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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819291/isl1-based-lim-complexes-control-slit2-transcription-in-developing-cranial-motor-neurons
#1
Kyung-Tai Kim, Namhee Kim, Hwan-Ki Kim, Hojae Lee, Hannah N Gruner, Peter Gergics, Chungoo Park, Grant S Mastick, Hae-Chul Park, Mi-Ryoung Song
LIM-homeodomain (HD) transcription factors form a multimeric complex and assign neuronal subtype identities, as demonstrated by the hexameric ISL1-LHX3 complex which gives rise to somatic motor (SM) neurons. However, the roles of combinatorial LIM code in motor neuron diversification and their subsequent differentiation is much less well understood. In the present study, we demonstrate that the ISL1 controls postmitotic cranial branchiomotor (BM) neurons including the positioning of the cell bodies and peripheral axon pathfinding...
November 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818139/cited2-cooperates-with-isl1-and-promotes-cardiac-differentiation-of-mouse-embryonic-stem-cells
#2
Ivette Pacheco-Leyva, Ana Catarina Matias, Daniel V Oliveira, João M A Santos, Rita Nascimento, Eduarda Guerreiro, Anna C Michell, Annebel M van De Vrugt, Gisela Machado-Oliveira, Guilherme Ferreira, Ibrahim Domian, José Bragança
The transcriptional regulator CITED2 is essential for heart development. Here, we investigated the role of CITED2 in the specification of cardiac cell fate from mouse embryonic stem cells (ESC). The overexpression of CITED2 in undifferentiated ESC was sufficient to promote cardiac cell emergence upon differentiation. Conversely, the depletion of Cited2 at the onset of differentiation resulted in a decline of ESC ability to generate cardiac cells. Moreover, loss of Cited2 expression impairs the expression of early mesoderm markers and cardiogenic transcription factors (Isl1, Gata4, Tbx5)...
October 31, 2016: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794491/vegf-regulates-relative-allocation-of-isl1-cardiac-progenitors-to-myocardial-and-endocardial-lineages
#3
Zhiheng He, Myriam Grunewald, Yuval Dor, Eli Keshet
A fundamental issue in organogenesis is how dichotomous fate decisions are made securing proper allocation of multipotent progenitors to their respective descendants. Previous lineage tracing analyses showing Isl1(+)/VEGFR2(+) cardiac progenitors in the second heart field give rise to both endocardium and myocardium suggest VEGF plays a role in this fate decision, conceivably promoting an endocardial fate. Isl1(+) multipotent progenitors and lineage-committed descendants thereof were visualized and quantified within their transition zone in the outflow tract...
October 26, 2016: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27672361/transgenic-gdnf-positively-influences-proliferation-differentiation-maturation-and-survival-of-motor-neurons-produced-from-mouse-embryonic-stem-cells
#4
Daniel Cortés, Yolanda Robledo-Arratia, Ricardo Hernández-Martínez, Itzel Escobedo-Ávila, José Bargas, Iván Velasco
Embryonic stem cells (ESC) are pluripotent and thus can differentiate into every cell type present in the body. Directed differentiation into motor neurons (MNs) has been described for pluripotent cells. Although neurotrophic factors promote neuronal survival, their role in neuronal commitment is elusive. Here, we developed double-transgenic lines of mouse ESC (mESC) that constitutively produce glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and also contain a GFP reporter, driven by HB9, which is expressed only by postmitotic MNs...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27659340/characterization-and-tissue-distribution-of-lhx9-and-lhx9%C3%AE-in-chinese-giant-salamander-andrias-davidianus
#5
Qiaomu Hu, Haifeng Tian, Yan Meng, Hanbing Xiao
Lhx9 is an LIM (named for the first three proteins in which the domain was found, Lin-11, Isl1 and Mec-3) homeodomain protein involved in development and differentiation of the gonad. In this study, we isolated the full-length Lhx9 and Lhx9α from Andrias davidianus, detected the tissue distribution and analysed the methylation of the promoters. We identified Lhx9 of 1411 bp and Lhx9α of 1153-bp length, differing in the 3'-flanking region, encoding 399 and 330 amino acids, respectively. The Lhx9 gene was detected primarily in liver, ovary and heart with moderate expression in brain, pituitary, intestine and spleen, and low expression in the remaining examined tissues, while Lhx9α expression was high in heart, pituitary and liver, and low in spleen and stomach...
