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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232539/how-to-identify-and-manage-cognitive-dysfunction-after-breast-cancer-treatment
#1
Marie Lange, Florence Joly
Attention and memory dysfunction is a common complaint among patients with breast cancer that can be reported during and up to several years after treatment. It can negatively affect patients' quality of life and their ability to work. This phenomenon has mainly been studied in patients with breast cancer who are treated with adjuvant chemotherapy. Women describe concentration problems and difficulties with word finding, multitasking, or remembering new information, as well as more effort and time needed to accomplish these tasks...
December 2017: Journal of Oncology Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230375/the-impact-of-choosing-words-carefully-an-online-investigation-into-imaging-reporting-strategies-and-best-practice-care-for-low-back-pain
#2
Emma L Karran, Yasmin Medalian, Susan L Hillier, G Lorimer Moseley
Background: Low back pain clinical practice guidelines consistently recommend against the routine ordering of spinal imaging; however, imaging is frequently requested in primary care, without evidence of benefit. Imaging reports frequently identify degenerative features which are likely to be interpreted as 'abnormal', despite their high prevalence in symptom-free individuals. The aim of this study was to investigate whether post-imaging back-related perceptions are influenced by providing prior information about normal findings, and to compare the effect of receiving imaging results with best practice care (without imaging)...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230208/ramadan-fasting-exerts-immunomodulatory-effects-insights-from-a-systematic-review
#3
Mohammad Adawi, Abdulla Watad, Stav Brown, Khadija Aazza, Hicham Aazza, Mohamed Zouhir, Kassem Sharif, Khaled Ghanayem, Raymond Farah, Hussein Mahagna, Stefano Fiordoro, Samir Giuseppe Sukkar, Nicola Luigi Bragazzi, Naim Mahroum
Ramadan is the ninth month of the Islamic lunar calendar and is observed by Muslims as a month of fasting. All Muslim adults are expected to fast; nevertheless certain subgroups, including sick, frail subjects, and pregnant women, among others, are exempted. Ramadan fasting has been shown to impact on body systems in different manners. The influence of Ramadan fasting on immune system regulation remains elusive; however, immune system changes, such as the modulation of body response to various infectious, stressful, and other harmful events, are of great interest during fasting...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229213/swearing-as-a-response-to-pain-a-cross-cultural-comparison-of-british-and-japanese-participants
#4
Olivia Robertson, Sarita Jane Robinson, Richard Stephens
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Research suggests swearing can moderate pain perception. The present study assessed whether changes in pain perception due to swearing reflect a "scripting" effect by comparing swearing as a response to pain in native English and Japanese speakers. Cognitive psychology denotes a 'script' to be a sequence of learnt behaviours expected for given situations. Japanese participants were included as they rarely, if ever, swear as a response to pain and therefore do not possess an available script for swearing in the context of pain...
October 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226961/detection-of-deception-event-related-potential-markers-of-attention-and-cognitive-control-during-intentional-false-responses
#5
Henning Gibbons, Robert Schnuerch, Christina Wittinghofer, Anne-Simone Armbrecht, Jutta Stahl
Successful deception requires the coordination of multiple mental processes, such as attention, conflict monitoring, and the regulation of emotion. We employed a simple classification task, assessing ERPs to further investigate the attentional and cognitive control components of (instructed) deception. In Experiment 1, 20 participants repeatedly categorized visually presented names of five animals and five plants. Prior to the experiment, however, each participant covertly selected one animal and one plant for deliberate misclassification...
December 11, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226877/negative-prospective-memory-in%C3%A2-alzheimer-s-disease-do-not-perform-that-action
#6
Mohamad El Haj, Yann Coello, Dimitrios Kapogiannis, Karim Gallouj, Pascal Antoine
Relatively to "standard" prospective memory, i.e., remembering to perform a future action, little is known about negative prospective memory, i.e., remembering not to perform a future action. This study investigated the latter ability in Alzheimer's disease (AD). AD participants and healthy older adults were asked to click on the keyboard or not to click on it when a cue word was encountered. Results showed more omissions (i.e., forgetting to click the keyboard when the instruction was to do so) in AD participants than in healthy older adults, suggesting a prospective memory deficit...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226513/consolidation-of-vocabulary-is-associated-with-sleep-in-typically-developing-children-but-not-in-children-with-dyslexia
#7
Faye R H Smith, M Gareth Gaskell, Anna R Weighall, Meesha Warmington, Alexander M Reid, Lisa M Henderson
Sleep is known to play an active role in consolidating new vocabulary in adults; however, the mechanisms by which sleep promotes vocabulary consolidation in childhood are less well understood. Furthermore, there has been no investigation into whether previously reported differences in sleep architecture might account for variability in vocabulary consolidation in children with dyslexia. Twenty-three children with dyslexia and 29 age-matched typically developing peers were exposed to 16 novel spoken words. Typically developing children showed overnight improvements in novel word recall; the size of the improvement correlated positively with slow wave activity, similar to previous findings with adults...
