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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323421/head-and-neck-cancer-tumor-seeding-at-the-percutaneous-endoscopic-gastrostomy-site
#1
REVIEW
June R Greaves
The National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute estimates that over 13,000 new cases of head and neck cancer (HNC) will be diagnosed in 2017. Patients with HNC often require enteral nutrition (EN) via gastrostomy tube to provide nutrition support and hydration because of tumor obstruction of the oropharynx and/or cumulative effects of chemoradiation therapy. The percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tube has become the preferred technique for EN access because placement is considered a minimally invasive procedure...
January 11, 2018: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320481/architecture-of-a-channel-forming-o-antigen-polysaccharide-abc-transporter
#2
Yunchen Bi, Evan Mann, Chris Whitfield, Jochen Zimmer
O-antigens are cell surface polysaccharides of many Gram-negative pathogens that aid in escaping innate immune responses. A widespread O-antigen biosynthesis mechanism involves the synthesis of the lipid-anchored polymer on the cytosolic face of the inner membrane, followed by transport to the periplasmic side where it is ligated to the lipid A core to complete a lipopolysaccharide molecule. In this pathway, transport to the periplasm is mediated by an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter, called Wzm-Wzt...
January 10, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318634/high-density-contact-and-non-invasive-mapping-of-focal-atrial-tachycardia-evidence-of-dual-endocardial-exits-from-an-epicardial-focus
#3
Seigo Yamashita, Darren A Hooks, Ghassen Cheniti, Pierre Jais
We report a case of recurrent focal atrial tachycardia (AT) which mechanisms could be resolved by using non-invasive electrocardiographic imaging (ECGI) reconstructing epicardial potentials and rapid high-density endocardial contact mapping (Rhythmia™). ECGI demonstrated focal activity from the anterior of the left superior pulmonary vein antrum, although Rhythmia™ showed focal activity from the high anterior left atrium with the 2nd focus originating from the site where identical to the focus on the ECGI map with slightly delay (by 8 ms)...
January 10, 2018: Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology: PACE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317498/identification-and-characterization-of-a-translation-arrest-motif-in-vemp-by-systematic-mutational-analysis
#4
Hiroyuki Mori, Sohei Sakashita, Jun Ito, Eiji Ishii, Yoshinori Akiyama
VemP (Vibrio protein export monitoring polypeptide) is a secretory protein comprising 159 amino acid residues, which functions as a secretion monitor in Vibrio and regulates expression of the downstream V.secDF2 genes. When VemP export is compromised, its translation specifically undergoes elongation arrest at the position where the Gln156 codon of vemP encounters the P-site in the translating ribosome, resulting in upregulation of V.SecDF2 production. Although our previous study suggests that many residues in a highly-conserved C-terminal 20-residue region of VemP contribute to its elongation arrest, the exact role of each residue remains unclear...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316347/effect-of-heated-air-blanket-on-the-dispersion-of-squames-in-an-operating-room
#5
X He, S Karra, P Pakseresht, S V Apte, S Elghobashi
High-fidelity, predictive fluid flow simulations of the interactions between the rising thermal plumes from forced air warming blower and the ultraclean ventilation air in an operating (OR) are conducted to explore whether this complex flow can impact the dispersion of squames to the surgical site. A large-eddy simulation (LES), accurately capturing the spatio-temporal evolution of the flow in three-dimensions together with the trajectories of squames, is performed for a realistic OR consisting of an operating table (OT), side tables, surgical lamps, medical staff, and a patient...
January 9, 2018: International Journal for Numerical Methods in Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311327/functional-characterization-of-the-mucus-barrier-on-the-xenopus-tropicalis-skin-surface
#6
Eamon Dubaissi, Karine Rousseau, Gareth W Hughes, Caroline Ridley, Richard K Grencis, Ian S Roberts, David J Thornton
Mucosal surfaces represent critical routes for entry and exit of pathogens. As such, animals have evolved strategies to combat infection at these sites, in particular the production of mucus to prevent attachment and to promote subsequent movement of the mucus/microbe away from the underlying epithelial surface. Using biochemical, biophysical, and infection studies, we have investigated the host protective properties of the skin mucus barrier of the Xenopus tropicalis tadpole. Specifically, we have characterized the major structural component of the barrier and shown that it is a mucin glycoprotein (Otogelin-like or Otogl) with similar sequence, domain organization, and structural properties to human gel-forming mucins...
January 8, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306686/application-of-fractal-theory-for-crash-rate-prediction-insights-from-random-parameters-and-latent-class-tobit-models
#7
Sai Chand, Vinayak V Dixit
The repercussions from congestion and accidents on major highways can have significant negative impacts on the economy and environment. It is a primary objective of transport authorities to minimize the likelihood of these phenomena taking place, to improve safety and overall network performance. In this study, we use the Hurst Exponent metric from Fractal Theory, as a congestion indicator for crash-rate modeling. We analyze one month of traffic speed data at several monitor sites along the M4 motorway in Sydney, Australia and assess congestion patterns with the Hurst Exponent of speed (Hspeed)...
