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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941412/rapid-determination-of-crocins-in-saffron-by-near-infrared-spectroscopy-combined-with-chemometric-techniques
#1
REVIEW
Shuailing Li, Qingsong Shao, Zhonghua Lu, Chengli Duan, Haojun Yi, Liyang Su
Saffron is an expensive spice. Its primary effective constituents are crocin I and II, and the contents of these compounds directly affect the quality and commercial value of saffron. In this study, near-infrared spectroscopy was combined with chemometric techniques for the determination of crocin I and II in saffron. Partial least squares regression models were built for the quantification of crocin I and II. By comparing different spectral ranges and spectral pretreatment methods (no pretreatment, vector normalization, subtract a straight line, multiplicative scatter correction, minimum-maximum normalization, eliminate the constant offset, first derivative, and second derivative), optimum models were developed...
September 13, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941363/maintenance-of-distal-intestinal-structure-in-the-face-of-prolonged-fasting-a-comparative-examination-of-species-from-five-vertebrate-classes
#2
Marshall D McCue, Celeste A Passement, David K Meyerholz
It was recently shown that fasting alters the composition of microbial communities residing in the distal intestinal tract of animals representing five classes of vertebrates [i.e., fishes (tilapia), amphibians (toads), reptiles (leopard geckos), birds (quail), and mammals (mice)]. In the current study, we tested the hypothesis that the extent of tissue reorganization in the fasted distal intestine was correlated with the observed changes in enteric microbial diversity. Segments of intestine adjacent to those used for the microbiota study were examined histologically to quantify cross-sectional and mucosal surface areas as well as thicknesses of mucosa, submucosa, and tunica muscularis...
September 23, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941361/hepatitis-c-virus-testing-for-case-identification-in-persons-born-during-1945-1965-results-from-three-randomized-controlled-trials
#3
Anthony K Yartel, David B Rein, Kimberly Ann Brown, Katherine Krauskopf, Omar I Massoud, Cynthia Jordan, Natalie Kil, Alex D Federman, David R Nerenz, Joanne E Brady, Danielle L Kruger, Bryce D Smith
CDC and U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommend one-time hepatitis C virus (HCV) testing for persons born during 1945-1965 (birth cohort). However, few studies estimate the effect of birth cohort (BC) testing implementation on HCV diagnoses in primary care settings. We aimed to determine the probability of identifying HCV infections in primary care using targeted BC testing compared with usual care at three academic medical centers. From December 2012 to March 2014, each center compared one of three distinct interventions to usual care using an independently-designed randomized controlled trial...
September 23, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941357/microrna-in-alzheimer-s-disease-revisited-implications-for-major-neuropathological-mechanisms
#4
Reihaneh Dehghani, Farzaneh Rahmani, Nima Rezaei
Pathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD) goes far beyond neurotoxicity resulting from extracellular deposition of amyloid β (Aβ) plaques. Aberrant cleavage of amyloid precursor protein and accumulation of Aβ in the form of the plaque or neurofibrillary tangles are the known primary culprits of AD pathogenesis and target for various regulatory mechanisms. Hyper-phosphorylation of tau, a major component of neurofibrillary tangles, precipitates its aggregation and prevents its clearance. Lipid particles, apolipoproteins and lipoprotein receptors can act in favor or against Aβ and tau accumulation by altering neural membrane characteristics or dynamics of transport across the blood-brain barrier...
September 23, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939533/comparative-mapping-of-on-targets-and-off-targets-for-the-discovery-of-anti-trypanosomatid-folate-pathway-inhibitors
#5
Joanna Panecka-Hofman, Ina Pöhner, Francesca Spyrakis, Talia Zeppelin, Flavio Di Pisa, Lucia Dello Iacono, Alessio Bonucci, Antonio Quotadamo, Alberto Venturelli, Stefano Mangani, Maria Paola Costi, Rebecca C Wade
BACKGROUND: Multi-target approaches are necessary to properly analyze or modify the function of a biochemical pathway or a protein family. An example of such a problem is the repurposing of the known human anti-cancer drugs, antifolates, as selective anti-parasitic agents. This requires considering a set of experimentally validated protein targets in the folate pathway of major pathogenic trypanosomatid parasites and humans: (i) the primary parasite on-targets: pteridine reductase 1 (PTR1) (absent in humans) and bifunctional dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase (DHFR-TS), (ii) the primary off-targets: human DHFR and TS, and (iii) the secondary on-target: human folate receptor β, a folate/antifolate transporter...
