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Carmen Dingemann, Janine Dietrich, Jan Zeidler, Jochen Blaser, Jan Hendrik Gosemann, Martin Lacher, Benno Ure
Introduction We aimed to analyze for the first time the characteristics, treatment modalities, and outcomes in infants with congenital abdominal wall defects (CAWDs) in Germany and to compare the results with current literature reports. Patients and Methods Data of a health insurance covering approximately 10% of the German population were analyzed. Patients who had undergone CAWD closure during a period of nearly 6 years were included. Surgical approach was categorized into primary versus secondary closure...
February 24, 2017: European Journal of Pediatric Surgery
Martin Schweiger, Brian Stiasny, F Immer, Christoph Bürki, M Schmiady, Hitendu Dave, Anna Cavigelli-Brunner, Oliver Kretschmar, Vincenzo Cannizzaro, Michael Hübler
Twenty-four percent of pediatric heart transplantations (pHTx) are carried out in infants. Neonatal heart transplantation is both rarely performed and challenging. We report on a newborn baby girl suffering from cardiac failure due to a huge tumor (24x52 mm) within the free wall of the left ventricle (LV) and subtotal obstruction of the main left bronchus. Following a surgical tumor resection, a Berlin Heart EXCOR left ventricular assist device was implanted as the bridge to the transplantation. In spite of an organ donor/recipient mismatch of >200%, both heart transplantation and the post-operative course were successful...
February 24, 2017: Clinical Transplantation
Eric Dumas de la Roque, Gwladys Smeralda, Jean-François Quignard, Véronique Freund-Michel, Arnaud Courtois, Roger Marthan, Bernard Muller, Christelle Guibert, Mathilde Dubois
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) consists of an arrest of pulmonary vascular and alveolar growth, with persistent hypoplasia of the pulmonary microvasculature and alveolar simplification. In 25 to 40% of the cases, BPD is complicated by pulmonary hypertension (BPD-PH) that significantly increases the risk of morbidity. In vivo studies suggest that increased pulmonary vascular tone could contribute to late PH in BPD. Nevertheless, an alteration in vasoreactivity as well as the mechanisms involved remain to be confirmed...
2017: PloS One
Maria A Greenwood, Elizabeth A D Hammock
Oxytocin (OXT) is a pleiotropic regulator of physiology and behavior. An emerging body of evidence demonstrates a role for OXT in the transition to postnatal life of the infant. To identify potential sites of OXT action via the OXT receptor (OXTR) in the newborn mouse, we performed receptor autoradiography on 20 μm sagittal sections of whole postnatal day 0 male and female mice on a C57BL/6J background using the 125iodinated ornithine vasotocin analog ([125I]-OVTA) radioligand. A competitive binding assay on both wild-type (WT) and OXTR knockout (OXTR KO) tissue was used to assess the selectivity of [125I]-OVTA for neonatal OXTR...
2017: PloS One
Paul S Stadem, Megan V Hilgers, Derrick Bengo, Sarah E Cusick, Susan Ndidde, Tina M Slusher, Troy C Lund
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is an X-linked disorder that affects as many as 400 million people worldwide, making it the most common enzymatic defect. Subjects with G6PD deficiency are more likely to develop neonatal hyperbilirubinemia potentially leading to kernicterus and are at increased risk for acute hemolytic anemia when exposed to pro-oxidant compounds such as anti-malarial drugs. We collected umbilical cord blood from 300 males born in Uganda to assess for novel markers of systemic oxidative stress...
2017: PloS One
Nosakhare Orobaton, Jumare Abdulazeez, Dele Abegunde, Kamil Shoretire, Abubakar Maishanu, Nnenna Ikoro, Bolaji Fapohunda, Wapada Balami, Katherine Beal, Akeem Ganiyu, Ringpon Gwamzhi, Anne Austin
BACKGROUND: Postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) is a leading cause of maternal death in Sokoto State, Nigeria, where 95% of women give birth outside of a health facility. Although pilot schemes have demonstrated the value of community-based distribution of misoprostol for the prevention of PPH, none have provided practical insight on taking such programs to scale. METHODS: A community-based system for the distribution of misoprostol tablets (in 600ug) and chlorhexidine digluconate gel 7...