January 4, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299514/percutaneous-gastrostomy-site-metastasis-from-head-and-neck-tumors-a-single-institution-case-series
#8
James S Metkus, David Cognetti, Joseph Curry
Objectives: Head and neck cancer (HNC) patients often require percutaneous gastrostomy (PEG) tube placement due to malnutrition and dysphagia. While beneficial, PEG tube placement can cause a rare but reportable complication of metastasis of the original tumor to the gastrostomy exit site. The objectives of this case series were to present HNC patients at a single institution that developed PEG tube metastases, their subsequent treatment, and review of the literature for similar cases...
December 2017: Laryngoscope Investigative Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291103/method-to-improve-the-survival-of-night-swarming-mayflies-near-bridges-in-areas-of-distracting-light-pollution
#9
Ádám Egri, Dénes Száz, Alexandra Farkas, Ádám Pereszlényi, Gábor Horváth, György Kriska
Numerous negative ecological effects of urban lighting have been identified during the last decades. In spite of the development of lighting technologies, the detrimental effect of this form of light pollution has not declined. Several insect species are affected including the night-swarming mayfly Ephoron virgo: when encountering bridges during their mass swarming, these mayflies often fall victim to artificial lighting. We show a simple method for the conservation of these mayflies exploiting their positive phototaxis...
November 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287667/a-cluster-randomized-trial-of-a-college-health-center-based-alcohol-and-sexual-violence-intervention-giftss-design-rationale-and-baseline-sample
#10
Kaleab Z Abebe, Kelley A Jones, Dana Rofey, Heather L McCauley, Duncan B Clark, Rebecca Dick, Theresa Gmelin, Janine Talis, Jocelyn Anderson, Carla Chugani, Gabriela Algarroba, Ashley Antonio, Courtney Bee, Clare Edwards, Nadia Lethihet, Justin Macak, Joshua Paley, Irving Torres, Courtney Van Dusen, Elizabeth Miller
INTRODUCTION: Sexual violence (SV) on college campuses is common, especially alcohol-related SV. This is a 2-arm cluster randomized controlled trial to test a brief intervention to reduce risk for alcohol-related sexual violence (SV) among students receiving care from college health centers (CHCs). Intervention CHC staff are trained to deliver universal SV education to all students seeking care, to facilitate patient and provider comfort in discussing SV and related abusive experiences (including the role of alcohol)...
December 26, 2017: Contemporary Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280039/left-ventricular-outflow-tract-arrhythmias-with-divergent-qrs-morphology-mapping-of-different-exits-and-ablation-strategy
#11
Christopher Reithmann, Michael Fiek
BACKGROUND: Ventricular arrhythmias (VAs) from the left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) can have multiple exits exhibiting divergent ECG features. METHODS: In a series of 131 patients with VAs with LVOT origin, 10 patients presented with divergent QRS morphologies. Multisite endo- and epicardial mapping of different exit sites was performed. RESULTS: The earliest ventricular activity of 23 LVOT VAs in 10 patients was detected in the endocardium of the LV in 7 patients, the aortic sinuses of Valsalva (SoV) in 3 patients, the distal coronary sinus in 6 patients, the anterior interventricular vein in 3 patients, and the posterior right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) in 4 patients...
December 27, 2017: Journal of Interventional Cardiac Electrophysiology: An International Journal of Arrhythmias and Pacing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279767/3-dimensional-reconstruction-of-mandibular-canal-at-the-interforaminal-region-using-micro-computed-tomography-in-korean
#12
Yong Hyun Jeon, Chul Kwon Lee, Hee-Jung Kim, Jae-Heon Chung, Heung-Joong Kim, Sun-Kyoung Yu
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to identify the complex course of the mandibular canal using 3D reconstruction of microCT images and to provide the diagram for clinicians to help them understand at the interforaminal region in Korean. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-six hemimandibles obtained from cadavers were examined using microCT, and the images were reconstructed. At both the midpoint of mental foramen and the tip of anterior loop, the bucco-lingual position, the height from the mandibular inferior border, the horizontal distance between two points, and position relative to tooth site on the mandibular canal were measured...
December 2017: Journal of Advanced Prosthodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279753/area-of-ostectomy-in-posterior-percutaneous-endoscopic-cervical-foraminotomy-images-and-mid-term-outcomes
#13
Shu Nakamura, Mitsuto Taguchi
Study Design: Retrospective. Purpose: To analyze whether the cross-sectional area of the intervertebral foramen at the outermost edge of the resection site is associated with postoperative outcomes and whether our fluoroscopic method for determining the resection area is appropriate. Overview of Literature: There is no consensus on the criteria for determining an optimal resection area to obtain sufficient decompression while maintaining intervertebral stability in posterior percutaneous endoscopic cervical foraminotomy...