September 20, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938795/lipid-lowering-nutraceuticals-in-clinical-practice-position-paper-from-an-international-lipid-expert-panel
#6
Arrigo F G Cicero, Alessandro Colletti, Gani Bajraktari, Olivier Descamps, Dragan M Djuric, Marat Ezhov, Zlatko Fras, Niki Katsiki, Michel Langlois, Gustavs Latkovskis, Demosthenes B Panagiotakos, Gyorgy Paragh, Dimitri P Mikhailidis, Olena Mitchenko, Bernhard Paulweber, Daniel Pella, Christos Pitsavos, Željko Reiner, Kausik K Ray, Manfredi Rizzo, Amirhossein Sahebkar, Maria-Corina Serban, Laurence S Sperling, Peter P Toth, Dragos Vinereanu, Michal Vrablík, Nathan D Wong, Maciej Banach
In recent years, there has been growing interest in the possible use of nutraceuticals to improve and optimize dyslipidemia control and therapy. Based on the data from available studies, nutraceuticals might help patients obtain theraputic lipid goals and reduce cardiovascular residual risk. Some nutraceuticals have essential lipid-lowering properties confirmed in studies; some might also have possible positive effects on nonlipid cardiovascular risk factors and have been shown to improve early markers of vascular health such as endothelial function and pulse wave velocity...
September 1, 2017: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938775/effects-of-different-types-of-dark-brooders-on-injurious-pecking-damage-and-production-related-traits-at-rear-and-lay-in-layers
#7
A B Riber, D A Guzman
Injurious pecking (IP) remains one of the major welfare challenges in housing of laying hens worldwide due to the negative consequences it inflicts on animal welfare and economy. One potential solution to reduce IP is the use of dark brooders as the primary heat source during rearing. The objective was to investigate effects of rearing layer chicks with different management strategies and size allowances of dark brooders on IP and production-related traits during rear and lay. Groups of 100 to 103 Isa Warren chicks were reared either with one of 4 brooder types (n = 4 per treatment) or with whole-house heating (control: n = 6)...
October 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938740/selective-outcome-reporting-and-sponsorship-in-randomized-controlled-trials-in-ivf-and-icsi
#8
M Braakhekke, I Scholten, F Mol, J Limpens, B W Mol, F van der Veen
STUDY QUESTION: Are randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on IVF and ICSI subject to selective outcome reporting and is this related to sponsorship? SUMMARY ANSWER: There are inconsistencies, independent from sponsorship, in the reporting of primary outcome measures in the majority of IVF and ICSI trials, indicating selective outcome reporting. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: RCTs are subject to bias at various levels. Of these biases, selective outcome reporting is particularly relevant to IVF and ICSI trials since there is a wide variety of outcome measures to choose from...
October 1, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938739/sequence-variants-of-khdrbs1-as-high-penetrance-susceptibility-risks-for-primary-ovarian-insufficiency-by-mis-regulating-mrna-alternative-splicing
#9
Binbin Wang, Lin Li, Ying Zhu, Wei Zhang, Xi Wang, Beili Chen, Tengyan Li, Hong Pan, Jing Wang, Kehkooi Kee, Yunxia Cao
STUDY QUESTION: Does a novel heterozygous KHDRBS1 variant, identified using whole-exome sequencing (WES) in two patients with primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) in a pedigree, cause defects in mRNA alternative splicing? SUMMARY ANSWER: The heterozygous variant of KHDRBS1 was confirmed to cause defects in alternative splicing of many genes involved in DNA replication and repair. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Studies in mice revealed that Khdrbs1 deficient females are subfertile, which manifests as delayed sexual maturity and significantly reduced numbers of secondary and pre-antral follicles...
