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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636917/kinesin-processivity-is-determined-by-a-kinetic-race-from-a-vulnerable-one-head-bound-state
#1
Keith J Mickolajczyk, William O Hancock
Kinesin processivity, defined as the average number of steps that occur per interaction with a microtubule, is an important biophysical determinant of the motor's intracellular capabilities. Despite its fundamental importance to the diversity of tasks that kinesins carry out in cells, no existing quantitative model fully explains how structural differences between kinesins alter kinetic rates in the ATPase cycle to produce functional changes in processivity. Here we use high-resolution single-molecule microscopy to directly observe the stepping behavior of kinesin-1 and -2 family motors with different length neck-linker domains...
June 20, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634030/effects-of-membrane-curvature-and-ph-on-proton-pumping-activity-of-single-cytochrome-bo3-enzymes
#2
Mengqiu Li, Sanobar Khan, Honglin Rong, Roman Tuma, Nikos S Hatzakis, Lars J C Jeuken
The molecular mechanism of proton pumping by heme-copper oxidases (HCO) has intrigued the scientific community since it was first proposed. We have recently reported a novel technology that enables the continuous characterisation of proton transport activity of a HCO and ubiquinol oxidase from Escherichia coli, cytochrome bo3, for hundreds of seconds on the single enzyme level (Li et al. J Am Chem Soc 137 (2015) 16055-16063). Here, we have extended these studies by additional experiments and analyses of the proton transfer rate as a function of proteoliposome size and pH at the N- and P-side of single HCOs...
June 17, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630923/ribosome-rearrangements-at-the-onset-of-translational-bypassing
#3
Xabier Agirrezabala, Ekaterina Samatova, Mariia Klimova, Miguel Zamora, David Gil-Carton, Marina V Rodnina, Mikel Valle
Bypassing is a recoding event that leads to the translation of two distal open reading frames into a single polypeptide chain. We present the structure of a translating ribosome stalled at the bypassing take-off site of gene 60 of bacteriophage T4. The nascent peptide in the exit tunnel anchors the P-site peptidyl-tRNA(Gly) to the ribosome and locks an inactive conformation of the peptidyl transferase center (PTC). The mRNA forms a short dynamic hairpin in the decoding site. The ribosomal subunits adopt a rolling conformation in which the rotation of the small subunit around its long axis causes the opening of the A-site region...
June 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611278/lysine-methylation-of-fen1-by-set7-is-essential-for-its-cellular-response-to-replicative-stress
#4
Palaniraja Thandapani, Anthony M Couturier, Zhenbao Yu, Xing Li, Jean-François Couture, Shawn Li, Jean-Yves Masson, Stéphane Richard
The DNA damage response (DDR) is central to the cell survival and it requires post-translational modifications, in part, to sense the damage, amplify the signaling response and recruit and regulate DNA repair enzymes. Lysine methylation of histones such as H4K20 and non-histone proteins including p53 has been shown to be essential for the mounting of the DDR. It is well-known that the lysine methyltransferase SET7 regulates the DDR, as cells lacking this enzyme are hypersensitive to chemotherapeutic drugs. To define addition substrates of SET7 involved in the DDR, we screened a peptide array encompassing potential lysine methylation sites from >100 key DDR proteins and identified peptides from 58 proteins to be lysine methylated defining a methylation consensus sequence of [S>K-2; S>R-1; K0] consistent with previous findings...
May 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591486/computational-fluid-dynamic-analysis-of-the-hemodialysis-plastic-cannula
#5
David Fulker, Zakir Sayed, Anne Simmons, Tracie Barber
The jet of fluid returning to the patient through a hemodialysis venous needle has previously been reported as a potential source of endothelial damage which can lead to intimal hyperplasia (IH) in arteriovenous fistulae (AVF). Metal needles are the current standard practice for accessing the vascular system in hemodialysis. However, plastic cannulae have been used in Japan for 30 years. This study utilized computational fluid dynamics to analyze the hemodynamics of blood exiting a plastic cannula and determined the optimal placement and blood flow rate...
