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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087242/brains-for-birds-and-babies-neural-parallels-between-birdsong-and-speech-acquisition
#1
REVIEW
Jonathan Prather, Kazuo Okanoya, Johan J Bolhuis
Language as a computational cognitive mechanism appears to be unique to the human species. However, there are remarkable behavioral similarities between song learning in songbirds and speech acquisition in human infants that are absent in non-human primates. Here we review important neural parallels between birdsong and speech. In both cases there are separate but continually interacting neural networks that underlie vocal production, sensorimotor learning, and auditory perception and memory. As in the case of human speech, neural activity related to birdsong learning is lateralized, and mirror neurons linking perception and performance may contribute to sensorimotor learning...
January 10, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072384/impact-of-cerebellar-atrophy-on-cortical-gray-matter-and-cerebellar-peduncles-as-assessed-by-voxel-based-morphometry-and-high-angular-resolution-diffusion-imaging
#2
Michael Dayan, G Olivito, M Molinari, Mara Cercignani, Marco Bozzali, M Leggio
In recent years the cerebellum has been attributed amore important role in higher-level functions than previously believed. We examined a cohort of patients suffering from cerebellar atrophy resulting in ataxia, with two main objectives: first to investigate which regions of the cerebrum were affected by the cerebellar degeneration, and second to assess whether diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) metrics within the medial (MCP) and superior cerebellar peduncle (SCP) - namely fractional anisotropy (FA) and radial diffusivity (RD) - could be used as a biomarker in patients with this condition...
October 2016: Functional Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045130/sex-related-difference-in-human-white-matter-volumes-studied-inspection-of-the-corpus-callosum-and-other-white-matter-by-vbm
#3
Akihiko Shiino, Yen-Wei Chen, Kenji Tanigaki, Atsushi Yamada, Piers Vigers, Toshiyuki Watanabe, Ikuo Tooyama, Ichiro Akiguchi
It has been contended that any observed difference of the corpus callosum (CC) size between men and women is not sex-related but brain-size-related. A recent report, however, showed that the midsagittal CC area was significantly larger in women in 37 brain-size-matched pairs of normal young adults. Since this constituted strong evidence of sexual dimorphism and was obtained from publicly available data in OASIS, we examined volume differences within the CC and in other white matter using voxel-based morphometry (VBM)...
January 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035724/reduced-perfusion-in-broca-s-area-in-developmental-stuttering
#4
Jay Desai, Yuankai Huo, Zhishun Wang, Ravi Bansal, Steven C R Williams, David Lythgoe, Fernando O Zelaya, Bradley S Peterson
OBJECTIVE: To study resting cerebral blood flow in children and adults with developmental stuttering. METHODS: We acquired pulsed arterial spin labeling magnetic resonance imaging data in 26 participants with stuttering and 36 healthy, fluent controls. While covarying for age, sex, and IQ, we compared perfusion values voxel-wise across diagnostic groups and assessed correlations of perfusion with stuttering severity within the stuttering group and with measures of motor speed in both groups...
December 30, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011396/left-inferior-frontal-gyrus-mediates-morphosyntax-erp-evidence-from-verb-processing-in-left-hemisphere-damaged-patients
#5
Stefanie Regel, Sonja A Kotz, Ilona Henseler, Angela D Friederici
Neurocognitive models of language comprehension have proposed different mechanisms with different neural substrates mediating human language processing. Whether the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) is engaged in morpho-syntactic information processing is currently still controversially debated. The present study addresses this issue by examining the processing of irregular verb inflection in real words (e.g., swim > swum > swam) and pseudowords (e.g., frim > frum > fram) by using event-related brain potentials (ERPs) in neurological patients with lesions in the LIFG involving Broca's area as well as healthy controls...
November 18, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005160/a-contemporary-framework-of-language-processing-in-the-human-brain-in-the-context-of-preoperative-and-intraoperative-language-mapping
#6
Erik H Middlebrooks, Kaan Yagmurlu, Jerzey P Szaflarski, Maryam Rahman, Baran Bozkurt
INTRODUCTION: The emergence of advanced in vivo neuroimaging methods has redefined the understanding of brain function with a shift from traditional localizationist models to more complex and widely distributed neural networks. In human language processing, the traditional localizationist models of Wernicke and Broca have fallen out of favor for a dual-stream processing system involving complex networks organized over vast areas of the dominant hemisphere. The current review explores the cortical function and white matter connections of human language processing, as well as their relevance to surgical planning...
December 22, 2016: Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993693/whole-brain-functional-connectivity-during-acquisition-of-novel-grammar-distinct-functional-networks-depend-on-language-learning-abilities
#7
Olga Kepinska, Mischa de Rover, Johanneke Caspers, Niels O Schiller
In an effort to advance the understanding of brain function and organisation accompanying second language learning, we investigate the neural substrates of novel grammar learning in a group of healthy adults, consisting of participants with high and average language analytical abilities (LAA). By means of an Independent Components Analysis, a data-driven approach to functional connectivity of the brain, the fMRI data collected during a grammar-learning task were decomposed into maps representing separate cognitive processes...
