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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29901647/changes-in-the-corpus-callosum-during-the-recovery-of-aphasia-a-case-report
#1
Qiwei Yu, Weixin Yang, Yi Liu, Hong Wang, Zhuoming Chen, Jiajian Yan
RATIONALE: The corpus callosum, which is the most important fiber pathway linking the bilateral hemispheres, plays a key role in information access, as well as the functional coordination and reorganization between the bilateral hemispheres. However, whether the corpus callosum will undergo structural changes during the recovery of aphasia is still unclear. In the current study, a Chinese aphasic patient with stroke was reported to develop changes in the corpus callosum after speech therapy...
June 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29883624/rapid-syntactic-pre-activation-in-broca-s-area-concurrent-electrophysiological-and-haemodynamic-recordings
#2
Pelle Söderström, Merle Horne, Peter Mannfolk, Danielle van Westen, Mikael Roll
Listeners are constantly trying to predict what the speaker will say next. We concurrently measured the electrophysiological and haemodynamic correlates of syntactic pre-activation, investigating when and where the brain processes speech melody cues to upcoming word order structure. Pre-activation of syntactic structure was reflected in a left-lateralised pre-activation negativity (PrAN), which was subserved by Broca's area in the left inferior frontal gyrus, as well as the contiguous left anterior insula.
June 5, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29876369/which-is-more-costly-in-chinese-to-english-simultaneous-interpreting-pairing-or-transphrasing-evidence-from-an-fnirs-neuroimaging-study
#3
Xiaohong Lin, Victoria Lai Cheng Lei, Defeng Li, Zhen Yuan
This study examined the neural mechanism underlying two translation strategies associated with Chinese to English simultaneous interpreting (SI) targeting the left prefrontal cortex (PFC), which is generally involved in the control of interference and conflict resolution and has been identified as the brain area that plays a pivotal role in SI. Brain activation associated with the two strategies including "pairing" and "transphrasing" were compared with that from "nontranslation," which keeps the source language item unchanged in the target language production and is considered as a tactic that does not require complex cognitive operation associated with bilingual processing effort...
April 2018: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29875638/prediction-of-speech-sounds-is-facilitated-by-a-functional-fronto-temporal-network
#4
Lena K L Oestreich, Thomas J Whitford, Marta I Garrido
Predictive coding postulates that the brain continually predicts forthcoming sensory events based on past experiences in order to process sensory information and respond to unexpected events in a fast and efficient manner. Predictive coding models in the context of overt speech are believed to operate along auditory white matter pathways such as the arcuate fasciculus and the frontal aslant. The aim of this study was to investigate whether brain regions that are structurally connected via these white matter pathways are also effectively engaged when listening to externally-generated, temporally-predicable speech sounds...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29803722/syntax-meets-semantics-during-brain-logical-computations
#5
REVIEW
Arturo Tozzi, James F Peters, Andrew A Fingelkurts, Leonid Perlovsky
The discrepancy between syntax and semantics is a painstaking issue that hinders a better comprehension of the underlying neuronal processes in the human brain. In order to tackle the issue, we at first describe a striking correlation between Wittgenstein's Tractatus, that assesses the syntactic relationships between language and world, and Perlovsky's joint language-cognitive computational model, that assesses the semantic relationships between emotions and "knowledge instinct". Once established a correlation between a purely logical approach to the language and computable psychological activities, we aim to find the neural correlates of syntax and semantics in the human brain...
May 24, 2018: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29799310/clinical-and-imaging-progression-over-10-years-in-a-patient-with-primary-progressive-apraxia-of-speech-and-autopsy-confirmed-corticobasal-degeneration
#6
Katerina A Tetzloff, Joseph R Duffy, Edythe A Strand, Mary M Machulda, Sarah M Boland, Rene L Utianski, Hugo Botha, Matthew L Senjem, Christopher G Schwarz, Keith A Josephs, Jennifer L Whitwell
Primary progressive apraxia of speech (PPAOS) is a neurodegenerative disorder in which AOS is the sole presenting complaint. We report clinical and neuroimaging data spanning 10 years from disease onset-to-death in a 49 year-old male PPAOS patient, DY, who died with corticobasal degeneration. He presented with AOS with normal neuroimaging. Abnormalities in the caudate nucleus, supplementary motor area, cingulate, insula, and Broca's area were observed after five years, with involvement of motor cortex and development of agrammatism, Parkinsonism, and dysarthria three years later...
