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S M Johnson, G M Garnett, R K Woo
Maintenance of central venous access in patients with chronic medical conditions such as short bowel syndrome demands forethought and ingenuity. We describe an innovative technique for re-utilizing central venous access sites in patients who have chronic central venous access needs. Records of patients undergoing this technique were reviewed between August 2012 and December 2015. The technique involves "cutting-down" to the sterile fibrous tunnel that naturally forms around tunneled catheters. The fibrous sheath is then isolated and controlled much as would be done for a venous "cut-down...
October 14, 2016: Pediatric Surgery International
Agata Stryjewska, Ruben Dries, Tim Pieters, Griet Verstappen, Andrea Conidi, Kathleen Coddens, Annick Francis, Lieve Umans, Wilfred F J van IJcken, Geert Berx, Leo A van Grunsven, Frank Grosveld, Steven Goossens, Jody J Haigh, Danny Huylebroeck
In human ESCs the transcription factor Zeb2 regulates neuroectoderm versus mesendoderm formation, but it is unclear how Zeb2 affects the global transcriptional regulatory network in these cell-fate decisions. We generated Zeb2 knockout (KO) mouse ESCs, subjected them as embryoid bodies (EBs) to neural and general differentiation and carried out temporal RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) and reduced representation bisulfite sequencing (RRBS) analysis in neural differentiation. This shows that Zeb2 acts preferentially as a transcriptional repressor associated with developmental progression and that Zeb2 KO ESCs can exit from their naïve state...
October 14, 2016: Stem Cells
Colin R Andrew, Olga N Petrova, Isabelle Lamarre, Jean-Christophe Lambry, Fabrice Rappaport, Michel Negrerie
Nitric oxide (NO) sensors are heme proteins which may also bind CO and O2. Control of heme-gas affinity and their discrimination are achieved by the structural properties and reactivity of the heme and its distal and proximal environments, leading to several energy barriers. In the bacterial NO-sensor cytochrome c' from Alcaligenes xylosoxidans (AXCP), the single Leu16Ala distal mutation boosts the affinity for gas ligands by a remarkable 106-108-fold, transforming AXCP from one of the lowest affinity gas binding proteins to one of the highest...
October 6, 2016: ACS Chemical Biology
Daniele Camboni, Matthaeus Zerdzitzki, Stephan Hirt, René Tandler, Michael Weyand, Christof Schmid
OBJECTIVES: A silicone interface at skin level of left ventricular assist device (LVAD) may reduce the risk of driveline (DL) exit site infections when compared with other materials (e.g. velour). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the rate of DL exit site infection according to the presence of silicone or velour at the exit site with the redesigned INCOR, facilitating the positioning of silicone at the exit site. METHODS: The rate of DL exit site infection and overall survival were compared between the two groups (silicone group, n = 16/velour group, n = 24) with 1-year follow-up postimplantation...
October 4, 2016: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
Zoë M Trout, Evelyn M Hernandez, Evan M Kleiman, Richard T Liu
Although considerable empirical work has been devoted to identifying risk factors for suicide attempts, most longitudinal research has studied recurrent attempts rather than first lifetime attempts. The present study sought to examine prospective predictors of first lifetime suicide attempts among adults receiving treatment for substance use. Data were drawn from the National Treatment Improvement Evaluation Study, a study of addiction treatment programs. Data were collected at treatment intake, treatment exit, and one year post-treatment...
September 21, 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Jennifer Neumann, Dania Rose-Sperling, Ute A Hellmich
It was first discovered in 1992 that P-glycoprotein (Pgp, ABCB1), an ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter, can transport phospholipids such as phosphatidylcholine, -ethanolamine and -serine as well as glucosylceramide and glycosphingolipids. Subsequently, many other ABC transporters were identified to act as lipid transporters. For substrate transport by ABC transporters, typically a classic, alternating access model with an ATP-dependent conformational switch between a high and a low affinity substrate binding site is evoked...