2017: PloS One
Lily N Daniali, Kameron Rezzadeh, Cheryl Shell, Matthew Trovato, Richard Ha, H Steve Byrd
BACKGROUND: A single practice's treatment protocol and outcomes following molding therapy on newborn ear deformations and malformations with the EarWell Infant Ear Correction System were reviewed. A classification system for grading the severity of constricted ear malformations was created on the basis of anatomical findings. METHODS: A retrospective chart/photograph review of a consecutive series of infants treated with the EarWell System from 2011 to 2014 was undertaken...
March 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Sandra Hernández, Marc Catalán-Garcia, Constanza Morén, Laura García-Otero, Marta López, Mariona Guitart-Mampel, Jose Milisenda, Oriol Coll, Francesc Cardellach, Eduard Gratacós, Òscar Miró, Gloria Garrabou
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether mitochondrial, oxidative and apoptotic abnormalities in placenta derived from Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) containing zidovudine (AZT) could be associated with adverse perinatal outcome. DESIGN: Cross-sectional, controlled, observational study. METHODS: We studied obstetric results and mitochondrial, oxidative and apoptotic state in placenta of 24 treated HIV-infected and 32 uninfected pregnant women...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Yen Yen Yang, Hong-Gu He, Soke Yee Lee, Eleanor Holroyd, Shefaly Shorey, Serena S L Koh
Perceptions of parents with preterm infants who were hospitalized in a Singapore-based neonatal intensive care unit were observed. Convenience sampling method was used to recruit 8 parents of preterm infants. Semistructured face-to-face in-depth interviews were used to collect data between November 2013 and February 2014. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis. Four themes were identified: "Negative emotions versus positive emotions," "finding ways forward," "nature of support received from various sources," and "need more informational and professional support...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Perinatal & Neonatal Nursing
Pat Roman, Michael Lypka
Laurin-Sandrow syndrome (LSS) is a rare autosomal disorder characterized by polysyndactyly of the hands and feet in a mirror fashion, absence of the radius and tibia with duplicated ulna and fibula, and nasal anomalies. Nasal defects are varied, and range from hypoplastic nasal skeleton to redundant nasal tissue, along with abnormalities of nasal subunits. Only 14 patients of LSS have been described in the literature. The authors present a unique case of a newborn with LSS and anterior nasal stenosis, resulting in respiratory failure...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
B Bolis, A Prandi, A Rota, M Faustini, M C Veronesi
Along the perinatal period, in mammals, cortisol (C) plays a pivotal role in the final intrauterine fetal maturation and in the early neonatal adaptation. Because of the scarce knowledge about canine perinatology, the present study was aimed to assess the C concentrations in amniotic and allantoic fluids collected, without invasiveness, from small-sized, purebred newborn puppies born by elective cesarean section, at term of pregnancy. Possible correlations between fetal fluid C concentrations and maternal parity, litter size, birth weight, Apgar score, were evaluated...
January 15, 2017: Theriogenology
Don K Nakayama
The first patient to receive complete nourishment of a patient by intravenous infusion independent of the alimentary tract was an infant girl born with near-total small bowel atresia. Total parenteral nutrition, the intravenous infusion of nutrients, has been attempted since Harvey's description of the circulatory system in the early 17th century. The modern era of parenteral nutrition began in the early 20th century, when infusions of glucose, plasma, and emulsified fat into humans proved feasible. Robert Elman, working in the 1930s and 1940s, demonstrated that carefully prepared protein hydrolysates could be safely infused intravenously and incorporated by the body...
January 1, 2017: American Surgeon
Elizabeth Martin, Lisa Smeester, Paige A Bommarito, Matthew R Grace, Kim Boggess, Karl Kuban, Margaret R Karagas, Carmen J Marsit, T Michael O'Shea, Rebecca C Fry
AIM: Sex-based differences in response to adverse prenatal environments and infant outcomes have been observed, yet the underlying mechanisms for this are unclear. The placental epigenome may be a driver of these differences. METHODS: Placental DNA methylation was assessed at more than 480,000 CpG sites from male and female infants enrolled in the extremely low gestational age newborns cohort (ELGAN) and validated in a separate US-based cohort. The impact of gestational age on placental DNA methylation was further examined using the New Hampshire Birth Cohort Study for a total of n = 467 placentas...