May 25, 2018: Neurocase
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777360/crossed-aphasia-following-cerebral-infarction-in-a-right-handed-patient-with-atypical-cerebral-language-dominance
#7
Xiaoping Tan, Yang Guo, Saihong Dun, Hongzan Sun
OBJECTIVE: Crossed aphasia (CA), usually referred to as an acquired language disturbance, is caused by a lesion in the cerebral hemisphere ipsilateral to the dominant hand, and the exact mechanism is not clear. The development of handedness is influenced by education and training and the impact of habitualization, while language is more susceptible to the impact of speech habits, and it is not absolutely accurate to judge cerebral language dominance by the degree of hand preference. METHODS: We describe a case of CA after right hemispheric stroke in a right-handed patient with atypical language dominance and attempt to analyze the mechanism of CA based on functional imaging methods, including arterial spin labeling (ASL) and positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (PET-MRI)...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692970/language-recovery-after-epilepsy-surgery-of-the-broca-s-area
#8
Lilit Mnatsakanyan, Sumeet Vadera, Christopher W Ingalls, Jie Zheng, Mona Sazgar, Frank P Hsu, Jack J Lin
Epilepsy surgery is indicated in select patients with drug-resistant focal epilepsy. Seizure freedom or significant reduction of seizure burden without risking new neurological deficits is the expected goal of epilepsy surgery. Typically, when the seizure onset zone overlaps with eloquent cortex, patients are excluded from surgery. We present a patient with drug-resistant frontal lobe epilepsy who underwent successful surgery with resection of Broca's area, primarily involving the pars triangularis (BA 45)...
2018: Epilepsy & Behavior Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692715/probing-the-timing-recruitment-of-broca-s-area-in-speech-production-for-mandarin-chinese-a-tms-study
#9
Qian Zhang, Banglei Yu, Junjun Zhang, Zhenlan Jin, Ling Li
Although Broca's area is widely recognized to play an important role in speech production, neuroscientists still debate on its timing recruitment across different languages. In order to investigate the precise time course of phonological encoding for Mandarin Chinese, we applied real triple-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (tpTMS) and sham tpTMS within Broca's area at five different time windows respectively (150 ms, 225 ms, 300 ms, 400 ms and 500 ms) in picture naming task in Mandarin Chinese. To exclude unspecific TMS effects and to make sure that the effects observed in the study were really due to stimulation at Broca's area, we also conducted a control experiment by a different group of subjects...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686047/neural-representations-of-sensorimotor-memory-and-digit-position-based-load-force-adjustments-before-the-onset-of-dexterous-object-manipulation
#10
Michelle Marneweck, Deborah A Barany, Marco Santello, Scott T Grafton
Anticipatory load forces for dexterous object manipulation in humans are modulated based on visual object property cues, sensorimotor memories of previous experiences with the object, and, when digit positioning varies from trial to trial, the integrating of this sensed variability with force modulation. Studies of the neural representations encoding these anticipatory mechanisms have not considered these mechanisms separately from each other or from feedback mechanisms emerging after lift onset. Here, representational similarity analyses of fMRI data were used to identify neural representations of sensorimotor memories and the sensing and integration of digit position...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662442/topographic-organization-of-cholinergic-innervation-from-the-basal-forebrain-to-the-visual-cortex-in-the-rat
#11
Frédéric Huppé-Gourgues, Karim Jegouic, Elvire Vaucher
Acetylcholine is an important neurotransmitter for the regulation of visual attention, plasticity, and perceptual learning. It is released in the visual cortex predominantly by cholinergic projections from the basal forebrain, where stimulation may produce potentiation of visual processes. However, little is known about the fine organization of these corticopetal projections, such as whether basal forebrain neurons projecting to the primary and secondary visual cortical areas (V1 and V2, respectively) are organized retinotopically...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656045/distribution-and-morphology-of-gonadotropin-releasing-hormone-neurons-in-the-hypothalamus-of-an-induced-ovulator-the-llama-lama-glama
#12
Rodrigo A Carrasco, Jaswant Singh, Gregg P Adams
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is a decapeptide involved in the regulation of reproduction in all mammals, but the distribution of GnRH neurons within the brain varies widely among species. The objective of the present study was to characterize the number and distribution of GnRH neurons in the hypothalamus and preoptic area of llamas, an induced ovulator. The brains of female llamas (n = 4) were fixed, frozen and sectioned serially every 50 µm in the transverse (coronal) plane. Every 10th section was stained for immunohistochemical detection of GnRH-positive neuron cell bodies and fibers by incubation with 3,3'-diaminobenzidine...
July 1, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642741/effects-of-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-over-the-broca-s-area-on-tongue-twister-production
#13
Min Ney Wong, Yanky Chan, Manwa L Ng, Frank F Zhu
PURPOSE: The present study aimed to explore the short-term effect of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on tongue twister production. METHOD: Thirty healthy native Cantonese adult speakers were randomly assigned to the anodal tDCS group or the sham tDCS group. Anodal tDCS of 2 mA was applied over the Broca's area of the brain. The stimulation lasted for 20 min for the anodal tDCS group and 30 s for the sham tDCS group. The participants were instructed to produce a list of tongue twisters before, immediately after and 4 h after tDCS...
April 11, 2018: International Journal of Speech-language Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29589518/effects-of-different-frequencies-of-repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-in-stroke-patients-with-non-fluent-aphasia-a-randomized-sham-controlled-study
#14
Xue-Yan Hu, Tong Zhang, Gary B Rajah, Christopher Stone, Li-Xu Liu, Jing-Jie He, Lei Shan, Ling-Yu Yang, Ping Liu, Fei Gao, Yu-Qi Yang, Xiao-Li Wu, Chang-Qing Ye, Yu-Dong Chen
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) applied at different frequencies to the contra-lesional hemisphere to optimize the treatment of post-stroke non-fluent aphasia. METHOD: Patients with post-stroke non-fluent aphasia were divided randomly into four groups: a high-frequency rTMS (HF-rTMS) group (10 Hz), a low-frequency rTMS (LF-rTMS) group (1 Hz), a sham stimulation group, and a control group...
