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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884462/dual-neural-network-model-for-the-evolution-of-speech-and-language
#1
REVIEW
Steffen R Hage, Andreas Nieder
Explaining the evolution of speech and language poses one of the biggest challenges in biology. We propose a dual network model that posits a volitional articulatory motor network (VAMN) originating in the prefrontal cortex (PFC; including Broca's area) that cognitively controls vocal output of a phylogenetically conserved primary vocal motor network (PVMN) situated in subcortical structures. By comparing the connections between these two systems in human and nonhuman primate brains, we identify crucial biological preadaptations in monkeys for the emergence of a language system in humans...
November 21, 2016: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870461/sexual-dimorphism-of-broca-s-region-more-gray-matter-in-female-brains-in-brodmann-areas-44-and-45
#2
Florian Kurth, Lutz Jancke, Eileen Luders
Although a sexual dimorphism in brain structure is generally well established, evidence for sex differences in Brodmann areas (BA) 44 and 45 is inconclusive. This may be due to the difficulty of accurately defining BA 44 and BA 45 in magnetic resonance images, given that these regions are variable in their location and extent and that they do not match well with macroanatomic landmarks. Here we set out to test for possible sex differences in the local gray matter of BA 44/45 by integrating imaging-based signal intensities with cytoarchitectonically defined tissue probabilities in a sample of 50 male and 50 female subjects...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852019/-language-functions-in-the-frontal-association-area-brain-mechanisms-that-create-language
#3
Kayako Yamamoto, Kuniyoshi L Sakai
Broca's area is known to be critically involved in language processing for more than 150 years. Recent neuroimaging techniques, including functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and diffusion MRI, enabled the subdivision of Broca's area based on both functional and anatomical aspects. Networks among the frontal association areas, especially the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), and other cortical regions in the temporal/parietal association areas, are also important for language-related information processing...
November 2016: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847708/the-prognosis-and-recovery-of-aphasia-related-to-stroke-lesion
#4
Bomi Sul, Joon Sung Kim, Bo Young Hong, Kyoung Bo Lee, Woo Seop Hwang, Young Kook Kim, Seong Hoon Lim
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of specific brain lesions on prognosis and recovery of post-stroke aphasia, and to assess the characteristic pattern of recovery. METHODS: Total of 15 subjects with first-ever, left hemisphere stroke, who were right handed, and who completed language assessment using the Korean version of the Western Aphasia Battery (K-WAB) at least twice during the subacute and chronic stages of stroke, were included. The brain lesions of the participants were evaluated using MRI-cron, SPM8, and Talairach Daemon software...
October 2016: Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816558/motor-skill-for-tool-use-is-associated-with-asymmetries-in-broca-s-area-and-the-motor-hand-area-of-the-precentral-gyrus-in-chimpanzees-pan-troglodytes
#5
William D Hopkins, Adrien Meguerditchian, Olivier Coulon, Maria Misiura, Sarah Pope, Mary Catherine Mareno, Steven J Schapiro
Among nonhuman primates, chimpanzees are well known for their sophistication and diversity of tool use in both captivity and the wild. The evolution of tool manufacture and use has been proposed as a driving mechanism for the development of increasing brain size, complex cognition and motor skills, as well as the population-level handedness observed in modern humans. Notwithstanding, our understanding of the neurological correlates of tool use in chimpanzees and other primates remains poorly understood. Here, we assessed the hand preference and performance skill of chimpanzees on a tool use task and correlated these data with measures of neuroanatomical asymmetries in the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and the pli-de-passage fronto-parietal moyen (PPFM)...
November 2, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803287/a-neuroanatomical-predictor-of-mirror-self-recognition-in-chimpanzees
#6
E E Hecht, L M Mahovetz, T M Preuss, W D Hopkins
The ability to recognize one's own reflection is shared by humans and only a few other species, including chimpanzees. However, this ability is highly variable across individual chimpanzees. In humans, self-recognition involves a distributed, right-lateralized network including frontal and parietal regions involved in the production and perception of action. The superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) is a system of white matter tracts linking these frontal and parietal regions. The current study measured mirror self-recognition (MSR) and SLF anatomy in 60 chimpanzees using diffusion tensor imaging...
November 1, 2016: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781971/impact-of-cerebellar-atrophy-on-cortical-gray-matter-and-cerebellar-peduncles-as-assessed-by-voxel-based-morphometry-and-high-angular-resolution-diffusion-imaging
#7
Michael Dayan, G Olivito, M Molinari, Mara Cercignani, Marco Bozzali, M Leggio
In recent years the cerebellum has been attributed amore important role in higher-level functions than previously believed. We examined a cohort of patients suffering from cerebellar atrophy resulting in ataxia, with two main objectives: first to investigate which regions of the cerebrum were affected by the cerebellar degeneration, and second to assess whether diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) metrics within the medial (MCP) and superior cerebellar peduncle (SCP) - namely fractional anisotropy (FA) and radial diffusivity (RD) - could be used as a biomarker in patients with this condition...
