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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448826/generalized-anxiety-disorder-worry-and-attention-to-threat-a-systematic-review
#1
REVIEW
Huw Goodwin, Jenny Yiend, Colette R Hirsch
Among anxious populations, attention has been demonstrated to be preferentially biased to threatening material compared to neutral or other valenced material. Individuals who have high levels of trait worry, such as those with Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD), may be biased to threat but research has produced equivocal findings. This review aimed to systematically review the extant experimental literature to establish the current evidence of attentional bias to threat among trait worriers compared to healthy controls and other clinical populations...
March 29, 2017: Clinical Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447842/cognitive-coupling-during-reading
#2
Caitlin Mills, Art Graesser, Evan F Risko, Sidney K D'Mello
We hypothesize that cognitively engaged readers dynamically adjust their reading times with respect to text complexity (i.e., reading times should increase for difficult sections and decrease for easier ones) and failure to do so should impair comprehension. This hypothesis is consistent with theories of text comprehension but has surprisingly been untested. We tested this hypothesis by analyzing 4 datasets in which participants (N = 484) read expository texts using a self-paced reading paradigm. Participants self-reported mind wandering in response to pseudorandom thought-probes during reading and completed comprehension assessments after reading...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446889/the-stroop-color-and-word-test
#3
REVIEW
Federica Scarpina, Sofia Tagini
The Stroop Color and Word Test (SCWT) is a neuropsychological test extensively used to assess the ability to inhibit cognitive interference that occurs when the processing of a specific stimulus feature impedes the simultaneous processing of a second stimulus attribute, well-known as the Stroop Effect. The aim of the present work is to verify the theoretical adequacy of the various scoring methods used to measure the Stroop effect. We present a systematic review of studies that have provided normative data for the SCWT...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446870/a-randomized-controlled-erp-study-on-the-effects-of-multi-domain-cognitive-training-and-task-difficulty-on-task-switching-performance-in-older-adults
#4
Kristina Küper, Patrick D Gajewski, Claudia Frieg, Michael Falkenstein
Executive functions are subject to a marked age-related decline, but have been shown to benefit from cognitive training interventions. As of yet, it is, however, still relatively unclear which neural mechanism can mediate training-related performance gains. In the present electrophysiological study, we examined the effects of multi-domain cognitive training on performance in an untrained cue-based task switch paradigm featuring Stroop color words: participants either had to indicate the word meaning of Stroop stimuli (word task) or perform the more difficult task of color naming (color task)...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444879/prioritising-treatment-outcomes-how-people-with-acne-vulgaris-decide-if-their-treatment-is-working
#5
Alison M Layton, Heather Whitehouse, E Anne Eady, Fiona Cowdell, Katherine L Warburton, Mark Fenton
AIM: To collect information about how people with acne make day-to-day decisions concerning the effectiveness of their treatment. METHODS: Between May and August 2013, an optional question was embedded in the James Lind Alliance Acne Priority Setting Partnership's online survey to collect treatment uncertainties. The question asked people with acne to 'Tell us in your own words how you decide if your treatment has been effective'. RESULTS: A total of 742 respondents specified at least one outcome or means of assessing change (outcome measure)...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Evidence-based Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444104/psychomotor-ability-and-short-term-memory-and-reading-and-mathematics-achievement-in-children
#6
Cherée Murrihy, Maria Bailey, John Roodenburg
Objective: The aim of our study was to examine whether the findings from previous research, indicating the role of short-term memory as a mediator of the relationship between motor coordination and academic achievement in adolescents, is also evident in a younger child population. Method: The study utilized a quantative cross-sectional design involving 133 children aged 8-12. The McCarron Assessment of Neuromuscular Development (MAND) provided four indicators of psychomotor ability (Finger Nose, Walking, Balancing, and Jumping)...
April 24, 2017: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443036/auditory-motor-rhythms-and-speech-processing-in-french-and-german-listeners
#7
Simone Falk, Chloé Volpi-Moncorger, Simone Dalla Bella
Moving to a speech rhythm can enhance verbal processing in the listener by increasing temporal expectancies (Falk and Dalla Bella, 2016). Here we tested whether this hypothesis holds for prosodically diverse languages such as German (a lexical stress-language) and French (a non-stress language). Moreover, we examined the relation between motor performance and the benefits for verbal processing as a function of language. Sixty-four participants, 32 German and 32 French native speakers detected subtle word changes in accented positions in metrically structured sentences to which they previously tapped with their index finger...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441521/lost-in-distractors-reduced-autobiographical-memory-specificity-and-dispersed-activation-spreading-over-distractors-in-working-memory
#8
Keisuke Takano, Jun Moriya, Filip Raes
Studies on autobiographical memory retrieval highlight the prominence of rapid and direct access to a specific event memory. Because it has been believed that autobiographical memory retrieval mostly relies on an effortful generative process, there is little empirical evidence on the early stage of information processing that contributes to autobiographical memory specificity (AMS). Therefore, we investigated the associations between AMS and automatic activation of information stimulated by rapid presentation of emotional words...