September 2016: Journal of Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27649475/epispadias-and-the-associated-embryopathies-genetic-and-developmental-basis
#6
K Suzuki, D Matsumaru, S Matsushita, A Murashima, M Ludwig, H Reutter, G Yamada
The abnormalities in the urogenital organs are frequently observed as human developmental diseases. Among such diseases, the defects in the upper part of external genitalia are rather rare named epispadias. The cleft in the dorsal part of external genitalia often reaches to the urethra. In general, the urogenital abnormalities accompany defects in the adjacent tissues and organs. The ventral body wall and bladder can also be affected in the patients with dorsal defects of the external genitalia. Therefore, such multiple malformations are often classified as bladder exstrophy and epispadias complex (BEEC)...
September 20, 2016: Clinical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27578785/the-lim-homeobox-transcription-factor-isl1-plays-crucial-roles-in-the-development-of-multiple-arcuate-nucleus-neurons
#7
Bora Lee, Seunghee Lee, Soo-Kyung Lee, Jae W Lee
Neurons in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus relay and translate important cues from the periphery into the central nervous system. However, the gene regulatory program directing their development remains poorly understood. Here, we report that the LIM-homeodomain transcription factor Isl1 is expressed in several subpopulations of developing arcuate neurons and plays crucial roles in their fate specification. Mice with conditional deletion of the Isl1 gene in developing hypothalamus display severe deficits in both feeding and linear growth...
October 15, 2016: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27532212/pou4f2-gfp-knock-in-mouse-line-a-model-for-studying-retinal-ganglion-cell-development
#8
Dongwang Zheng, Xiaoyan Yang, Donglai Sheng, Dongliang Yu, Guoqing Liang, Luming Guo, Mei Xu, Xu Hu, Daqiang He, Yang Yang, Yuying Wang
Pou4f2 acts as a key node in the comprehensive and step-wise gene regulatory network (GRN) and regulates the development of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Accordingly, deletion of Pou4f2 results in RGC axon defects and apoptosis. To investigate the GRN involved in RGC regeneration, we generated a mouse line with a POU4F2-green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion protein expressed in RGCs. Co-localization of POU4F2 and GFP in the retina and brain of Pou4f2-GFP/+ heterozygote mice was confirmed using immunofluorescence analysis...
August 17, 2016: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27525311/isl1-cardiovascular-progenitor-cells-for-cardiac-repair-after-myocardial-infarction
#9
Oscar Bartulos, Zhen Wu Zhuang, Yan Huang, Nicole Mikush, Carol Suh, Alda Bregasi, Lin Wang, William Chang, Diane S Krause, Lawrence H Young, Jordan S Pober, Yibing Qyang
Cardiovascular progenitor cells (CPCs) expressing the ISL1-LIM-homeodomain transcription factor contribute developmentally to cardiomyocytes in all 4 chambers of the heart. Here, we show that ISL1-CPCs can be applied to myocardial regeneration following injury. We used a rapid 3D methylcellulose approach to form murine and human ISL1-CPC spheroids that engrafted after myocardial infarction in murine hearts, where they differentiated into cardiomyocytes and endothelial cells, integrating into the myocardium and forming new blood vessels...
July 7, 2016: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27485686/neuronal-deletion-of-kmt2a-mll1-histone-methyltransferase-in-ventral-striatum-is-associated-with-defective-spike-timing-dependent-striatal-synaptic-plasticity-altered-response-to-dopaminergic-drugs-and-increased-anxiety
#10
Erica Y Shen, Yan Jiang, Behnam Javidfar, Bibi Kassim, Yong-Hwee E Loh, Qi Ma, Amanda C Mitchell, Venu Pothula, A Francis Stewart, Patricia Ernst, Wei-Dong Yao, Gilles Martin, Li Shen, Mira Jakovcevski, Schahram Akbarian
Lysine (K) methyltransferase 2a (Kmt2a) and other regulators of H3 lysine 4 methylation, a histone modification enriched at promoters and enhancers, are widely expressed throughout the brain, but molecular and cellular phenotypes in subcortical areas remain poorly explored. We report that Kmt2a conditional deletion in postnatal forebrain is associated with excessive nocturnal activity and with absent or blunted responses to stimulant and dopaminergic agonist drugs, in conjunction with near-complete loss of spike-timing-dependent long-term potentiation in medium spiny neurons (MSNs)...