December 11, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226495/forgetting-to-remember-prospective-memory-within-the-context-of-pain
#8
R Gatzounis, M G S Schrooten, G Crombez, J W S Vlaeyen
BACKGROUND: Pain interferes with cognitive functioning in several ways. Among other symptoms, pain patients often report difficulties with remembering future intentions. It remains unclear, however, whether it is the pain per se that impairs prospective remembering or other factors that often characterize people with pain (e.g. poor sleep quality). In this experiment, we investigated whether prospective memory is impaired within the context of pain, and whether this impairment is enhanced when the threat value of pain is increased...
December 11, 2017: European Journal of Pain: EJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222722/binaural-auditory-beats-affect-long-term-memory
#9
Miguel Garcia-Argibay, Miguel A Santed, José M Reales
The presentation of two pure tones to each ear separately with a slight difference in their frequency results in the perception of a single tone that fluctuates in amplitude at a frequency that equals the difference of interaural frequencies. This perceptual phenomenon is known as binaural auditory beats, and it is thought to entrain electrocortical activity and enhance cognition functions such as attention and memory. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of binaural auditory beats on long-term memory...
December 8, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222609/evaluating-cognition-in-individuals-with-huntington-disease-neuro-qol-cognitive-functioning-measures
#10
Jin-Shei Lai, Siera Goodnight, Nancy R Downing, Rebecca E Ready, Jane S Paulsen, Anna L Kratz, Julie C Stout, Michael K McCormack, David Cella, Christopher Ross, Jenna Russell, Noelle E Carlozzi
PURPOSE: Cognitive functioning impacts health-related quality of life (HRQOL) for individuals with Huntington disease (HD). The Neuro-QoL includes two patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures of cognition-Executive Function (EF) and General Concerns (GC). These measures have not previously been validated for use in HD. The purpose of this analysis is to evaluate the reliability and validity of the Neuro-QoL Cognitive Function measures for use in HD. METHODS: Five hundred ten individuals with prodromal or manifest HD completed the Neuro-QoL Cognition measures, two other PRO measures of HRQOL (WHODAS 2...
December 8, 2017: Quality of Life Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222526/numerical-value-biases-sound-localization
#11
Edward J Golob, Jörg Lewald, Stephan Getzmann, Jeffrey R Mock
Speech recognition starts with representations of basic acoustic perceptual features and ends by categorizing the sound based on long-term memory for word meaning. However, little is known about whether the reverse pattern of lexical influences on basic perception can occur. We tested for a lexical influence on auditory spatial perception by having subjects make spatial judgments of number stimuli. Four experiments used pointing or left/right 2-alternative forced choice tasks to examine perceptual judgments of sound location as a function of digit magnitude (1-9)...
December 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220512/a-survey-and-evaluations-of-histogram-based-statistics-in-alignment-free-sequence-comparison
#12
Brian B Luczak, Benjamin T James, Hani Z Girgis
Motivation: Since the dawn of the bioinformatics field, sequence alignment scores have been the main method for comparing sequences. However, alignment algorithms are quadratic, requiring long execution time. As alternatives, scientists have developed tens of alignment-free statistics for measuring the similarity between two sequences. Results: We surveyed tens of alignment-free k-mer statistics. Additionally, we evaluated 33 statistics and multiplicative combinations between the statistics and/or their squares...
December 6, 2017: Briefings in Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219094/a-collaborative-approach-to-adopting-adapting-guidelines-the-australian-24-hour-movement-guidelines-for-the-early-years-birth-to-5-years-an-integration-of-physical-activity-sedentary-behavior-and-sleep
#13
Anthony D Okely, Davina Ghersi, Kylie D Hesketh, Rute Santos, Sarah P Loughran, Dylan P Cliff, Trevor Shilton, David Grant, Rachel A Jones, Rebecca M Stanley, Julie Sherring, Trina Hinkley, Stewart G Trost, Clare McHugh, Simon Eckermann, Karen Thorpe, Karen Waters, Timothy S Olds, Tracy Mackey, Rhonda Livingstone, Hayley Christian, Harriette Carr, Adam Verrender, João R Pereira, Zhiguang Zhang, Katherine L Downing, Mark S Tremblay
BACKGROUND: In 2017, the Australian Government funded the update of the National Physical Activity Recommendations for Children 0-5 years, with the intention that they be an integration of movement behaviours across the 24-h period. The benefit for Australia was that it could leverage research in Canada in the development of their 24-h guidelines for the early years. Concurrently, the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) working group published a model to produce guidelines based on adoption, adaption and/or de novo development using the GRADE evidence-to-decision framework...