October 26, 2016: Functional Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774713/on-the-brain-structure-heterogeneity-of-autism-parsing-out-acquisition-site-effects-with-significance-weighted-principal-component-analysis
#8
Francisco Jesús Martinez-Murcia, Meng-Chuan Lai, Juan Manuel Górriz, Javier Ramírez, Adam M H Young, Sean C L Deoni, Christine Ecker, Michael V Lombardo, Simon Baron-Cohen, Declan G M Murphy, Edward T Bullmore, John Suckling
Neuroimaging studies have reported structural and physiological differences that could help understand the causes and development of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Many of them rely on multisite designs, with the recruitment of larger samples increasing statistical power. However, recent large-scale studies have put some findings into question, considering the results to be strongly dependent on the database used, and demonstrating the substantial heterogeneity within this clinically defined category. One major source of variance may be the acquisition of the data in multiple centres...
October 24, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771043/tracking-the-development-of-agrammatic-aphasia-a-tensor-based-morphometry-study
#9
Jennifer L Whitwell, Joseph R Duffy, Mary M Machulda, Heather M Clark, Edythe A Strand, Matthew L Senjem, Jeffrey L Gunter, Anthony J Spychalla, Ronald C Petersen, Clifford R Jack, Keith A Josephs
Agrammatic aphasia can be observed in neurodegenerative disorders and has been traditionally linked with damage to Broca's area, although there have been disagreements concerning whether damage to Broca's area is necessary or sufficient for the development of agrammatism. We aimed to investigate the neuroanatomical correlates of the emergence of agrammatic aphasia utilizing a unique cohort of patients with primary progressive apraxia of speech (PPAOS) that did not have agrammatism at baseline but developed agrammatic aphasia over time...
September 30, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27746729/broca-pars-triangularis-constitutes-a-hub-of-the-language-control-network-during-simultaneous-language-translation
#10
Stefan Elmer
Until now, several branches of research have fundamentally contributed to a better understanding of the ramifications of bilingualism, multilingualism, and language expertise on psycholinguistic-, cognitive-, and neural implications. In this context, it is noteworthy to mention that from a cognitive perspective, there is a strong convergence of data pointing to an influence of multilingual speech competence on a variety of cognitive functions, including attention, short-term- and working memory, set shifting, switching, and inhibition...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27722837/attention-training-improves-aberrant-neural-dynamics-during-working-memory-processing-in-veterans-with-ptsd
#11
Timothy J McDermott, Amy S Badura-Brack, Katherine M Becker, Tara J Ryan, Yair Bar-Haim, Daniel S Pine, Maya M Khanna, Elizabeth Heinrichs-Graham, Tony W Wilson
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with executive functioning deficits, including disruptions in working memory (WM). Recent studies suggest that attention training reduces PTSD symptomatology, but the underlying neural mechanisms are unknown. We used high-density magnetoencephalography (MEG) to evaluate whether attention training modulates brain regions serving WM processing in PTSD. Fourteen veterans with PTSD completed a WM task during a 306-sensor MEG recording before and after 8 sessions of attention training treatment...
October 8, 2016: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716645/how-to-include-the-variability-of-tms-responses-in-simulations-a-speech-mapping-case-study
#12
N De Geeter, P Lioumis, A Laakso, G Crevecoeur, L Dupré
When delivered over a specific cortical site, TMS can temporarily disrupt the ongoing process in that area. This allows mapping of speech-related areas for preoperative evaluation purposes. We numerically explore the observed variability of TMS responses during a speech mapping experiment performed with a neuronavigation system. We selected four cases with very small perturbations in coil position and orientation. In one case (E) a naming error occurred, while in the other cases (NEA, B, C) the subject appointed the images as smoothly as without TMS...
October 7, 2016: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693796/automated-individual-level-parcellation-of-broca-s-region-based-on-functional-connectivity
#13
Estrid Jakobsen, Franziskus Liem, Manousos A Klados, Seyma Bayrak, Michael Petrides, Daniel S Margulies
Broca's region can be subdivided into its constituent areas 44 and 45 based on established differences in connectivity to superior temporal and inferior parietal regions. The current study builds on our previous work manually parcellating Broca's area on the individual-level by applying these anatomical criteria to functional connectivity data. Here we present an automated observer-independent and anatomy-informed parcellation pipeline with comparable precision to the manual labels at the individual-level. The method first extracts individualized connectivity templates of areas 44 and 45 by assigning to each surface vertex within the ventrolateral frontal cortex the partial correlation value of its functional connectivity to group-level templates of areas 44 and 45, accounting for other template connectivity patterns...
September 30, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27650644/investigation-of-topographical-anatomy-of-broca-s-area-an-anatomic-cadaveric-study
#14
Pınar Eser Ocak, Hasan Kocaelı
PURPOSE: The sulci constituting the structure of the pars triangularis and opercularis, considered as 'Broca's area', present wide anatomical and morphological variations between different hemispheres. The boundaries are described differently from one another in various studies. The aim of this study was to explore the topographical anatomy, confirm the morphological asymmetry and highlight anatomical variations in Broca's area. METHODS: This study was performed with 100 hemispheres to investigate the presence, continuity, patterns and connections of the sulcal structures that constitute the morphological asymmetry of Broca's area...