December 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27446404/early-detection-of-tumor-relapse-regrowth-by-consecutive-minimal-residual-disease-monitoring-in-high-risk-neuroblastoma-patients
#11
Satoshi Hirase, Atsuro Saitoh, Tri Budi Hartomo, Aiko Kozaki, Tomoko Yanai, Daiichiro Hasegawa, Keiichiro Kawasaki, Yoshiyuki Kosaka, Masafumi Matsuo, Nobuyuki Yamamoto, Takeshi Mori, Akira Hayakawa, Kazumoto Iijima, Hisahide Nishio, Noriyuki Nishimura
Neuroblastoma is an aggressive pediatric tumor accounting for ~15% of cancer-associated mortalities in children. Despite the current intensive therapy, >50% of high-risk patients experience tumor relapse or regrowth caused by the activation of minimal residual disease (MRD). Although several MRD detection protocols using various reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) markers have been reported to evaluate the therapeutic response and disease status of neuroblastoma patients, their clinical significance remains elusive...
August 2016: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27434649/same-single-cell-analysis-of-pacemaker-specific-markers-in-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-cardiomyocyte-subtypes-classified-by-electrophysiology
#12
Sergey Yechikov, Raul Copaciu, Jessica M Gluck, Wenbin Deng, Nipavan Chiamvimonvat, James W Chan, Deborah K Lieu
Insights into the expression of pacemaker-specific markers in human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived cardiomyocyte subtypes can facilitate the enrichment and track differentiation and maturation of hiPSC-derived pacemaker-like cardiomyocytes. To date, no study has directly assessed gene expression in each pacemaker-, atria-, and ventricular-like cardiomyocyte subtype derived from hiPSCs since currently the subtypes of these immature cardiomyocytes can only be identified by action potential profiles...
July 19, 2016: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27402603/epigenetic-regulation-of-alternative-promoters-and-enhancers-in-progenitor-immature-and-mature-gonadotrope-cell-lines
#13
Jean-Noël Laverrière, David L'Hôte, Laure Tabouy, Anne-Laure Schang, Bruno Quérat, Joëlle Cohen-Tannoudji
Gonadotrope cell identity genes emerge in a stepwise process during mouse pituitary development. Cga, encoding for the α-subunit of TSH, LH, and FSH, is initially detected at E11.5 followed by Gnrhr and steroidogenic factor Sf1 at E13.5, specifying cells engaged in a gonadotrope cell fate. Lhb and Fshb appear at E16.5 and 17.5, respectively, typifying differentiated gonadotrope cells. Using the αT1-1, αT3-1 and LβT2 cell lines recapitulating these stages of gonadotrope differentiation, DNA methylation at Gnrhr and Sf1 was investigated...
October 15, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27333945/generation-of-induced-cardiospheres-via-reprogramming-of-skin-fibroblasts-for-myocardial-regeneration
#14
Jian-Yong Xu, Yee-Ki Lee, Xinru Ran, Song-Yan Liao, Jiayin Yang, Ka-Wing Au, Wing-Hon Lai, Miguel A Esteban, Hung-Fat Tse
Recent pre-clinical and clinical studies have suggested that endogenous cardiospheres (eCS) are potentially safe and effective for cardiac regeneration following myocardial infarction (MI). Nevertheless the preparation of autologous eCS requires invasive myocardial biopsy with limited yield. We describe a novel approach to generate induced cardiospheres (iCS) from adult skin fibroblasts via somatic reprogramming. After infection with Sox2, Klf4, and Oct4, iCS were generated from mouse adult skin fibroblasts treated with Gsk3β inhibitor-(2'Z,3'E)- 6-Bromoindirubin-3'-oxime and Oncostatin M...
