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Anna L Lang, Juliane I Beier
Occupational and environmental exposures to industrial chemicals are known to cause hepatotoxicity and liver injury, in humans and in animal models. Historically, research has focused on severe acute liver injury (e.g., fulminant liver failure) or endstage diseases (e.g., cirrhosis and HCC). However, it has become recently recognized that toxicants can cause more subtle changes to the liver. For example, toxicant-associated steatohepatitis (TASH), characterized by hepatic steatosis, and inflammation, was recently recognized in an occupational cohort exposed to vinyl chloride...
June 1, 2018: Biological Chemistry
Ibrahim Afifi, Sheraz Abayazeed, Ayman El-Menyar, Husham Abdelrahman, Ruben Peralta, Hassan Al-Thani
BACKGROUND: We aimed to review liver injury experience in a level 1 trauma center; namely clinical presentation, grading, management approach and clinical outcomes. METHODS: It is a retrospective analysis to include all blunt liver injury patients who were admitted at the Level 1 trauma center over a 3-year period. Data were compared and analyzed based on the liver injury grades and management approaches. RESULTS: Blunt liver injury accounted for 38% of the total blunt abdominal trauma cases with a mean age of 31 ± 13 years...
June 19, 2018: BMC Surgery
Noémi Papp, Szilvia Vas, Emese Bogáthy, Zita Kátai, Diána Kostyalik, György Bagdy
Brain oscillations in the gamma frequency band of the electroencephalogram (EEG) have been implicated in several sensory and cognitive processes, and have also been associated with numerous neuropsychiatric disorders, including depression. The widely prescribed selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), similarly to other antidepressants, are known to produce markedly different effects on sleep and behavioral measures with acute and chronic administration. Although there are studies examining the acute effect of escitalopram on slower (<30 Hz) oscillations, we hardly could find any data about the effect of the drug on higher-frequency EEG oscillations (>30 Hz) in different sleep-wake stages, particularly comparing the acute and chronic effects of the drug concerning gamma oscillations...
June 13, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
(no author information available yet)
Reports an error in "Loneliness predicts self-reported cold symptoms after a viral challenge" by Angie S. LeRoy, Kyle W. Murdock, Lisa M. Jaremka, Asad Loya and Christopher P. Fagundes ( Health Psychology , 2017[May], Vol 36[5], 512-520). The erratum reports the following acknowledgments that were partially omitted from the author note: Data used in this article were collected by the Laboratory for the Study of Stress, Immunity, and Disease. The data were accessed via the Common Cold Project website...
July 2018: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
Amr Alraies, David K Cole, Jeremy S Rees, Carl Glasse, Nigel Young, Rachel J Waddington, Alastair J Sloan
OBJECTIVES: Dietary stains can be adsorbed into the dentin of teeth. Using Orange II as a model dietary stain, this study investigated the strength of its interaction with the mineral and protein components of dentin matrix and how hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) treatment influences this interaction. METHODS: Dentin slices were prepared from human teeth and were either deproteinized (5.6% sodium hypochlorite, 12 days), demineralised (0.5 M EDTA, 3 days) or left as intact control samples...
June 9, 2018: Journal of Dentistry
Francesco Pugliese, Lorenzo Dioscoridi, Antonello Forgione, Edoardo Forti, Marcello Cintolo, Massimiliano Mutignani
Cricopharyngeal myotomy with flexible endoscope is a well-known and safe treatment for Zenker's diverticulum. We describe hereafter how we perform this flexible endotherapy. From January 2011 to January 2017, we treated 28 patients with this endotherapy. Our technique is described step-by-step in the paper: the main principle is to perform an endoscopic cut of the diverticular septum and cricopharyngeal muscle's fibers (see the video). We describe an objective measurement of the cutting length and depth of the myotomy...
April 2018: Esophagus: Official Journal of the Japan Esophageal Society
Randall L Barbour, Harry L Graber, San-Lian S Barbour
SUMMARY: In this report we introduce a weak-model approach for examination of the intrinsic time-varying properties of the hemoglobin signal, with the aim of advancing the application of functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) for the detection of breast cancer, among other potential uses. The developed methodology integrates concepts from stochastic network theory with known modulatory features of the vascular bed, and in doing so provides access to a previously unrecognized dense feature space that is shown to have promising diagnostic potential...
