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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662442/topographic-organization-of-cholinergic-innervation-from-the-basal-forebrain-to-the-visual-cortex-in-the-rat
#1
Frédéric Huppé-Gourgues, Karim Jegouic, Elvire Vaucher
Acetylcholine is an important neurotransmitter for the regulation of visual attention, plasticity, and perceptual learning. It is released in the visual cortex predominantly by cholinergic projections from the basal forebrain, where stimulation may produce potentiation of visual processes. However, little is known about the fine organization of these corticopetal projections, such as whether basal forebrain neurons projecting to the primary and secondary visual cortical areas (V1 and V2, respectively) are organized retinotopically...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656045/distribution-and-morphology-of-gonadotropin-releasing-hormone-neurons-in-the-hypothalamus-of-an-induced-ovulator-the-llama-lama-glama
#2
Rodrigo A Carrasco, Jaswant Singh, Gregg P Adams
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is a decapeptide involved in the regulation of reproduction in all mammals, but the distribution of GnRH neurons within the brain varies widely among species. The objective of the present study was to characterize the number and distribution of GnRH neurons in the hypothalamus and preoptic area of llamas, an induced ovulator. The brains of female llamas (n = 4) were fixed, frozen and sectioned serially every 50 microns in the transverse (coronal) plane. Every 10th section was stained for immunohistochemical detection of GnRH-positive neuron cell bodies and fibers by incubation with 3,3'-diaminobenzidine...
April 12, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642741/effects-of-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-over-the-broca-s-area-on-tongue-twister-production
#3
Min Ney Wong, Yanky Chan, Manwa L Ng, Frank F Zhu
PURPOSE: The present study aimed to explore the short-term effect of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on tongue twister production. METHOD: Thirty healthy native Cantonese adult speakers were randomly assigned to the anodal tDCS group or the sham tDCS group. Anodal tDCS of 2 mA was applied over the Broca's area of the brain. The stimulation lasted for 20 min for the anodal tDCS group and 30 s for the sham tDCS group. The participants were instructed to produce a list of tongue twisters before, immediately after and 4 h after tDCS...
April 11, 2018: International Journal of Speech-language Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29589518/effects-of-different-frequencies-of-repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-in-stroke-patients-with-non-fluent-aphasia-a-randomized-sham-controlled-study
#4
Xue-Yan Hu, Tong Zhang, Gary B Rajah, Christopher Stone, Li-Xu Liu, Jing-Jie He, Lei Shan, Ling-Yu Yang, Ping Liu, Fei Gao, Yu-Qi Yang, Xiao-Li Wu, Chang-Qing Ye, Yu-Dong Chen
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) applied at different frequencies to the contra-lesional hemisphere to optimize the treatment of post-stroke non-fluent aphasia. METHOD: Patients with post-stroke non-fluent aphasia were divided randomly into four groups: a high-frequency rTMS (HF-rTMS) group (10 Hz), a low-frequency rTMS (LF-rTMS) group (1 Hz), a sham stimulation group, and a control group...
March 28, 2018: Neurological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29587149/neurophysiological-and-cognitive-effects-of-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-in-three-girls-with-rett-syndrome-with-chronic-language-impairments
#5
Rosa Angela Fabio, Antonio Gangemi, Tindara Capri, Sarojini Budden, Alessandra Falzone
BACKGROUND: this study was based on both neurophysiological decelerated activity and communication deficits in Rett Syndrome (RTT). AIMS: the aim was to examine the neurophysiological and cognitive effects of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) in three girls with RTT with chronic language impairments. METHODS AND PROCEDURES: we proposed an integrated intervention: tDCS and cognitive empowerment applied to language in order to enhance speech production (new functional sounds and new words)...
