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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934499/co-produced-natural-ketolides-methymycin-and-pikromycin-inhibit-bacterial-growth-by-preventing-synthesis-of-a-limited-number-of-proteins
#1
Mashal M Almutairi, Maxim S Svetlov, Douglas A Hansen, Nelli F Khabibullina, Dorota Klepacki, Han-Young Kang, David H Sherman, Nora Vázquez-Laslop, Yury S Polikanov, Alexander S Mankin
Antibiotics methymycin (MTM) and pikromycin (PKM), co-produced by Streptomyces venezuelae, represent minimalist macrolide protein synthesis inhibitors. Unlike other macrolides, which carry several side chains, a single desosamine sugar is attached to the macrolactone ring of MTM and PKM. In addition, the macrolactone scaffold of MTM is smaller than in other macrolides. The unusual structure of MTM and PKM and their simultaneous secretion by S. venezuelae bring about the possibility that two compounds would bind to distinct ribosomal sites...
September 19, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924045/interaction-between-repressor-opi1p-and-er-membrane-protein-scs2p-facilitates-transit-of-phosphatidic-acid-from-the-er-to-mitochondria-and-is-essential-for-ino1-gene-expression-in-the-presence-of-choline
#2
Maria L Gaspar, Yu-Fang Chang, Stephen A Jesch, Manuel Aregullin, Susan A Henry
In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the Opi1p repressor controls the expression of INO1 via the Opi1p/Ino2p-Ino4p regulatory circuit. Inositol depletion favors Opi1p interaction with both Scs2p and phosphatidic acid at the ER membrane. Inositol supplementation, however, favors the translocation of Opi1p from the ER into the nucleus where it interacts with the Ino2p-Ino4p complex, attenuating transcription of INO1. A strain devoid of Scs2p (scs2) and a mutant, OPI1FFAT, lacking the ability to interact with Scs2p were utilized to examine the specific role(s) of the Opi1p-Scs2p interaction in the regulation of INO1 expression and overall lipid metabolism...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913721/intraperitoneal-antibiotic-administration-for-prevention-of-postoperative-peritoneal-catheter-related-infections
#3
Margarita Kunin, Dganit Dinour, Danny Rosin
BACKGROUND: It is recommended that systemic prophylactic antibiotics be given immediately prior to peritoneal catheter insertion. This administration requires intravenous access and could be inconvenient in dynamic and unpredictable operation room schedule. Intraperitoneal antibiotics could be an alternative simple way for prevention of postoperative peritoneal catheter infections. METHODS: Medical records from 109 patients undergoing permanent PD catheter placement procedures were reviewed retrospectively...
September 14, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912529/evasion-of-regulatory-phosphorylation-by-an-alternatively-spliced-isoform-of-musashi2
#4
Melanie C MacNicol, Chad E Cragle, F Kennedy McDaniel, Linda L Hardy, Yan Wang, Karthik Arumugam, Yasir Rahmatallah, Galina V Glazko, Ania Wilczynska, Gwen V Childs, Daohong Zhou, Angus M MacNicol
The Musashi family of RNA binding proteins act to promote stem cell self-renewal and oppose cell differentiation predominantly through translational repression of mRNAs encoding pro-differentiation factors and inhibitors of cell cycle progression. During tissue development and repair however, Musashi repressor function must be dynamically regulated to allow cell cycle exit and differentiation. The mechanism by which Musashi repressor function is attenuated has not been fully established. Our prior work indicated that the Musashi1 isoform undergoes site-specific regulatory phosphorylation...
September 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910568/network-of-phosphatases-and-hdac-complexes-at-repressed-chromatin
#5
I J de Castro, H A Amin, V Vinciotti, P Vagnarelli
Tight regulation of gene expression is achieved by a variety of protein complexes that selectively bind chromatin, modify it and change its transcription competency. Histone acetylases (HATs) and deacetylases (HDACs) play an important role in this process. They can generate transcriptionally active or inactive chromatin through the addition (HATs) or removal (HDACs) of acetyl groups on histones, respectively. Repo-Man is a Protein Phosphatase 1 targeting subunit that accumulates on chromosomes during mitotic exit and mediates the removal of mitotic histone H3 phosphorylations...
