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Masatsugu Masuda, Yan Li, Kwang Pak, Eduardo Chavez, Lina Mullen, Allen F Ryan
Few enhancers that target gene expression to inner ear hair cells (HCs) have been identified. Using transgenic analysis of enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) reporter constructs and bioinformatics, we evaluated the control of pou4f3 gene expression, since it is expressed only in HCs within the inner ear and continues to be expressed throughout life. An 8.5-kb genomic DNA fragment 5' to the start codon, containing three regions of high cross-species homology, drove expression in all embryonic and neonatal HCs, and adult vestibular and inner HCs, but not adult outer HCs...
September 3, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Julia Rohayem, Hendrik Drechsel, Bettina Tittel, Gabriele Hahn, Roland Pfaeffle, Angela Huebner
BACKGROUND: Growth hormone (GH) has been used to treat children with GH deficiency (GHD) since 1966. AIMS: Using a combined retrospective and cross-sectional approach, we explored the long-term outcomes of patients with GHD, analysed factors influencing therapeutic response, determined persistence into adulthood, investigated pituitary morphology, and screened for mutations in causative genes. METHODS: The files of 96 GH-deficient children were reviewed...
2016: Hormone Research in Pædiatrics
Yoanne M Clovis, So Yeon Seo, Ji-Sun Kwon, Jennifer C Rhee, Sujeong Yeo, Jae W Lee, Seunghee Lee, Soo-Kyung Lee
During development, two cell types born from closely related progenitor pools often express identical transcriptional regulators despite their completely distinct characteristics. This phenomenon implies the need for a mechanism that operates to segregate the identities of the two cell types throughout differentiation after initial fate commitment. To understand this mechanism, we investigated the fate specification of spinal V2a interneurons, which share important developmental genes with motor neurons (MNs)...
August 9, 2016: Cell Reports
Jean-Noël Laverrière, David L'Hôte, Laure Tabouy, Anne-Laure Schang, Bruno Quérat, Joëlle Cohen-Tannoudji
Gonadotrope cell identity genes emerge in a stepwise process during mouse pituitary development. Cga, encoding for the α-subunit of TSH, LH, and FSH, is initially detected at E11.5 followed by Gnrhr and steroidogenic factor Sf1 at E13.5, specifying cells engaged in a gonadotrope cell fate. Lhb and Fshb appear at E16.5 and 17.5, respectively, typifying differentiated gonadotrope cells. Using the αT1-1, αT3-1 and LβT2 cell lines recapitulating these stages of gonadotrope differentiation, DNA methylation at Gnrhr and Sf1 was investigated...
October 15, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
Hitoshi Kodama, Yoshimasa Miyata, Mami Kuwajima, Ryoichi Izuchi, Ayumi Kobayashi, Fuki Gyoja, Takeshi A Onuma, Gaku Kumano, Hiroki Nishida
During embryonic induction, the responding cells invoke an induced developmental program, whereas in the absence of an inducing signal, they assume a default uninduced cell fate. Suppression of the default fate during the inductive event is crucial for choice of the binary cell fate. In contrast to the mechanisms that promote an induced cell fate, those that suppress the default fate have been overlooked. Upon induction, intracellular signal transduction results in activation of genes encoding key transcription factors for induced tissue differentiation...
August 1, 2016: Developmental Biology
Heejin Nam, Seunghee Lee
During spinal cord development, motor neuron (MN) axons exit the spinal cord ventrally, although the molecular basis for this process remains poorly understood. STAM1 and HRS form a complex involved with endosomal targeting of cargo proteins, including the chemokine receptor CXCR4. Interestingly, the absence of CXCR4 signaling in spinal MNs is known to result in improper extension of the axons into the dorsal side of the spinal cord. Here, we report that the MN-specific ISL1-LHX3 complex directly transactivates the Stam1 gene and that STAM1 functions in determining the ventral spinal MN axonal projections...
July 1, 2016: Development
Hadar Haim-Pinhas, Rivka Kauli, Pearl Lilos, Zvi Laron
OBJECTIVE: Congenital MPHD is a rare condition caused by mutations in pituitary transcription factors genes: PROP1, POU1F1 (PIT1), HESX1, LHX3, LHX4. DESIGN: We evaluated in a retrospective study the effects on growth and development in 29 patients with congenital MPHD (cMPHD), during hGH replacement therapy alone and combined with sex hormones. Twenty nine patients with cMPHD were included and diagnosed, treated and followed in our clinic from diagnosis to adult age...
April 2016: Growth Hormone & IGF Research
Saishu Yoshida, Takako Kato, Naoto Nishimura, Naoko Kanno, Mo Chen, Hiroki Ueharu, Hiroto Nishihara, Yukio Kato
The LIM-homeobox transcription factors LHX2 and LHX3s (LHX3a and LHX3b) are thought to be involved in regulating the pituitary glycoprotein hormone subunit genes Cga and Fshβ. These two factors show considerable differences in their amino acid sequences for DNA binding and protein-protein interactions and in their vital function in pituitary development. Hence, we compared the DNA binding properties and transcriptional activities of Cga and Fshβ between LHX2 and LHX3s. A gel mobility shift assay for approximately 1...
