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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088765/allo-allo-triploid-sphagnum-%C3%A3-falcatulum-single-individuals-contain-most-of-the-holantarctic-diversity-for-ancestrally-indicative-markers
#1
Eric F Karlin, Peter E Smouse
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Allopolyploids exhibit both different levels and different patterns of genetic variation than are typical of diploids. However, scant attention has been given to the partitioning of allelic information and diversity in allopolyploids, particularly that among homeologous monoploid components of the hologenome. Sphagnum × falcatulum is a double allopolyploid peat moss that spans a considerable portion of the Holantarctic. With monoploid genomes from three ancestral species, this organism exhibits a complex evolutionary history involving serial inter-subgeneric allopolyploidizations...
January 14, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088708/germinal-centers-programmed-for-affinity-maturation-and-antibody-diversification
#2
REVIEW
Oliver Bannard, Jason G Cyster
The seminal discovery by Eisen that antibodies undergo improvements in antigen-binding affinity over the course of an immune response led to a long running search for the underlying mechanism. Germinal centers in lymphoid organs are now recognized to be critically involved in this phenomenon, known as antibody affinity maturation. As well as improving in affinity for specific epitopes, some antibody responses maintain or even increase their breadth of antigen-recognition over time. This has led to another intense line of research aimed at understanding how broadly neutralizing anti-pathogen responses are generated...
January 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088192/nucleotide-diversity-inflation-as-a-genome-wide-response-to-experimental-lifespan-extension-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#3
Pawel Michalak, Lin Kang, Pernille M Sarup, Mads F Schou, Volker Loeschcke
BACKGROUND: Evolutionary theory predicts that antagonistically selected alleles, such as those with divergent pleiotropic effects in early and late life, may often reach intermediate population frequencies due to balancing selection, an elusive process when sought out empirically. Alternatively, genetic diversity may increase as a result of positive frequency-dependent selection and genetic purging in bottlenecked populations. RESULTS: While experimental evolution systems with directional phenotypic selection typically result in at least local heterozygosity loss, we report that selection for increased lifespan in Drosophila melanogaster leads to an extensive genome-wide increase of nucleotide diversity in the selected lines compared to replicate control lines, pronounced in regions with no or low recombination, such as chromosome 4 and centromere neighborhoods...
January 14, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087663/evolution-and-structural-diversification-of-nictaba-like-lectin-genes-in-food-crops-with-a-focus-on-soybean-glycine-max
#4
Sofie Van Holle, Pierre Rougé, Els J M Van Damme
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The Nictaba family groups all proteins that show homology to Nictaba, the tobacco lectin. So far, Nictaba and an Arabidopsis thaliana homologue have been shown to be implicated in the plant stress response. The availability of more than 50 sequenced plant genomes provided the opportunity for a genome-wide identification of Nictaba-like genes in 15 species, representing members of the Fabaceae, Poaceae, Solanaceae, Musaceae, Arecaceae, Malvaceae and Rubiaceae. Additionally, phylogenetic relationships between the different species were explored...
January 12, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087443/an-update-on-the-physiological-and-therapeutic-relevance-of-gpcr-oligomers
#5
REVIEW
Batoul Farran
The traditional view on GPCRs held that they function as single monomeric units composed of identical subunits. This notion was overturned by the discovery that GPCRs can form homo- and hetero-oligomers, some of which are obligatory, and can further assemble into receptor mosaics consisting of three or more protomers. Oligomerisation exerts significant impacts on receptor function and physiology, offering a platform for the diversification of receptor signalling, pharmacology, regulation, crosstalk, internalization and trafficking...
January 10, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080947/hiv-testing-intervention-development-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-the-developed-world
#6
Paul Flowers, Claudia Estcourt, Pam Sonnenberg, Fiona Burns
HIV testing is a 'gateway' technology, enabling access to treatment and HIV prevention. Biomedical approaches to prevention, such as pre-exposure prophylaxis and treatment as prevention, require accurate and regular HIV test results. HIV testing also represents a powerful 'teachable moment' for behavioural prevention. An increasing range of HIV tests and the emergence of self-managed diagnostic technologies (e.g. self-testing) means there is now considerable diversification of when, where and how results are available to those who test...
January 13, 2017: Sexual Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079938/an-enigmatic-hawaiian-moth-is-a-missing-link-in-the-adaptive-radiation-of-schiedea
#7
Stephen G Weller, Ann K Sakai, Diane R Campbell, John M Powers, Sean R Peña, Matthew J Keir, Alexander K Loomis, Scott M Heintzman, Lauren Weisenberger
Shifts in pollination may drive adaptive diversification of reproductive systems within plant lineages. The monophyletic genus Schiedea is a Hawaiian lineage of 32 extant species, with spectacular diversity in reproductive systems. Biotic pollination is the presumed ancestral condition, but this key element of the life history and its role in shaping reproductive systems has remained undocumented. We observed floral visitors to two species of Schiedea and conducted field experiments to test pollinator effectiveness...
