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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033772/intraparenchymal-hemorrhage-due-to-brain-metastasis-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#1
Rafael Sartori Balbinot, Ana Laura Facco Muscope, Mateus Dal Castel, Silvana Sartori Balbinot, Raul Angelo Balbinot, Jonathan Soldera
Although extrahepatic metastases from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are present in only 5-15% of cases, they are certainly factors associated with poor prognosis. The main sites include lung, lymph nodes, bones, and adrenal glands, in descending order. Metastasis in the central nervous system is extremely rare, and the incidences vary from 0.6 to 1.7%. We report a case of a 54-year-old man previously diagnosed with alcohol-induced cirrhosis of the liver and HCC. The patient was admitted presenting progressive left hemiparesis and headache which started 2 days earlier, with no history of cranioencephalic trauma...
September 2017: Case Reports in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984608/damage-to-the-frontal-aslant-tract-accounts-for-visuo-constructive-deficits-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#2
Laura Serra, Giulia Bechi Gabrielli, Elisa Tuzzi, Barbara Spanò, Giovanni Giulietti, Virginia Failoni, Camillo Marra, Carlo Caltagirone, Giacomo Koch, Mara Cercignani, Marco Bozzali
The frontal aslant tract (FAT) has been described as a bundle connecting the Broca's area to the supplementary motor area (SMA) and the pre-SMA in both hemispheres. The functional properties of this tract and its role in degenerative dementia, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), still need to be fully clarified. The aim of this study was to explore the microstructural integrity of the FAT in patients with AD and its potential relationship with cognitive functioning. Twenty-three patients with AD and 25 healthy subjects (HS) were enrolled...
2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983238/unique-neural-characteristics-of-atypical-lateralization-of-language-in-healthy-individuals
#3
Szymon P Biduła, Łukasz Przybylski, Mikołaj A Pawlak, Gregory Króliczak
Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in 63 healthy participants, including left-handed and ambidextrous individuals, we tested how atypical lateralization of language-i. e., bilateral or right hemispheric language representation-differs from the typical left-hemisphere dominance. Although regardless of their handedness, all 11 participants from the atypical group engaged classical language centers, i.e., Broca's and Wernicke's areas, the right-hemisphere components of the default mode network (DMN), including the angular gyrus and middle temporal gyrus, were also critically involved during the verbal fluency task...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979196/speed-and-oscillations-medial-septum-integration-of-attention-and-navigation
#4
REVIEW
Marian Tsanov
Several cortical and diencephalic limbic brain regions incorporate neurons that fire in correlation with the speed of whole-body motion, also known as linear velocity. Besides the field mapping and head-directional information, the linear velocity is among the major signals that guide animal's spatial navigation. Large neuronal populations in the same limbic regions oscillate with theta rhythm during spatial navigation or attention episodes; and the frequency of theta also correlates with linear velocity. A functional similarity between these brain areas is that their inactivation impairs the ability to form new spatial memories; whereas an anatomical similarity is that they all receive projections from medial septum-diagonal band of Broca complex...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970145/connectivity-of-the-hippocampus-and-broca-s-area-during-acquisition-of-a-novel-grammar
#5
Olga Kepinska, Mischa de Rover, Johanneke Caspers, Niels O Schiller
Following Opitz and Friederici (2003) suggesting interactions of the hippocampal system and the prefrontal cortex as the neural mechanism underlying novel grammar learning, the present fMRI study investigated functional connectivity of bilateral BA 44/45 and the hippocampus during an artificial grammar learning (AGL) task. Our results, contrary to the previously reported interactions, demonstrated parallel (but separate) contributions of both regions, each with their own interactions, to the process of novel grammar acquisition...
September 29, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959509/management-of-tiny-meningiomas-to-resect-or-not-resect
#6
Julia R Schneider, Kay O Kulason, Tim White, Bidyut Pramanik, Shamik Chakraborty, Linda Heier, Ashley E Ray, Todd A Anderson, Derek J Chong, John Boockvar
Meningiomas are most often benign primary intracranial tumors that are frequently found incidentally on imaging. Larger sized meningiomas may present with symptoms such as seizures and headaches. Smaller meningiomas are commonly asymptomatic and usually observed with serial imaging. We present two female patients, both of whom were found to have very small left frontal meningiomas that marginated Broca's area. The first patient in this case series experienced episodes resembling seizures which consisted of weakness, vision loss, and slurred speech, as well as subtle language dysfunction in her day-to-day conversations...
July 25, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940045/a-neuronal-retuning-hypothesis-of-sentence-specificity-in-broca-s-area
#7
REVIEW
William G Matchin
It is clear that the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) contributes in some fashion to sentence processing. While neuroimaging and neuropsychological evidence support a domain-general working memory function, recent neuroimaging data show that particular subregions of the LIFG, particularly the pars triangularis (pTri), show selective activation for sentences relative to verbal working memory and cognitive control tasks. These data suggest a language-specific function rather than a domain-general one. To resolve this apparent conflict, I propose separating claims of domain-generality and specificity independently for computations and representations-a given brain region may respond to a specific representation while performing a general computation over that representation, one shared with other systems...
