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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683710/the-resilience-of-verbal-sequence-learning-evidence-from-the-hebb-repetition-effect
#1
Marie-Ève St-Louis, Robert W Hughes, Jean Saint-Aubin, Sébastien Tremblay
In a single large-scale study, we demonstrate that verbal sequence learning as studied using the classic Hebb repetition effect (Hebb, 1961)-the improvement in the serial recall of a repeating sequence compared to nonrepeated sequences-is resilient to both wide and irregular spacing between sequence repetitions. Learning of a repeated sequence of letters was evident to a comparable degree with three, five, and eight intervening nonrepeated sequences and regardless of whether the spacing between repetitions was regular or irregular...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683014/older-adults-perspectives-on-the-process-of-becoming-users-of-assistive-technology-a-qualitative-systematic-review-and-meta-synthesis
#2
Stina Meyer Larsen, Rikke Falgreen Mortensen, Hanne Kaae Kristensen, Lise Hounsgaard
PURPOSE: To identify, synthesize, and evaluate existing literature concerning the process of becoming a user of assistive technology (AT). METHOD: A systematic review and meta-synthesis were carried out. Five bibliographic databases (MEDLINE via PubMed, CINAHL, Web of Science, PsycINFO and SocINDEX) were systematically searched up to 13th of March 2017, using two sets of search terms: (i) elderly and synonyms and (ii) assistive technology and similar words, and combined with a qualitative research filter...
April 22, 2018: Disability and Rehabilitation. Assistive Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680840/is-arthrocentesis-of-temporomandibular-joint-with-corticosteroids-beneficial-a-systematic-review
#3
A Davoudi, H Khaki, I Mohammadi, M Daneshmand, A Tamizifar, M Bigdelou, F Ansaripoor
BACKGROUND: Temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) are musculoskeletal conditions that can inhibit the normal function of temporomandibular joints (TMJs) and affect the patient's quality of life, negatively. Arthrocentesis (AC) is a minimally invasive surgical procedure used for treating TMDs. The aim of present paper is to evaluate the advantages of administrating corticosteroid (CS) during AC by reviewing high quality released articles. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Searching on Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Google Scholar, PubMed, ProQuest, and Scopus databases were performed with focusing on proper key words...
April 22, 2018: Medicina Oral, Patología Oral y Cirugía Bucal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679920/optimizing-text-for-an-individual-s-visual-system-the-contribution-of-visual-crowding-to-reading-difficulties
#4
Sung Jun Joo, Alex L White, Douglas J Strodtman, Jason D Yeatman
Reading is a complex process that involves low-level visual processing, phonological processing, and higher-level semantic processing. Given that skilled reading requires integrating information among these different systems, it is likely that reading difficulty-known as dyslexia-can emerge from impairments at any stage of the reading circuitry. To understand contributing factors to reading difficulties within individuals, it is necessary to diagnose the function of each component of the reading circuitry. Here, we investigated whether adults with dyslexia who have impairments in visual processing respond to a visual manipulation specifically targeting their impairment...
March 23, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679844/measuring-impairment-when-diagnosing-adolescent-adhd-differentiating-problems-due-to-adhd-versus-other-sources
#5
Alejandro L Vazquez, Margaret H Sibley, Mileini Campez
The DSM-5 requires clinicians to link ADHD symptoms to clinically meaningful impairments in daily life functioning. Measuring impairment during ADHD assessments may be particularly challenging in adolescence, when ADHD is often not the sole source of a youth's difficulties. Existing impairment rating scales are criticized for not specifying ADHD as the source of impairment in their instructions, leading to potential problems with rating scale specificity. The current study utilized a within subjects design (N = 107) to compare parent report of impairment on two versions of a global impairment measure: one that specified ADHD as the source of impairment (Impairment Rating Scale-ADHD) and a standard version that did not (Impairment Rating Scale)...
April 13, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679544/1-f-neural-noise-and-electrophysiological-indices-of-contextual-prediction-in-aging
#6
S Dave, T A Brothers, T Y Swaab
Prediction of upcoming words during reading has been suggested to enhance the efficiency of discourse processing. Emerging models have postulated that predictive mechanisms require synchronous firing of neural networks, but to date, this relationship has been investigated primarily through oscillatory activity in narrow frequency bands. A recently-developed measure proposed to reflect broadband neural activity - and thereby synchronous neuronal firing - is 1/f neural noise extracted from EEG spectral power...
April 18, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678601/motor-transfer-from-the-corticospinal-to-the-corticobulbar-pathway
#7
Alayna E Ernster, Seoung Hoon Park, Basma K Yacoubi, Evangelos A Christou, Agostina Casamento-Moran, Michele L Singer, Ianessa A Humbert
There are multiple descending neural pathways, including the corticospinal pathway (CS) and the corticobulbar pathway (CB). The corticospinal pathway has been shown to exhibit within-pathway (CS-to-CS) motor transfer. However, motor transfer across each pathway (CS-to-CB or CB-to-CS) has yet to be studied in depth. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of cross-pathway motor transfer between the ankle (CS) and tongue (CB) after training with a ballistic goal-directed motor task. Twelve healthy participants were recruited for this two-day experimental study...
