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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717525/differential-effects-of-awake-glioma-surgery-in-critical-language-areas-on-cognition-4-case-studies
#1
Djaina Satoer, Elke De Witte, Marion Smits, Roelien Bastiaanse, Arnaud Vincent, Peter Mariën, Evy Visch-Brink
Awake surgery with electrocorticosubcortical stimulation is the golden standard treatment for gliomas in eloquent areas. Preoperatively, mostly mild cognitive disturbances are observed with postoperative deterioration. We describe pre- and postoperative profiles of 4 patients (P1-P4) with gliomas in "critical" language areas ("Broca," "Wernicke," and the arcuate fasciculus) undergoing awake surgery to get insight into the underlying mechanism of neuroplasticity. Neuropsychological examination was carried out preoperatively (at T1) and postoperatively (at T2, T3)...
2017: Case Reports in Neurological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665385/-dynamics-of-functional-mri-and-speech-function-in-patients-after-resection-of-frontal-and-temporal-lobe-tumors
#2
S B Buklina, A I Batalov, A S Smirnov, A A Poddubskaya, D I Pitskhelauri, G L Kobyakov, V Yu Zhukov, S A Goryaynov, A S Kulikov, A A Ogurtsova, A V Golanov, M D Varyukhina, I N Pronin
RATIONALE: There are no studies on application of functional MRI (fMRI) for long-term monitoring of the condition of patients after resection of frontal and temporal lobe tumors. PURPOSE: The study purpose was to correlate, using fMRI, reorganization of the speech system and dynamics of speech disorders in patients with left hemisphere gliomas before surgery and in the early and late postoperative periods. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 20 patients with left hemisphere gliomas were dynamically monitored using fMRI and comprehensive neuropsychological testing...
2017: Zhurnal Voprosy Neĭrokhirurgii Imeni N. N. Burdenko
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659792/the-serotonin-receptor-6-antagonist-idalopirdine-and-acetylcholinesterase-inhibitor-donepezil-have-synergistic-effects-on-brain-activity-a-functional-mri-study-in-the-awake-rat
#3
Craig F Ferris, Praveen Kulkarni, Jason R Yee, Mark Nedelman, Inge E M de Jong
The 5-HT6 receptor is a promising target for cognitive disorders, in particular for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other CNS disorders. The high-affinity and selective 5-HT6 receptor antagonist idalopirdine (Lu AE58054) is currently in development for mild-moderate AD as adjunct therapy to acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs). We studied the effects of idalopirdine alone and in combination with the AChEI donepezil on brain activity using BOLD (Blood Oxygen Level Dependent) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in the awake rat...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658048/increased-activation-of-the-hippocampus-during-a-chinese-character-subvocalization-task-in-adults-with-cleft-lip-and-palate-palatoplasty-and-speech-therapy
#4
Wenjing Zhang, Chunlin Li, Long Chen, Xiyue Xing, Xiangyang Li, Zhi Yang, Haiyan Zhang, Renji Chen
This study aimed to explore brain activation in patients with cleft lip and palate (CLP) using a Chinese character subvocalization task, in which the stimuli were selected from a clinical articulation evaluation test. CLP is a congenital disability. Individuals with CLP usually have articulation disorder caused by abnormal lip and palate structure. Previous studies showed that primary somatosensory and motor areas had a significant difference in activation in patients with CLP. However, whether brain activation was restored to a normal level after palatoplasty and speech rehabilitation is not clear...
August 16, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626411/dissociated-crossed-speech-areas-in-a-tumour-patient
#5
Jörg Mauler, Irene Neuner, Georg Neuloh, Bruno Fimm, Frank Boers, Martin Wiesmann, Hans Clusmann, Karl-Josef Langen, N Jon Shah
In the past, the eloquent areas could be deliberately localised by the invasive Wada test. The very rare cases of dissociated crossed speech areas were accidentally found based on the clinical symptomatology. Today functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)-based imaging can be employed to non-invasively localise the eloquent areas in brain tumour patients for therapy planning. A 41-year-old, left-handed man with a low-grade glioma in the left frontal operculum extending to the insular cortex, tension headaches, and anomic aphasia over 5 months underwent a pre-operative speech area localisation fMRI measurement, which revealed the evidence of the transhemispheric disposition, where the dominant Wernicke speech area is located on the left and the Broca's area is strongly lateralised to the right hemisphere...
May 2017: Case Reports in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619652/frontal-temporal-and-parietal-systems-synchronize-within-and-across-brains-during-live-eye-to-eye-contact
#6
Joy Hirsch, Xian Zhang, J Adam Noah, Yumie Ono
Human eye-to-eye contact is a primary source of social cues and communication. In spite of the biological significance of this interpersonal interaction, the underlying neural processes are not well-understood. This knowledge gap, in part, reflects limitations of conventional neuroimaging methods, including solitary confinement in the bore of a scanner and minimal tolerance of head movement that constrain investigations of natural, two-person interactions. However, these limitations are substantially resolved by recent technical developments in functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), a non-invasive spectral absorbance technique that detects changes in blood oxygen levels in the brain by using surface-mounted optical sensors...