September 29, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Leigh A Rettenmaier, Brian J Park, Marshall T Holland, Youssef J Hamade, Shuchita Garg, Rahul Rastogi, Chandan G Reddy
Spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH) is a more common than previously noted condition (1-2.5 per 50,000) typically caused by cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage. Initial treatment involves conservative therapies, but the mainstay of treatment for patients who fail conservative management is the epidural blood patch (EBP). Subdural hematoma (SDH) is a common complication occurring with SIH, but its management remains controversial. In this report, we discuss a 62-year-old female who presented with a 5-week history of orthostatic headaches associated with nausea, emesis, and neck pain...
September 27, 2016: World Neurosurgery
Michalis Aristophanous, Yelin Suh, Pai C Chi, Luke J Whittlesey, Scott LaNeave, Mary K Martel
Many devices designed for the purpose of performing patient-specific IMRT/VMAT QA are commercially available. In this work we report our experience and initial clinical results with the ArcCHECK. The ArcCHECK consists of a cylindrical array of diode detectors measuring entry and exit doses. The measured result is a cumulative dose displayed as a 2D matrix. The detector array requires both an absolute dose calibration, and a calibration of the detector response, relative to each other. In addition to the calibrations suggested by the manufacturer, various tests were performed in order to assess its stability and performance prior to clinical introduction...
2016: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
Timothy K Fung, Yu Leung Ng, Man Fai Lam, Kelvin K W Lee
♦ Background: Nonadherence to hand hygiene and aseptic regimen, dialysis environment guidelines, and catheter and exit-site care guidelines are risk factors of peritonitis. However, little is known about the psychosocial factors that account for the nonadherent behavior of patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD). Applying the health belief model, this study seeks to enhance the understanding of psychosocial influences on patients' nonadherent behavior to the 3 regimen components. ♦ Methods: Through referrals by 7 Hong Kong renal patient support groups, we surveyed patients undergoing PD treatment...
September 28, 2016: Peritoneal Dialysis International: Journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis
Mohammad F Huque, Thamban Valappil, Mohamed Alosh, Guoxing Soon
Unmet medical need exits for serious bacterial diseases caused by multi-drug resistant infections necessitating urgent need for newer therapies with greater treatment benefits to patients. For meeting this need, the usual approach has been to conduct separate clinical trials, each trial targeting infection at a single body-site, e.g., for respiratory tract, intra-abdominal site, urinary tract, or blood. However, for the unmet medical need situations, this approach seems inefficient for developing antibacterial drugs with activity against single species or against multiple species of bacteria for a broader indication...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Biopharmaceutical Statistics
Kanghyun Lee, Ruchika Sharma, Om Kumar Shrestha, Craig A Bingman, Elizabeth A Craig
Ribosome-associated J protein-Hsp70 chaperones promote nascent-polypeptide folding and normal translational fidelity. The J protein Zuo1 is known to span the ribosomal subunits, but understanding of its function is limited. Here we present new structural and cross-linking data allowing more precise positioning of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Zuo1 near the 60S polypeptide-exit site and suggesting interactions of Zuo1 with the ribosomal protein eL31 and 25S rRNA helix 24. The junction between the 60S-interacting and subunit-spanning helices is a hinge that positions Zuo1 on the 40S yet accommodates subunit rotation...
September 26, 2016: Nature Structural & Molecular Biology
Prabhat Kumar, Ayotunde M Bamimore, Jennifer D Schwartz, Eugene H Chung, Anil K Gehi, Andy C Kiser, James P Hummel, J Paul Mounsey
BACKGROUND: The left atrial posterior wall (PW) often contains sites required for maintenance of atrial fibrillation (AF). Electrical isolation of the PW is an important feature of all open surgeries for AF. This study assessed the ability of current ablation techniques to achieve PW isolation (PWI) and its effect on recurrent AF. METHODS AND RESULTS: Fifty-seven consecutive patients with persistent or high-burden paroxysmal AF underwent catheter ablation, which was performed using an endocardial-only (30) or a hybrid endocardial-epicardial procedure (27)...
2016: Journal of the American Heart Association
Malini Shanmuganathan, Bak Leong Goh, Christopher Lim, Zakaria NorFadhlina, Ibrahim Fairol
Patients with peritonitis present with abdominal pain, diarrhea, fever, and turbid peritoneal dialysis (PD) fluid. Shewanella algae peritonitis has not yet been reported in PD patients in the literature. We present the first 2 cases of Shewanella algae peritonitis in PD patients. Mupirocin cream is applied on the exit site as prophylactic antibiotic therapy.