March 24, 2018: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559943/diversity-of-grammars-and-their-diverging-evolutionary-and-processing-paths-evidence-from-functional-mri-study-of-serbian
#6
Ljiljana Progovac, Natalia Rakhlin, William Angell, Ryan Liddane, Lingfei Tang, Noa Ofen
We address the puzzle of "unity in diversity" in human languages by advocating the (minimal) common denominator for the diverse expressions of transitivity across human languages, consistent with the view that early in language evolution there was a modest beginning for syntax and that this beginning provided the foundation for the further elaboration of syntactic complexity. This study reports the results of a functional MRI experiment investigating differential patterns of brain activation during processing of sentences with minimal versus fuller syntactic structures...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29545619/theta-coherence-asymmetry-in-the-dorsal-stream-of-musicians-facilitates-word-learning
#7
Stefan Elmer, Joëlle Albrecht, Seyed Abolfazl Valizadeh, Clément François, Antoni Rodríguez-Fornells
Word learning constitutes a human faculty which is dependent upon two anatomically distinct processing streams projecting from posterior superior temporal (pST) and inferior parietal (IP) brain regions toward the prefrontal cortex (dorsal stream) and the temporal pole (ventral stream). The ventral stream is involved in mapping sensory and phonological information onto lexical-semantic representations, whereas the dorsal stream contributes to sound-to-motor mapping, articulation, complex sequencing in the verbal domain, and to how verbal information is encoded, stored, and rehearsed from memory...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29531963/modulating-the-resting-state-functional-connectivity-patterns-of-language-processing-areas-in-the-human-brain-with-anodal-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-applied-over-the-broca-s-area
#8
Jianwei Cao, Hanli Liu, George Alexandrakis
Cortical circuit reorganization induced by anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the Broca's area of the dominant language hemisphere in 13 healthy adults was quantified by functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). Transient cortical reorganization patterns in steady-state functional connectivity (seed-based and graph theory analysis) and temporal functional connectivity (sliding window correlation analysis) were recorded before, during, and after applying high current tDCS (1 mA, 8 min)...
April 2018: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29528160/presurgical-language-fmri-clinical-practices-and-patient-outcomes-in-epilepsy-surgical-planning
#9
Christopher F A Benjamin, Alexa X Li, Hal Blumenfeld, R Todd Constable, Rafeed Alkawadri, Stephan Bickel, Christoph Helmstaedter, Stefano Meletti, Richard Bronen, Simon K Warfield, Jurriaan M Peters, David Reutens, Monika Połczyńska, Dennis D Spencer, Lawrence J Hirsch
The goal of this study was to document current clinical practice and report patient outcomes in presurgical language functional MRI (fMRI) for epilepsy surgery. Epilepsy surgical programs worldwide were surveyed as to the utility, implementation, and efficacy of language fMRI in the clinic; 82 programs responded. Respondents were predominantly US (61%) academic programs (85%), and evaluated adults (44%), adults and children (40%), or children only (16%). Nearly all (96%) reported using language fMRI. Surprisingly, fMRI is used to guide surgical margins (44% of programs) as well as lateralize language (100%)...
March 12, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29520225/broca-s-area-as-a-pre-articulatory-phonetic-encoder-gating-the-motor-program
#10
Valentina Ferpozzi, Luca Fornia, Marcella Montagna, Chiara Siodambro, Antonella Castellano, Paola Borroni, Marco Riva, Marco Rossi, Federico Pessina, Lorenzo Bello, Gabriella Cerri
The exact nature of the role of Broca's area in control of speech and whether it is exerted at the cognitive or at the motor level is still debated. Intraoperative evidence of a lack of motor responses to direct electrical stimulation (DES) of Broca's area and the observation that its stimulation induces a "speech arrest" without an apparent effect on the ongoing activity of phono-articulatory muscles, raises the argument. Essentially, attribution of direct involvement of Broca's area in motor control of speech, requires evidence of a functional connection of this area with the phono-articulatory muscles' motoneurons...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29514319/cerebral-hyperperfusion-syndrome-by-the-numbers-transient-focal-neurological-deficit-imaging-proven-focal-hyperperfusion-and-high-graft-flow-rate-following-superficial-temporal-artery-middle-cerebral-artery-bypass-in-a-patient-with-symptomatic-carotid-occlusion
#11
Ralph Rahme, Tejaswi D Sudhakar, Marjan Alimi, Timothy G White, Rafael A Ortiz, David J Langer
BACKGROUND AND IMPORTANCE: Cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome (CHS) is a well-known complication of superficial temporal artery (STA) to middle cerebral artery (MCA) bypass for ischemic cerebrovascular disease. While this argues against "low flow" in the bypass construct, flow rates in the graft have not been previously quantified in the setting of CHS. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: A 58-yr-old man presented with recurrent left hemispheric ischemic strokes and fluctuating right hemiparesis and aphasia...
