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Rachel B Kay, Jason W Triplett
Throughout the visual system, different subtypes of neurons are tuned to distinct aspects of the visual scene, establishing parallel circuits. Defining the mechanisms by which such tuning arises has been a long-standing challenge for neuroscience. To investigate this, we have focused on the retina's projection to the superior colliculus (SC), where multiple visual neuron subtypes have been described. The SC receives inputs from a variety of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) subtypes; however, which RGCs drive the tuning of different SC neurons remains unclear...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Donia Macartney-Coxson, Miles C Benton, Ray Blick, Richard S Stubbs, Ronald D Hagan, Michael A Langston
BACKGROUND: Epigenetic mechanisms provide an interface between environmental factors and the genome and are known to play a role in complex diseases such as obesity. These mechanisms, including DNA methylation, influence the regulation of development, differentiation and the establishment of cellular identity. Here we employ two approaches to identify differential methylation between two white adipose tissue depots in obese individuals before and after gastric bypass and significant weight loss...
2017: Clinical Epigenetics
S Javanmardy, M H Asadi, M Movahedin, F Moradpour, H Bahadoran
Embryonic stem cell (ESC) therapy is an exciting way to treat neurodegenerative disease and central nervous system injury. However, many ethical and immunological problems surround the use of embryonic stem cells. Finding an alternative source of stem cells is therefore pertinent. In this study, spermatogonia stem cells (SSCs) were used to generate mature motor neurons. SSCs were extracted from neonatal testes and cultured in DMED/F12 medium for 3 weeks. Characterisation of SSC-derived ESC-like cells was confirmed by RT-qPCR, immunostaining, alkaline phosphatase activity and their ability to form embryoid bodies (EBs)...
December 2016: Andrologia
Kyung Won Kim, Rachel A Myers, Ji Hyun Lee, Catherine Igartua, Kyung Eun Lee, Yoon Hee Kim, Eun-Jin Kim, Dankyu Yoon, Joo-Shil Lee, Tomomitsu Hirota, Mayumi Tamari, Atsushi Takahashi, Michiaki Kubo, Je-Min Choi, Kyu-Earn Kim, Dan L Nicolae, Carole Ober, Myung Hyun Sohn
BACKGROUND: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a heterogeneous chronic inflammatory skin disease. Most AD during infancy resolves during childhood, but moderate-to-severe AD with allergic sensitization is more likely to persist into adulthood and more often occurs with other allergic diseases. OBJECTIVE: We sought to find susceptibility loci by performing the first genome-wide association study (GWAS) of AD in Korean children with recalcitrant AD, which was defined as moderate-to-severe AD with allergic sensitization...
September 2015: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Hojae Lee, Minkyung Kim, Namhee Kim, Todd Macfarlan, Samuel L Pfaff, Grant S Mastick, Mi-Ryoung Song
Motor neurons send out axons to peripheral muscles while their cell bodies remain in the ventral spinal cord. The unique configuration of motor neurons spanning the border between the CNS and PNS has been explained by structural barriers such as boundary cap (BC) cells, basal lamina and radial glia. However, mechanisms in motor neurons that retain their position have not been addressed yet. Here we demonstrate that the Islet1 (Isl1) and Islet2 (Isl2) transcription factors, which are essential for acquisition of motor neuron identity, also contribute to restrict motor neurons within the neural tube...
July 2015: Experimental Neurology
J J Johannes Hjorth, David C Sterratt, Catherine S Cutts, David J Willshaw, Stephen J Eglen
Molecular and activity-based cues acting together are thought to guide retinal axons to their terminal sites in vertebrate optic tectum or superior colliculus (SC) to form an ordered map of connections. The details of mechanisms involved, and the degree to which they might interact, are still not well understood. We have developed a framework within which existing computational models can be assessed in an unbiased and quantitative manner against a set of experimental data curated from the mouse retinocollicular system...
June 2015: Developmental Neurobiology
Evgeny Makarev, Marat Gorivodsky
Islet1 belongs to Lim homeobox (Lhx) gene family which encodes transcription factors that have been conserved in evolution. They form complexes with other transcriptional regulators, among them obligatory co-factors encoded by Ldb genes. Isl1 (Islet1), Lhx and Ldb1 genes play a crucial role in organ patterning, cell fate determination and cell differentiation in both embryonic and adult tissues. In this study we analyzed expression pattern of Isl1 and its co-factor Ldb1 in small intestine. We also studied the biological role of Ldb1 in gut endoderm...