September 14, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898794/surgical-management-of-late-bullet-embolization-from-the-abdomen-to-the-right-ventricle-case-report
#6
Ramos Mayo Alan Elison, Diaz Elizondo Jose Antonio, Segura Marin Hector, Lopez Garnica Dolores, Treviño Garza Francisco Xavier
INTRODUCTION: Secondary embolus from gun projectile is a rare entity, it represents a clinical and therapeutic dilemma because the potential complications involving central and peripheral circulation. Each case reported in the literature represents a challenge because their unique and different clinical scenarios. PRESENTATION OF CASE: We present the management of a 33-year-old man with past history of a gunshot wound on left flank with no evidence of any exit wounds, treated with exploratory laparotomy without removing the gunshot bullet from the abdomen...
September 4, 2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890376/an-unfolding-story-small-molecules-remedy-misfolded-monoamine-transporters
#7
Ameya Kasture, Thomas Stockner, Michael Freissmuth, Sonja Sucic
The key role of monoamine transporters is to take up neurotransmitters from the synaptic cleft and rapidly terminate neurotransmission. Monoamine transporters begin their journey by folding in the endoplasmic reticulum. Upon achieving their natively-folded state, the oligomerized transporters engage the coat protein complex II machinery and exit the endoplasmic reticulum compartment in a concentrative fashion. The transporters are subsequently sorted in the endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi intermediate complex and the Golgi apparatus, prior to reaching their pivotal site of action at the plasma membrane...
September 7, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879153/implementing-slmta-in-the-kenya-national-blood-transfusion-service-lessons-learned
#8
Eric N Wakaria, Charles O Rombo, Margaret Oduor, Serah M Kambale, Kimberly Tilock, Daniel Kimani, Ernest Makokha, Peter M Mwamba, Jane Mwangi
BACKGROUND: The Kenya National Blood Transfusion Service (KNBTS) is mandated to provide safe and sufficient blood and blood components for the country. In 2013, the KNBTS National Testing Laboratory and the six regional blood transfusion centres were enrolled in the Strengthening Laboratory Management Toward Accreditation (SLMTA) programme. The process was supported by Global Communities with funding from the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. METHODS: The SLMTA implementation at KNBTS followed the standard three-workshop series, on-site mentorships and audits...
2017: African Journal of Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878819/construction-of-an-easy-to-use-crispr-cas9-system-by-patching-a-newly-designed-exit-circuit
#9
Qiang Tang, Chunbo Lou, Shuang-Jiang Liu
BACKGROUND: Plasmid-borne genetic editing tools, including the widely used CRISPR-Cas9 system, have greatly facilitated bacterial programming to obtain novel functionalities. However, the lack of effective post-editing plasmid elimination methods impedes follow-up genetic manipulation or application. Conventional strategies including exposure to physical and chemical treatments, or exploiting temperature-sensitive replication origins have several drawbacks (e.g., they are limited for efficiency and are time-consuming)...
2017: Journal of Biological Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875036/active-site-protein-dynamics-and-solvent-accessibility-in-native-achromobacter-cycloclastes-copper-nitrite-reductase
#10
Kakali Sen, Sam Horrell, Demet Kekilli, Chin W Yong, Thomas W Keal, Hakan Atakisi, David W Moreau, Robert E Thorne, Michael A Hough, Richard W Strange
Microbial nitrite reductases are denitrifying enzymes that are a major component of the global nitrogen cycle. Multiple structures measured from one crystal (MSOX data) of copper nitrite reductase at 240 K, together with molecular-dynamics simulations, have revealed protein dynamics at the type 2 copper site that are significant for its catalytic properties and for the entry and exit of solvent or ligands to and from the active site. Molecular-dynamics simulations were performed using different protonation states of the key catalytic residues (AspCAT and HisCAT) involved in the nitrite-reduction mechanism of this enzyme...
