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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655166/communication-in-multiple-sclerosis-pragmatic-deficit-and-its-relation-with-cognition-and-social-cognition
#1
Antonio Carotenuto, Giorgio Arcara, Giuseppe Orefice, Ilaria Cerillo, Valentina Giannino, Mario Rasulo, Rosa Iodice, Valentina Bambini
Objective: Cognitive functions have been largely investigated in multiple sclerosis. Less attention has been paid to social communication abilities, despite their presumptive affect on quality of life. We run the first comprehensive assessment of pragmatic skills in multiple sclerosis, evaluating also the relationship between pragmatics and other cognitive domains. Methods: Forty-two multiple sclerosis patients and 42 controls were tested for pragmatic abilities, neuro-cognition, social cognition, depression, and fatigue...
June 26, 2017: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654947/acquired-apraxia-of-speech-the-relationship-between-awareness-of-errors-in-word-productions-and-treatment-outcomes
#2
Shannon C Mauszycki, Dallin J Bailey, Julie L Wambaugh
Purpose: Awareness of errors has been considered a clinical feature of acquired apraxia of speech (AOS). However, there is limited research examining error awareness in speakers with AOS. The purpose of this investigation was to examine awareness of errors and explore the relationship between awareness of errors and treatment outcomes in speakers with AOS. Method: Twenty speakers with AOS and aphasia produced mono- and multisyllabic words in a repetition task. Following each production, speakers were asked to judge the accuracy of their production (i...
June 22, 2017: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654946/fricative-contrast-and-coarticulation-in-children-with-and-without-speech-sound-disorders
#3
Edwin Maas, Marja-Liisa Mailend
Purpose: The purpose of this study was, first, to expand our understanding of typical speech development regarding segmental contrast and anticipatory coarticulation, and second, to explore the potential diagnostic utility of acoustic measures of fricative contrast and anticipatory coarticulation in children with speech sound disorders (SSD). Method: In a cross-sectional design, 10 adults, 17 typically developing children, and 11 children with SSD repeated carrier phrases with novel words with fricatives (/s/, /ʃ/)...
June 22, 2017: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654943/the-nature-of-error-consistency-in-individuals-with-acquired-apraxia-of-speech-and-aphasia
#4
Lauren Bislick, Malcolm McNeil, Kristie A Spencer, Kathryn Yorkston, Diane L Kendall
Purpose: The primary characteristics used to define acquired apraxia of speech (AOS) have evolved to better reflect a disorder of motor planning/programming. However, there is debate regarding the feature of relatively consistent error location and type. Method: Ten individuals with acquired AOS and aphasia and 11 individuals with aphasia without AOS participated in this study. In the context of a 2-group experimental design, error consistency was examined via 5 repetitions of 30 multisyllabic words...
June 22, 2017: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654940/consonant-acoustics-in-parkinson-s-disease-and-multiple-sclerosis-comparison-of-clear-and-loud-speaking-conditions
#5
Kris Tjaden, Vincent Martel-Sauvageau
Purpose: The impact of clear speech or an increased vocal intensity on consonant spectra was investigated for speakers with mild dysarthria secondary to multiple sclerosis or Parkinson's disease and healthy controls. Method: Sentences were read in habitual, clear, and loud conditions. Spectral moment coefficients were obtained for word-initial and word-medial /s/, /ʃ/, /t/, and /k/. Global production differences among conditions were confirmed with measures of vocal intensity and articulation rate...
June 22, 2017: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654817/the-role-of-the-hippocampus-in-recognition-memory
#6
REVIEW
Chris M Bird
Many theories of declarative memory propose that it is supported by partially separable processes underpinned by different brain structures. The hippocampus plays a critical role in binding together item and contextual information together and processing the relationships between individual items. By contrast, the processing of individual items and their later recognition can be supported by extrahippocampal regions of the medial temporal lobes (MTL), particularly when recognition is based on feelings of familiarity without the retrieval of any associated information...
June 1, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653767/if-you-re-happy-and-you-know-it-positive-moods-reduce-age-related-differences-in-false-memory
#7
Weiwei Zhang, Julien Gross, Harlene Hayne
When tested in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott paradigm, children typically exhibit fewer false memories than do adolescents or adults. Here, participants' moods and the valence of word lists were manipulated to explore the mechanism responsible for this developmental reversal in memory performance. Children (7- to 8-year-olds), adolescents (11- to 12-year-olds), and young adults (18- to 22-year-olds; N = 270) were assigned to one of three induced mood conditions and were presented with emotional word lists...