April 17, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677938/a-data-driven-method-of-discovering-misspellings-of-medication-names-on-twitter
#8
Keyuan Jiang, Tingyu Chen, Liyuan Huang, Ricardo A Calix, Gordon R Bernard
Twitter, as a microblogging social media platform, has seen increasing applications of its data for pharmacovigilance which is to monitor and promote safe uses of pharmaceutical products. Medication names are typically used as keywords to query social media data. It is known that medication names are misspelled on social media, and finding the misspellings is challenging because there exists no a priori knowledge as to how people would misspell a medication name. We developed a data-driven, relational similarity-based approach to discover misspellings of medication names...
2018: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677553/developmental-change-in-tone-perception-in-mandarin-monolingual-english-monolingual-and-mandarin-english-bilingual-infants-divergences-between-monolingual-and-bilingual-learners
#9
Leher Singh, Charlene S L Fu, Xian Hui Seet, Ashley P Y Tong, Joelle L Wang, Catherine T Best
Most languages use lexical tone to discriminate the meanings of words. There has been recent interest in tracking the development of tone categories during infancy. These studies have focused largely on monolingual infants learning either a tone language or a non-tone language. It remains to be seen how bilingual infants learning one tone language (e.g., Mandarin) and one non-tone language (e.g., English) discriminate tones. Here, we examined infants' discrimination of two Mandarin tones pairs: one salient and one subtle...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676932/exoplanet-biosignatures-a-framework-for-their-assessment
#10
David C Catling, Joshua Krissansen-Totton, Nancy Y Kiang, David Crisp, Tyler D Robinson, Shiladitya DasSarma, Andrew J Rushby, Anthony Del Genio, William Bains, Shawn Domagal-Goldman
Finding life on exoplanets from telescopic observations is an ultimate goal of exoplanet science. Life produces gases and other substances, such as pigments, which can have distinct spectral or photometric signatures. Whether or not life is found with future data must be expressed with probabilities, requiring a framework of biosignature assessment. We present a framework in which we advocate using biogeochemical "Exo-Earth System" models to simulate potential biosignatures in spectra or photometry...
April 20, 2018: Astrobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676697/the-transcortical-equatorial-approach-for-gliomas-of-the-mesial-temporal-lobe-techniques-and-functional-outcomes
#11
Ramin A Morshed, Jacob S Young, Seunggu J Han, Shawn L Hervey-Jumper, Mitchel S Berger
OBJECTIVE Many surgical approaches have been described for lesions within the mesial temporal lobe (MTL), but there are limited reports on the transcortical approach for the resection of tumors within this region. Here, the authors describe the technical considerations and functional outcomes in patients undergoing transcortical resection of gliomas of the MTL. METHODS Patients with a glioma (WHO grades I-IV) located within the MTL who had undergone the transcortical approach in the period between 1998 and 2016 were identified through the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) tumor registry and were classified according to tumor location: preuncus, uncus, hippocampus/parahippocampus, and various combinations of the former groups...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675357/radiological-signs-associated-with-pulmonary-multi-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-an-analysis-of-published-evidences
#12
Yì Xiáng J Wáng, Myung Jin Chung, Aliaksandr Skrahin, Alex Rosenthal, Andrei Gabrielian, Michael Tartakovsky
Background: Despite that confirmative diagnosis of pulmonary drug-sensitive tuberculosis (DS-TB) and multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is determined by microbiological testing, early suspicions of MDR-TB by chest imaging are highly desirable in order to guide diagnostic process. We aim to perform an analysis of currently available literatures on radiological signs associated with pulmonary MDR-TB. Methods: A literature search was performed using PubMed on January 29, 2018...
March 2018: Quantitative Imaging in Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674307/assessing-therapeutic-alliance-in-the-context-of-mhealth-interventions-for-mental-health-problems-development-of-the-mobile-agnew-relationship-measure-marm-questionnaire
#13
Katherine Berry, Amy Salter, Rohan Morris, Susannah James, Sandra Bucci
BACKGROUND: Digital health interventions in the form of smartphone apps aim to improve mental health and enable people access to support as and when needed without having to face the stigma they may experience in accessing services. If we are to evaluate mobile health (mHealth) apps and advance scientific understanding, we also need tools to help us understand in what ways mHealth interventions are effective or not. The concept of therapeutic alliance, a measure of the quality of the relationship between a health care provider and a service user, is a key factor in explaining the effects of mental health interventions...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672757/time-for-a-quick-word-the-striking-benefits-of-training-speed-and-accuracy-of-word-retrieval-in-post-stroke-aphasia
#14
Paul Conroy, Christina Sotiropoulou Drosopoulou, Gina F Humphreys, Ajay D Halai, Matthew A Lambon Ralph
One-third of stroke survivors experience deficits in word retrieval as a core characteristic of their aphasia, which is frustrating, socially limiting and disabling for their professional and everyday lives. The, as yet, undiscovered 'holy grail' of clinical practice is to establish a treatment that not only improves item naming, but also generalizes to patients' connected speech. Speech production in healthy participants is a remarkable feat of cognitive processing being both rapid (at least 120 words per minute) and accurate (∼one error per 1000 words)...