June 7, 2017: Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588079/focal-accumulation-of-preribosomes-outside-the-nucleolus-during-metaphase-anaphase-in-budding-yeast
#6
Giulia Moriggi, Sonia G Gaspar, Blanca Nieto, Xosé R Bustelo, Mercedes Dosil
Saccharomyces cerevisiae contains one nucleolus that remains intact in the mother-cell side of the nucleus throughout most of mitosis. Based on this, it is assumed that the bulk of ribosome production during cell division occurs in the mother cell. Here, we show that the ribosome synthesis machinery localizes not only in the nucleolus but also at a center that is present in the bud side of the nucleus after the initiation of mitosis. This center can be visualized by live microscopy as a punctate body located in close proximity to the nuclear envelope and opposite to the nucleolus...
June 6, 2017: RNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587154/redistribution-of-endosomal-membranes-to-the-african-swine-fever-virus-replication-site
#7
Miguel Ángel Cuesta-Geijo, Lucía Barrado-Gil, Inmaculada Galindo, Raquel Muñoz-Moreno, Covadonga Alonso
African swine fever virus (ASFV) infection causes endosomal reorganization. Here, we show that the virus causes endosomal congregation close to the nucleus as the infection progresses, which is necessary to build a compact viral replication organelle. ASFV enters the cell by the endosomal pathway and reaches multivesicular late endosomes. Upon uncoating and fusion, the virus should exit to the cytosol to start replication. ASFV remodels endosomal traffic and redistributes endosomal membranes to the viral replication site...
June 1, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583617/totally-implantable-intravenous-treprostinil-therapy-in-pulmonary-hypertension-assessment-of-the-implantation-procedure
#8
Aaron B Waxman, Hugh T McElderry, Mardi Gomberg-Maitland, Martin C Burke, Edgar L Ross, Malcolm M Bersohn, Sanjog S Pangarkar, James H Tarver, Diane L Zwicke, Jeremy P Feldman, Murali M Chakinala, Robert P Frantz, Geoffrey B Thompson, Fernando Torres, Richard L Rauck, Kathy Clagg, Louise Durst, Pei Li, Marty Morris, Kara L Southall, Leigh Peterson, Robert C Bourge
BACKGROUND: Prostacyclins improve symptoms and survival in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). In response to risks associated with external delivery systems, an implantable intravenous infusion system was developed. A multicenter, prospective, single-arm, clinical trial (DelIVery for PAH) was conducted to evaluate this system for treprostinil in PAH. This analysis describes the findings related to the implant procedure. METHODS: Patients (n=64) with PAH (WHO Group 1) receiving stable intravenous treprostinil were enrolled...
June 2, 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582576/unique-localization-of-the-plastid-specific-ribosomal-proteins-in-the-chloroplast-ribosome-small-subunit-provides-mechanistic-insights-into-the-chloroplastic-translation
#9
Tofayel Ahmed, Jian Shi, Shashi Bhushan
Chloroplastic translation is mediated by a bacterial-type 70S chloroplast ribosome. During the evolution, chloroplast ribosomes have acquired five plastid-specific ribosomal proteins or PSRPs (cS22, cS23, bTHXc, cL37 and cL38) which have been suggested to play important regulatory roles in translation. However, their exact locations on the chloroplast ribosome remain elusive due to lack of a high-resolution structure, hindering our progress to understand their possible roles. Here we present a cryo-EM structure of the 70S chloroplast ribosome from spinach resolved to 3...
June 5, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573488/peritoneal-dialysis-related-infections-recommendations-2016-update-what-is-new
#10
REVIEW
Vassilios Liakopoulos, Olga Nikitidou, Theofanis Kalathas, Stefanos Roumeliotis, Marios Salmas, Theodoros Eleftheriadis
In 2016, the International Society of Peritoneal Dialysis (ISPD) published guidelines that focus on the importance of both prevention and treatment of peritonitis. For once more, the need for annual reporting of peritonitis rates and recording of peritonitis and exit-site infections, isolated microorganism and antimicrobial susceptibilities as a central component of a quality improvement program is highlighted. Data on new antibiotic regimens, techniques for microorganism isolation and peritoneal dialysis solutions are included...