October 1, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938738/resolution-of-infertility-and-number-of-children-1386-couples-followed-for-a-median-of-13-years
#10
A A Righarts, A Gray, N P Dickson, L Parkin, W R Gillett
STUDY QUESTION: How common were children among infertile couples? SUMMARY ANSWER: A total of 61.7% of infertile couples presenting for care subsequently had live born children 13.1 years after first being clinically assessed, with a mean of 1.7 children among those who had at least one. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: While the prognoses for infertile couples undertaking specific treatments have been well described, less is known about those not undergoing these treatments or the total number of children...
October 1, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938736/deep-sequencing-shows-that-oocytes-are-not-prone-to-accumulate-mtdna-heteroplasmic-mutations-during-ovarian-ageing
#11
L Boucret, C Bris, V Seegers, D Goudenège, V Desquiret-Dumas, M Domin-Bernhard, V Ferré-L'Hotellier, P E Bouet, P Descamps, P Reynier, V Procaccio, P May-Panloup
STUDY QUESTION: Does ovarian ageing increase the number of heteroplasmic mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) point mutations in oocytes? SUMMARY ANSWER: Our results suggest that oocytes are not subject to the accumulation of mtDNA point mutations during ovarian ageing. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Ageing is associated with the alteration of mtDNA integrity in various tissues. Primary oocytes, present in the ovary since embryonic life, may accumulate mtDNA mutations during the process of ovarian ageing...
October 1, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938715/the-harm-done-to-reproducibility-by-the-culture-of-null-hypothesis-significance-testing
#12
Timothy L Lash
In the last few years, stakeholders in the scientific community have raised alarms about a perceived lack of reproducibility of scientific results. In reaction, guidelines for journals have been promulgated and grant applicants have been asked to address the rigor and reproducibility of their proposed projects. Neither solution addresses a primary culprit, which is the culture of null hypothesis significance testing that dominates statistical analysis and inference. In an innovative research enterprise, selection of results for further evaluation based on null hypothesis significance testing is doomed to yield a low proportion of reproducible results and a high proportion of effects that are initially overestimated...
September 15, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938700/liver-cancers-with-stem-progenitor-cell-features-a-rare-chemotherapy-sensitive-malignancy
#13
Bruno Christian Köhler, Nina Waldburger, Kai Schlamp, Dirk Jäger, Karl Heinz Weiss, Henning Schulze-Bergkamen, Peter Schirmacher, Christoph Springfeld
Primary liver tumors are a heterogeneous group of malignancies. Besides classical hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and cholangiocarcinoma (CC), combined and intermediate forms of liver cancer exist and can express stem-cell markers like nuclear cell adhesion molecule (NCAM-1/CD56), c-kit (CD117) or epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) together with high proliferative activity. Liver tumors with progenitor-cell features are associated with an unfavorable prognosis, but the phenotype has not resulted in therapeutic consequences so far...
August 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938689/efficacy-and-safety-of-traditional-chemotherapies-for-patients-with-ovarian-neoplasm-a-network-meta-analysis
#14
REVIEW
Lili Yang, Gongliang Guo, Liqun Sun, Chenhao Li, Haipeng Zhang
BACKGROUND: Ovarian neoplasm is a kind of high risky cancer among female. This paper assessed the efficacy and safety of twelve therapies and figured out the superior chemotherapeutic drug for ovarian cancer through network meta-analysis (NMA). METHOD: Eligible randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were retrieved from electronic databases. Primary outcomes concerning efficacy, overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS), were presented as hazard ratio (HR) and the associated 95% credible interval(CrI), while outcomes concerning safety were assessed by odds ratio (OR) and the corresponding 95% CrI...
August 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938685/a-case-control-study-of-the-association-between-the-egfr-gene-and-glioma-risk-in-a-chinese-han-population
#15
Mengdan Yan, Jingjie Li, Na He, Xugang Shi, Shuli Du, Bin Li, Tianbo Jin
The Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor gene has been reported to be involved in the progression of gliomas which is one of the deadliest primary brain tumors in humans. To determine potential association between EGFR and glioma risk, we performed a case-control study with 394 glioma patients and 298 cancer-free controls in which captured a total of 8 tag single nucleotide polymorphisms of EGFR gene from Xi'an, China. SPSS 19.0 statistical packages, χ(2) test, genetic model analysis and SHEsis software platform were analyzed s the variants in EGFR gene associations with glioma risk...