June 12, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602661/brain-arteriovenous-malformations-located-in-language-area-surgical-outcomes-and-risk-factors-for-postoperative-language-deficits
#7
Yuming Jiao, Fuxin Lin, Jun Wu, Hao Li, Xin Chen, Zhicen Li, Ji Ma, Yong Cao, Shuo Wang, Jizong Zhao
OBJECT: Case selection for surgical treatment of language area brain arteriovenous malformations (L-BAVMs) remains difficult. This study aimed to determine the surgical outcomes and risk factors for postoperative language deficits (LD) in patients with L-BAVMs. METHODS: Patients with L-BAVMs who underwent microsurgical resection between September 2012 and June 2016 were reviewed. All patients had undergone preoperative functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)...
June 7, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567009/anatomical-modularity-of-verbal-working-memory-functional-anatomical-evidence-from-a-famous-patient-with-short-term-memory-deficits
#8
Eraldo Paulesu, Tim Shallice, Laura Danelli, Maurizio Sberna, Richard S J Frackowiak, Chris D Frith
Cognitive skills are the emergent property of distributed neural networks. The distributed nature of these networks does not necessarily imply a lack of specialization of the individual brain structures involved. However, it remains questionable whether discrete aspects of high-level behavior might be the result of localized brain activity of individual nodes within such networks. The phonological loop of working memory, with its simplicity, seems ideally suited for testing this possibility. Central to the development of the phonological loop model has been the description of patients with focal lesions and specific deficits...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562080/neuroimaging-patterns-along-the-als-ftd-spectrum-a-multiparametric-imaging-study
#9
Taha Omer, Eoin Finegan, Siobhan Hutchinson, Mark Doherty, Alice Vajda, Russell L McLaughlin, Niall Pender, Orla Hardiman, Peter Bede
Frontotemporal dementia is associated with considerable clinical, genetic and pathological heterogeneity. The objective of this study is to characterise the imaging signatures of the main FTD phenotypes along the ALS-FTD spectrum. A total of 100 participants underwent comprehensive multimodal neuroimaging, genetic testing and neuropsychological evaluation. Seven patients with behavioural variant FTD (bvFTD), 11 patients with non-fluent-variant primary progressive aphasia (nfvPPA), two patients with sematic-variant primary progressive aphasia(svPPA), 10 patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and FTD carrying the C9orf72 hexanucleotide repeat (C9 + ALS-FTD), 10 patients with ALS-FTD without hexanucleotide repeats (C9-ALS-FTD), 20 ALS patients without behavioural or cognitive deficits (ALSnci) and 40 healthy controls (HC) were included in a prospective quantitative neuroimaging study...
May 31, 2017: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Degeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557692/the-role-of-the-primary-sensory-cortices-in-early-language-processing
#10
Andrew C Papanicolaou, Marina Kilintari, Roozbeh Rezaie, Shalini Narayana, Abbas Babajani-Feremi
The results of this magnetoencephalography study challenge two long-standing assumptions regarding the brain mechanisms of language processing: First, that linguistic processing proper follows sensory feature processing effected by bilateral activation of the primary sensory cortices that lasts about 100 msec from stimulus onset. Second, that subsequent linguistic processing is effected by left hemisphere networks outside the primary sensory areas, including Broca's and Wernicke's association cortices. Here we present evidence that linguistic analysis begins almost synchronously with sensory, prelinguistic verbal input analysis and that the primary cortices are also engaged in these linguistic analyses and become, consequently, part of the left hemisphere language network during language tasks...
May 30, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544168/presurgical-language-fmri-mapping-of-six-critical-regions
#11
Christopher F Benjamin, Patricia D Walshaw, Kayleigh Hale, William D Gaillard, Leslie C Baxter, Madison M Berl, Monika Polczynska, Stephanie Noble, Rafeed Alkawadri, Lawrence J Hirsch, R Todd Constable, Susan Y Bookheimer
Language mapping is a key goal in neurosurgical planning. fMRI mapping typically proceeds with a focus on Broca's and Wernicke's areas, although multiple other language-critical areas are now well-known. We evaluated whether clinicians could use a novel approach, including clinician-driven individualized thresholding, to reliably identify six language regions, including Broca's Area, Wernicke's Area (inferior, superior), Exner's Area, Supplementary Speech Area, Angular Gyrus, and Basal Temporal Language Area...