2014: PloS One
Chantal Mathis, Elise Savier, Jean-Bastien Bott, Daniel Clesse, Nicholas Bevins, Dominique Sage-Ciocca, Karin Geiger, Anaïs Gillet, Alexis Laux-Biehlmann, Yannick Goumon, Adrien Lacaud, Vincent Lelièvre, Christian Kelche, Jean-Christophe Cassel, Frank W Pfrieger, Michael Reber
The superior colliculus is a hub for multisensory integration necessary for visuo-spatial orientation, control of gaze movements and attention. The multiple functions of the superior colliculus have prompted hypotheses about its involvement in neuropsychiatric conditions, but to date, this topic has not been addressed experimentally. We describe experiments on genetically modified mice, the Isl2-EphA3 knock-in line, that show a well-characterized duplication of the retino-collicular and cortico-collicular axonal projections leading to hyperstimulation of the superior colliculus...
2015: Brain Structure & Function
Jason W Triplett, Wei Wei, Cristina Gonzalez, Neal T Sweeney, Andrew D Huberman, Marla B Feller, David A Feldheim
BACKGROUND: There are numerous functional types of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), each participating in circuits that encode a specific aspect of the visual scene. This functional specificity is derived from distinct RGC morphologies and selective synapse formation with other retinal cell types; yet, how these properties are established during development remains unclear. Islet2 (Isl2) is a LIM-homeodomain transcription factor expressed in the developing retina, including approximately 40% of all RGCs, and has previously been implicated in the subtype specification of spinal motor neurons...
2014: Neural Development
Armin Wilfinger, Valeriya Arkhipova, Dirk Meyer
Isl1 is a LIM homeobox transcription factor showing conserved expression in the developing and mature vertebrate pancreas. So far, functions of pancreatic Isl1 have mainly been studied in the mouse, where Isl1 has independent functions during formation of exocrine and endocrine tissues. Here, we take advantage of a recently described isl1 mutation in zebrafish to address pancreatic isl1 functions in a non-mammalian system. Isl1 in zebrafish, as in mouse, shows transient expression in mesenchyme flanking the pancreatic endoderm, and continuous expression in all endocrine cells...
June 1, 2013: Developmental Biology
Suzanne U Emerson, Hanh T Nguyen, Udana Torian, Karly Mather, Andrew E Firth
Hepatitis E virus (genus Hepevirus, family Hepeviridae) is one of the most important causes of acute hepatitis in adults, particularly among pregnant women, throughout Asia and Africa where mortality rates can be 20-30 %. Hepatitis E virus has a single-stranded positive-sense RNA genome that contains three translated ORFs. The two 3' ORFs are translated from a subgenomic RNA. Functional RNA elements have been identified in and adjacent to the genomic 5' and 3' UTRs and in and around the intergenic region...
July 2013: Journal of General Virology
Nobumi Kobayashi, Shunsaku Homma, Tomoaki Okada, Tomoyuki Masuda, Noboru Sato, Keiji Nishiyama, Chie Sakuma, Takako Shimada, Hiroyuki Yaginuma
The avian cervical spinal cord includes motoneurons (MNs) that send their axons through the dorsal roots. They have been called dorsal motoneurons (dMNs) and assumed to correspond to MNs of the accessory nerve that innervate the cucullaris muscle (SAN-MNs). However, their target muscles have not been elucidated to date. The present study sought to determine the targets and the specific combination of transcription factors expressed by dMNs and SAN-MNs and to describe the detailed development of dMNs. Experiments with tracing techniques confirmed that axons of dMNs innervated the cucullaris muscle...
September 1, 2013: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Qi Zhang, David D Eisenstat
In this review, we have described four major families of homeobox genes which play important roles in RGC differentiation as well as axonal pathfinding. The mechanism underlying how these HD TFs affect axonal pathfinding is not entirely known. One possibility is that the downstream targets directly regulated by these HD TF are responsible for axonal guidance. Examples of this are the repression of EphB1 by Isl2, and Vax1/Vax2 regulation of EphB2/EphB3 expression. The roles of Dlx homeobox genes in RGC axonal guidance have not yet been reported...