December 16, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931245/brain-activation-in-frontotemporal-and-alzheimer-s-dementia-a-functional-near-infrared-spectroscopy-study
#8
Florian G Metzger, Betti Schopp, Florian B Haeussinger, Katja Dehnen, Matthis Synofzik, Andreas J Fallgatter, Ann-Christine Ehlis
BACKGROUND: Frontotemporal dementia is an increasingly studied disease, the underlying functional impairments on a neurobiological level of which have not been fully understood. Patients with the behavioral-subtype frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) are particularly challenging for clinical measurements such as functional imaging due to their behavioral symptoms. Here, an alternative imaging method, functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), is introduced to measure task-related cortical brain activation based on blood oxygenation...
December 8, 2016: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915210/functional-brain-imaging-of-walking-while-talking-an-fnirs-study
#9
Florian G Metzger, Ann-Christine Ehlis, Florian B Haeussinger, Patrick Schneeweiss, Justin Hudak, Andreas J Fallgatter, Sabrina Schneider
Since functional imaging of whole body movements is not feasible with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), the present study presents in vivo functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) as a suitable technique to measure body movement effects on fronto-temporo-parietal cortical activation in single- and dual-task paradigms. Previous fNIRS applications in studies addressing whole body movements were typically limited to the assessment of prefrontal brain areas. The current study investigated brain activation in the frontal, temporal and parietal cortex of both hemispheres using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) with two large 4×4 probe-sets with 24 channels each during single and dual gait tasks...
November 30, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884462/dual-neural-network-model-for-the-evolution-of-speech-and-language
#10
REVIEW
Steffen R Hage, Andreas Nieder
Explaining the evolution of speech and language poses one of the biggest challenges in biology. We propose a dual network model that posits a volitional articulatory motor network (VAMN) originating in the prefrontal cortex (PFC; including Broca's area) that cognitively controls vocal output of a phylogenetically conserved primary vocal motor network (PVMN) situated in subcortical structures. By comparing the connections between these two systems in human and nonhuman primate brains, we identify crucial biological preadaptations in monkeys for the emergence of a language system in humans...
December 2016: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870461/sexual-dimorphism-of-broca-s-region-more-gray-matter-in-female-brains-in-brodmann-areas-44-and-45
#11
Florian Kurth, Lutz Jancke, Eileen Luders
Although a sexual dimorphism in brain structure is generally well established, evidence for sex differences in Brodmann areas (BA) 44 and 45 is inconclusive. This may be due to the difficulty of accurately defining BA 44 and BA 45 in magnetic resonance images, given that these regions are variable in their location and extent and that they do not match well with macroanatomic landmarks. Here we set out to test for possible sex differences in the local gray matter of BA 44/45 by integrating imaging-based signal intensities with cytoarchitectonically defined tissue probabilities in a sample of 50 male and 50 female subjects...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852019/-language-functions-in-the-frontal-association-area-brain-mechanisms-that-create-language
#12
Kayako Yamamoto, Kuniyoshi L Sakai
Broca's area is known to be critically involved in language processing for more than 150 years. Recent neuroimaging techniques, including functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and diffusion MRI, enabled the subdivision of Broca's area based on both functional and anatomical aspects. Networks among the frontal association areas, especially the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), and other cortical regions in the temporal/parietal association areas, are also important for language-related information processing...
November 2016: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847708/the-prognosis-and-recovery-of-aphasia-related-to-stroke-lesion
#13
Bomi Sul, Joon Sung Kim, Bo Young Hong, Kyoung Bo Lee, Woo Seop Hwang, Young Kook Kim, Seong Hoon Lim
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of specific brain lesions on prognosis and recovery of post-stroke aphasia, and to assess the characteristic pattern of recovery. METHODS: Total of 15 subjects with first-ever, left hemisphere stroke, who were right handed, and who completed language assessment using the Korean version of the Western Aphasia Battery (K-WAB) at least twice during the subacute and chronic stages of stroke, were included. The brain lesions of the participants were evaluated using MRI-cron, SPM8, and Talairach Daemon software...
October 2016: Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816558/motor-skill-for-tool-use-is-associated-with-asymmetries-in-broca-s-area-and-the-motor-hand-area-of-the-precentral-gyrus-in-chimpanzees-pan-troglodytes
#14
William D Hopkins, Adrien Meguerditchian, Olivier Coulon, Maria Misiura, Sarah Pope, Mary Catherine Mareno, Steven J Schapiro
Among nonhuman primates, chimpanzees are well known for their sophistication and diversity of tool use in both captivity and the wild. The evolution of tool manufacture and use has been proposed as a driving mechanism for the development of increasing brain size, complex cognition and motor skills, as well as the population-level handedness observed in modern humans. Notwithstanding, our understanding of the neurological correlates of tool use in chimpanzees and other primates remains poorly understood. Here, we assessed the hand preference and performance skill of chimpanzees on a tool use task and correlated these data with measures of neuroanatomical asymmetries in the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and the pli-de-passage fronto-parietal moyen (PPFM)...