April 19, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441425/role-of-route-previewing-strategies-on-climbing-fluency-and-exploratory-movements
#9
Ludovic Seifert, Romain Cordier, Dominic Orth, Yoan Courtine, James L Croft
This study examined the role of route previewing strategies on climbing fluency and on exploratory movements of the limbs, in order to understand whether previewing helps people to perceive and to realize affordances. Eight inexperienced and ten experienced climbers previewed a 10 m high route of 5b difficulty on French scale, then climbed it with a top-rope as fluently as possible. Gaze behavior was collected from an eye tracking system during the preview and allowed us to determine the number of times they scanned the route, and which of four route previewing strategies (fragmentary, ascending, zigzagging, and sequence-of-blocks) they used...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441333/how-are-service-dogs-for-adults-with-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-integrated-with-rehabilitation-in-denmark-a-case-study
#10
Chalotte Glintborg, Tia G B Hansen
A severe mental illness like Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is known to have psychosocial consequences that can lead to a decreased quality of life. Research in Animal-Assisted Therapy (AAT) has revealed that the presence of a dog can have a positive effect on health, e.g., increase quality of life and lessen depression and anxiety. However, canine companionship is not a catch-all solution. Previous research has revealed methodological limitations that prohibit any clear conclusions, as well as a sparsity of critical reflection in anecdotal reports and case studies, which means that more research is needed to contextualize the findings...
April 25, 2017: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440109/the-demography-of-words-the-global-decline-in-non-numeric-fertility-preferences-1993-2011
#11
Margaret Frye, Lauren Bachan
This paper examines the decline in non-numeric responses to questions about fertility preferences among women in the developing world. These types of response-such as 'don't know' or 'it's up to God'-have often been interpreted through the lens of fertility transition theory as an indication that reproduction has not yet entered women's 'calculus of conscious choice'. However, this has yet to be investigated cross-nationally and over time. Using 19 years of data from 32 countries, we find that non-numeric fertility preferences decline most substantially in the early stages of a country's fertility transition...
April 25, 2017: Population Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440102/smoking-addiction-the-shift-from-head-to-hands-approach-bias-towards-smoking-related-cues-in-low-dependent-versus-dependent-smokers
#12
Sandrine Detandt, Ariane Bazan, Etienne Quertemont, Paul Verbanck
The dual process theory is central to several models of addiction, implying both an increase of stimulus salience and deficits in inhibitory control. Our major aim is to provide behavioral evidence for an approach bias tendency in smokers and more specifically during smoking cue exposure. The second aim is to examine whether this bias differs in low-dependent versus dependent smokers. Thirty-two smokers (17 low dependent and 15 dependent; cut-off FTND of 4) and 28 non-smokers performed a modified Go/NoGo task using tobacco-related words and neutral words as stimuli...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439318/bodily-effort-enhances-learning-and-metacognition-investigating-the-relation-between-physical-effort-and-cognition-using-dual-process-models-of-embodiment
#13
Alexander Skulmowski, Günter Daniel Rey
Recent embodiment research revealed that cognitive processes can be influenced by bodily cues. Some of these cues were found to elicit disparate effects on cognition. For instance, weight sensations can inhibit problem-solving performance, but were shown to increase judgments regarding recall probability (judgments of learning; JOLs) in memory tasks. We investigated the effects of physical effort on learning and metacognition by conducting two studies in which we varied whether a backpack was worn or not while 20 nouns were to be learned...
2017: Advances in Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438529/an-erp-investigation-of-vertical-reading-fluency-in-scrabble-%C3%A2-experts
#14
Sophia van Hees, Sabine Seyffarth, Penny M Pexman, Filomeno Cortese, Andrea B Protzner
Previous studies have found that competitive Scrabble expertise is associated with enhanced performance on visual lexical decision tasks (LDT), particularly for vertically presented stimuli. In the current study, we investigated the underlying mechanisms responsible for this vertical fluency. We examined behaviour and neural activity during LDT in 19 competitive Scrabble players and 18 matched controls. Using event related potentials (ERP), we investigated whether Scrabble expertise modulates the N170, P300, and late positive component (LPC), associated with visual-orthographic processing, working memory, and stimulus classification, respectively...