June 27, 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652356/emotion-shapes-the-diffusion-of-moralized-content-in-social-networks
#8
William J Brady, Julian A Wills, John T Jost, Joshua A Tucker, Jay J Van Bavel
Political debate concerning moralized issues is increasingly common in online social networks. However, moral psychology has yet to incorporate the study of social networks to investigate processes by which some moral ideas spread more rapidly or broadly than others. Here, we show that the expression of moral emotion is key for the spread of moral and political ideas in online social networks, a process we call "moral contagion." Using a large sample of social media communications about three polarizing moral/political issues (n = 563,312), we observed that the presence of moral-emotional words in messages increased their diffusion by a factor of 20% for each additional word...
June 26, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652342/early-phonology-revealed-by-international-adoptees-birth-language-retention
#9
Jiyoun Choi, Mirjam Broersma, Anne Cutler
Until at least 6 mo of age, infants show good discrimination for familiar phonetic contrasts (i.e., those heard in the environmental language) and contrasts that are unfamiliar. Adult-like discrimination (significantly worse for nonnative than for native contrasts) appears only later, by 9-10 mo. This has been interpreted as indicating that infants have no knowledge of phonology until vocabulary development begins, after 6 mo of age. Recently, however, word recognition has been observed before age 6 mo, apparently decoupling the vocabulary and phonology acquisition processes...
June 26, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651150/cognitive-remediation-improves-executive-functions-self-regulation-and-quality-of-life-in-residents-of-a-substance-use-disorder-therapeutic-community
#10
Ely M Marceau, Jamie Berry, Joanne Lunn, Peter J Kelly, Nadia Solowij
BACKGROUND: Executive dysfunction is common in substance use disorder (SUD) populations and hinders treatment. We previously found that 50% of residents in SUD therapeutic communities had been hospitalized for head injuries; this was a significant determinant of cognitive impairment. The current study aimed to establish whether cognitive remediation improves executive functions (EFs) and self-regulation in an ecologically valid sample of female residents attending SUD therapeutic community treatment, including those with past head injuries and psychiatric comorbidities...
June 16, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650843/can-canmeds-competencies-be-developed-in-medical-school-anatomy-laboratories-a-literature-review
#11
REVIEW
Joshua Hefler, Christopher J Ramnanan
Objectives: The purpose of this literature review was to identify potential ways in which undergraduate medical anatomy education may be relevant to the CanMEDS Roles, a competency-based framework used throughout Canadian medical training. Methods: A scoping review of medical education literature was conducted in March 2017 for English language publications that included key words related to anatomy education and to key competencies formally described for each of the Roles in the CanMEDS 2015 framework...
June 16, 2017: International Journal of Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650352/the-effect-of-aging-and-priming-on-same-different-judgments-between-text-and-partially-masked-speech
#12
Richard L Freyman, Jenna Terpening, Angela C Costanzi, Karen S Helfer
OBJECTIVES: It is well known from previous research that when listeners are told what they are about to hear before a degraded or partially masked auditory signal is presented, the speech signal "pops out" of the background and becomes considerably more intelligible. The goal of this research was to explore whether this priming effect is as strong in older adults as in younger adults. DESIGN: Fifty-six adults-28 older and 28 younger-listened to "nonsense" sentences spoken by a female talker in the presence of a 2-talker speech masker (also female) or a fluctuating speech-like noise masker at 5 signal-to-noise ratios...
June 22, 2017: Ear and Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650222/understanding-nomophobia-structural-equation-modeling-and-semantic-network-analysis-of-smartphone-separation-anxiety
#13
Seunghee Han, Ki Joon Kim, Jang Hyun Kim
This study explicates nomophobia by developing a research model that identifies several determinants of smartphone separation anxiety and by conducting semantic network analyses on smartphone users' verbal descriptions of the meaning of their smartphones. Structural equation modeling of the proposed model indicates that personal memories evoked by smartphones encourage users to extend their identity onto their devices. When users perceive smartphones as their extended selves, they are more likely to get attached to the devices, which, in turn, leads to nomophobia by heightening the phone proximity-seeking tendency...
June 26, 2017: Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650177/learning-on-hold-cell-phones-sidetrack-parent-child-interactions
#14
Jessa Reed, Kathy Hirsh-Pasek, Roberta Michnick Golinkoff
Although research suggests that responsive interactions are imperative for language development, the advent of mobile technology means that parent-child exchanges are often fraught with unpredictable interruptions. Less clear is how these momentary breaks in responsiveness affect word learning. In this within-subjects design, 38 mothers taught their 2-year-olds (M = 27.15 months) 2 novel words, 1 at a time. One teaching period was interrupted by a cell phone call. Children learned the word when the teaching was not interrupted, but not when it was interrupted...
