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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828237/characterisation-of-microsatellite-and-snp-markers-from-miseq-and-genotyping-by-sequencing-data-among-parapatric-urophora-cardui-tephritidae-populations
#1
Jes Johannesen, Armin G Fabritzek, Bettina Ebner, Sven-Ernö Bikar
Phylogeographic analyses of the gall fly Urophora cardui have in earlier studies based on allozymes and mtDNA identified small-scale, parapatrically diverged populations within an expanding Western Palearctic population. However, the low polymorphism of these markers prohibited an accurate delimitation of the evolutionary origin of the parapatric divergence. Urophora cardui from the Western Palearctic have been introduced into Canada as biological control agents of the host plant Cirsium arvense. Here, we characterise 12 microsatellite loci with hexa-, penta- and tetra-nucleotide repeat motifs and report a genotyping-by-sequencing SNP protocol...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827684/whole-genome-based-phylogeny-of-reptile-associated-helicobacter-indicates-independent-niche-adaptation-followed-by-diversification-in-a-poikilothermic-host
#2
Maarten J Gilbert, Birgitta Duim, Arjen J Timmerman, Aldert L Zomer, Jaap A Wagenaar
Reptiles have been shown to host a significant Helicobacter diversity. In order to survive, reptile-associated Helicobacter lineages need to be adapted to the thermally dynamic environment encountered in a poikilothermic host. The whole genomes of reptile-associated Helicobacter lineages can provide insights in Helicobacter host adaptation and coevolution. These aspects were explored by comparing the genomes of reptile-, bird-, and mammal-associated Helicobacter lineages. Based on average nucleotide identity, all reptile-associated Helicobacter lineages in this study could be considered distinct species...
August 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827583/a-new-horned-and-long-necked-herbivorous-stem-archosaur-from-the-middle-triassic-of-india
#3
Saradee Sengupta, Martín D Ezcurra, Saswati Bandyopadhyay
The early evolution of archosauromorphs (bird- and crocodile-line archosaurs and stem-archosaurs) represents an important case of adaptive radiation that occurred in the aftermath of the Permo-Triassic mass extinction. Here we enrich the early archosauromorph record with the description of a moderately large (3-4 m in total length), herbivorous new allokotosaurian, Shringasaurus indicus, from the early Middle Triassic of India. The most striking feature of Shringasaurus indicus is the presence of a pair of large supraorbital horns that resemble those of some ceratopsid dinosaurs...
August 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827317/coevolutionary-arms-race-versus-host-defense-chase-in-a-tropical-herbivore-plant-system
#4
María-José Endara, Phyllis D Coley, Gabrielle Ghabash, James A Nicholls, Kyle G Dexter, David A Donoso, Graham N Stone, R Toby Pennington, Thomas A Kursar
Coevolutionary models suggest that herbivores drive diversification and community composition in plants. For herbivores, many questions remain regarding how plant defenses shape host choice and community structure. We addressed these questions using the tree genus Inga and its lepidopteran herbivores in the Amazon. We constructed phylogenies for both plants and insects and quantified host associations and plant defenses. We found that similarity in herbivore assemblages between Inga species was correlated with similarity in defenses...
August 21, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827173/heterogeneous-recombination-among-hepatitis-b-virus-genotypes
#5
Nadine Castelhano, Natalia M Araujo, Miguel Arenas
The rapid evolution of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) through both evolutionary forces, mutation and recombination, allows this virus to generate a large variety of adapted variants at both intra and inter-host levels. It can, for instance, generate drug resistance or the diverse viral genotypes that currently exist in the HBV epidemics. Concerning the latter, it is known that recombination played a major role in the emergence and genetic diversification of novel genotypes. In this regard, the quantification of viral recombination in each genotype can provide relevant information to devise expectations about the evolutionary trends of the epidemic...
August 18, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826528/chemokine-driven-cd4-t-cell-homing-new-concepts-and-recent-advances
#6
Carly E Gregor, Jade Foeng, Iain Comerford, Shaun R McColl
CD4(+) T cells are critical regulators of the adaptive immune system and have diverse roles in regulating responses to the broad array of microbes encountered. Appropriate execution of their effector function requires precise and coordinated migration of these cells to specific lymphoid niches and peripheral sites. This migration is largely controlled by dynamic expression of chemokine receptors and the discrete functions of distinct subsets of CD4(+) T cells can often be determined from their expression of specific chemokine receptors...