June 22, 2016: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27323909/zebrafish-cyclin-dx-is-required-for-development-of-motor-neuron-progenitors-and-its-expression-is-regulated-by-hypoxia-inducible-factor-2%C3%AE
#15
Huang-Wei Lien, Rey-Yue Yuan, Chih-Ming Chou, Yi-Chung Chen, Chin-Chun Hung, Chin-Hwa Hu, Sheng-Ping L Hwang, Pung-Pung Hwang, Chia-Ning Shen, Chih-Lung Chen, Chia-Hsiung Cheng, Chang-Jen Huang
Cyclins play a central role in cell-cycle regulation; in mammals, the D family of cyclins consists of cyclin D1, D2, and D3. In Xenopus, only homologs of cyclins D1 and D2 have been reported, while a novel cyclin, cyclin Dx (ccndx), was found to be required for the maintenance of motor neuron progenitors during embryogenesis. It remains unknown whether zebrafish possess cyclin D3 or cyclin Dx. In this study, we identified a zebrafish ccndx gene encoding a protein which can form a complex with Cdk4. Through whole-mount in situ hybridization, we observed that zccndx mRNA is expressed in the motor neurons of hindbrain and spinal cord during development...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27251161/induction-of-specific-neuron-types-by-overexpression-of-single-transcription-factors
#16
Yusuke Teratani-Ota, Kohei Yamamizu, Yulan Piao, Lioudmila Sharova, Misa Amano, Hong Yu, David Schlessinger, Minoru S H Ko, Alexei A Sharov
Specific neuronal types derived from embryonic stem cells (ESCs) can facilitate mechanistic studies and potentially aid in regenerative medicine. Existing induction methods, however, mostly rely on the effects of the combined action of multiple added growth factors, which generally tend to result in mixed populations of neurons. Here, we report that overexpression of specific transcription factors (TFs) in ESCs can rather guide the differentiation of ESCs towards specific neuron lineages. Analysis of data on gene expression changes 2 d after induction of each of 185 TFs implicated candidate TFs for further ESC differentiation studies...
October 2016: In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology. Animal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27243442/expression-of-homeobox-genes-in-the-mouse-olfactory-epithelium
#17
Marta Parrilla, Isabelle Chang, Andrea Degl'Innocenti, Masayo Omura
Homeobox genes constitute a large family of genes widely studied because of their role in the establishment of the body pattern. However, they are also involved in many other events during development and adulthood. The main olfactory epithelium (MOE) is an excellent model to study neurogenesis in the adult nervous system. Analyses of homeobox genes during development show that some of these genes are involved in the formation and establishment of cell diversity in the MOE. Moreover, the mechanisms of expression of odorant receptors (ORs) constitute one of the biggest enigmas in the field...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27214687/frizzled3-shapes-the-development-of-retinal-rod-bipolar-cells
#18
Ning Shen, Yibo Qu, Yankun Yu, Kwok-Fai So, Andre M Goffinet, Noga Vardi, Ying Xu, Libing Zhou
PURPOSE: Frizzled3 (Fzd3), a member of the core planar cell polarity (PCP) family in mammals, contributes to visual development by guiding axonal projections of some retinal ganglion cells. However, its other functions in the maturation of the visual system, especially the retina, remain elusive. The present study explores the role of Fzd3 in retinal development by focusing on rod bipolar cells (RBCs). METHODS: Frizzled3 was conditionally removed from the retina of Isl1-Cre;Fzd3f/- mice using the Cre-loxP system...
May 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27183908/isl1-a-novel-regulator-of-ccnb1-ccnb2-and-c-myc-genes-promotes-gastric-cancer-cell-proliferation-and-tumor-growth
#19
Qiong Shi, Weiping Wang, Zhuqing Jia, Ping Chen, Kangtao Ma, Chunyan Zhou
Islet-1 (ISL1) belongs to the LIM homeodomain transcription factor family, which is specifically expressed in certain tissue types only. Previously, we reported that ISL1 is aberrantly overexpressed in gastric cancer (GC). However, its role in GC is not clear. Here, we report that ISL1 is aberrantly upregulated not only in human gastric carcinoma tissues but also in some GC cell lines. Upregulated ISL1 expression enhanced xenografted gastric carcinoma development, while ISL1 knockdown inhibited GC growth in nude mice...
June 14, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27170656/celsr3-and-fzd3-organize-a-pioneer-neuron-scaffold-to-steer-growing-thalamocortical-axons
#20
Jia Feng, Quanxiang Xian, Tingting Guan, Jing Hu, Meizhi Wang, Yuhua Huang, Kwok-Fai So, Sylvia M Evans, Guoliang Chai, Andre M Goffinet, Yibo Qu, Libing Zhou
Celsr3 and Fzd3 regulate the development of reciprocal thalamocortical projections independently of their expression in cortical or thalamic neurons. To understand this cell non autonomous mechanism further, we tested whether Celsr3 and Fzd3 could act via Isl1-positive guidepost cells. Isl1-positive cells appear in the forebrain at embryonic day (E) 9.5-E10.5 and, from E12.5, they form 2 contingents in ventral telencephalon and prethalamus. In control mice, corticothalamic axons run in the ventral telencephalic corridor in close contact with Isl1-positive cells...
July 2016: Cerebral Cortex
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