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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225156/presurgical-language-localization-with-visual-naming-associated-ecog-high-gamma-modulation-in-pediatric-drug-resistant-epilepsy
#1
Ravindra Arya, J Adam Wilson, Hisako Fujiwara, Leonid Rozhkov, James L Leach, Anna W Byars, Hansel M Greiner, Jennifer Vannest, Jason Buroker, Griffin Milsap, Brian Ervin, Ali Minai, Paul S Horn, Katherine D Holland, Francesco T Mangano, Nathan E Crone, Douglas F Rose
OBJECTIVE: This prospective study compared presurgical language localization with visual naming-associated high-γ modulation (HGM) and conventional electrical cortical stimulation (ECS) in children with intracranial electrodes. METHODS: Patients with drug-resistant epilepsy who were undergoing intracranial monitoring were included if able to name pictures. Electrocorticography (ECoG) signals were recorded during picture naming (overt and covert) and quiet baseline...
February 22, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224285/abnormal-effective-connectivity-in-the-brain-is-involved-in-auditory-verbal-hallucinations-in-schizophrenia
#2
Baojuan Li, Long-Biao Cui, Yi-Bin Xi, Karl J Friston, Fan Guo, Hua-Ning Wang, Lin-Chuan Zhang, Yuan-Han Bai, Qing-Rong Tan, Hong Yin, Hongbing Lu
Information flow among auditory and language processing-related regions implicated in the pathophysiology of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) in schizophrenia (SZ) remains unclear. In this study, we used stochastic dynamic causal modeling (sDCM) to quantify connections among the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (inner speech monitoring), auditory cortex (auditory processing), hippocampus (memory retrieval), thalamus (information filtering), and Broca's area (language production) in 17 first-episode drug-naïve SZ patients with AVHs, 15 without AVHs, and 19 healthy controls using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging...
February 21, 2017: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215624/cross-cultural-consistency-and-diversity-in-intrinsic-functional-organization-of-broca-s-region
#3
Yu Zhang, Lingzhong Fan, Svenja Caspers, Stefan Heim, Ming Song, Cirong Liu, Yin Mo, Simon B Eickhoff, Katrin Amunts, Tianzi Jiang
As a core language area, Broca's region was consistently activated in a variety of language studies even across different language systems. Moreover, a high degree of structural and functional heterogeneity in Broca's region has been reported in many studies. This raised the issue of how the intrinsic organization of Broca's region effects by different language experiences in light of its subdivisions. To address this question, we used multi-center resting-state fMRI data to explore the cross-cultural consistency and diversity of Broca's region in terms of its subdivisions, connectivity patterns and modularity organization in Chinese and German speakers...
February 16, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205280/within-and-between-session-reproducibility-of-gaba-measurements-with-mr-spectroscopy
#4
Maiken K Brix, Lars Ersland, Kenneth Hugdahl, Gerard E Dwyer, Renate Grüner, Ralph Noeske, Mona K Beyer, Alexander R Craven
PURPOSE: The reproducibility of the MEGA-PRESS (MEshcher-GArwood Point RESolved Spectroscopy) MR spectroscopy sequence for the measurement of gamma- aminobutyric acid (GABA) is addressed, focusing on optimizing the number of repetitions at two voxel locations in the human brain and associated possibilities in analysis tools. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two 20-min MEGA-PRESS acquisitions were run (echo time = 68 ms, repetition time = 1800 ms, repetitions = 328): one from a 21 mL volume in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and one from a 22 mL volume in the left Broca's area in 21 healthy male volunteers (age 32 years ± 6[SD])...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163193/the-neuropathological-signature-of-bulbar-onset-als-a-systematic-review
#5
REVIEW
S Shellikeri, V Karthikeyan, R Martino, S E Black, L Zinman, J Keith, Y Yunusova
ALS is a multisystem disorder affecting cognitive and motor functions. Bulbar-onset ALS (bALS) may be preferentially associated with language/cognitive impairments, compared with spinal-onset ALS (sALS), stemming from a potentially unique neuropathology. The objective of this systematic review was to compare neuropathology reported for bALS and sALS subtypes in studies of cadaveric brains. Using Cochrane guidelines, we reviewed articles in MEDLINE, Embase, and PsycINFO databases using standardized search terms for ALS and neuropathology, from inception until July 16th 2016...
February 2, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126062/should-broca-s-area-include-brodmann-area-47
#6
Alfredo Ardila, Byron Bernal, Monica Rosselli
BACKGROUND: Understanding brain organization of speech production has been a principal goal of neuroscience. Historically, brain speech production has been associated with so-called Broca’s area (Brodmann area –BA- 44 and 45), however, modern neuroimaging developments suggest speech production is associated with networks rather than with areas. The purpose of this paper was to analyze the connectivity of BA47 ( pars orbitalis) in relation to language . METHOD: A meta-analysis was conducted to assess the language network in which BA47 is involved...