2017: Advances in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821838/biogeography-shaped-the-metabolome-of-the-genus-espeletia-a-phytochemical-perspective-on-an-andean-adaptive-radiation
#7
Guillermo F Padilla-González, Mauricio Diazgranados, Fernando B Da Costa
The páramo ecosystem has the highest rate of diversification across plant lineages on earth, of which the genus Espeletia (Asteraceae) is a prime example. The current distribution and molecular phylogeny of Espeletia suggest the influence of Andean geography and past climatic fluctuations on the diversification of this genus. However, molecular markers have failed to reveal subtle biogeographical trends in Espeletia diversification, and metabolomic evidence for allopatric segregation in plants has never been reported...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821757/dated-phylogeny-and-dispersal-history-of-the-butterfly-subfamily-nymphalinae-lepidoptera-nymphalidae
#8
Chengyong Su, Qinghui Shi, Xiaoyan Sun, Junye Ma, Chunxiang Li, Jiasheng Hao, Qun Yang
The origin and dispersal history of the large butterfly subfamily Nymphalinae are not fully understood, due to internal phylogenetic and time calibration issues. We conducted phylogenetic and dating analyses using mitochondrial and nuclear genes of biogeographically diverse groups of the Nymphalinae in order to resolve some controversial relationships and the paleobiogeographic pattern of the subfamily. Our results support the sister relationship of Vanessa (Tribe Nymphalini) and the Nymphalis-group, and the grouping of the three old-world genera (Rhinopalpa, Kallimoides and Vanessula) within Tribe Victorinini...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820387/infectious-polymorphic-toxins-delivered-by-outer-membrane-exchange-discriminate-kin-in-myxobacteria
#9
Christopher N Vassallo, Pengbo Cao, Austin Conklin, Hayley Finkelstein, Christopher S Hayes, Daniel Wall
Myxobacteria are known for complex social behaviors including outer membrane exchange (OME), in which cells exchange large amounts of outer membrane lipids and proteins upon contact. The TraA cell surface receptor selects OME partners based on a variable domain. However, traA polymorphism alone is not sufficient to precisely discriminate kin. Here, we report a novel family of OME-delivered toxins that promote kin discrimination of OME partners. These SitA lipoprotein toxins are polymorphic and widespread in myxobacteria...
August 18, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819830/identification-and-characterization-of-tyrosine-kinases-in-anole-lizard-indicate-the-conserved-tyrosine-kinase-repertoire-in-vertebrates
#10
Ake Liu, Funan He, Xun Gu
The tyrosine kinases (TKs) play principal roles in regulation of multicellular aspects of the organism and are implicated in many cancer types and congenital disorders. The anole lizard has recently been introduced as a model organism for laboratory-based studies of organismal function and field studies of ecology and evolution. However, the TK family of anole lizard has not been systematically identified and characterized yet. In this study, we identified 82 TK-encoding genes in the anole lizard genome and classified them into 28 subfamilies through phylogenetic analysis, with no member from ROS and STYK1 subfamilies identified...
August 17, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819268/heterogenous-oceanic-redox-conditions-through-the-ediacaran-cambrian-boundary-limited-the-metazoan-zonation
#11
Junpeng Zhang, Tailiang Fan, Yuandong Zhang, Gary G Lash, Yifan Li, Yue Wu
Recent studies have enhanced our understanding of the linkage of oxygenation and metazoan evolution in Early Cambrian time. However, little of this work has addressed the apparent lag of animal diversification and atmospheric oxygenation during this critical period of Earth history. This study utilizes the geochemical proxy and N isotope record of the Ediacaran-Cambrian boundary preserved in intra-shelf basin, slope, and slope basin deposits of the Yangtze Sea to assess the ocean redox state during the Early Cambrian metazoan radiation...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818669/notch-and-fgf-signaling-during-electrosensory-versus-mechanosensory-lateral-line-organ-development-in-a-non-teleost-ray-finned-fish
#12
Melinda S Modrell, Olivia R A Tidswell, Clare V H Baker
The lateral line system is a useful model for studying the embryonic and evolutionary diversification of different organs and cell types. In jawed vertebrates, this ancestrally comprises lines of mechanosensory neuromasts over the head and trunk, flanked on the head by fields of electrosensory ampullary organs, all innervated by lateral line neurons in cranial lateral line ganglia. Both types of sense organs, and their afferent neurons, develop from cranial lateral line placodes. Current research primarily focuses on the posterior lateral line primordium in zebrafish, which migrates as a cell collective along the trunk; epithelial rosettes form in the trailing zone and are deposited as a line of neuromasts, within which hair cells and supporting cells differentiate...
August 14, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818040/in-silico-prediction-and-characterization-of-secondary-metabolite-biosynthetic-gene-clusters-in-the-wheat-pathogen-zymoseptoria-tritici
#13
Timothy Cairns, Vera Meyer
BACKGROUND: Fungal pathogens of plants produce diverse repertoires of secondary metabolites, which have functions ranging from iron acquisition, defense against immune perturbation, to toxic assaults on the host. The wheat pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici causes Septoria tritici blotch, a foliar disease which is a significant threat to global food security. Currently, there is limited knowledge of the secondary metabolite arsenal produced by Z. tritici, which significantly restricts mechanistic understanding of infection...