February 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079370/substituted-polyesters-by-thiol-ene-modification-rapid-diversification-for-therapeutic-protein-stabilization
#8
Emma M Pelegri-O'Day, Samantha J Paluck, Heather D Maynard
Many proteins, especially those used as therapeutics, are unstable to storage and shipping temperatures, leading to increased costs in research and industry. Therefore, the design and synthesis of novel stabilizers is an important area of investigation. Herein we report new degradable polymers that stabilize proteins to environmental stressors such as refrigeration and elevated temperature. Specifically, polycaprolactones with different pendant groups were synthesized and surveyed for their ability to stabilize an important therapeutic protein to storage and shipping conditions...
January 12, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077647/sensitive-next-generation-sequencing-method-reveals-deep-genetic-diversity-of-hiv-1-in-the-democratic-republic-of-the-congo
#9
M A Rodgers, E Wilkerson, A Vallari, C McArthur, L Sthreshley, C A Brennan, G Cloherty, T de Oliveira
: As the epidemiological epicentre of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pandemic, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) is a reservoir of circulating HIV strains exhibiting high levels of diversity and recombination. In this study, we characterized HIV specimens collected in two rural areas of the DRC between 2001 and 2003 to identify rare strains of HIV. The env gp41 region was sequenced and characterized for 172 HIV-positive specimens. The env sequences were predominantly subtype A (43...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077634/characterization-of-hcv-envelope-diversification-from-acute-to-chronic-infection-using-smrt-sequencing-within-a-sexually-transmitted-hepatitis-c-virus-cluster
#10
Cynthia K Y Ho, Jayna Raghwani, Sylvie Koekkoek, Richard H Liang, Jan T M Van der Meer, Marc Van Der Valk, Menno De Jong, Oliver G Pybus, Janke Schinkel, Richard Molenkamp
: In contrast to other available next generation sequencing platforms, Pacbio Single Molecule, Real-Time (SMRT) sequencing has the advantage of generating long reads, albeit with a relatively higher error rate in unprocessed data. Using this platform we longitudinally sampled and sequenced the hepatitis C virus (HCV) envelope genome region (1680 nt) from individuals belonging to a cluster of sexually-transmitted cases. All five subjects were HIV-1 coinfected and infected with a closely related strain of HCV genotype 4d...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077600/ibrutinib-therapy-increases-t-cell-repertoire-diversity-in-patients-with-chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia
#11
Qingsong Yin, Mariela Sivina, Harlan Robins, Erik Yusko, Marissa Vignali, Susan O'Brien, Michael J Keating, Alessandra Ferrajoli, Zeev Estrov, Nitin Jain, William G Wierda, Jan A Burger
The Bruton's tyrosine kinase inhibitor ibrutinib is a highly effective, new targeted therapy for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) that thwarts leukemia cell survival, growth, and tissue homing. The effects of ibrutinib treatment on the T cell compartment, which is clonally expanded and thought to support the growth of malignant B cells in CLL, are not fully characterized. Using next-generation sequencing technology, we characterized the diversity of TCRβ-chains in peripheral blood T cells from 15 CLL patients before and after 1 y of ibrutinib therapy...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077086/the-measure-of-success-geographic-isolation-promotes-diversification-in-pachydactylus-geckos
#12
Matthew P Heinicke, Todd R Jackman, Aaron M Bauer
BACKGROUND: Geckos of the genus Pachydactylus and their close relatives comprise the most species-rich clade of lizards in sub-Saharan Africa. Many explanations have been offered to explain species richness patterns of clades. In the Pachydactylus group, one possible explanation is a history of diversification via geographic isolation. If geographic isolation has played a key role in facilitating diversification, then we expect species in more species-rich subclades to have smaller ranges than species in less diverse subclades...
January 11, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076891/comparative-genomics-of-mortierella-elongata-and-its-bacterial-endosymbiont-mycoavidus-cysteinexigens
#13
J Uehling, A Gryganskyi, K Hameed, T Tschaplinski, P K Misztal, S Wu, A Desirò, N Vande Pol, Z Du, A Zienkiewicz, K Zienkiewicz, E Morin, E Tisserant, R Splivallo, M Hainaut, B Henrissat, R Ohm, A Kuo, J Yan, A Lipzen, M Nolan, K LaButti, K Barry, A H Goldstein, J Labbé, C Schadt, G Tuskan, I Grigoriev, F Martin, R Vilgalys, G Bonito
Endosymbiosis of bacteria by eukaryotes is a defining feature of cellular evolution. In addition to well known bacterial origins for mitochondria and chloroplasts, multiple origins of bacterial endosymbiosis are known within the cells of diverse animals, plants, and fungi. Early-diverging lineages of terrestrial fungi harbor endosymbiotic bacteria belonging to the Burkholderiaceae. We sequenced the metagenome of the soil-inhabiting fungus Mortierella elongata and assembled the complete circular chromosome of its endosymbiont, Mycoavidus cysteinexigens, which we place within in a lineage of endofungal symbionts that are sister clade to Burkholderia...