2018: PloS One
Shadia Rask, Irma T Elo, Seppo Koskinen, Eero Lilja, Päivikki Koponen, Anu E Castaneda
Background: The Second European Union Minorities and Discrimination Survey recently demonstrated widespread discrimination across EU countries, with high discrimination rates observed in countries like Finland. Discrimination is known to negatively impact health, but fewer studies have examined how different types of perceived discrimination are related to health. Methods: This study examines (i) the prevalence of different types of perceived discrimination among Russian, Somali and Kurdish origin populations in Finland, and (ii) the association between different types of perceived discrimination (no experiences; subtle discrimination only; overt or subtle and overt discrimination) and health (self-rated health; limiting long-term illness (LLTI) or disability; mental health symptoms)...
June 6, 2018: European Journal of Public Health
David F McDermott, Mahrukh A Huseni, Michael B Atkins, Robert J Motzer, Brian I Rini, Bernard Escudier, Lawrence Fong, Richard W Joseph, Sumanta K Pal, James A Reeves, Mario Sznol, John Hainsworth, W Kimryn Rathmell, Walter M Stadler, Thomas Hutson, Martin E Gore, Alain Ravaud, Sergio Bracarda, Cristina Suárez, Riccardo Danielli, Viktor Gruenwald, Toni K Choueiri, Dorothee Nickles, Suchit Jhunjhunwala, Elisabeth Piault-Louis, Alpa Thobhani, Jiaheng Qiu, Daniel S Chen, Priti S Hegde, Christina Schiff, Gregg D Fine, Thomas Powles
We describe results from IMmotion150, a randomized phase 2 study of atezolizumab (anti-PD-L1) alone or combined with bevacizumab (anti-VEGF) versus sunitinib in 305 patients with treatment-naive metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Co-primary endpoints were progression-free survival (PFS) in intent-to-treat and PD-L1+ populations. Intent-to-treat PFS hazard ratios for atezolizumab + bevacizumab or atezolizumab monotherapy versus sunitinib were 1.0 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.69-1.45) and 1.19 (95% CI, 0...
June 2018: Nature Medicine
Haythum O Tayeb, Hussam A Murad, Misbahuddin M Rafeeq, Frank I Tarazi
Approximately 20%-30% of schizophrenia patients are resistant to current standard pharmacotherapies. Recent schizophrenia research aims to identify specific pathophysiological abnormalities and novel targets in the disease, with the goals of identifying at-risk individuals, facilitating diagnosis, prompting early and personalized interventions, and helping predict response to treatment. Metabolomics involves the systematic study of the profile of biochemical alterations early in the course of a given disorder...
June 5, 2018: CNS Spectrums
Judy Z Segal
In August, 2015, the US Food and Drug Administration approved Addyi (flibanserin) for the treatment of Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder in premenopausal women. Ten months before that, the FDA had held a Patient-Focused Drug Development Public Meeting to address the 'unmet need' for a pharmaceutical to treat that condition. I attended that meeting as a rhetorical observer. This essay is an account of persuasive strategies used on, and then by, the FDA, as it considered approving a drug that was not convincingly either safe or effective...
June 1, 2018: Social Studies of Science
Joshua R Jarrell, Brad J Farrell, Robert S Kistenberg, John F Dalton, Mark Pitkin, Boris I Prilutsky
Ongoing animal preclinical studies on transcutaneous bone-anchored prostheses have aimed to improve biomechanics of prosthetic locomotion in people with limb loss. It is much less common to translate successful developments in human biomechanics and prosthetic research to veterinary medicine to treat animals with limb loss. Current standard of care in veterinary medicine is amputation of the whole limb if a distal segment cannot be salvaged. Bone-anchored transcutaneous prostheses, developed for people with limb loss, could be beneficial for veterinary practice...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
V A Schurov, I V Schurov
The purpose of the study is to find out how reducing the reactivity of the organism in patients of different age groups affects the duration of treatment of fractures of the Shin bones. The Analyzed data 1 382 case histories of patients of different age with fractures of the tibia in the treatment by Ilizarov for the past 42 years. Instrumental in the process of treatment in 98 patients with fractures of Shin bones the studied indicators of muscle strength, oxygen tension in the tissues, the load on the limb, micromotion of bone fragments, the speed of regional blood flow and blood flow in the middle cerebral artery...