September 22, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924564/signal-processing-of-functional-nirs-data-acquired-during-overt-speaking
#8
Xian Zhang, Jack Adam Noah, Swethasri Dravida, Joy Hirsch
Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) offers an advantage over traditional functional imaging methods [such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)] by allowing participants to move and speak relatively freely. However, neuroimaging while actively speaking has proven to be particularly challenging due to the systemic artifacts that tend to be located in the critical brain areas. To overcome these limitations and enhance the utility of fNIRS, we describe methods for investigating cortical activity during spoken language tasks through refinement of deoxyhemoglobin (deoxyHb) signals with principal component analysis (PCA) spatial filtering to remove global components...
October 2017: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882421/-18-f-fdg-pet-hypometabolism-patterns-reflect-clinical-heterogeneity-in-sporadic-forms-of-early-onset-alzheimer-s-disease
#9
Matthieu Vanhoutte, Franck Semah, Adeline Rollin Sillaire, Alice Jaillard, Grégory Petyt, Grégory Kuchcinski, Aurélien Maureille, Xavier Delbeuck, Rachid Fahmi, Florence Pasquier, Renaud Lopes
Until now, hypometabolic patterns and their correlations with neuropsychological performance have not been assessed as a function of the various presentations of sporadic early-onset Alzheimer's disease (EOAD). Here, we processed and analyzed the patients' metabolic maps at the vertex and voxel levels by using a nonparametric, permutation method that also regressed out the effects of cortical thickness and gray matter volume, respectively. The hypometabolism patterns in several areas of the brain were significantly correlated with the clinical manifestations...
November 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867997/autism-spectrum-disorder-related-functional-connectivity-changes-in-the-language-network-in-children-adolescents-and-adults
#10
Yubu Lee, Bo-Yong Park, Oliver James, Seong-Gi Kim, Hyunjin Park
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disability with global implication. Altered brain connectivity in the language network has frequently been reported in ASD patients using task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) compared to typically developing (TD) participants. Most of these studies have focused on a specific age group or mixed age groups with ASD. In the current study, we investigated age-related changes in functional connectivity related measure, degree centrality (DC), in the language network across three age groups with ASD (113 children, 113 adolescents and 103 adults) using resting-state fMRI data collected from the autism brain imaging data exchange repository...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822871/altered-language-network-in-benign-childhood-epilepsy-patients-with-spikes-from-non-dominant-side-a-resting-state-fmri-study
#11
Jiajia Fang, Sihan Chen, Cheng Luo, Qiyong Gong, Dongmei An, Dong Zhou
Benign childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (BECTS) is one of the most common childhood epilepsy syndromes, and language deficits associated with BECTS have become a hot topic. This study investigated alterations of the language network in BECTS children with spikes from the non-dominant side in comparison with healthy controls. Twenty-three children with BECTS and 20 age-matched healthy controls were enrolled. Region of interest -based whole brain functional connectivity analysis was used to identify the potential differences in the functional connectivity of the Broca's area between the two groups...
October 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797973/frontal-fibers-connecting-the-superior-frontal-gyrus-to-broca-s-area-a-cortico-cortical-evoked-potential-study
#12
Satoshi Ookawa, Rei Enatsu, Aya Kanno, Satoko Ochi, Yukinori Akiyama, Tamaki Kobayashi, Yukihiro Yamao, Takayuki Kikuchi, Riki Matsumoto, Takeharu Kunieda, Nobuhiro Mikuni
BACKGROUND: The frontal aslant tract (FAT) is a deep frontal pathway connecting the superior frontal gyrus (SFG) to Broca's area. This fiber is assumed to be associated with language functions, especially speech initiation and spontaneity. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to electrophysiologically investigate this network using cortico-cortical evoked potentials (CCEPs). METHOD: Eight patients with brain tumors or medically intractable focal epilepsies who underwent frontal craniotomy over the language dominant side were enrolled in this study...
August 7, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797920/prefrontal-activation-during-a-working-memory-task-differs-between-patients-with-unipolar-and-bipolar-depression-a-preliminary-exploratory-study
#13
Yue Zhu, Wenxiang Quan, Huali Wang, Yantao Ma, Jun Yan, Hua Zhang, Wentian Dong, Xin Yu
BACKGROUND: To identify bipolar disorder during the initial stages of a depressive episode has always been a great clinical challenge. Patterns of functional brain activity may underlie the differences in the neural mechanisms of bipolar depression (BD) and unipolar depression (UD). This study aimed to investigate the differences in neural activity between BD and UD patients during executive task. METHODS: We performed a 52-channel near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) scan in 39 patients with BD, 35 patients with UD, and 36 healthy controls (HCs)...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796033/rtms-treatments-combined-with-speech-training-for-a-conduction-aphasia-patient-a-case-report-with-mri-study
#14
Hui Zhang, Ying Chen, Ruiping Hu, Liqing Yang, Mengxing Wang, Jilei Zhang, Haifeng Lu, Yi Wu, Xiaoxia Du
RATIONALE: To date, little is known regarding the neural mechanisms of the functional recovery of language after repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in aphasia. Our aim was to investigate the mechanism that underlies rTMS and speech training in a case report. PATIENT CONCERNS AND DIAGNOSES: We report the case of a 39-year-old woman who was initially diagnosed with conduction aphasia following a left hemisphere stroke. INTERVENTIONS: The rTMS location comprised the left Broca area, and a frequency of 5 Hz for 20 min/d for 10 days during a 2-week period was used...