2017: Psicothema
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087242/brains-for-birds-and-babies-neural-parallels-between-birdsong-and-speech-acquisition
#7
REVIEW
Jonathan Prather, Kazuo Okanoya, Johan J Bolhuis
Language as a computational cognitive mechanism appears to be unique to the human species. However, there are remarkable behavioral similarities between song learning in songbirds and speech acquisition in human infants that are absent in non-human primates. Here we review important neural parallels between birdsong and speech. In both cases there are separate but continually interacting neural networks that underlie vocal production, sensorimotor learning, and auditory perception and memory. As in the case of human speech, neural activity related to birdsong learning is lateralized, and mirror neurons linking perception and performance may contribute to sensorimotor learning...
January 10, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072384/impact-of-cerebellar-atrophy-on-cortical-gray-matter-and-cerebellar-peduncles-as-assessed-by-voxel-based-morphometry-and-high-angular-resolution-diffusion-imaging
#8
Michael Dayan, G Olivito, M Molinari, Mara Cercignani, Marco Bozzali, M Leggio
In recent years the cerebellum has been attributed amore important role in higher-level functions than previously believed. We examined a cohort of patients suffering from cerebellar atrophy resulting in ataxia, with two main objectives: first to investigate which regions of the cerebrum were affected by the cerebellar degeneration, and second to assess whether diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) metrics within the medial (MCP) and superior cerebellar peduncle (SCP) - namely fractional anisotropy (FA) and radial diffusivity (RD) - could be used as a biomarker in patients with this condition...
October 2016: Functional Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045130/sex-related-difference-in-human-white-matter-volumes-studied-inspection-of-the-corpus-callosum-and-other-white-matter-by-vbm
#9
Akihiko Shiino, Yen-Wei Chen, Kenji Tanigaki, Atsushi Yamada, Piers Vigers, Toshiyuki Watanabe, Ikuo Tooyama, Ichiro Akiguchi
It has been contended that any observed difference of the corpus callosum (CC) size between men and women is not sex-related but brain-size-related. A recent report, however, showed that the midsagittal CC area was significantly larger in women in 37 brain-size-matched pairs of normal young adults. Since this constituted strong evidence of sexual dimorphism and was obtained from publicly available data in OASIS, we examined volume differences within the CC and in other white matter using voxel-based morphometry (VBM)...
January 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035724/reduced-perfusion-in-broca-s-area-in-developmental-stuttering
#10
Jay Desai, Yuankai Huo, Zhishun Wang, Ravi Bansal, Steven C R Williams, David Lythgoe, Fernando O Zelaya, Bradley S Peterson
OBJECTIVE: To study resting cerebral blood flow in children and adults with developmental stuttering. METHODS: We acquired pulsed arterial spin labeling magnetic resonance imaging data in 26 participants with stuttering and 36 healthy, fluent controls. While covarying for age, sex, and IQ, we compared perfusion values voxel-wise across diagnostic groups and assessed correlations of perfusion with stuttering severity within the stuttering group and with measures of motor speed in both groups...
December 30, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011396/left-inferior-frontal-gyrus-mediates-morphosyntax-erp-evidence-from-verb-processing-in-left-hemisphere-damaged-patients
#11
Stefanie Regel, Sonja A Kotz, Ilona Henseler, Angela D Friederici
Neurocognitive models of language comprehension have proposed different mechanisms with different neural substrates mediating human language processing. Whether the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) is engaged in morpho-syntactic information processing is currently still controversially debated. The present study addresses this issue by examining the processing of irregular verb inflection in real words (e.g., swim > swum > swam) and pseudowords (e.g., frim > frum > fram) by using event-related brain potentials (ERPs) in neurological patients with lesions in the LIFG involving Broca's area as well as healthy controls...
January 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005160/a-contemporary-framework-of-language-processing-in-the-human-brain-in-the-context-of-preoperative-and-intraoperative-language-mapping
#12
Erik H Middlebrooks, Kaan Yagmurlu, Jerzey P Szaflarski, Maryam Rahman, Baran Bozkurt
INTRODUCTION: The emergence of advanced in vivo neuroimaging methods has redefined the understanding of brain function with a shift from traditional localizationist models to more complex and widely distributed neural networks. In human language processing, the traditional localizationist models of Wernicke and Broca have fallen out of favor for a dual-stream processing system involving complex networks organized over vast areas of the dominant hemisphere. The current review explores the cortical function and white matter connections of human language processing, as well as their relevance to surgical planning...
December 22, 2016: Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993693/whole-brain-functional-connectivity-during-acquisition-of-novel-grammar-distinct-functional-networks-depend-on-language-learning-abilities
#13
Olga Kepinska, Mischa de Rover, Johanneke Caspers, Niels O Schiller
In an effort to advance the understanding of brain function and organisation accompanying second language learning, we investigate the neural substrates of novel grammar learning in a group of healthy adults, consisting of participants with high and average language analytical abilities (LAA). By means of an Independent Components Analysis, a data-driven approach to functional connectivity of the brain, the fMRI data collected during a grammar-learning task were decomposed into maps representing separate cognitive processes...
