does not rely on thermal cycling. Starting from an algorithm-optimized shuffled library of exonuclease-deficient Family A polymerases from Geobacillus stearothermophilus (Bst LF) and Thermus aquaticus (Klentaq), we have applied HTI-CSR to generate a more thermostable strand displacing polymerase variant that performs well in Loop-mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP) and Rolling Circle Amplification (RCA), even after thermal challenges of up to 95°C that lead to better primer annealing...
April 9, 2018: Biochemistry
Dong-Tao Yin, Ling Huang, Bing Han, Xiu Chen, Shi-Min Yin, Wen Zhou, Jian Chu, Tao Liang, Tian-Yang Yun, Yang Liu
Background: Robotic thymectomy has been suggested a feasible and safe approach for myasthenia gravis (MG). Few investigations have revealed the independent effect of robotic thymectomy without the confounding impact of immunosuppressive (IM) therapy. Methods: Between May 2009 and December 2012, robotic extended thymectomy was carried out for patients with diagnosis of MG. The clinical data, subsequent neurological therapy and postintervention status were collected...
January 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Anastasia H Potts, Yuanyuan Leng, Paul Babitzke, Tony Romeo
The Csr global regulatory system coordinates gene expression in response to metabolic status. This system utilizes the RNA binding protein CsrA to regulate gene expression by binding to transcripts of structural and regulatory genes, thus affecting their structure, stability, translation, and/or transcription elongation. CsrA activity is controlled by sRNAs, CsrB and CsrC, which sequester CsrA away from other transcripts. CsrB/C levels are partly determined by their rates of turnover, which requires CsrD to render them susceptible to RNase E cleavage...
March 29, 2018: Scientific Reports
Stephen P Methot, Ludivine C Litzler, Poorani Ganesh Subramani, Anil K Eranki, Heather Fifield, Anne-Marie Patenaude, Julian C Gilmore, Gabriel E Santiago, Halil Bagci, Jean-François Côté, Mani Larijani, Ramiro E Verdun, Javier M Di Noia
Activation-induced deaminase (AID) mutates the immunoglobulin (Ig) genes to initiate somatic hypermutation (SHM) and class switch recombination (CSR) in B cells, thus underpinning antibody responses. AID mutates a few hundred other loci, but most AID-occupied genes are spared. The mechanisms underlying productive deamination versus non-productive AID targeting are unclear. Here we show that three clustered arginine residues define a functional AID domain required for SHM, CSR, and off-target activity in B cells without affecting AID deaminase activity or Escherichia coli mutagenesis...
March 28, 2018: Nature Communications
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