July 1, 2017: IUCrJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873427/computational-assessment-of-the-functional-role-of-sinoatrial-node-exit-pathways-in-the-human-heart
#11
Sanjay R Kharche, Edward Vigmond, Igor R Efimov, Halina Dobrzynski
AIM: The human right atrium and sinoatrial node (SAN) anatomy is complex. Optical mapping experiments suggest that the SAN is functionally insulated from atrial tissue except at discrete SAN-atrial electrical junctions called SAN exit pathways, SEPs. Additionally, histological imaging suggests the presence of a secondary pacemaker close to the SAN. We hypothesise that a) an insulating border-SEP anatomical configuration is related to SAN arrhythmia; and b) a secondary pacemaker, the paranodal area, is an alternate pacemaker but accentuates tachycardia...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869701/nup42-and-ip6-coordinate-gle1-stimulation-of-dbp5-ddx19b-for-mrna-export-in-yeast-and-human-cells
#12
Rebecca L Adams, Aaron C Mason, Laura Glass, Aditi, Susan R Wente
The mRNA lifecycle is driven through spatiotemporal changes in the protein composition of mRNA particles (mRNPs) that are triggered by RNA-dependent DEAD-box protein (Dbp) ATPases. As mRNPs exit the nuclear pore complex (NPC) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, this remodeling occurs through activation of Dbp5 by inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6 )-bound Gle1. At the NPC, Gle1 also binds Nup42, but Nup42's molecular function is unclear. Here we employ the power of structure-function analysis in S. cerevisiae and human (h) cells, and find that the high-affinity Nup42-Gle1 interaction is integral to Dbp5 (hDDX19B) activation and efficient mRNA export...
September 4, 2017: Traffic
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869000/similarities-in-intracellular-transport-of-plant-viral-movement-proteins-bmb2-and-tgb3
#13
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Ekaterina A Lazareva, Alexander A Lezzhov, Sergey A Golyshev, Sergey Y Morozov, Manfred Heinlein, Andrey G Solovyev
The cell-to-cell transport of many plant viruses through plasmodesmata requires viral movement proteins (MPs) encoded by a 'triple gene block' (TGB) and termed TGB1, TGB2 and TGB3. TGB3 is a small integral membrane protein that contains subcellular targeting signals and directs both TGB2 and the helicase domain-containing TGB1 protein to plasmodesmata-associated structures. Recently, we described a 'binary movement block' (BMB) coding for two MPs, BMB1 and BMB2. The BMB2 protein associates with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membranes, accumulates at plasmodesmata-associated membrane bodies and directs the BMB1 helicase to these structures...
September 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867907/preemptive-analgesia-in-thumb-basal-joint-arthroplasty-immediate-postoperative-pain-with-preincision-versus-postincision-local-anesthesia
#14
Joseph T Labrum, Asif M Ilyas
Purpose  Currently no guidelines exist for the timing of the injection of anesthetics in surgeries performed under general anesthesia to minimize postoperative pain. To better understand the role of timing of the injection of local anesthesia in hand surgery performed under general anesthesia, we evaluated the effect of pre- versus postincisional local analgesic injection on immediate postoperative pain experience. We hypothesize that the preincisional (preemptive) injection will result in decreased immediate postoperative pain experience and analgesic use when compared with postincisional injection...
August 2017: Journal of Hand and Microsurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867615/structure-of-the-human-mitochondrial-ribosome-studied-in-situ-by-cryoelectron-tomography
#15
Robert Englmeier, Stefan Pfeffer, Friedrich Förster
Mitochondria maintain their own genome and its corresponding protein synthesis machine, the mitochondrial ribosome (mitoribosome). Mitoribosomes primarily synthesize highly hydrophobic proteins of the inner mitochondrial membrane. Recent studies revealed the complete structure of the isolated mammalian mitoribosome, but its mode of membrane association remained hypothetical. In this study, we used cryoelectron tomography to visualize human mitoribosomes in isolated mitochondria. The subtomogram average of the membrane-associated human mitoribosome reveals a single major contact site with the inner membrane, mediated by the mitochondria-specific protein mL45...