June 1, 2017: International Urology and Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549188/eif5a-facilitates-translation-termination-globally-and-promotes-the-elongation-of-many-non-polyproline-specific-tripeptide-sequences
#11
Vicent Pelechano, Paula Alepuz
eIF5A is an essential protein involved in protein synthesis, cell proliferation and animal development. High eIF5A expression is observed in many tumor types and has been linked to cancer metastasis. Recent studies have shown that eIF5A facilitates the translation elongation of stretches of consecutive prolines. Activated eIF5A binds to the empty E-site of stalled ribosomes, where it is thought to interact with the peptidyl-tRNA situated at the P-site. Here, we report a genome-wide analysis of ribosome stalling in Saccharomyces cerevisiae eIF5A depleted cells using 5Pseq...
May 26, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547176/metabolic-volume-performs-better-than-suvmax-in-the-detection-of-left-ventricular-assist-device-driveline-infection
#12
Nemanja Avramovic, Angelo Maria Dell'Aquila, Matthias Weckesser, Danka Milankovic, Alexis Vrachimis, Jürgen R Sindermann, Christian Wenning
PURPOSE: A continuous-flow left ventricular assist device (LVAD) is a new and highly promising therapy in supporting end-stage heart failure patients, either bridging them to heart transplantation or as a destination therapy. Infection is one of the major complications associated with LVAD implants. (18)F-FDG PET/CT has already been shown to be useful in the detection of LVAD infection. The goal of this study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of different PET analysis techniques (visual grading versus SUVmax and metabolic volume)...
May 25, 2017: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529300/yi-kwang-su-s-love-and-history-records-of-modern-hospital-under-the-japanese-colonial-period
#13
Byoung Hoon Lee
This article aims to evaluate and analyze the description of the modern hospital as history record, which appeared in YI Kwang Su's novel Love. This novel has mentioned in detail western style clinic, Bukgando Catholic hospital, tuberculosis sanitarium as its main space. Modern hospitals are depicted in the novel has a great significance in historical aspect as well as in literary aspect. The most data on modern hospital is laws, statistics and newspaper archives. These materials are a great help to understand the history and status of the modern hospital...
December 2016: Ŭi Sahak
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522783/splenic-abcesses-as-infectious-complication-following-127-implantation-of-left-ventricular-asssist-device-case-report
#14
Sławomir Gajda, Anna M Szczepanik, Grzegorz Religa, Andrzej Misiak, Andrzej B Szczepanik
Left ventricular assist device (LVAD) is one of the modern management therapies in patients with advanced heart failure, and it serves as a bridge to heart transplantation or even as destination therapy. However, it is burdened with a high risk of thromboembolic, hemorrhagic, and infectious complications despite prophylactic management. Splenic abscesses, as septic complications following implantation of mechanical ventricular support, have not yet been described in the literature. We report of a patient with severe left ventricular insufficiency (NYHA II/III), pulmonary hypertension, and arrhythmia who underwent implantation of the Heart Ware® pump for left ventricular support with simultaneous tricuspidvalvoplasty, as a bridge therapy to heart transplantation...
February 28, 2017: Polski Przeglad Chirurgiczny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516351/analysis-of-some-metallic-elements-and-metalloids-composition-and-relationships-in-parasol-mushroom-macrolepiota-procera
#15
Jerzy Falandysz, Atindra Sapkota, Anna Dryżałowska, Małgorzata Mędyk, Xinbin Feng
The aim of the study was to characterise the multi-elemental composition and associations between a group of 32 elements and 16 rare earth elements collected by mycelium from growing substrates and accumulated in fruiting bodies of Macrolepiota procera from 16 sites from the lowland areas of Poland. The elements were quantified by inductively coupled plasma quadrupole mass spectrometry using validated method. The correlation matrix obtained from a possible 48 × 16 data matrix has been used to examine if any association exits between 48 elements in mushrooms foraged from 16 sampling localizations by multivariate approach using principal component (PC) analysis...
May 17, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507157/translation-and-folding-of-single-proteins-in-real-time
#16
Florian Wruck, Alexandros Katranidis, Knud H Nierhaus, Georg Büldt, Martin Hegner
Protein biosynthesis is inherently coupled to cotranslational protein folding. Folding of the nascent chain already occurs during synthesis and is mediated by spatial constraints imposed by the ribosomal exit tunnel as well as self-interactions. The polypeptide's vectorial emergence from the ribosomal tunnel establishes the possible folding pathways leading to its native tertiary structure. How cotranslational protein folding and the rate of synthesis are linked to a protein's amino acid sequence is still not well defined...