June 17, 2016: Journal of Reproduction and Development
Nisha R Iyer, James E Huettner, Jessica C Butts, Chelsea R Brown, Shelly E Sakiyama-Elbert
Challenges in parsing specific contributions to spinal microcircuit architecture have limited our ability to model and manipulate those networks for improved functional regeneration after injury or disease. While spinal interneurons (INs) have been implicated in driving coordinated locomotor behaviors, they constitute only a small percentage of the spinal cord and are difficult to isolate from primary tissue. In this study, we employed a genetic strategy to obtain large quantities of highly enriched mouse embryonic stem cell (ESC)-derived V2a INs, an excitatory glutamatergic IN population that is defined by expression of the homeodomain protein Chx10 during development...
March 2016: Experimental Neurology
María Soler Artigas, Louise V Wain, Suzanne Miller, Abdul Kader Kheirallah, Jennifer E Huffman, Ioanna Ntalla, Nick Shrine, Ma'en Obeidat, Holly Trochet, Wendy L McArdle, Alexessander Couto Alves, Jennie Hui, Jing Hua Zhao, Peter K Joshi, Alexander Teumer, Eva Albrecht, Medea Imboden, Rajesh Rawal, Lorna M Lopez, Jonathan Marten, Stefan Enroth, Ida Surakka, Ozren Polasek, Leo-Pekka Lyytikäinen, Raquel Granell, Pirro G Hysi, Claudia Flexeder, Anubha Mahajan, John Beilby, Yohan Bossé, Corry-Anke Brandsma, Harry Campbell, Christian Gieger, Sven Gläser, Juan R González, Harald Grallert, Chris J Hammond, Sarah E Harris, Anna-Liisa Hartikainen, Markku Heliövaara, John Henderson, Lynne Hocking, Momoko Horikoshi, Nina Hutri-Kähönen, Erik Ingelsson, Åsa Johansson, John P Kemp, Ivana Kolcic, Ashish Kumar, Lars Lind, Erik Melén, Arthur W Musk, Pau Navarro, David C Nickle, Sandosh Padmanabhan, Olli T Raitakari, Janina S Ried, Samuli Ripatti, Holger Schulz, Robert A Scott, Don D Sin, John M Starr, Ana Viñuela, Henry Völzke, Sarah H Wild, Alan F Wright, Tatijana Zemunik, Deborah L Jarvis, Tim D Spector, David M Evans, Terho Lehtimäki, Veronique Vitart, Mika Kähönen, Ulf Gyllensten, Igor Rudan, Ian J Deary, Stefan Karrasch, Nicole M Probst-Hensch, Joachim Heinrich, Beate Stubbe, James F Wilson, Nicholas J Wareham, Alan L James, Andrew P Morris, Marjo-Riitta Jarvelin, Caroline Hayward, Ian Sayers, David P Strachan, Ian P Hall, Martin D Tobin
Lung function measures are used in the diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In 38,199 European ancestry individuals, we studied genome-wide association of forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC) and FEV1/FVC with 1000 Genomes Project (phase 1)-imputed genotypes and followed up top associations in 54,550 Europeans. We identify 14 novel loci (P<5 × 10(-8)) in or near ENSA, RNU5F-1, KCNS3, AK097794, ASTN2, LHX3, CCDC91, TBX3, TRIP11, RIN3, TEKT5, LTBP4, MN1 and AP1S2, and two novel signals at known loci NPNT and GPR126, providing a basis for new understanding of the genetic determinants of these traits and pulmonary diseases in which they are altered...
December 4, 2015: Nature Communications
K Ziemnicka, B Budny, K Drobnik, D Baszko-Błaszyk, M Stajgis, K Katulska, R Waśko, E Wrotkowska, R Słomski, M Ruchała
The role of genetic background in childhood-onset combined pituitary hormone deficiency (CPHD) has been extensively studied. The major contributors are the PROP1, POU1F1, LHX3, LHX4 and HESX1 genes coding transcription factors implicated in pituitary organogenesis. The clinical consequences of mutations encompass impaired synthesis of a growth hormone (GH) and one or more concurrent pituitary hormones (i.e. LH, FSH, TSH, PRL). Manifestation of the disorder may vary due to various mutation impacts on the final gene products or an influence of environmental factors during pituitary organogenesis...
August 2016: Journal of Applied Genetics
Liangdong Chen, Deqiang Zhuo, Jiakuan Chen, Hongyin Yuan
Lung carcinoma is the most common and aggressive malignant tumor with poor clinical outcome. Identification of new marker of lung cancer is essential for the diagnosis and prognosis of the disease. To identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and find associated pathways that may function as targets of lung cancer. Gene expression profiling of GSE40791 were downloaded from GEO (Gene Expression Omnibus), including 100 normal specimens and 94 lung cancer samples. The DEGs were screened out by LIMMA package in R language...