March 28, 2018: Neurological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29587149/neurophysiological-and-cognitive-effects-of-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-in-three-girls-with-rett-syndrome-with-chronic-language-impairments
#15
Rosa Angela Fabio, Antonio Gangemi, Tindara Capri, Sarojini Budden, Alessandra Falzone
BACKGROUND: this study was based on both neurophysiological decelerated activity and communication deficits in Rett Syndrome (RTT). AIMS: the aim was to examine the neurophysiological and cognitive effects of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) in three girls with RTT with chronic language impairments. METHODS AND PROCEDURES: we proposed an integrated intervention: tDCS and cognitive empowerment applied to language in order to enhance speech production (new functional sounds and new words)...
May 2018: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559943/diversity-of-grammars-and-their-diverging-evolutionary-and-processing-paths-evidence-from-functional-mri-study-of-serbian
#16
Ljiljana Progovac, Natalia Rakhlin, William Angell, Ryan Liddane, Lingfei Tang, Noa Ofen
We address the puzzle of "unity in diversity" in human languages by advocating the (minimal) common denominator for the diverse expressions of transitivity across human languages, consistent with the view that early in language evolution there was a modest beginning for syntax and that this beginning provided the foundation for the further elaboration of syntactic complexity. This study reports the results of a functional MRI experiment investigating differential patterns of brain activation during processing of sentences with minimal versus fuller syntactic structures...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29545619/theta-coherence-asymmetry-in-the-dorsal-stream-of-musicians-facilitates-word-learning
#17
Stefan Elmer, Joëlle Albrecht, Seyed Abolfazl Valizadeh, Clément François, Antoni Rodríguez-Fornells
Word learning constitutes a human faculty which is dependent upon two anatomically distinct processing streams projecting from posterior superior temporal (pST) and inferior parietal (IP) brain regions toward the prefrontal cortex (dorsal stream) and the temporal pole (ventral stream). The ventral stream is involved in mapping sensory and phonological information onto lexical-semantic representations, whereas the dorsal stream contributes to sound-to-motor mapping, articulation, complex sequencing in the verbal domain, and to how verbal information is encoded, stored, and rehearsed from memory...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29531963/modulating-the-resting-state-functional-connectivity-patterns-of-language-processing-areas-in-the-human-brain-with-anodal-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-applied-over-the-broca-s-area
#18
Jianwei Cao, Hanli Liu, George Alexandrakis
Cortical circuit reorganization induced by anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the Broca's area of the dominant language hemisphere in 13 healthy adults was quantified by functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). Transient cortical reorganization patterns in steady-state functional connectivity (seed-based and graph theory analysis) and temporal functional connectivity (sliding window correlation analysis) were recorded before, during, and after applying high current tDCS (1 mA, 8 min)...
April 2018: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29528160/presurgical-language-fmri-clinical-practices-and-patient-outcomes-in-epilepsy-surgical-planning
#19
Christopher F A Benjamin, Alexa X Li, Hal Blumenfeld, R Todd Constable, Rafeed Alkawadri, Stephan Bickel, Christoph Helmstaedter, Stefano Meletti, Richard Bronen, Simon K Warfield, Jurriaan M Peters, David Reutens, Monika Połczyńska, Dennis D Spencer, Lawrence J Hirsch
The goal of this study was to document current clinical practice and report patient outcomes in presurgical language functional MRI (fMRI) for epilepsy surgery. Epilepsy surgical programs worldwide were surveyed as to the utility, implementation, and efficacy of language fMRI in the clinic; 82 programs responded. Respondents were predominantly US (61%) academic programs (85%), and evaluated adults (44%), adults and children (40%), or children only (16%). Nearly all (96%) reported using language fMRI. Surprisingly, fMRI is used to guide surgical margins (44% of programs) as well as lateralize language (100%)...
March 12, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29520225/broca-s-area-as-a-pre-articulatory-phonetic-encoder-gating-the-motor-program
#20
Valentina Ferpozzi, Luca Fornia, Marcella Montagna, Chiara Siodambro, Antonella Castellano, Paola Borroni, Marco Riva, Marco Rossi, Federico Pessina, Lorenzo Bello, Gabriella Cerri
The exact nature of the role of Broca's area in control of speech and whether it is exerted at the cognitive or at the motor level is still debated. Intraoperative evidence of a lack of motor responses to direct electrical stimulation (DES) of Broca's area and the observation that its stimulation induces a "speech arrest" without an apparent effect on the ongoing activity of phono-articulatory muscles, raises the argument. Essentially, attribution of direct involvement of Broca's area in motor control of speech, requires evidence of a functional connection of this area with the phono-articulatory muscles' motoneurons...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
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