June 26, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647493/associations-between-the-dbh-gene-plasma-dopamine-%C3%AE-hydroxylase-activity-and-cognitive-measures-in-han-chinese-patients-with-schizophrenia
#15
Zuoli Sun, Yun Ma, Wenbiao Li, Jing He, Jun Li, Xue Yang, Peixian Mao, Joseph F Cubells, Yilang Tang
The dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE) systems modulate cognitive function. Dopamine β-hydroxylase (DβH) converts DA to NE, and its activity is under strong genetic control. This study examines the association of plasma DβH (pDβH) activity, DBH gene polymorphisms (-1021C>T, rs1611115 and 444G>A, rs1108580) and cognitive deficits in Han Chinese patients with schizophrenia. We assessed pDβH activity and cognitive function using the Verbal Fluency Test (VFT), Trail Making Test (TMT) A-B, Stroop color-word test and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) in 200 patients with schizophrenia before and after 8weeks of antipsychotic treatment (96 patients completed assessments at baseline and post-treatment)...
June 21, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647325/the-processing-of-semantic-relatedness-in-the-brain-evidence-from-associative-and-categorical-false-recognition-effects-following-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-of-the-left-anterior-temporal-lobe
#16
Emiliano Díez, Carlos J Gómez-Ariza, Antonio M Díez-Álamo, María A Alonso, Angel Fernandez
A dominant view of the role of the anterior temporal lobe (ATL) in semantic memory is that it serves as an integration hub, specialized in the processing of semantic relatedness by way of mechanisms that bind together information from different brain areas to form coherent amodal representations of concepts. Two recent experiments, using brain stimulation techniques along with the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm, have found a consistent false memory reduction effect following stimulation of the ATL, pointing to the importance of the ATL in semantic/conceptual processing...
June 3, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646661/congruent-bodily-arousal-promotes-the-constructive-recognition-of-emotional-words
#17
Anne Kever, Delphine Grynberg, Nicolas Vermeulen
Considerable research has shown that bodily states shape affect and cognition. Here, we examined whether transient states of bodily arousal influence the categorization speed of high arousal, low arousal, and neutral words. Participants realized two blocks of a constructive recognition task, once after a cycling session (increased arousal), and once after a relaxation session (reduced arousal). Results revealed overall faster response times for high arousal compared to low arousal words, and for positive compared to negative words...
June 21, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646654/inducing-asymmetrical-switch-costs-in-bilingual-language-comprehension-by-language-practice
#18
Mathieu Declerck, Jonathan Grainger
The most widely discussed observation in the language control literature is the larger cost found when switching into the first than the second language (i.e., asymmetrical switch costs), which has been determined as a marker of persisting, reactive inhibition. While this is a common effect in bilingual language production, it generally does not occur in bilingual language comprehension. In this bilingual language comprehension study, we manipulated the relative activation of languages by letting participants practice in pure language blocks prior to a mixed language block...
June 21, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646241/never-forget-a-name-white-matter-connectivity-predicts-person-memory
#19
Athanasia Metoki, Kylie H Alm, Yin Wang, Chi T Ngo, Ingrid R Olson
Through learning and practice, we can acquire numerous skills, ranging from the simple (whistling) to the complex (memorizing operettas in a foreign language). It has been proposed that complex learning requires a network of brain regions that interact with one another via white matter pathways. One candidate white matter pathway, the uncinate fasciculus (UF), has exhibited mixed results for this hypothesis: some studies have shown UF involvement across a range of memory tasks, while other studies report null results...
June 23, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642471/multi-layered-nioy-nbox-nioy-fast-drift-free-threshold-switch-with-high-ion-ioff-ratio-for-selector-application
#20
Jaehyuk Park, Tobias Hadamek, Agham B Posadas, Euijun Cha, Alexander A Demkov, Hyunsang Hwang
NbO2 has the potential for a variety of electronic applications due to its electrically induced insulator-to-metal transition (IMT) characteristic. In this study, we find that the IMT behavior of NbO2 follows the field-induced nucleation by investigating the delay time dependency at various voltages and temperatures. Based on the investigation, we reveal that the origin of leakage current in NbOx is partly due to insufficient Schottky barrier height originating from interface defects between the electrodes and NbOx layer...
June 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
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