2015: International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine
Namhee Kim, Chungoo Park, Yongsu Jeong, Mi-Ryoung Song
Functional diversification of motor neurons has occurred in order to selectively control the movements of different body parts including head, trunk and limbs. Here we report that transcription of Isl1, a major gene necessary for motor neuron identity, is controlled by two enhancers, CREST1 (E1) and CREST2 (E2) that allow selective gene expression of Isl1 in motor neurons. Introduction of GFP reporters into the chick neural tube revealed that E1 is active in hindbrain motor neurons and spinal cord motor neurons, whereas E2 is active in the lateral motor column (LMC) of the spinal cord, which controls the limb muscles...
October 2015: PLoS Genetics
Nadia Schoenmakers, Kyriaki S Alatzoglou, V Krishna Chatterjee, Mehul T Dattani
Central congenital hypothyroidism (CCH) may occur in isolation, or more frequently in combination with additional pituitary hormone deficits with or without associated extrapituitary abnormalities. Although uncommon, it may be more prevalent than previously thought, affecting up to 1:16 000 neonates in the Netherlands. Since TSH is not elevated, CCH will evade diagnosis in primary, TSH-based, CH screening programs and delayed detection may result in neurodevelopmental delay due to untreated neonatal hypothyroidism...
December 2015: Journal of Endocrinology
Karen P Thiebes, Heejin Nam, Xiaolu A Cambronne, Rongkun Shen, Stacey M Glasgow, Hyong-Ho Cho, Ji-Sun Kwon, Richard H Goodman, Jae W Lee, Seunghee Lee, Soo-Kyung Lee
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2015: Nature Communications
Ryosuke Maeda, Takayuki Shimo, Yusuke Nakane, Nobuhiro Nakao, Takashi Yoshimura
TSH secreted from the pars distalis (PD) of the pituitary gland stimulates the thyroid gland. In contrast, TSH secreted from the pars tuberalis (PT) of the pituitary gland regulates seasonal reproduction. The ontogeny of thyrotrophs and the regulatory mechanisms of TSH are apparently different between the PD and the PT. Interestingly, fish do not have an anatomically distinct PT, and the saccus vasculosus (SV) of fish is suggested to act as a seasonal sensor. Thus, it is possible that the SV is analogous to the PT...
November 2015: Endocrinology
So Yeon Seo, Bora Lee, Seunghee Lee
During spinal cord development, the LIM domains of the LIM homeodomain factor Lhx3 bind to either the LIM cofactor nuclear LIM interactor (NLI) or another LIM homeodomain factor, Isl1, assembling the tetrameric V2 interneuron-specifying Lhx3 complex (2NLI:2Lhx3) or the hexameric motor neuron-specifying Isl1-Lhx3 complex (2NLI:2Isl1:2Lhx3). However, the detailed molecular basis by which the Lhx3-LIM domains contribute to motor neuron specification still remains poorly understood. Here, we show that the Lhx3-LIM domains are essential for recruiting transcriptional coactivators to the Isl1-Lhx3 complex...
October 2015: Molecular and Cellular Biology
Karen P Thiebes, Heejin Nam, Xiaolu A Cambronne, Rongkun Shen, Stacey M Glasgow, Hyong-Ho Cho, Ji-Sun Kwon, Richard H Goodman, Jae W Lee, Seunghee Lee, Soo-Kyung Lee
While microRNAs have emerged as an important component of gene regulatory networks, it remains unclear how microRNAs collaborate with transcription factors in the gene networks that determines neuronal cell fate. Here we show that in the developing spinal cord, the expression of miR-218 is directly upregulated by the Isl1-Lhx3 complex, which drives motor neuron fate. Inhibition of miR-218 suppresses the generation of motor neurons in both chick neural tube and mouse embryonic stem cells, suggesting that miR-218 plays a crucial role in motor neuron differentiation...
2015: Nature Communications
Francesca De Rienzo, Simona Mellone, Simonetta Bellone, Deepak Babu, Ileana Fusco, Flavia Prodam, Antonella Petri, Ranjith Muniswamy, Filippo De Luca, Mariacarolina Salerno, Patricia Momigliano-Richardi, Gianni Bona, Mara Giordano
OBJECTIVE: Combined pituitary hormonal deficiency (CPHD) can result from mutations within genes that encode transcription factors. This study evaluated the frequency of mutations in these genes in a cohort of 144 unrelated Italian patients with CPHD and estimated the overall prevalence of mutations across different populations using a systematic literature review. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A multicentre study of adult and paediatric patients with CPHD was performed...
December 2015: Clinical Endocrinology
Kai Fang, Matthew B Grisham, Christopher G Kevil
Experimental models of colitis in mice have been used extensively for analyzing the molecular events that occur during inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) development. However, it is uncertain to what extent the experimental models reproduce features of human IBD. This is largely due to the lack of precise methods for direct and comprehensive comparison of mouse and human inflamed colon tissue at the molecular level. Here, we use global gene expression patterns of two sets of pediatric IBD and two mouse models of colitis to obtain a direct comparison of the genome signatures of mouse and human IBD...
2015: Frontiers in Immunology
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