January 11, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074535/gene-ages-nomenclatures-and-functional-diversification-of-the-methuselah-methuselah-like-gpcr-family-in-drosophila-and-tribolium
#14
REVIEW
Markus Friedrich, Jeffery W Jones
Affecting lifespan regulation and oxidative stress resistance, the G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) gene methuselah (mth) plays important roles in the life history of Drosophila melanogaster. Substantial progress has been made in elucidating the molecular pathways by which mth affects these traits, yet conflicting ideas exist as to how old these genetic interactions are as well as how old the mth gene itself is. Root to these issues is the complex gene family history of the Mth/Mthl GPCR family, which experienced independent expansions in a variety of animal clades, leading to at least six subfamilies in insects...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074503/bioorthogonal-diversification-of-peptides-through-selective-ruthenium-ii-catalyzed-c-h-activation
#15
Alexandra Schischko, Hongjun Ren, Nikolaos Kaplaneris, Lutz Ackermann
Methods for the chemoselective modification of amino acids and peptides are powerful techniques in biomolecular chemistry. Among other applications, they enable the total synthesis of artificial peptides. In recent years, significant momentum has been gained by exploiting palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling for peptide modification. Despite major advances, the prefunctionalization elements on the coupling partners translate into undesired byproduct formation and lengthy synthetic operations. In sharp contrast, we herein illustrate the unprecedented use of versatile ruthenium(II)carboxylate catalysis for the step-economical late-stage diversification of α- and β-amino acids, as well as peptides, through chemo-selective C-H arylation under racemization-free reaction conditions...
January 11, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074285/t-cell-receptor-repertoire-usage-in-cancer-as-a-surrogate-marker-for-immune-responses
#16
REVIEW
David Schrama, Cathrin Ritter, Jürgen C Becker
Characterizing the interaction of cancer cells with the host adaptive immune system is critical for understanding tumor immunology and the modus operandi of immunotherapeutic interventions to treat cancer. As the key cellular effectors of adaptive immunity, T cells are endowed with specialized receptors (the T cell receptor; TCR), to recognize and to eliminate cancer cells. The diversity of the TCR repertoire results from specialized genetic diversification mechanisms that generate an incredible variability allowing recognizing extensive collections of antigens...
January 10, 2017: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073771/out-of-borneo-biogeography-phylogeny-and-divergence-date-estimates-of-artocarpus-moraceae
#17
Evelyn W Williams, Elliot M Gardner, Robert Harris, Arunrat Chaveerach, Joan T Pereira, Nyree J C Zerega
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The breadfruit genus (Artocarpus, Moraceae) includes valuable underutilized fruit tree crops with a centre of diversity in Southeast Asia. It belongs to the monophyletic tribe Artocarpeae, whose only other members include two small neotropical genera. This study aimed to reconstruct the phylogeny, estimate divergence dates and infer ancestral ranges of Artocarpeae, especially Artocarpus, to better understand spatial and temporal evolutionary relationships and dispersal patterns in a geologically complex region...
January 10, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071916/gold-catalyzed-unexpected-ring-transformation-of-pyrimidodiazepine-derivatives
#18
Jaeyoung Koo, Jonghoon Kim, Seung Bum Park
Pyrimidodiazepine derivatives underwent an unexpected gold-catalyzed retro-Mannich-type carbon-carbon bond cleavage and intramolecular nucleophilic cyclization. The pyrimidodiazepines bearing an alkyne moiety showed novel orthogonal reactivity in the presence of a gold catalyst, as opposed to the alkynophilicity that is commonly observed with gold catalysts. The ring transformation reaction of pyrimidodiazepines probably proceeds through an acyclic iminium intermediate. The potential of this synthetic method for the skeletal diversification of pyrimidine-containing macrocycles was also demonstrated...
January 10, 2017: Organic Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071791/niche-evolution-and-diversification-in-a-neotropical-radiation-of-birds-aves-furnariidae
#19
Glenn F Seeholzer, Santiago Claramunt, Robb T Brumfield
Rapid diversification may be caused by ecological adaptive radiation via niche divergence. In this model, speciation is coupled with niche divergence and lineage diversification is predicted to be correlated with rates of niche evolution. Studies of the role of niche evolution in diversification have generally focused on ecomorphological diversification but climatic-niche evolution may also be important. We tested these alternatives using a phylogeny of 298 species of ovenbirds (Aves: Furnariidae). We found that within Furnariidae, variation in species richness and diversification rates of subclades were best predicted by rate of climatic-niche evolution than ecomorphological evolution...
January 10, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070297/phylogeographic-patterns-of-a-lower-intertidal-isopod-in-the-gulf-of-california-and-the-caribbean-and-comparison-with-other-intertidal-isopods
#20
Luis A Hurtado, Mariana Mateos, Shuang Liu
A growing body of knowledge on the diversity and evolution of intertidal isopods across different regions worldwide has enhanced our understanding on biological diversification at the poorly studied, yet vast, sea-land interface. High genetic divergences among numerous allopatric lineages have been identified within presumed single broadly distributed species. Excirolana mayana is an intertidal isopod that is commonly found in sandy beaches throughout the Gulf of California. Its distribution in the Pacific extends from this basin to Colombia and in the Atlantic from Florida to Venezuela...
January 2017: Ecology and Evolution
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