August 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780063/reorganization-of-language-centers-in-patients-with-brain-tumors-located-in-eloquent-speech-areas-a-pre-and-postoperative-preliminary-fmri-study
#15
Katarzyna Gębska-Kośla, Bartosz Bryszewski, Dariusz J Jaskólski, Jan Fortuniak, Maciej Niewodniczy, Ludomir Stefańczyk, Agata Majos
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to determine in pre- and postsurgical fMRI studies the rearrangement of the Broca's and Wernicke's areas and the lateralization index for these areas in patients with brain tumors located near speech centers. Impact of the surgical treatment on the brain plasticity was evaluated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Pre- and postoperative fMRI examinations were performed in 10 patients with low grade glial, left-sided brain tumors located close to the Broca's (5 patients) or Wernicke's area (5 patients)...
September 2017: Neurologia i Neurochirurgia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777693/beyond-descriptive-neurology-broca-cerebral-hemodynamics-and-cortical-function
#16
Richard Leblanc
Pierre-Paul Broca's studies in neurobiology remain of interest. I review a previously neglected aspect of Broca's work in which he presages the use of modern scanning techniques. Broca's goal was to correlate cerebral metabolism to regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) using a novel method, to which he referred as cerebral thermometry. Broca attempted to measure changes in temperatures from the ischemic area and across the watershed regions during a stroke, and the increased CBF produced by performing a cognitive task such as reading aloud...
August 4, 2017: Journal of the History of the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759567/functional-neural-circuits-that-underlie-developmental-stuttering
#17
Jianping Qiao, Zhishun Wang, Guihu Zhao, Yuankai Huo, Carl L Herder, Chamonix O Sikora, Bradley S Peterson
The aim of this study was to identify differences in functional and effective brain connectivity between persons who stutter (PWS) and typically developing (TD) fluent speakers, and to assess whether those differences can serve as biomarkers to distinguish PWS from TD controls. We acquired resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data in 44 PWS and 50 TD controls. We then used Independent Component Analysis (ICA) together with Hierarchical Partner Matching (HPM) to identify networks of robust, functionally connected brain regions that were highly reproducible across participants, and we assessed whether connectivity differed significantly across diagnostic groups...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754068/a-new-head-mounted-display-based-augmented-reality-system-in-neurosurgical-oncology-a-study-on-phantom
#18
Fabrizio Cutolo, Antonio Meola, Marina Carbone, Sara Sinceri, Federico Cagnazzo, Ennio Denaro, Nicola Esposito, Mauro Ferrari, Vincenzo Ferrari
PURPOSE: Benefits of minimally invasive neurosurgery mandate the development of ergonomic paradigms for neuronavigation. Augmented Reality (AR) systems can overcome the shortcomings of commercial neuronavigators. The aim of this work is to apply a novel AR system, based on a head-mounted stereoscopic video see-through display, as an aid in complex neurological lesion targeting. Effectiveness was investigated on a newly designed patient-specific head mannequin featuring an anatomically realistic brain phantom with embedded synthetically created tumors and eloquent areas...
December 2017: Computer Assisted Surgery (Abingdon, England)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740768/fmri-after-phalloplasty-with-nerve-anastomosis-in-a-trans-man-patient
#19
Roberto Doria-Medina, Åsa Carlsson, Emma H Jönsson, Lars Jönsson, Andri Thorarinsson, Mattias Lidén, Gennaro Selvaggi
We report on a case of a trans-man patient, who underwent penile reconstruction with the use of a radial forearm flap, urethroplasty, vaginectomy and scrotoplasty, insertion of testicle implants, and penile erection implants, similar to previously described methods. One of the requirements for an ideal phalloplasty is the preservation of erogenous sensitivity, which is often demanded by the patients for fulfilling their sexual well-being. For the first time known to us, we use a functional magnetic resonance imaging following radial forearm flap phalloplasty with nerve anastomosis to assess the cortical activation after clitoral stimulation...
June 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717525/differential-effects-of-awake-glioma-surgery-in-critical-language-areas-on-cognition-4-case-studies
#20
Djaina Satoer, Elke De Witte, Marion Smits, Roelien Bastiaanse, Arnaud Vincent, Peter Mariën, Evy Visch-Brink
Awake surgery with electrocorticosubcortical stimulation is the golden standard treatment for gliomas in eloquent areas. Preoperatively, mostly mild cognitive disturbances are observed with postoperative deterioration. We describe pre- and postoperative profiles of 4 patients (P1-P4) with gliomas in "critical" language areas ("Broca," "Wernicke," and the arcuate fasciculus) undergoing awake surgery to get insight into the underlying mechanism of neuroplasticity. Neuropsychological examination was carried out preoperatively (at T1) and postoperatively (at T2, T3)...
2017: Case Reports in Neurological Medicine
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