March 3, 2018: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29501857/representation-of-action-semantics-in-the-motor-cortex-and-broca-s-area
#12
Zuo Zhang, Yaoru Sun, Zijian Wang
Previous studies have shown that both reading action words and observing actions engage the motor cortex and Broca's area, but it is still controversial whether a somatotopic representation exists for action verbs within the motor cortex and whether Broca's area encodes action-specific semantics for verbs. Here we examined these two issues using a set of functional MRI experiments, including word reading, action observation and a movement localiser task. Results from multi-voxel pattern analysis (MVPA) showed a somatotopic organisation within the motor areas and action-specific activation in Broca's area for observed actions, suggesting the representation of action semantics for observed actions in these neural regions...
March 1, 2018: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29478192/neural-mechanisms-of-swallowing-dysfunction-and-apraxia-of-speech-in-acute-stroke
#13
Lydia A Trupe, Rachel W Mulheren, Donna Tippett, Argye E Hillis, Marlís González-Fernández
Speech and swallowing utilize overlapping anatomy and are thus inherently related processes. We sought to identify common neural mechanisms between risk of swallowing dysfunction and apraxia of speech (AOS). This was a retrospective analysis using data from a prospectively collected cohort. Left hemisphere stroke patients (68 subjects) tested with the Apraxia Battery for Adults II, a swallow screen, and MRI were included in the study. Main outcome measure was the presence of AOS or aspiration risk after stroke...
February 24, 2018: Dysphagia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442613/beyond-the-30-million-word-gap-children-s-conversational-exposure-is-associated-with-language-related-brain-function
#14
Rachel R Romeo, Julia A Leonard, Sydney T Robinson, Martin R West, Allyson P Mackey, Meredith L Rowe, John D E Gabrieli
Children's early language exposure impacts their later linguistic skills, cognitive abilities, and academic achievement, and large disparities in language exposure are associated with family socioeconomic status (SES). However, there is little evidence about the neural mechanisms underlying the relation between language experience and linguistic and cognitive development. Here, language experience was measured from home audio recordings of 36 SES-diverse 4- to 6-year-old children. During a story-listening functional MRI task, children who had experienced more conversational turns with adults-independently of SES, IQ, and adult-child utterances alone-exhibited greater left inferior frontal (Broca's area) activation, which significantly explained the relation between children's language exposure and verbal skill...