April 17, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672729/morphology-instruction-in-the-science-classroom-for-students-who-are-deaf-a-multiple-probe-across-content-analysis
#15
Jessica W Trussell, Jason Nordhaus, Alison Brusehaber, Brittany Amari
Deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) students have exhibited a morphological knowledge delay that begins in preschool and persists through college. Morphological knowledge is critical to vocabulary understanding and text comprehension in the science classroom. We investigated the effects of morphological instruction, commonly referred to as Word Detectives, on the morphological knowledge of college-age DHH students in a science course. We implemented a multiple probe across behaviors single-case experimental design study with nine student participants...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672583/measurement-of-overgeneral-autobiographical-memory-psychometric-properties-of-the-autobiographical-memory-test-in-young-and-older-populations
#16
Laura Ros, Dulce Romero, Jorge J Ricarte, Juan P Serrano, Marta Nieto, Jose M Latorre
The Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT) is the most widely used measure of overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM). The AMT appears to have good psychometric properties, but more research is needed on the influence and applicability of individual cue words in different languages and populations. To date, no studies have evaluated its usefulness as a measure of OMG in Spanish or older populations. This work aims to analyze the applicability of the AMT in young and older Spanish samples. We administered a Spanish version of the AMT to samples of young (N = 520) and older adults (N = 155)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672170/the-boundaries-of-auditory-perception-for-within-word-syllable-segregation-in-untrained-and-trained-adult-listeners
#17
Tayla Brown, Elizabeth Murray, Patricia McCabe
Syllable segregation is among the core diagnostic features of both childhood apraxia of speech and acquired apraxia of speech; however, little is known about the limen of perception of syllable segregation. The purpose of this research was therefore to explore adult listeners' auditory perception of within-word syllable segregation in trained and untrained adult listeners. Two experimental design studies, each with two phases, were conducted. Study one included 40 untrained listeners (aged 18-28 years), and study two included 5 trained listeners (10-25 years of experience)...
April 19, 2018: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672115/effects-of-aging-word-frequency-and-text-stimulus-quality-on-reading-across-the-adult-lifespan-evidence-from-eye-movements
#18
Kayleigh L Warrington, Victoria A McGowan, Kevin B Paterson, Sarah J White
Reductions in stimulus quality may disrupt the reading performance of older adults more when compared with young adults because of sensory declines that begin early in middle age. However, few studies have investigated adult age differences in the effects of stimulus quality on reading, and none have examined how this affects lexical processing and eye movement control. Accordingly, we report two experiments that examine the effects of reduced stimulus quality on the eye movements of young (18-24 years), middle-aged (41-51 years), and older (65+ years) adult readers...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672112/word-length-set-size-and-lexical-factors-re-examining-what-causes-the-word-length-effect
#19
Dominic Guitard, Andrew J Gabel, Jean Saint-Aubin, Aimée M Surprenant, Ian Neath
The word length effect, better recall of lists of short (fewer syllables) than long (more syllables) words has been termed a benchmark effect of working memory. Despite this, experiments on the word length effect can yield quite different results depending on set size and stimulus properties. Seven experiments are reported that address these 2 issues. Experiment 1 replicated the finding of a preserved word length effect under concurrent articulation for large stimulus sets, which contrasts with the abolition of the word length effect by concurrent articulation for small stimulus sets...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672089/working-memory-capacity-in-social-anxiety-disorder-revisiting-prior-conclusions
#20
Stephanie Waechter, David A Moscovitch, Vanja Vidovic, Tatiana Bielak, Karen Rowa, Randi E McCabe
In one of the few studies examining working memory processes in social anxiety disorder (SAD), Amir and Bomyea (2011) recruited participants with and without SAD to complete a working memory span task with neutral and social threat words. Those with SAD showed better working memory performance for social threat words compared to neutral words, suggesting an enhancement in processing efficiency for socially threatening information in SAD. The current study sought to replicate and extend these findings. In this study, 25 participants with a principal diagnosis of SAD, 24 anxious control (AC) participants with anxiety disorders other than SAD, and 27 healthy control (HC) participants with no anxiety disorder completed a working memory task with social threat, general threat, and neutral stimuli...
April 2018: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
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