March 2017: Epigenomics
(no author information available yet)
Air pollution with increased concentrations of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (c-PAHs, represented by benzo[a]pyrene, B[a]P) affect fetal development, reduce birth weights (LBW) of newborns, and increases intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR). The Southern Bohemia Region is believed to be one of the least air polluted regions in the Czech Republic. Monitoring air pollution in the city of České Budějovice from 2011-2015, PM2.5 (particulate matter <2.5 µm) decreased from 20.3 ± 14.5 µg/m3 to 14...
December 24, 2016: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
Stephan N F Spiekman, Ingmar Werneburg
Development in marsupials is specialized towards an extremely short gestation and highly altricial newborns. As a result, marsupial neonates display morphological adaptations at birth related to functional constraints. However, little is known about the variability of marsupial skull development and its relation to morphological diversity. We studied bony skull development in five marsupial species. The relative timing of the onset of ossification was compared to literature data and the ossification sequence of the marsupial ancestor was reconstructed using squared-change parsimony...
February 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
Barbara Bosch, Diana Bilton, Patrick Sosnay, Karen S Raraigh, Denise Y F Mak, Hiroshi Ishiguro, Vincent Gulmans, Muriel Thomas, Harry Cuppens, Margarida Amaral, Kris De Boeck
BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is by consensus based on the same parameters in all patients, yet the influence of ethnicity has only scarcely been studied. We aimed at elucidating the impact of Asian descent on the diagnosis of CF. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of the CFTR2 and UK CF databases for clinical phenotype, sweat chloride values and CFTR mutations and compared the diagnostic characteristics of Asian to non-Asian patients with CF...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Cystic Fibrosis: Official Journal of the European Cystic Fibrosis Society
Sunny Lihua Cheng, Theo K Bammler, Julia Yue Cui
The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR/Nr1i3) is an important xenobiotic-sensing nuclear receptor that is highly expressed in liver, and is well known to have species differences. During development, age-specific activation of CAR may lead to modified pharmacokinetics and toxicokinetics of drugs and environmental chemicals, leading to higher risks for adverse drug reactions in newborns and children. The goal of this study was to systematically investigate the age- and species-specific regulation of various drug-processing genes (Li et al...
February 23, 2017: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
Zhila Maghbooli, Arash Hossein-Nezhad, Majid Ramezani, Syamak Moattari
BACKGROUND: Prenatal exposure to air pollutants can increase the risk of adverse birth outcomes and susceptibility to a number of complex disorders later in life. Despite this general understanding, the molecular and cellular responses to air pollution exposure during early life are not completely clear. OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study are to test the association between air pollution and adverse pregnancy outcomes, and to determine whether the levels of maternal and cord blood and of placental DNA methylation during pregnancy predict adverse birth outcomes in polluted areas...
February 23, 2017: JMIR Research Protocols
NagaPraveena Uppari, Vincent Joseph, Aida Bairam
We recently showed that in 12-day-old male rats exposed to caffeine for 10 consecutive days, progesterone inhibits the respiratory response to hypoxia and increases apnea frequency (Uppari et al., 2016J Physiol, 594(2), 373-389). This was partly due to a higher inhibitory response of GABAa receptor to allopregnanolone, the neuroactive metabolite of progesterone. In the present study, we addressed whether similar effects occur in females. We used newborn female rats daily gavaged with water (control) or caffeine (15mg/kg) between the postnatal (P) days 3-12...
February 20, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Naomi A Mimila, Paul J Chung, Marc N Elliott, Christina D Bethell, Sandra Chacon, Christopher Biely, Sandra Contreras, Toni Chavis, Yovana Bruno, Tanesha Moss, Tumaini R Coker
BACKGROUND: Parent-focused Redesign for Encounters, Newborns-Toddlers (PARENT) is a well-child care (WCC) model that has demonstrated effectiveness in improving the receipt of comprehensive WCC services and reducing emergency department utilization for children ages 0-3 in low-income communities. PARENT relies on a health educator ("Parent Coach") to provide WCC services, and utilizes a web-based pre-visit prioritization/screening tool (Well-Visit Planner; WVP), and an automated text message reminder/education service...
February 13, 2017: Academic Pediatrics
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