December 16, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931245/brain-activation-in-frontotemporal-and-alzheimer-s-dementia-a-functional-near-infrared-spectroscopy-study
#14
Florian G Metzger, Betti Schopp, Florian B Haeussinger, Katja Dehnen, Matthis Synofzik, Andreas J Fallgatter, Ann-Christine Ehlis
BACKGROUND: Frontotemporal dementia is an increasingly studied disease, the underlying functional impairments on a neurobiological level of which have not been fully understood. Patients with the behavioral-subtype frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) are particularly challenging for clinical measurements such as functional imaging due to their behavioral symptoms. Here, an alternative imaging method, functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), is introduced to measure task-related cortical brain activation based on blood oxygenation...
December 8, 2016: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915210/functional-brain-imaging-of-walking-while-talking-an-fnirs-study
#15
Florian G Metzger, Ann-Christine Ehlis, Florian B Haeussinger, Patrick Schneeweiss, Justin Hudak, Andreas J Fallgatter, Sabrina Schneider
Since functional imaging of whole body movements is not feasible with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), the present study presents in vivo functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) as a suitable technique to measure body movement effects on fronto-temporo-parietal cortical activation in single- and dual-task paradigms. Previous fNIRS applications in studies addressing whole body movements were typically limited to the assessment of prefrontal brain areas. The current study investigated brain activation in the frontal, temporal and parietal cortex of both hemispheres using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) with two large 4×4 probe-sets with 24 channels each during single and dual gait tasks...
November 30, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884462/dual-neural-network-model-for-the-evolution-of-speech-and-language
#16
REVIEW
Steffen R Hage, Andreas Nieder
Explaining the evolution of speech and language poses one of the biggest challenges in biology. We propose a dual network model that posits a volitional articulatory motor network (VAMN) originating in the prefrontal cortex (PFC; including Broca's area) that cognitively controls vocal output of a phylogenetically conserved primary vocal motor network (PVMN) situated in subcortical structures. By comparing the connections between these two systems in human and nonhuman primate brains, we identify crucial biological preadaptations in monkeys for the emergence of a language system in humans...
December 2016: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870461/sexual-dimorphism-of-broca-s-region-more-gray-matter-in-female-brains-in-brodmann-areas-44-and-45
#17
Florian Kurth, Lutz Jancke, Eileen Luders
Although a sexual dimorphism in brain structure is generally well established, evidence for sex differences in Brodmann areas (BA) 44 and 45 is inconclusive. This may be due to the difficulty of accurately defining BA 44 and BA 45 in magnetic resonance images, given that these regions are variable in their location and extent and that they do not match well with macroanatomic landmarks. Here we set out to test for possible sex differences in the local gray matter of BA 44/45 by integrating imaging-based signal intensities with cytoarchitectonically defined tissue probabilities in a sample of 50 male and 50 female subjects...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852019/-language-functions-in-the-frontal-association-area-brain-mechanisms-that-create-language
#18
REVIEW
Kayako Yamamoto, Kuniyoshi L Sakai
Broca's area is known to be critically involved in language processing for more than 150 years. Recent neuroimaging techniques, including functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and diffusion MRI, enabled the subdivision of Broca's area based on both functional and anatomical aspects. Networks among the frontal association areas, especially the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), and other cortical regions in the temporal/parietal association areas, are also important for language-related information processing...
November 2016: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847708/the-prognosis-and-recovery-of-aphasia-related-to-stroke-lesion
#19
Bomi Sul, Joon Sung Kim, Bo Young Hong, Kyoung Bo Lee, Woo Seop Hwang, Young Kook Kim, Seong Hoon Lim
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of specific brain lesions on prognosis and recovery of post-stroke aphasia, and to assess the characteristic pattern of recovery. METHODS: Total of 15 subjects with first-ever, left hemisphere stroke, who were right handed, and who completed language assessment using the Korean version of the Western Aphasia Battery (K-WAB) at least twice during the subacute and chronic stages of stroke, were included. The brain lesions of the participants were evaluated using MRI-cron, SPM8, and Talairach Daemon software...
October 2016: Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816558/motor-skill-for-tool-use-is-associated-with-asymmetries-in-broca-s-area-and-the-motor-hand-area-of-the-precentral-gyrus-in-chimpanzees-pan-troglodytes
#20
William D Hopkins, Adrien Meguerditchian, Olivier Coulon, Maria Misiura, Sarah Pope, Mary Catherine Mareno, Steven J Schapiro
Among nonhuman primates, chimpanzees are well known for their sophistication and diversity of tool use in both captivity and the wild. The evolution of tool manufacture and use has been proposed as a driving mechanism for the development of increasing brain size, complex cognition and motor skills, as well as the population-level handedness observed in modern humans. Notwithstanding, our understanding of the neurological correlates of tool use in chimpanzees and other primates remains poorly understood. Here, we assessed the hand preference and performance skill of chimpanzees on a tool use task and correlated these data with measures of neuroanatomical asymmetries in the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and the pli-de-passage fronto-parietal moyen (PPFM)...
November 2, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
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