April 21, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436476/multiplex-lexical-networks-reveal-patterns-in-early-word-acquisition-in-children
#15
Massimo Stella, Nicole M Beckage, Markus Brede
Network models of language have provided a way of linking cognitive processes to language structure. However, current approaches focus only on one linguistic relationship at a time, missing the complex multi-relational nature of language. In this work, we overcome this limitation by modelling the mental lexicon of English-speaking toddlers as a multiplex lexical network, i.e. a multi-layered network where N = 529 words/nodes are connected according to four relationship: (i) free association, (ii) feature sharing, (iii) co-occurrence, and (iv) phonological similarity...
April 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436271/divided-attention-enhances-the-recognition-of-emotional-stimuli-evidence-from-the-attentional-boost-effect
#16
Clelia Rossi-Arnaud, Pietro Spataro, Marco Costanzi, Daniele Saraulli, Vincenzo Cestari
The present study examined predictions of the early-phase-elevated-attention hypothesis of the attentional boost effect (ABE), which suggests that transient increases in attention at encoding, as instantiated in the ABE paradigm, should enhance the recognition of neutral and positive items (whose encoding is mostly based on controlled processes), while having small or null effects on the recognition of negative items (whose encoding is primarily based on automatic processes). Participants were presented a sequence of negative, neutral and positive stimuli (pictures in Experiment 1, words in Experiment 2) associated to target (red) squares, distractor (green) squares or no squares (baseline condition)...
April 23, 2017: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433196/relational-information-moderates-approach-avoidance-instruction-effects-on-implicit-evaluation
#17
Pieter Van Dessel, Jan De Houwer, Colin Tucker Smith
Previous research demonstrated that instructions to approach one stimulus and avoid another stimulus can result in a spontaneous or implicit preference for the former stimulus. In the current study, we tested whether the effect of approach-avoidance instructions on implicit evaluation depends on the relational information embedded in these instructions. Participants received instructions that they would move towards a certain non-existing word and move away from another non-existing word (self-agent instructions) or that one non-existing word would move towards them and the other non-existing word would move away from them (stimulus-agent instructions)...
April 19, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432867/examining-the-direct-and-indirect-effects-of-visual-verbal-paired-associate-learning-on-chinese-word-reading
#18
George Georgiou, Cuina Liu, Shiyang Xu
Associative learning, traditionally measured with paired associate learning (PAL) tasks, has been found to predict reading ability in several languages. However, it remains unclear whether it also predicts word reading in Chinese, which is known for its ambiguous print-sound correspondences, and whether its effects are direct or indirect through the effects of other reading-related skills such as phonological awareness and rapid naming. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine the direct and indirect effects of visual-verbal PAL on word reading in an unselected sample of Chinese children followed from the second to the third kindergarten year...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431488/core-vocabulary-of-young-children-with-down-syndrome
#19
Stijn R J M Deckers, Yvonne Van Zaalen, Hans Van Balkom, Ludo Verhoeven
The aim of this study was to develop a core vocabulary list for young children with intellectual disabilities between 2 and 7 years of age because data from this population are lacking in core vocabulary literature. Children with Down syndrome are considered one of the most valid reference groups for researching developmental patterns in children with intellectual disabilities; therefore, spontaneous language samples of 30 Dutch children with Down syndrome were collected during three different activities with multiple communication partners (free play with parents, lunch- or snack-time at home or at school, and speech therapy sessions)...
June 2017: Augmentative and Alternative Communication: AAC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430849/performance-and-symptom-validity-testing-as-a-function-of-medical-board-evaluation-in-u-s-military-service-members-with-a-history-of-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#20
Patrick Armistead-Jehle, Wesley R Cole, Robert L Stegman
Objective: The study was designed to replicate and extend pervious findings demonstrating the high rates of invalid neuropsychological testing in military service members (SMs) with a history of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) assessed in the context of a medical evaluation board (MEB). Method: Two hundred thirty-one active duty SMs (61 of which were undergoing an MEB) underwent neuropsychological assessment. Performance validity (Word Memory Test) and symptom validity (MMPI-2-RF) test data were compared across those evaluated within disability (MEB) and clinical contexts...
April 20, 2017: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
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