May 30, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500272/probing-the-lithium-response-pathway-in-hipscs-implicates-the-phosphoregulatory-set-point-for-a-cytoskeletal-modulator-in-bipolar-pathogenesis
#17
Brian T D Tobe, Andrew M Crain, Alicia M Winquist, Barbara Calabrese, Hiroko Makihara, Wen-Ning Zhao, Jasmin Lalonde, Haruko Nakamura, Glenn Konopaske, Michelle Sidor, Cameron D Pernia, Naoya Yamashita, Moyuka Wada, Yuuka Inoue, Fumio Nakamura, Steven D Sheridan, Ryan W Logan, Michael Brandel, Dongmei Wu, Joshua Hunsberger, Laurel Dorsett, Cordulla Duerr, Ranor C B Basa, Michael J McCarthy, Namrata D Udeshi, Philipp Mertins, Steven A Carr, Guy A Rouleau, Lina Mastrangelo, Jianxue Li, Gustavo J Gutierrez, Laurence M Brill, Nikolaos Venizelos, Guang Chen, Jeffrey S Nye, Husseini Manji, Jeffrey H Price, Colleen A McClung, Hagop S Akiskal, Martin Alda, De-Maw M Chuang, Joseph T Coyle, Yang Liu, Yang D Teng, Toshio Ohshima, Katsuhiko Mikoshiba, Richard L Sidman, Shelley Halpain, Stephen J Haggarty, Yoshio Goshima, Evan Y Snyder
The molecular pathogenesis of bipolar disorder (BPD) is poorly understood. Using human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) to unravel such mechanisms in polygenic diseases is generally challenging. However, hiPSCs from BPD patients responsive to lithium offered unique opportunities to discern lithium's target and hence gain molecular insight into BPD. By profiling the proteomics of BDP-hiPSC-derived neurons, we found that lithium alters the phosphorylation state of collapsin response mediator protein-2 (CRMP2)...
May 30, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492309/competitive-inhibition-mechanism-of-acetylcholinesterase-without-catalytic-active-site-interaction-study-on-functionalized-c60-nanoparticles-via-in-vitro-and-in-silico-assays
#18
Yanyan Liu, Bing Yan, David A Winkler, Jianjie Fu, Aiqian Zhang
Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity regulation by chemical agents or, potentially, nanomaterials is important for both toxicology and pharmacology. Competitive inhibition via direct catalytic active sites (CAS) binding or noncompetitive inhibition through interference with substrate and product entering and exiting has been recognized previously as an AChE-inhibition mechanism for bespoke nanomaterials. The competitive inhibition by peripheral anionic site (PAS) interaction without CAS binding remains unexplored...
June 7, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489071/exchange-pathways-of-plastoquinone-and-plastoquinol-in-the-photosystem-ii-complex
#19
Floris J Van Eerden, Manuel N Melo, Pim W J M Frederix, Xavier Periole, Siewert J Marrink
Plastoquinone (PLQ) acts as an electron carrier between photosystem II (PSII) and the cytochrome b6f complex. To understand how PLQ enters and leaves PSII, here we show results of coarse grained molecular dynamics simulations of PSII embedded in the thylakoid membrane, covering a total simulation time of more than 0.5 ms. The long time scale allows the observation of many spontaneous entries of PLQ into PSII, and the unbinding of plastoquinol (PLQol) from the complex. In addition to the two known channels, we observe a third channel for PLQ/PLQol diffusion between the thylakoid membrane and the PLQ binding sites...
May 10, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486929/ulk1-phosphorylates-sec23a-and-mediates-autophagy-induced-inhibition-of-er-to-golgi-traffic
#20
Wenjia Gan, Caiyun Zhang, Ka Yu Siu, Ayano Satoh, Julian A Tanner, Sidney Yu
BACKGROUND: Autophagy is an inducible autodigestive process that allows cells to recycle proteins and other materials for survival during stress and nutrient deprived conditions. The kinase ULK1 is required to activate this process. ULK1 phosphorylates a number of target proteins and regulates many cellular processes including the early secretory pathway. Recently, ULK1 has been demonstrated to phosphorylate Sec16 and affects the transport of serotonin transporter at the ER exit sites (ERES), but whether ULK1 may affect the transport of other cargo proteins and general secretion has not been fully addressed...
May 10, 2017: BMC Cell Biology
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