February 1, 2018: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410616/bilateral-pathways-from-the-basal-forebrain-to-sensory-cortices-may-contribute-to-synchronous-sensory-processing
#15
Irene Chaves-Coira, Margarita L Rodrigo-Angulo, Angel Nuñez
Sensory processing in the cortex should integrate inputs arriving from receptive fields located on both sides of the body. This role could be played by the corpus callosum through precise projections between both hemispheres. However, different studies suggest that cholinergic projections from the basal forebrain (BF) could also contribute to the synchronization and integration of cortical activities. Using tracer injections and optogenetic techniques in transgenic mice, we investigated whether the BF cells project bilaterally to sensory cortical areas, and have provided anatomical evidence to support a modulatory role for the cholinergic projections in sensory integration...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29401468/manual-action-verbs-modulate-the-grip-force-of-each-hand-in-unimanual-or-symmetrical-bimanual-tasks
#16
Ronaldo Luis da Silva, David Labrecque, Fátima Aparecida Caromano, Johanne Higgins, Victor Frak
Manual action verbs modulate the right-hand grip force in right-handed subjects. However, to our knowledge, no studies demonstrate the ability to accomplish this modulation during bimanual tasks nor describe their effect on left-hand behavior in unimanual and bimanual tasks. Using load cells and word playlists, we evaluated the occurrence of grip force modulation by manual action verbs in unimanual and symmetrical bimanual tasks across the three auditory processing phases. We found a significant grip force increase for all conditions compared to baseline, indicating the occurrence of modulation...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29390458/recovery-of-injured-broca-s-portion-of-arcuate-fasciculus-in-the-dominant-hemisphere-in-a-patient-with-traumatic-brain-injury
#17
Sung Ho Jang, Ji Wan Ha, Hyun Young Kim, You Sung Seo
RATIONALE: Recovery of injured AF in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) has not been reported. In this study, we report on a patient with TBI who recovered from an injury to Broca's portion of AF in the dominant hemisphere, diagnosed by diffusion tensor tractography (DTT). PATIENT CONCERNS: A 28-year-old right-handed male patient suffered head trauma resulting from sliding while riding a motorcycle. DIAGNOSES: He was diagnosed with a traumatic contusional hemorrhage in the left frontal lobe, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and subdural hemorrhage in the left fronto-temporal lobe...
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29386445/-effect-of-reading-a-book-on-a-tablet-computer-on-cerebral-blood-flow-in-the-prefrontal-cortex
#18
Akihiro Sugiura, Takuya Eto, Fumiya Kinoshita, Hiroki Takada
OBJECTIVES: By measuring cerebral blood flow in the prefrontal cortex, we aimed to determine how reading a book on a tablet computer affects sleep. METHODS: Seven students (7 men age range, 21-32 years) participated in this study. In a controlled illuminance environment, the subjects read a novel in printed form or on a tablet computer from any distance. As the subjects were reading, the cerebral blood flow in their prefrontal cortex was measured by near-infrared spectroscopy...
2018: Nihon Eiseigaku Zasshi. Japanese Journal of Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353121/tau-pet-imaging-with-18f-av-1451-in-primary-progressive-apraxia-of-speech
#19
Rene L Utianski, Jennifer L Whitwell, Christopher G Schwarz, Matthew L Senjem, Nirubol Tosakulwong, Joseph R Duffy, Heather M Clark, Mary M Machulda, Ronald C Petersen, Clifford R Jack, Val J Lowe, Keith A Josephs
Apraxia of speech is a motor speech disorder characterized by combinations of slow speaking rate, abnormal prosody, distorted sound substitutions, and trial-and-error articulatory movements. Apraxia of speech is due to abnormal planning and/or programming of speech production. It is referred to as primary progressive apraxia of speech (PPAOS) when it is the only symptom of a neurodegenerative condition. Past reports suggest an association of PPAOS with primary 4-repeat (4R) tau (e.g., progressive supranuclear palsy, corticobasal degeneration), rather than amyloid, pathology...
February 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305294/cortical-folding-abnormalities-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-who-have-persistent-auditory-verbal-hallucinations
#20
Katharina M Kubera, Philipp A Thomann, Dusan Hirjak, Anja Barth, Fabio Sambataro, Nenad Vasic, Nadine D Wolf, Karel Frasch, R Christian Wolf
In schizophrenia temporal cortical volume loss differs between patients presenting with persistent auditory verbal hallucinations (pAVH) in contrast to those without hallucinatory symptoms (nAVH). However, it is unknown whether this deficit reflects a neural signature of neurodevelopmental origin or if abnormal temporal cortical volume is reflective of factors which may be relevant at later stages of the disorder. Here, we tested the hypothesis that local gyrification index (LGI) in regions of the temporal cortex differs between patients with pAVH (n=10) and healthy controls (n=14), and that abnormal temporal LGI discriminates between pAVH and nAVH (n=10)...
February 2018: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
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