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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910159/staphylococcus-aureus-derived-membrane-vesicles-exacerbate-skin-inflammation-in-atopic-dermatitis
#1
S H Jun, J H Lee, S I Kim, C W Choi, T I Park, H R Jung, J W Cho, S H Kim, J C Lee
BACKGROUND: Skin colonization or infection with Staphylococcus aureus is known to trigger aggravation of atopic dermatitis (AD). However, the exact mechanisms by which S. aureus can worsen AD are unknown. OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether and how S. aureus-derived membrane vesicles (MVs) contribute to worsening of AD. METHODS: Immunohistochemical and immunoelectron microscopic analyses were performed to detect staphylococcal protein A (SPA) in the epidermis of AD lesions...
November 5, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909942/experiment-design-for-nonparametric-models-based-on-minimizing-bayes-risk-application-to-voriconazole-formula-see-text
#2
David S Bayard, Michael Neely
An experimental design approach is presented for individualized therapy in the special case where the prior information is specified by a nonparametric (NP) population model. Here, a NP model refers to a discrete probability model characterized by a finite set of support points and their associated weights. An important question arises as to how to best design experiments for this type of model. Many experimental design methods are based on Fisher information or other approaches originally developed for parametric models...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903151/how-to-manage-the-obese-patient-with-cancer
#3
Andrew G Renehan, Michelle Harvie, Ramsey I Cutress, Michael Leitzmann, Tobias Pischon, Sacha Howell, Anthony Howell
Purpose Obesity (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 30 kg/m(2)) is common among patients with cancer. We reviewed management issues in the obese patient with cancer, focusing on how obesity influences treatment selection (including chemotherapy dosing), affects chemotherapy toxicity and surgical complications, and might be a treatment effect modifier. Methods The majority of evidence is drawn from observational studies and secondary analyses of trial data, typically analyzed in N × 3 BMI categories (normal weight, overweight, and obese) matrix structures...
December 10, 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902333/plant-produced-anti-dengue-virus-monoclonal-antibodies-exhibit-reduced-antibody-dependent-enhancement-of-infection-activity
#4
Matthew Dent, Jonathan Hurtado, Amber M Paul, Haiyan Sun, Huafang Lai, Ming Yang, Adrian Esqueda, Fengwei Bai, Herta Steinkellner, Qiang Chen
The monoclonal antibody (mAb) E60 has the potential to be a desirable therapeutic molecule since it efficiently neutralizes all four serotypes of dengue virus (DENV). However, mammalian cell-produced E60 exhibits antibody-dependent enhancement of infection (ADE) activity, rendering it inefficacious in vivo and subjects treated animals more susceptible to develop more severe diseases during secondary infection. In this study, we evaluated a plant-based expression system for the production of therapeutically suitable E60...
October 20, 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901325/asymptomatic-carotid-artery-stenosis-who-should-be-screened-who-should-be-treated-and-how-should-we-treat-them
#5
Djurre D DE Waard, Dylan Morris, Gert J DE Borst, Richard Bulbulia, Alison Halliday
Although stopping smoking, lowering blood pressure and reducing lipid levels will reduce global stroke risk and cardiovascular mortality, these remain leading causes of death and disability especially in ageing populations. Further prevention strategies are needed and, in the first part of this review, we explore the potential benefits of appropriate screening for carotid artery disease to reduce stroke and identify those who may have related cardiac disease. Although whole-population carotid screening is an inefficient and costly means of identifying candidates with tight carotid stenosis who might warrant intervention, it can identify many people with lower levels of stenosis who may benefit from cardiovascular risk reducing medications...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899359/how-i-treat-atypical-chronic-myeloid-leukemia
#6
Jason Gotlib
Atypical chronic myeloid leukemia, BCR-ABL1-negative (aCML) is a rare myelodysplastic syndrome/myeloproliferative neoplasm for which no current standard of care exists. The challenges of atypical CML relate to its heterogeneous clinical and genetic features, high rate of transformation to acute myeloid leukemia, and historically poor survival. Therefore, allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation should always be an initial consideration for eligible patients with a suitable donor. Non-transplant approaches for treating aCML have otherwise largely relied on adopting treatment strategies used for MDS and MPN...
November 29, 2016: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895661/the-genome-conformation-as-an-integrator-of-multi-omic-data-the-example-of-damage-spreading-in-cancer
#7
Fabio Tordini, Marco Aldinucci, Luciano Milanesi, Pietro Liò, Ivan Merelli
Publicly available multi-omic databases, in particular if associated with medical annotations, are rich resources with the potential to lead a rapid transition from high-throughput molecular biology experiments to better clinical outcomes for patients. In this work, we propose a model for multi-omic data integration (i.e., genetic variations, gene expression, genome conformation, and epigenetic patterns), which exploits a multi-layer network approach to analyse, visualize, and obtain insights from such biological information, in order to use achieved results at a macroscopic level...