November 20, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218719/the-communication-and-emotional-support-needs-to-improve-women-s-experience-of-childbirth-care-in-health-facilities-in-southwest-nigeria-a-qualitative-study
#14
Olubunmi A Ojelade, Musibau A Titiloye, Meghan A Bohren, Akinpelu O Olutayo, Adebimpe A Olalere, Adesina Akintan, Olufemi T Oladapo, Bukola Fawole
OBJECTIVE: To improve women's childbirth experiences in health facilities, their psychosocial and communication needs have to be met. However, what constitutes these specific needs is poorly understood, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa. This paper explores women's needs for communication and emotional support during facility-based childbirth. METHODS: Qualitative research was conducted in a large referral maternity hospital and its catchment communities in Akure, Nigeria...
December 8, 2017: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218068/prostheses-used-in-laparoscopic-inguinal-hernia-repair-biocompatibility-postoperative-complications-and-quality-of-life-review-of-the-literature
#15
Alexandra Florina Trandafir, Dorin Eugen Popa, Danut Vasile
INTRODUCTION: There is a continuous concern about meshes used in laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair, which mainly relates to their biocompatibility and ability to decrease postoperative complications and recurrence rate; in other words, efforts are made to find the "ideal" prosthesis. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate different prostheses used in laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair in terms of biocompatibility, postoperative complications, recurrence rate and quality of life, so that all the features could lead us to the "ideal" mesh...
September 2017: Mædica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215902/words-matter-implementing-the-electronically-activated-recorder-in-schizotypy
#16
Kyle S Minor, Beshaun J Davis, Matthew P Marggraf, Lauren Luther, Megan L Robbins
In schizophrenia-spectrum populations, analyzing the words people use has offered promise for unlocking information about affective states and social behaviors. The electronically activated recorder (EAR) is an application-based program that is combined with widely used smartphone technology to capture a person's real-world interactions via audio recordings. It improves on the ecological validity of current methodologies by providing objective and naturalistic samples of behavior. This study is the first to implement the EAR in people endorsing elevated traits of schizophrenia-spectrum personality disorders (i...
December 7, 2017: Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215151/brain-connectivity-in-children-is-increased-by-the-time-they-spend-reading-books-and-decreased-by-the-length-of-exposure-to-screen-based-media
#17
Tzipi Horowitz-Kraus, John S Hutton
AIM: This study compared the time spent using screen-based media or reading on the functional connectivity of the reading-related brain regions in children aged 8-12. METHODS: We recruited 19 healthy American children from a private school in Cincinnati, USA, in 2015-6 after advertising the study to parents. The parents completed surveys on how many hours their children spent on independent reading and screen-based media time, including smartphones, tablets, desktop or laptop computers and television...
December 7, 2017: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213248/impact-of-diglossia-on-word-and-non-word-repetition-among-language-impaired-and-typically-developing-arabic-native-speaking-children
#18
Elinor Saiegh-Haddad, Ola Ghawi-Dakwar
The study tested the impact of the phonological and lexical distance between a dialect of Palestinian Arabic spoken in the north of Israel (SpA) and Modern Standard Arabic (StA or MSA) on word and non-word repetition in children with specific language impairment (SLI) and in typically developing (TD) age-matched controls. Fifty kindergarten children (25 SLI, 25 TD; mean age 5;5) and fifty first grade children (25 SLI, 25 TD; mean age 6:11) were tested with a repetition task for 1-4 syllable long real words and pseudo words; Items varied systematically in whether each encoded a novel StA phoneme or not, namely a phoneme that is only used in StA but not in the spoken dialect targeted...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212335/-glycemic-variability-and-microvascular-complications-of-diabetes
#19
Martin Prázný, Jan Škrha, Jan Šoupal, Jan Škrha
Vascular complications of diabetes result from long lasting unsatisfactory glycemic control. We usually assess glycemic control based on the value of glycated hemoglobin HbA1c. The glycated hemoglobin test, however, says nothing about short-term glycemic fluctuations. Recently, continuous monitoring of glycemia has enabled us an in-depth assessment of changes in glucose concentrations, called glycemic variability. Together with the research of short-term glycemic variability, also the study of long-term fluctuations in glycemic control based on HbA1c variability has now intensified...
2017: Casopís Lékar̆ů C̆eských
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211650/selective-interference-with-syntactic-encoding-during-sentence-production-by-direct-electrocortical-stimulation-of-the-inferior-frontal-gyrus
#20
Edward F Chang, Garret Kurteff, Stephen M Wilson
Cortical stimulation mapping (CSM) has provided important insights into the neuroanatomy of language, because of its high spatial and temporal resolution, and the causal relationships that can be inferred from transient disruption of specific functions. Almost all CSM studies to date have focused on word level processes such as naming, comprehension, and repetition. In this study, we used CSM to identify sites where stimulation interfered selectively with syntactic encoding during sentence production. Fourteen patients undergoing left-hemisphere neurosurgery participated in the study...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
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