2018: Advances in Gerontology, Uspekhi Gerontologii
Paola R Silvestri, Valentina Baglioni, Francesco Cardona, Andrea E Cavanna
Chronic tic disorders are neurodevelopmental conditions characterized by the presence of motor and/or phonic tics and often accompanied by co-morbid behavioral problems. Chronic tic disorders can negatively affect the level of functioning of young patients across social and family domains, with possible repercussions on their self-perception. We conducted a systematic literature review to assess the clinical correlates of both components of self-perception (self-concept, i.e. what patients think about themselves, and self-esteem, i...
May 24, 2018: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
Alexander Winkelmann, Paulus Stefan Rommer, Michael Hecker, Uwe Klaus Zettl
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) affects predominantly young women. Currently available disease-modifying drugs have neither been approved during pregnancy nor nursing. AIMS: Evaluating the effect of treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) in MS patients with desire to have a baby. METHODS: In all, 70 MS patients were either treated with IVIg before conception, during first trimester of pregnancy and 12 months postnatal (group I, n = 38) or started IVIg after delivery for 12 months (group II, n = 23) or were untreated (group III, n = 9)...
June 1, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
Lisa D Cervia, Chun-Chi Chang, Liangli Wang, Mao Mao, Fan Yuan
The nuclear envelope is a physiological barrier to electrogene transfer. To understand different mechanisms of the nuclear entry for electrotransfected plasmid DNA (pDNA), the current study investigated how manipulation of the mechanisms could affect electrotransfection efficiency (eTE), transgene expression level (EL), and cell viability. In the investigation, cells were first synchronized at G2-M phase prior to electrotransfection so that the nuclear envelope breakdown (NEBD) occurred before pDNA entered the cells...
June 1, 2018: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
Edward Chu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: Clinical Advances in Hematology & Oncology: H&O
Adan Z Becerra, Steven D Wexner, David W Dietz, Zhaomin Xu, Christopher T Aquina, Carla F Justiniano, Alex A Swanger, Larissa K Temple, Katia Noyes, John R Monson, Fergal J Fleming
BACKGROUND: Rectal cancer patients who are understaged may not be offered the highest quality treatment modalities, which are based on an accurate assessment of preoperative staging. The objective of this study was to evaluate heterogeneity in the probability of being understaged at Commission on Cancer hospitals in the United States and to assess how this variation affects outcomes. METHODS: The 2006-2013 National Cancer Data Base was queried for clinical stage I-III rectal cancer patients who underwent resection...
May 30, 2018: Annals of Surgical Oncology
Ryan J Sullivan, Michael B Atkins, John M Kirkwood, Sanjiv S Agarwala, Joseph I Clark, Marc S Ernstoff, Leslie Fecher, Thomas F Gajewski, Brian Gastman, David H Lawson, Jose Lutzky, David F McDermott, Kim A Margolin, Janice M Mehnert, Anna C Pavlick, Jon M Richards, Krista M Rubin, William Sharfman, Steven Silverstein, Craig L Slingluff, Vernon K Sondak, Ahmad A Tarhini, John A Thompson, Walter J Urba, Richard L White, Eric D Whitman, F Stephen Hodi, Howard L Kaufman
BACKGROUND: Cancer immunotherapy has been firmly established as a standard of care for patients with advanced and metastatic melanoma. Therapeutic outcomes in clinical trials have resulted in the approval of 11 new drugs and/or combination regimens for patients with melanoma. However, prospective data to support evidence-based clinical decisions with respect to the optimal schedule and sequencing of immunotherapy and targeted agents, how best to manage emerging toxicities and when to stop treatment are not yet available...
May 30, 2018: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
Lujun Yang, Dangui Zhang, Hongjuan Wu, Sitian Xie, Mingjun Zhang, Bingna Zhang, Shijie Tang
AIMS: To elucidate the possible mechanisms of how basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) influences epidermal homeostasis in a living skin equivalent (LSE) model. METHODS: Several wound healing-related growth factors were analyzed at protein and mRNA levels for dermal fibroblasts of induced alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA)-positive or α-SMA-negative phenotypes. During culturing an LSE model by seeding normal human keratinocytes on a fibroblast-populated type I collagen gel, bFGF or neutralizing antibody for keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) was added to investigate its effects on fibroblast phenotypes and, subsequently, epidermal homeostasis by histology and immunohistochemistry...
May 30, 2018: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology
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