November 2, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803287/a-neuroanatomical-predictor-of-mirror-self-recognition-in-chimpanzees
#15
E E Hecht, L M Mahovetz, T M Preuss, W D Hopkins
The ability to recognize one's own reflection is shared by humans and only a few other species, including chimpanzees. However, this ability is highly variable across individual chimpanzees. In humans, self-recognition involves a distributed, right-lateralized network including frontal and parietal regions involved in the production and perception of action. The superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) is a system of white matter tracts linking these frontal and parietal regions. The current study measured mirror self-recognition (MSR) and SLF anatomy in 60 chimpanzees using diffusion tensor imaging...
November 1, 2016: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781971/impact-of-cerebellar-atrophy-on-cortical-gray-matter-and-cerebellar-peduncles-as-assessed-by-voxel-based-morphometry-and-high-angular-resolution-diffusion-imaging
#16
Michael Dayan, G Olivito, M Molinari, Mara Cercignani, Marco Bozzali, M Leggio
In recent years the cerebellum has been attributed amore important role in higher-level functions than previously believed. We examined a cohort of patients suffering from cerebellar atrophy resulting in ataxia, with two main objectives: first to investigate which regions of the cerebrum were affected by the cerebellar degeneration, and second to assess whether diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) metrics within the medial (MCP) and superior cerebellar peduncle (SCP) - namely fractional anisotropy (FA) and radial diffusivity (RD) - could be used as a biomarker in patients with this condition...
October 26, 2016: Functional Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774713/on-the-brain-structure-heterogeneity-of-autism-parsing-out-acquisition-site-effects-with-significance-weighted-principal-component-analysis
#17
Francisco Jesús Martinez-Murcia, Meng-Chuan Lai, Juan Manuel Górriz, Javier Ramírez, Adam M H Young, Sean C L Deoni, Christine Ecker, Michael V Lombardo, Simon Baron-Cohen, Declan G M Murphy, Edward T Bullmore, John Suckling
Neuroimaging studies have reported structural and physiological differences that could help understand the causes and development of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Many of them rely on multisite designs, with the recruitment of larger samples increasing statistical power. However, recent large-scale studies have put some findings into question, considering the results to be strongly dependent on the database used, and demonstrating the substantial heterogeneity within this clinically defined category. One major source of variance may be the acquisition of the data in multiple centres...
October 24, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771043/tracking-the-development-of-agrammatic-aphasia-a-tensor-based-morphometry-study
#18
Jennifer L Whitwell, Joseph R Duffy, Mary M Machulda, Heather M Clark, Edythe A Strand, Matthew L Senjem, Jeffrey L Gunter, Anthony J Spychalla, Ronald C Petersen, Clifford R Jack, Keith A Josephs
Agrammatic aphasia can be observed in neurodegenerative disorders and has been traditionally linked with damage to Broca's area, although there have been disagreements concerning whether damage to Broca's area is necessary or sufficient for the development of agrammatism. We aimed to investigate the neuroanatomical correlates of the emergence of agrammatic aphasia utilizing a unique cohort of patients with primary progressive apraxia of speech (PPAOS) that did not have agrammatism at baseline but developed agrammatic aphasia over time...
September 30, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27746729/broca-pars-triangularis-constitutes-a-hub-of-the-language-control-network-during-simultaneous-language-translation
#19
Stefan Elmer
Until now, several branches of research have fundamentally contributed to a better understanding of the ramifications of bilingualism, multilingualism, and language expertise on psycholinguistic-, cognitive-, and neural implications. In this context, it is noteworthy to mention that from a cognitive perspective, there is a strong convergence of data pointing to an influence of multilingual speech competence on a variety of cognitive functions, including attention, short-term- and working memory, set shifting, switching, and inhibition...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27722837/attention-training-improves-aberrant-neural-dynamics-during-working-memory-processing-in-veterans-with-ptsd
#20
Timothy J McDermott, Amy S Badura-Brack, Katherine M Becker, Tara J Ryan, Yair Bar-Haim, Daniel S Pine, Maya M Khanna, Elizabeth Heinrichs-Graham, Tony W Wilson
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with executive functioning deficits, including disruptions in working memory (WM). Recent studies suggest that attention training reduces PTSD symptomatology, but the underlying neural mechanisms are unknown. We used high-density magnetoencephalography (MEG) to evaluate whether attention training modulates brain regions serving WM processing in PTSD. Fourteen veterans with PTSD completed a WM task during a 306-sensor MEG recording before and after 8 sessions of attention training treatment...
December 2016: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
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