2016: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888618/involvement-of-inflammation-and-its-related-micrornas-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#8
REVIEW
Ke Jin, Tong Li, Gonzalo Sánchez-Duffhues, Fangfang Zhou, Long Zhang
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most commonly diagnosed type of cancer. The tumor inflammatory microenvironment regulates almost every step towards liver tumorigenesis and subsequent progression, and regulation of the inflammation-related signaling pathways, cytokines, chemokines and non-coding RNAs influences the proliferation, migration and metastasis of liver tumor cells. Inflammation fine-tunes the cancer microenvironment to favor epithelial-mesenchymal transition, in which cancer stem cells maintain tumorigenic potential...
November 23, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886095/sociocultural-determinants-of-risky-sexual-behaviors-among-adult-latinas-a-longitudinal-study-of-a-community-based-sample
#9
Patria Rojas, Hui Huang, Tan Li, Gira J Ravelo, Mariana Sanchez, Christyl Dawson, Judith Brook, Mariano Kanamori, Mario De La Rosa
Few studies have examined the sociocultural determinants of risky sexual behavior trajectories among adult Latinas. To longitudinally examine the link between sociocultural determinants of risky sexual behaviors, we followed a sample of adult Latina mother-daughter dyads (n = 267) across a 10-year span through four waves of data collection. The present study investigates how risky sexual behavior (operationalized as sex under the influence of alcohol or other drugs, sex without a condom, or multiple sex partners) is affected by: (a) socioeconomic conditions; (b) mental health; (c) medical health; (d) acculturation to U...
November 23, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884041/follow-up-strategies-for-patients-treated-for-non-metastatic-colorectal-cancer
#10
REVIEW
Mark Jeffery, Brigid E Hickey, Phil N Hider, Adrienne M See
BACKGROUND: It is common clinical practice to follow patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) for several years following their curative surgery or adjuvant therapy, or both. Despite this widespread practice, there is considerable controversy about how often patients should be seen, what tests should be performed, and whether these varying strategies have any significant impact on patient outcomes. This is the second update of a Cochrane Review first published in 2002 and first updated in 2007...
November 24, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872199/somatic-individuality-in-context-a-comparative-case-study
#11
Kelly Pender
Scholars have challenged the totalizing nature of the "geneticization thesis," arguing that its brushstrokes are too broad to capture the complicated nature of the new genetics. One such challenge has come from Nikolas Rose's argument that genetic medicine is governed by a new biopolitics in which patients understand themselves as "somatic individuals" who treat their bodies as an "ethical substance" to be worked on in order to secure a healthier future. I argue that Rose's argument, while compelling, paints the new genetics in equally broad brushstrokes and that in order for a concept like somatic individuality to become useful, we must study its manifestation across different communities of at-risk individuals...
November 21, 2016: Public Understanding of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872057/how-i-treat-flt3-mutated-aml
#12
Keith W Pratz, Mark Levis
FLT3-mutated acute myeloid leukemia (AML), despite not being recognized as a distinct entity in the World Health Organization (WHO) classification system, is readily recognized as a particular challenge by clinical specialists who treat acute leukemia. This is especially true with regards to the patients harboring the most common type of FLT3 mutation, the internal tandem duplication (FLT3-ITD) mutation. Here we present four patient cases from our institution and discuss how our management reflects what we have learned about this subtype of the disease...
November 21, 2016: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870082/a-proposal-to-address-nfl-club-doctors-conflicts-of-interest-and-to-promote-player-trust
#13
I Glenn Cohen, Holly Fernandez Lynch, Christopher R Deubert
How can we ensure that players in the National Football League receive excellent health care they can trust from providers who are as free from conflicts of interest as realistically possible? NFL players typically receive care from the club's own medical staff. Club doctors are clearly important stakeholders in player health. They diagnose and treat players for a variety of ailments, physical and mental, while making recommendations to the player concerning those ailments. At the same time, club doctors have obligations to the club, namely to inform and advise clubs about the health status of players...
November 2016: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869561/successful-drug-coated-balloon-angioplasty-and-single-anti-platelet-therapy-to-treat-an-ischaemic-stroke-patient-with-haemorrhage-and-acute-coronary-syndrome
#14
Hee Hwa Ho, Kwang How Mok
A 55-year-old male presented with two challenging problems, i.e. acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and a major bleeding episode. He first presented with ischaemic stroke and was treated with thrombolysis. However this was complicated by haemorrhagic transformation. He subsequently developed ACS with urgent coronary angiography demonstrating a critical stenosis in the proximal left anterior descending artery. Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) was deemed necessary but we were mindful of causing bleeding complications from the use of anti-thrombotic therapy...