2012: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Morgan S Gadd, Mugdha Bhati, Cy M Jeffries, David B Langley, Jill Trewhella, J Mitchell Guss, Jacqueline M Matthews
Combinations of LIM homeodomain proteins form a transcriptional "LIM code" to direct the specification of neural cell types. Two paralogous pairs of LIM homeodomain proteins, LIM homeobox protein 3/4 (Lhx3/Lhx4) and Islet-1/2 (Isl1/Isl2), are expressed in developing ventral motor neurons. Lhx3 and Isl1 interact within a well characterized transcriptional complex that triggers motor neuron development, but it was not known whether Lhx4 and Isl2 could participate in equivalent complexes. We have identified an Lhx3-binding domain (LBD) in Isl2 based on sequence homology with the Isl1(LBD) and show that both Isl2(LBD) and Isl1(LBD) can bind each of Lhx3 and Lhx4...
December 16, 2011: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Dmitry Tsigankov, Alexei A Koulakov
BACKGROUND: In wild-type mice, axons of retinal ganglion cells establish topographically precise projection to the superior colliculus of the midbrain. This means that axons of neighboring retinal ganglion cells project to the proximal locations in the target. The precision of topographic projection is a result of combined effects of molecular labels, such as Eph receptors and ephrins, and correlated neural activity. In the Isl2/EphA3 mutant mice the expression levels of molecular labels are changed...
2010: BMC Neuroscience
Pawel Kaleta, John O'Callaghan, Gerald F Fitzgerald, Thomas P Beresford, R Paul Ross
Lactobacillus helveticus is a versatile dairy bacterium found to possess heterogeneous genotypes depending on the ecosystem from which it was isolated. The recently published genome sequence showed the remarkable flexibility of its structure, demonstrated by a substantial level of insertion sequence (IS) element expansion in association with massive gene decay. To assess this diversity and examine the level of genome plasticity within the L. helveticus species, an array-based comparative genome hybridization (aCGH) experiment was designed in which 10 strains were analyzed...
January 2010: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Mohammad Salehi, Parichehr Pasbakhsh, Masoud Soleimani, Mehdi Abbasi, Gholamreza Hasanzadeh, Mohammad Hossein Modaresi, Aligholi Sobhani
BACKGROUND: The failure of regeneration after spinal cord injury (SCI) has been attributed to axonal demyelination and neuronal death. Cellular replacement and white matter regeneration are both necessary for SCI repair. In this study, we evaluated the co-transplantation of olfactory ensheathing cells (OEC) and embryonic stem (ES) cell-derived motor neurons (ESMN) on contused SCI. METHODS: OEC cultured from olfactory nerve rootlets and olfactory bulbs. ESMN was generated by exposing mouse ES cells to retinoic acid and sonic hedgehog...
2009: Iranian Biomedical Journal
Mi-Ryoung Song, Yunfu Sun, Ami Bryson, Gordon N Gill, Sylvia M Evans, Samuel L Pfaff
LIM transcription factors bind to nuclear LIM interactor (Ldb/NLI/Clim) in specific ratios to form higher-order complexes that regulate gene expression. Here we examined how the dosage of LIM homeodomain proteins Isl1 and Isl2 and LIM-only protein Lmo4 influences the assembly and function of complexes involved in the generation of spinal motor neurons (MNs) and V2a interneurons (INs). Reducing the levels of Islet proteins using a graded series of mutations favored V2a IN differentiation at the expense of MN formation...
September 2009: Development
Pawel Kaleta, Michael J Callanan, John O'Callaghan, Gerald F Fitzgerald, Thomas P Beresford, R Paul Ross
The species Lactobacillus helveticus is a commonly used thermophilic starter and/or adjunct culture for Swiss and Cheddar cheese manufacture. Its use is normally associated with flavour improvement which is known to be associated with culture traits such as rapid autolysis and high proteolytic activity. The genome of the commercial strain, DPC4571, was recently sequenced and found to have an abundance of IS sequences in terms of both abundance (213 intact) and diversity (21 types). Given this unique diversity for a lactic acid bacterium, we investigated whether PCR-based IS fingerprinting could be used as a discriminatory tool to distinguish between different strains of Lb...
October 2009: Journal of Microbiological Methods
Eugene A Gladyshev, Irina R Arkhipova
In the course of sequencing telomeric chromosomal regions of the bdelloid rotifer Adineta vaga, we encountered an unusual DNA transposon. Unlike other bdelloid and, more generally, eukaryotic transposable elements (TEs), it exhibits similarity to prokaryotic insertion sequences (ISs). Phylogenetic analysis indicates that this transposon, named IS5_Av, is related to the ISL2 group of the IS5 family of bacterial IS elements. Despite the apparent intactness of the single open reading frame coding for a DDE transposase and the perfect identity of its 213-bp terminal inverted repeats (TIRs), the element is present in only one copy per diploid genome...
August 2009: Molecular Biology and Evolution
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