August 22, 2017: Structure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866022/eradication-of-ht-29-colorectal-adenocarcinoma-cells-by-controlled-photorelease-of-co-from-a-co-releasing-polymer-photocorp-1-triggered-by-visible-light-through-an-optical-fiber-based-device
#16
Miguel N Pinto, Indranil Chakraborty, Cosme Sandoval, Pradip K Mascharak
The gaseous signaling molecule carbon monoxide (CO) has recently been recognized for its wide range of physiological activity as well as its antineoplastic properties. However, site-specific delivery of this noxious gas presents a major challenge in hospital settings. In this work, a visible light-sensitive CO-releasing molecule (photoCORM) derived from manganese(I) and 2-(quinolyl)benzothiazole (qbt) namely, [Mn(CO)3(qbt)(4-vpy)](CF3SO3) (1), has been co-polymerized within a gas-permeable HEMA/EGDMA hydrogel...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865032/regulation-of-skeletal-myoblast-differentiation-by-drebrin
#17
Robert S Krauss
Myoblast differentiation is a complex process. As myoblasts differentiate into myofibers, they acquire a cell type-specific transcriptional program, irreversibly exit the cell cycle, and dramatically change their morphology. The morphological changes include cell elongation, alignment, and fusion into syncytial myofibers. Several lines of evidence suggest that these events may be co-regulated. However, the mechanisms that coordinate major alterations in a cell's transcriptome and its shape are not well understood...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864773/the-calcium-binding-protein-alg-2-regulates-protein-secretion-and-trafficking-via-interactions-with-missl-and-map1b
#18
Terunao Takahara, Kuniko Inoue, Yumika Arai, Keiko Kuwata, Hideki Shibata, Masatoshi Maki
Mobilization of intracellular calcium is essential for a wide range of cellular processes including signal transduction, apoptosis, and vesicular trafficking. Several lines of evidence have suggested that apoptosis-linked gene 2 (ALG-2, also known as PDCD6), a calcium-binding protein, acts as a calcium sensor linking calcium levels with efficient vesicular trafficking, especially at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-to-Golgi transport step. However, how ALG-2 regulates these processes remains largely unclear. Here, we report that MAPK1-interacting and spindle-stabilizing (MISS)-like (MISSL), a previously uncharacterized protein, interacts with ALG-2 in a calcium-dependent manner...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863910/influence-of-cortical-bone-thickness-on-miniscrew-microcrack-formation
#19
Melissa V Nguyen, John Codrington, Lloyd Fletcher, Craig W Dreyer, Wayne J Sampson
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this in-vitro study was to investigate the influence of cortical bone thickness on the amount of surface microdamage produced after insertion of orthodontic miniscrews (OM) in porcine tibia bone. METHODS: Aarhus OMs (Medicon, Tuttlingen, Germany; diameter, 1.5 mm; length, 6 mm) were inserted into 1.0 mm (group A; n = 10), 1.5 mm (group B; n = 10), and 2.0 mm (group C; n = 10) of porcine cortical bone using a torque-limiting hand screwdriver set at 18 Ncm...
September 2017: American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853995/hinge-action-versus-grip-in-translocation-by-rna-polymerase
#20
Yuri A Nedialkov, Kristopher Opron, Hailey L Caudill, Fadi Assaf, Amanda J Anderson, Robert I Cukier, Guowei Wei, Zachary F Burton
Based on molecular dynamics simulations and functional studies, a conformational mechanism is posited for forward translocation by RNA polymerase (RNAP). In a simulation of a ternary elongation complex, the clamp and downstream cleft were observed to close. Hinges within the bridge helix and trigger loop supported generation of translocation force against the RNA-DNA hybrid resulting in opening of the furthest upstream i-8 RNA-DNA bp, establishing conditions for RNAP sliding. The β flap tip helix and the most N-terminal β' Zn finger engage the RNA, indicating a path of RNA threading out of the exit channel...
August 30, 2017: Transcription
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