November 21, 2016: Acute Cardiac Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869171/epigenetic-activation-of-the-prostaglandin-receptor-ep4-promotes-resistance-to-endocrine-therapy-for-breast-cancer
#15
J F Hiken, J I McDonald, K F Decker, C Sanchez, J Hoog, N D VanderKraats, K L Jung, M Akinhanmi, L E Rois, M J Ellis, J R Edwards
Approximately 75% of breast cancers express estrogen receptor α (ERα) and depend on estrogen signals for continued growth. Aromatase inhibitors (AIs) prevent estrogen production and inhibit ER signaling, resulting in decreased cancer recurrence and mortality. Advanced tumors treated with AIs almost always develop resistance to these drugs via the upregulation of alternative growth signals. The mechanisms that drive this resistance-especially epigenetic events that alter gene expression-are, however, not well understood...
November 21, 2016: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867685/how-i-treat-my-inflammatory-bowel-disease-patients-with-thiopurines
#16
REVIEW
Berrie Meijer, Chris Jj Mulder, Adriaan A van Bodegraven, Nanne K H de Boer
Thiopurines are essential drugs to maintain remission in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Thiopurines used in IBD are azathioprine (2.0-2.5 mg/kg), mercaptopurine (1.0-1.5 mg/kg) and thioguanine (0.2-0.3 mg/kg). However, mainly due to numerous adverse events associated with thiopurine use, almost 50% of the patients have to discontinue conventional thiopurine treatment. Extensive monitoring and the application of several treatment strategies, such as split-dose administration, co-administration with allopurinol or dose reduction/increase, may increase the chance of successful therapy...
November 6, 2016: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866143/how-should-i-treat-renal-artery-in-stent-restenosis-and-stent-fracture-after-endovascular-abdominal-aortic-aneurysm-repair
#17
Adrian C Iancu, Șerban Bălănescu, Mădălin Marc, Călin Homorodean, Dan Bindea, Bernhard Reimers, Efrem Civilini, Giovanni Torsello, Fausto Castriota, Roberto Nerla, Antonio Micari, Alberto Cremonesi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 20, 2016: EuroIntervention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865008/biosynthesis-of-the-psychotropic-plant-diterpene-salvinorin-a-discovery-and-characterization-of-the-salvia-divinorum-clerodienyl-diphosphate-synthase
#18
Kyle A Pelot, Rod Mitchell, Moonhyuk Kwon, David M Hagelthorn, Jacob F Wardman, Angela Chiang, Jörg Bohlmann, Dae-Kyun Ro, Philipp Zerbe
Salvia divinorum commonly known as diviner's sage, is an ethnomedicinal plant of the mint family (Lamiaceae). S. divinorum is rich in clerodane-type diterpenoids, which accumulate predominantly in leaf glandular trichomes. The main bioactive metabolite, salvinorin A, is the first non-nitrogenous natural compound known to function as an opioid-receptor agonist, and is undergoing clinical trials for potential use in treating neuropsychiatric diseases and drug addictions. We report here the discovery and functional characterization of two S...
November 19, 2016: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864403/using-group-data-to-treat-individuals-understanding-heterogeneous-treatment-effects-in-the-age-of-precision-medicine-and-patient-centred-evidence
#19
REVIEW
Issa J Dahabreh, Rodney Hayward, David M Kent
Although often conflated, determining the best treatment for an individual (the task of a doctor) is fundamentally different from determining the average effect of treatment in a population (the purpose of a trial). In this paper, we review concepts of heterogeneity of treatment effects (HTE) essential in providing the evidence base for precision medicine and patient-centred care, and explore some inherent limitations of using group data (e.g. from a randomized trial) to guide treatment decisions for individuals...
November 17, 2016: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859080/density-dependence-in-an-age-structured-population-of-great-tits-identifying-the-critical-age-classes
#20
Marlène Gamelon, Vidar Grøtan, Steinar Engen, Eirin Bjørkvoll, Marcel E Visser, Bernt-Erik Saether
Classical approaches for the analyses of density dependence assume that all the individuals in a population equally respond and equally contribute to density dependence. However, in age-structured populations, individuals of different ages may differ in their responses to changes in population size and how they contribute to density dependence affecting the growth rate of the whole population. Here we apply the concept of critical age classes, i.e., a specific scalar function that describes how one or a combination of several age classes affect the demographic rates negatively, in order to examine how total density dependence acting on the population growth rate depends on the age-specific population sizes...
September 2016: Ecology
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