August 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538516/left-lateralization-of-resting-state-functional-connectivity-between-the-presupplementary-motor-area-and-primary-language-areas
#12
William Lou, Kyung K Peck, Nicole Brennan, Arka Mallela, Andrei Holodny
An abundance of evidence points to the role of a presupplementary motor area (pre-SMA) in human language. This study explores the pre-SMA resting state connectivity network and the nature of its connections to known language areas. We tested the hypothesis that by seeding the pre-SMA, one would be able to establish language laterality to known cortical and subcortical language areas. We analyzed data from 30 right-handed healthy controls and performed the resting state functional MRI. A seed-based analysis using a manually drawn pre-SMA region of interest template was applied...
July 5, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500855/the-evolutionary-theory-of-depression
#13
Piotr Gałecki, Monika Talarowska
The evolutionary success of Homo sapiens is attributed to the following two factors: the upright body posture (which freed our hands and allowed unconstrained operation of various objects) and intensive development of the frontal lobes, mainly the Broca area of the brain. Underlining the uniqueness of the human brain, we often forget about the fact that the frontal lobes - the most developed part of the brain - are at the same time our greatest weakness, exposed to the action of damaging factors in our evolving environment...
May 13, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428208/resting-state-seed-based-analysis-an-alternative-to-task-based-language-fmri-and-its-laterality-index
#14
K A Smitha, K M Arun, P G Rajesh, B Thomas, C Kesavadas
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Language is a cardinal function that makes human unique. Preservation of language function poses a great challenge for surgeons during resection. The aim of the study was to assess the efficacy of resting-state fMRI in the lateralization of language function in healthy subjects to permit its further testing in patients who are unable to perform task-based fMRI. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighteen healthy right-handed volunteers were prospectively evaluated with resting-state fMRI and task-based fMRI to assess language networks...
April 20, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424604/mapping-critical-language-sites-in-children-performing-verb-generation-whole-brain-connectivity-and-graph-theoretical-analysis-in-meg
#15
Vahab Youssofzadeh, Brady J Williamson, Darren S Kadis
A classic left frontal-temporal brain network is known to support language processes. However, the level of participation of constituent regions, and the contribution of extra-canonical areas, is not fully understood; this is particularly true in children, and in individuals who have experienced early neurological insult. In the present work, we propose whole-brain connectivity and graph-theoretical analysis of magnetoencephalography (MEG) source estimates to provide robust maps of the pediatric expressive language network...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424402/-syntactic-processing-in-broca-s-area-brodmann-areas-44-and-45
#16
Atora Yamada, Kuniyoshi L Sakai
Brodmann areas 44 and 45 are known as Broca's area; however, their true functional roles are still unknown. Recent developments in neuroimaging techniques revealed the structures and functions of Broca's area in detail. More specifically regarding language functions, sufficient evidence has been accumulated that this region subserves the center of syntactic processing, not necessarily motor functions. Here, we review a role of Broca's area as the grammar center, including other roles in nonlinguistic functions...
April 2017: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424397/-spatial-cognition-and-episodic-memory-formation-in-the-limbic-cortex
#17
Yasushi Kobayashi
The limbic lobe defined by Broca is a cortical region with highly diverse structure and functions, and comprises the paleo-, archi-, and neocortices as well as their transitional zones. In the limbic lobe, Brodmann designated areas 27, 28, 34, 35, and 36 adjacent to the hippocampus, and areas 23, 24, 25, 26, 29, 30, 31, 32, and 33 around the corpus callosum. In the current literature, areas 27 and 28 correspond to the presubiculum and entorhinal cortex, respectively. Area 34 represents the cortico-medial part of the amygdaloid complex...
April 2017: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416459/the-error-of-broca-from-the-traditional-localizationist-concept-to-a-connectomal-anatomy-of-human-brain
#18
REVIEW
Hugues Duffau
Neurology, especially aphasiology, was mainly built on behavioral-structural correlations ("lesion method"). In this setting, Broca's area has been considered as the "speech area"; moreover, this observation led to localizationism. However, advances in brain mapping techniques, as functional neuroimaging and direct electrical stimulation in patients undergoing awake surgery for gliomas, has resulted in a paradigmatic shift regarding models of neural architecture. In fact, the brain is organized in distributed complex networks underpinning sensorimotor, visuospatial, language, cognitive and emotional functions...
April 14, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409668/broca-s-area-communication-and-collaboration-in-spine-neuromonitoring-time-to-expect-more-a-lot-more-from-the-neurophysiologists
#19
Stan Skinner, Francesco Sala
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 14, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400265/convergence-of-semantics-and-emotional-expression-within-the-ifg-pars-orbitalis
#20
Michel Belyk, Steven Brown, Jessica Lim, Sonja A Kotz
Humans communicate through a combination of linguistic and emotional channels, including propositional speech, writing, sign language, music, but also prosodic, facial, and gestural expression. These channels can be interpreted separately or they can be integrated to multimodally convey complex meanings. Neural models of the perception of semantics and emotion include nodes for both functions in the inferior frontal gyrus pars orbitalis (IFGorb). However, it is not known whether this convergence involves a common functional zone or instead specialized subregions that process semantics and emotion separately...
April 8, 2017: NeuroImage
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