September 20, 2016: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27584714/broca-and-wernicke-are-dead-or-moving-past-the-classic-model-of-language-neurobiology
#15
Pascale Tremblay, Anthony Steven Dick
With the advancement of cognitive neuroscience and neuropsychological research, the field of language neurobiology is at a cross-roads with respect to its framing theories. The central thesis of this article is that the major historical framing model, the Classic "Wernicke-Lichtheim-Geschwind" model, and associated terminology, is no longer adequate for contemporary investigations into the neurobiology of language. We argue that the Classic model (1) is based on an outdated brain anatomy; (2) does not adequately represent the distributed connectivity relevant for language, (3) offers a modular and "language centric" perspective, and (4) focuses on cortical structures, for the most part leaving out subcortical regions and relevant connections...
August 29, 2016: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27564466/functional-connectivity-networks-for-preoperative-brain-mapping-in-neurosurgery
#16
Michael G Hart, Stephen J Price, John Suckling
OBJECTIVE Resection of focal brain lesions involves maximizing the resection while preserving brain function. Mapping brain function has entered a new era focusing on distributed connectivity networks at "rest," that is, in the absence of a specific task or stimulus, requiring minimal participant engagement. Central to this frame shift has been the development of methods for the rapid assessment of whole-brain connectivity with functional MRI (fMRI) involving blood oxygenation level-dependent imaging. The authors appraised the feasibility of fMRI-based mapping of a repertoire of functional connectivity networks in neurosurgical patients with focal lesions and the potential benefits of resting-state connectivity mapping for surgical planning...
August 26, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27542724/left-posterior-dorsal-area-44-couples-with-parietal-areas-to-promote-speech-fluency-while-right-area-44-activity-promotes-the-stopping-of-motor-responses
#17
Nicole E Neef, Christoph Bütfering, Alfred Anwander, Angela D Friederici, Walter Paulus, Martin Sommer
Area 44 is a cytoarchitectonically distinct portion of Broca's region. Parallel and overlapping large-scale networks couple with this region thereby orchestrating heterogeneous language, cognitive, and motor functions. In the context of stuttering, area 44 frequently comes into focus because structural and physiological irregularities affect developmental trajectories, stuttering severity, persistency, and etiology. A remarkable phenomenon accompanying stuttering is the preserved ability to sing. Speaking and singing are connatural behaviours recruiting largely overlapping brain networks including left and right area 44...
August 16, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27539453/afferents-to-anterior-cingulate-areas-24a-and-24b-and-midcingulate-areas-24a-and-24b-in-the-mouse
#18
Clémentine Fillinger, Ipek Yalcin, Michel Barrot, Pierre Veinante
Areas 24a and 24b of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) play a major role in cognition, emotion and pain. While their connectivity has been studied in primate and in rat, a complete mapping was still missing in the mouse. Here, we analyzed the afferents to the mouse ACC by injecting retrograde tracers in the ventral and dorsal areas of the ACC (areas 24a/b) and of the midcingulate cortex (MCC; areas 24a'/b'). Our results reveal inputs from five principal groups of structures: (1) cortical areas, mainly the orbital, medial prefrontal, retrosplenial, parietal associative, primary and secondary sensory areas and the hippocampus, (2) basal forebrain, mainly the basolateral amygdaloid nucleus, the claustrum and the horizontal limb of the diagonal band of Broca, (3) the thalamus, mainly the anteromedial, lateral mediodorsal, ventromedial, centrolateral, central medial and reuniens/rhomboid nuclei, (4) the hypothalamus, mainly the lateral and retromammillary areas, and (5) the brainstem, mainly the monoaminergic centers...
August 18, 2016: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27516735/neurobiological-correlates-of-inhibition-of-the-right-broca-homolog-during-new-word-learning
#19
Pierre Nicolo, Raphaël Fargier, Marina Laganaro, Adrian G Guggisberg
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has demonstrated beneficial effects on motor learning. It would be important to obtain a similar enhancement for verbal learning. However, previous studies have mostly assessed short-term effects of rTMS on language performance and the effect on learning is largely unknown. This study examined whether an inhibition of the right Broca homolog has long-term impact on neural processes underlying the acquisition of new words in healthy individuals. Sixteen young participants trained a new-word learning paradigm with rare, mostly unknown objects and their corresponding words immediately after continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS) or sham stimulation of right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) in a cross-over design...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27509456/does-right-sided-language-lateralization-on-bold-fmri-affect-postoperative-language-outcome-for-avm-patients
#20
Zhi Liu, Xiaofeng Deng, Yong Cao, Yuanli Zhao, Jizong Zhao, Shuo Wang
AIM: For cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) involving language areas, right-sided language lateralization on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has been reported, which is regarded as language cortex reorganization. The authors attempt to study if this right-sided language lateralization affects postoperative language outcome. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Clinical and imaging data of 43 right-handed AVM patients who underwent preoperative fMRI were retrospectively reviewed...
April 13, 2016: Turkish Neurosurgery
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