September 2016: Peritoneal Dialysis International: Journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis
Malte Mohme, Sabine Riethdorf, Klaus Pantel
Metastatic spread of tumour cells is the main cause of cancer-related deaths. Understanding the mechanisms of tumour-cell dissemination has, therefore, become an important focus for cancer research. In patients with cancer, disseminated cancer cells are often detectable in the peripheral blood as circulating tumour cells (CTCs) and in the bone marrow or lymph nodes as disseminated tumour cells (DTCs). The identification and characterization of CTCs and DTCs has yielded important insights into the mechanisms of metastasis, resulting in a better understanding of the molecular alterations and profiles underlying drug resistance...
September 20, 2016: Nature Reviews. Clinical Oncology
Søren Underlien Jensen
May roundabouts be safer for cyclists than intersections? How are safe roundabouts designed? This paper tries to answer these questions on the basis of a before-after safety study of conversions of intersections to 255 single-lane roundabouts in Denmark. The before-after study accounts for long-term accident and injury trends and regression-to-the-mean effects. In order to relate safety effects for cyclists of various roundabout design features it is crucial to split the converted sites by speed limit, because safety effects for both cyclists and other road users of converting intersections to roundabouts depend heavily on speed limits on roads entering the converted sites...
September 13, 2016: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Bing-Chun Zhao, Hai-Dan Shi, Wan-Lei Wang, Xiao-Yu Liu, Hui Gao, Xiao-Xiao Wang, Ying Hui Zhang, Mei Di Yang, Rui Li, Yi Guo
The pollen wall protects pollen grains from abiotic and biotic stresses. During pollen wall development, tapetal cells play vital role by secreting proteins, signals and pollen wall material to ensure microspore development. But the regulatory mechanism underlying the secretory pathway of the tapetum is largely unknown. Here, we characterize the essential role of the Arabidopsis COPII protein Secretory31B (SEC31B) in pollen wall development and secretive activity of tapetal cells. The sporophyte-controlled atsec31b mutant exhibits severe pollen and seed abortion...
September 15, 2016: Plant Physiology
Shefali Gupta, Shrikara P Mallya, Ashok Bhat, Shrikala Baliga
INTRODUCTION: Aerobic bacterial infections often complicate vascular access in patients receiving haemodialysis, leading to Catheter-Related Blood Stream Infections (CRBSI). Various studies report Gram - positive bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) in particular, as the most common aetiologic agent. Studies on microbiological analysis in this subset of population from India are very few. AIM: To examine clinical and bacteriological profiles of haemodialysis patients developing CRBSI, the antibiotic susceptibility of the bacteria isolated from these patients and determine nasal carriage of S...
July 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Matthew C Hyman, David J Callans
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 11, 2016: Circulation
Caitlyn Riedmann, Yvonne N Fondufe-Mittendorf
Chromatin architectural proteins (CAPs) bind the entry/exit DNA of nucleosomes and linker DNA to form higher order chromatin structures with distinct transcriptional outcomes. How CAPs mediate nucleosome dynamics is not well understood. We hypothesize that CAPs regulate DNA target site accessibility through alteration of the rate of spontaneous dissociation of DNA from nucleosomes. We investigated the effects of histone H1, high mobility group D1 (HMGD1), and methyl CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2), on the biophysical properties of nucleosomes and chromatin...
2016: Scientific Reports
Neil Hattersley, Dhanya Cheerambathur, Mark Moyle, Marine Stefanutti, Amelia Richardson, Kian-Yong Lee, Julien Dumont, Karen Oegema, Arshad Desai
During M-phase entry in metazoans with open mitosis, the concerted action of mitotic kinases disassembles nuclei and promotes assembly of kinetochores-the primary microtubule attachment sites on chromosomes. At M-phase exit, these major changes in cellular architecture must be reversed. Here, we show that the conserved kinetochore-localized nucleoporin MEL-28/ELYS docks the catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase 1 (PP1c) to direct kinetochore disassembly-dependent chromosome segregation during oocyte meiosis I and nuclear assembly during the transition from M phase to interphase...
September 12, 2016: Developmental Cell
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