August 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938679/association-of-immunologic-markers-from-complete-blood-counts-with-the-response-to-preoperative-chemoradiotherapy-and-prognosis-in-locally-advanced-rectal-cancer
#16
Sung Woo Jung, In Ja Park, Se Heon Oh, Seung-Seop Yeom, Jong Lyul Lee, Yong Sik Yoon, Chan Wook Kim, Seok-Byung Lim, Jung Bok Lee, Chang Sik Yu, Jin Cheon Kim
We investigated retrospectively whether immunologic markers from a complete blood count (CBC) are associated with the responsiveness to preoperative chemoradiotherapy (PCRT) and oncologic outcomes in 984 patients with locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) who also underwent radical surgery from 2005 to 2013. CBC parameters including the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR), lymphocyte to monocyte ratio (LMR), and platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR) were recorded. Pathologic responses to PCRT were evaluated in the resected specimens using the tumor regression grade system...
August 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938672/comparing-the-clinical-efficacy-of-abiraterone-acetate-enzalutamide-and-orteronel-in-patients-with-metastatic-castration-resistant-prostate-cancer-by-performing-a-network-meta-analysis-of-eight-randomized-controlled-trials
#17
Minyong Kang, Chang Wook Jeong, Cheol Kwak, Ja Hyeon Ku, Hyeon Hoe Kim
Various novel androgen receptor (AR) targeting drugs have been developed recently and have shown beneficial effects on survival in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). However, no consensus has been reached regarding which of these agents provides the most favorable oncological outcomes. Here, we aimed to compare the efficacy of novel AR-targeted agents by performing a network meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). We included eight RCTs for men with mCRPC treated with one of the AR targeting agents: abiraterone acetate, enzalutamide, or orteronel...
August 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938651/positive-transcription-elongation-factor-b-p-tefb-is-a-therapeutic-target-in-human-multiple-myeloma
#18
Yu Zhang, Liang Zhou, Yun Leng, Yun Dai, Robert Z Orlowski, Steven Grant
The role of the positive RNA Pol II regulator, P-TEFb (positive transcription elongation factor b), in maintenance of the anti-apoptotic protein Mcl-1 and bortezomib (btz) resistance was investigated in human multiple myeloma (MM) cells. Mcl-1 was up-regulated in all MM lines tested, including bortezomib-resistant lines, human MM xenograft mouse models, and primary CD138(+) MM cells. Mcl-1 over-expression significantly reduced bortezomib lethality, indicating a functional role for Mcl-1 in bortezomib resistance...
August 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938646/concordance-between-circulating-tumor-cells-and-clinical-status-during-follow-up-in-anaplastic-lymphoma-kinase-alk-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-patients
#19
Mariano Provencio, David Pérez-Callejo, María Torrente, Paloma Martin, Virginia Calvo, Lourdes Gutiérrez, Fernando Franco, Maria José Coronado, Juan Luis Cruz-Bermúdez, Asunción Martín Ruiz-Valdepeñas, Alberto Cruz-Bermúdez, Margarita Sánchez-Beato, Atocha Romero, Aránzazu García-Grande
BACKGROUND: The identification of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) rearrangements is found in approximately 5% of non-small-cell lung cancers (NSCLCs). However, the development of liquid biopsies as a diagnostic tool is less developed in these cases. This study investigates the use of CTCs during treatment, together with an extended follow-up to correlate with clinical evolution. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 13 patients out of a cohort of 212 patients with lung adenocarcinoma, presented ALK rearrangements (6%) confirmed by tumor biopsy...
August 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938644/intravascular-ultrasound-guidance-in-drug-eluting-stents-implantation-a-meta-analysis-and-trial-sequential-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#20
Cheng Qian, Hong Feng, Jianlei Cao, Guangyu Zhang, Yanggan Wang
OBJECTIVE: Previous evidence suggested that intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) guidance could improve outcomes after drug-eluting stents (DES) placement, largely driven by data from observational studies. We, therefore, performed a meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis of randomized controlled trials to overcome this limitation. RESULTS: The retrieval process yielded 7 RCTs with 3,192 patients. Compared to the angiography guidance, IVUS-guided DES implantation was associated with a significant reduction in the major adverse cardiac events (MACE) (OR 0...
August 29, 2017: Oncotarget
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