August 17, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816210/dietary-deficiency-of-vitamin-a-among-rural-children-a-community-based-survey-using-a-food-frequency-questionnaire
#14
Shivali Suri, Dinesh Kumar, Ranjan Das
BACKGROUND: Overt vitamin A deficiency has been controlled in most parts of India, but prevalence of subclinical deficiency may still be high, which may enhance susceptibility to infections, reduce growth potential and also lead to higher mortality. We aimed to: (i) assess the consumption pattern of vitamin A-rich foods in children 1-5 years of age in rural Jammu; and (ii) estimate the dietary deficiency of vitamin A leading to risk of subclinical vitamin A deficiency in cluster- villages of the study area...
March 2017: National Medical Journal of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815753/aruncin-b-synthetic-studies-structural-reassignment-and-biological-evaluation
#15
Aubert Ribaucourt, Christopher Towers, Laia Josa-Culleré, Frances Willenbrock, Amber Thompson, David M Hodgson
A ring-closing alkene metathesis (RCM) / oxyselenation-selenoxide elimination sequence was established to the sodium salts E- and Z-25 of the originally proposed structure for the recently isolated cytotoxin aruncin B (1), as well as to the sodium salt Z-34 of a related ethyl ether regioisomer; however, none of their corresponding free acids could be obtained. Their acid sensitivity, together with detailed analysis of the spectroscopic data indicated that profound structural revision was necessary. This led to reassignment of aruncin B as a Z-γ-alkylidenebutenolide Z-36...
August 16, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815638/new-insights-into-the-origin-and-the-genetic-status-of-the-balkan-donkey-from-serbia
#16
L J Stanisic, J M Aleksic, V Dimitrijevic, P Simeunovic, U Glavinic, J Stevanovic, Z Stanimirovic
The Balkan donkey (Equus asinus L.) is commonly regarded as a large-sized, unselected, unstructured and traditionally managed donkey breed. We assessed the current genetic status of the three largest E. asinus populations in the central Balkans (Serbia) by analysing the variability of nuclear microsatellites and the mitochondrial (mtDNA) control region of 77 and 49 individuals respectively. We further analysed our mtDNA dataset along with 209 published mtDNA sequences of ancient and modern individuals from 19 European and African populations to provide new insights into the origin and the history of the Balkan donkey...
August 16, 2017: Animal Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815567/diversification-rates-are-more-strongly-related-to-microhabitat-than-climate-in-squamate-reptiles-lizards-and-snakes
#17
Melissa Bars-Closel, Tiana Kohlsdorf, Daniel S Moen, John J Wiens
Patterns of species richness among clades can be directly explained by the ages of clades or their rates of diversification. The factors that most strongly influence diversification rates remain highly uncertain, since most studies typically consider only a single predictor variable. Here, we explore the relative impacts of macroclimate (i.e., occurring in tropical vs. temperate regions) and microhabitat use (i.e., terrestrial, fossorial, arboreal, aquatic) on diversification rates of squamate reptile clades (lizards and snakes)...
August 16, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813483/muroid-rodent-phylogenetics-900-species-tree-reveals-increasing-diversification-rates
#18
Scott J Steppan, John J Schenk
We combined new sequence data for more than 300 muroid rodent species with our previously published sequences for up to five nuclear and one mitochondrial genes to generate the most widely and densely sampled hypothesis of evolutionary relationships across Muroidea. An exhaustive screening procedure for publically available sequences was implemented to avoid the propagation of taxonomic errors that are common to supermatrix studies. The combined data set of carefully screened sequences derived from all available sequences on GenBank with our new data resulted in a robust maximum likelihood phylogeny for 900 of the approximately 1,620 muroids...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813349/advances-in-athlete-development-understanding-conditions-of-and-constraints-on-optimal-practice
#19
REVIEW
Joseph Baker, Bradley W Young, David Mann
The development of elite, high performance athletes reflects the complex interaction of biological and genetic factors with important environmental influences. Over the past two decades, discussions of athlete development have largely focused on the role of 'deliberate' practice, and more recently, researchers have begun exploring the means by which practice can be best used to maximize the rate of talent development across the different stages of athlete development. In this article, we summarize recent developments in understanding how athletes maximize practice including (a) antecedents of practice involvement, (b) environmental constraints of practice involvement, (c) the value of diversification for athlete development, (d) and methodological advancements in this area...
August 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812729/complex-modular-architecture-around-a-simple-toolkit-of-wing-pattern-genes
#20
Steven M Van Belleghem, Pasi Rastas, Alexie Papanicolaou, Simon H Martin, Carlos F Arias, Megan A Supple, Joseph J Hanly, James Mallet, James J Lewis, Heather M Hines, Mayte Ruiz, Camilo Salazar, Mauricio Linares, Gilson R P Moreira, Chris D Jiggins, Brian A Counterman, W Owen McMillan, Riccardo Papa
Identifying the genomic changes that control morphological variation and understanding how they generate diversity is a major goal of evolutionary biology. In Heliconius butterflies, a small number of genes control the development of diverse wing colour patterns. Here, we used full-genome sequencing of individuals across the Heliconius erato radiation and closely related species to characterize genomic variation associated with wing pattern diversity. We show that variation around colour pattern genes is highly modular, with narrow genomic intervals associated with specific differences in colour and pattern...
January 30, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
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