December 2017: Asian Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232297/long-term-success-with-driveline-exit-site-relocation-for-deep-driveline-infection-in-left-ventricular-assist-device-patients
#14
Leora B Balsam, Adam Jacoby, Eddie Louie, Jamie P Levine
OBJECTIVE: Driveline infection is a common complication of durable left ventricular assist device support. The majority involve the driveline exit site and can be treated with antibiotics and local wound care. Less frequently, these infections extend into deeper tissues and surgical debridement is necessary. Few studies have described the surgical strategy for treatment of deep driveline infection or have reported long-term outcomes. With a growing population of patients being implanted as destination therapy, there is an obvious need to evaluate and optimize treatment for complex driveline infections...
November 2017: Innovations: Technology and Techniques in Cardiothoracic and Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229848/three-trnas-on-the-ribosome-slow-translation-elongation
#15
Junhong Choi, Joseph D Puglisi
During protein synthesis, the ribosome simultaneously binds up to three different transfer RNA (tRNA) molecules. Among the three tRNA binding sites, the regulatory role of the exit (E) site, where deacylated tRNA spontaneously dissociates from the translational complex, has remained elusive. Here we use two donor-quencher pairs to observe and correlate both the conformation of ribosomes and tRNAs as well as tRNA occupancy. Our results reveal a partially rotated state of the ribosome wherein all three tRNA sites are occupied during translation elongation...
December 11, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229833/kinetics-of-drug-ribosome-interactions-defines-the-cidality-of-macrolide-antibiotics
#16
Maxim S Svetlov, Nora Vázquez-Laslop, Alexander S Mankin
Antibiotics can cause dormancy (bacteriostasis) or induce death (cidality) of the targeted bacteria. The bactericidal capacity is one of the most important properties of antibacterial agents. However, the understanding of the fundamental differences in the mode of action of bacteriostatic or bactericidal antibiotics, especially those belonging to the same chemical class, is very rudimentary. Here, by examining the activity and binding properties of chemically distinct macrolide inhibitors of translation, we have identified a key difference in their interaction with the ribosome, which correlates with their ability to cause cell death...
December 11, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229386/the-interaction-of-soybean-reticulon-homology-domain-protein-gmrhp-with-soybean-mosaic-virus-encoded-p3-contributes-to-the-viral-infection
#17
Xiaoyan Cui, Lu Lu, Ying Wang, Xingxing Yuan, Xin Chen
Soybean mosaic virus (SMV), a member of the Potyvirus genus, is a prevalent and devastating viral pathogen in soybean-growing regions worldwide. Potyvirus replication occurs in the 6K2-induced viral replication complex at endoplasmic reticulum exit sites. Potyvirus-encoded P3 is also associated with the endoplasmic reticulum and is as an essential component of the viral replication complex, playing a key role in viral replication. This study provides evidence that the soybean (Glycine max) reticulon homology domain protein (designated as GmRHP) interacts with SMV P3 by using a two-hybrid yeast system to screen a soybean cDNA library...
December 8, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228292/recombination-directionality-factor-gp3-binds-%C3%AF-c31-integrase-via-the-zinc-domain-potentially-affecting-the-trajectory-of-the-coiled-coil-motif
#18
Paul C M Fogg, Ellen Younger, Booshini D Fernando, Thanafez Khaleel, W Marshall Stark, Margaret C M Smith
To establish a prophage state, the genomic DNA of temperate bacteriophages normally becomes integrated into the genome of their host bacterium by integrase-mediated, site-specific DNA recombination. Serine integrases catalyse a single crossover between an attachment site in the host (attB) and a phage attachment site (attP) on the circularized phage genome to generate the integrated prophage DNA flanked by recombinant attachment sites, attL and attR. Exiting the prophage state and entry into the lytic growth cycle requires an additional phage-encoded protein, the recombination directionality factor or RDF, to mediate recombination between attL and attR and excision of the phage genome...
December 8, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222130/stargazin-and-cornichon-3-relieve-polyamine-block-of-ampa-receptors-by-enhancing-blocker-permeation
#19
Patricia M G E Brown, Hugo McGuire, Derek Bowie
Most ligand- and voltage-gated ion channels assemble as signaling complexes consisting of pore-forming and auxiliary subunits. In the mammalian brain, AMPA-type ionotropic glutamate receptors (AMPARs) coassemble with several families of auxiliary subunits that regulate channel gating as well as ion channel block and permeation. Previous work has shown that auxiliary proteins stargazin (or γ2) and cornichon-3 (CNIH-3) attenuate the cytoplasmic polyamine channel block of AMPARs, although the underlying mechanism has yet to be established...
December 8, 2017: Journal of General Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217372/acute-peritoneal-dialysis-in-neonatal-intensive-care-unit-an-8-year-experience-of-a-referral-hospital
#20
Aslihan Kara, Metin Kaya Gurgoze, Mustafa Aydin, Erdal Taskin, Unal Bakal, Aysen Orman
BACKGROUND: The aim of present study was to evaluate the indications, complications and outcomes of acute peritoneal dialysis (APD) in neonates at a referral university hospital during the previous 8 years. METHODS: This retrospective analysis included a total of 52 newborn infants who underwent APD in a neonatal intensive care unit between January 2008 and March 2016. Demographic, clinical, laboratory and microbiological data were extracted from patients' medical files...
November 16, 2017: Pediatrics and Neonatology
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