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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549625/a-matter-of-maturity-the-impact-of-pre-mrna-processing-in-gene-expression-and-antigen-presentation
#1
Rodrigo Prado Martins, Robin Fåhraeus
RNA processing plays a pivotal role in the diversification of high eukaryotes transcriptome and proteome. The expression of gene products controlling a variety of cellular and physiological processes depends largely on a complex maturation process undergone by pre-mRNAs to become translation-competent mRNAs. Here we review the different mechanisms involved in the pre-mRNA processing and disclose their impact in the gene regulation process in eukaryotic cells. We describe some viral strategies targeting pre-mRNA processing to control gene expression and host immune response and discuss their relevance as tools for a better understanding of cell biology...
May 23, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548881/constraints-drivers-and-implications-of-influenza-a-virus-reassortment
#2
Anice C Lowen
Influenza A viruses are constantly changing. This change accounts for seasonal epidemics, infrequent pandemics, and zoonotic outbreaks. A major mechanism underlying the genetic diversification of influenza A virus is reassortment of intact gene segments between coinfecting viruses. This exchange is possible because of the segmented nature of the viral genome. Here, I first consider the constraints and drivers acting on influenza A virus reassortment, including the likelihood of coinfection at the host and cellular levels, mixing and assembly of heterologous gene segments within coinfected cells, and the fitness associated with reassortant genotypes...
May 26, 2017: Annual Review of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548206/the-phylogeny-and-biogeography-of-hakea-proteaceae-reveals-the-role-of-biome-shifts-in-a-continental-plant-radiation
#3
Marcel Cardillo, Peter H Weston, Zoe K M Reynolds, Peter M Olde, Austin R Mast, Emily Lemmon, Alan R Lemmon, Lindell Bromham
The frequency of evolutionary biome shifts during diversification has important implications for our ability to explain geographic patterns of plant diversity. Recent studies present several examples of biome shifts, but whether frequencies of biome shifts closely reflect geographic proximity or environmental similarity of biomes remains poorly known. We explore this question by using phylogenomic methods to estimate the phylogeny of Hakea, a diverse Australian genus occupying a wide range of biomes. Model-based estimation of ancestral regions indicates that Hakea began diversifying in the Mediterranean biome of southern Australia in the Middle Eocene - Early Oligocene, and dispersed repeatedly into other biomes across the continent...
May 26, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547891/large-scale-gene-expression-reveals-different-adaptations-of-hyalopterus-persikonus-to-winter-and-summer-host-plants
#4
Na Cui, Peng-Cheng Yang, Kun Guo, Le Kang, Feng Cui
Host alternation, an obligatory seasonal shifting between host plants of distant genetic relationship, has had significant consequences for the diversification and success of the superfamily of aphids. However, the underlying molecular mechanism remains unclear. In this study, the molecular mechanism of host alternation was explored through a large-scale gene expression analysis of the mealy aphid Hyalopterus persikonus on winter and summer host plants. More than four times as many unigenes of the mealy aphid were significantly upregulated on summer host Phragmites australis than on winter host Rosaceae plants...
June 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546971/the-impact-of-the-customer-relationship-management-on-organizational-productivity-customer-trust-and-satisfaction-by-using-the-structural-equation-model-a-study-in-the-iranian-hospitals
#5
Maryam Yaghoubi, Hamed Asgari, Marzieh Javadi
CONTEXT: One of the challenges in the fiercely competitive space of health organizations is responding to customers and building trust and satisfaction in them in the shortest time, with best quality and highest productivity. Hence the aim of this study is to survey the impact of customer relationship management (CRM) on organizational productivity, customer loyalty, satisfaction and trust in selected hospitals of Isfahan (in Iran). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study is a correlation descriptive research...
2017: Journal of Education and Health Promotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545973/evolutionary-and-ecological-forces-influencing-population-diversification-in-bornean-montane-passerines
#6
Vivien L Chua, Brian Tilston Smith, Ryan C Burner, Mustafa Abdul Rahman, Maklarin Lakim, Dewi M Prawiradilaga, Robert G Moyle, Frederick H Sheldon
The mountains of Borneo are well known for their high endemicity and historical role in preserving Southeast Asian rainforest biodiversity, but the diversification of populations inhabiting these mountains is poorly studied. Here we examine the genetic structure of 12 Bornean montane passerines by comparing complete mtDNA ND2 gene sequences of populations spanning the island. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic trees and haplotype networks are examined for common patterns that might signal important historical events or boundaries to dispersal...
May 22, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545386/evolutionary-radiations-in-the-species-rich-mountain-genus-saxifraga-l
#7
J Ebersbach, J Schnitzler, A Favre, A N Muellner-Riehl
BACKGROUND: A large number of taxa have undergone evolutionary radiations in mountainous areas, rendering alpine systems particularly suitable to study the extrinsic and intrinsic factors that have shaped diversification patterns in plants. The species-rich genus Saxifraga L. is widely distributed throughout the Northern Hemisphere, with high species numbers in the regions adjacent to the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP) in particular the Hengduan Mountains and the Himalayas. Using a dataset of 297 taxa (representing at least 60% of extant Saxifraga species), we explored the variation of infrageneric diversification rates...
May 25, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545147/chromosome-divergence-during-evolution-of-the-tetraploid-clawed-frogs-xenopus-mellotropicalis-and-xenopus-epitropicalis-as-revealed-by-zoo-fish
#8
Martin Knytl, Ondřej Smolík, Svatava Kubíčková, Tereza Tlapáková, Ben J Evans, Vladimír Krylov
Whole genome duplication (WGD) generates new species and genomic redundancy. In African clawed frogs of the genus Xenopus, this phenomenon has been especially important in that (i) all but one extant species are polyploid and (ii) whole genome sequences of some species provide an evidence for genomic rearrangements prior to or after WGD. Within Xenopus in the subgenus Silurana, at least one allotetraploidization event gave rise to three extant tetraploid (2n = 4x = 40) species-Xenopus mellotropicalis, X. epitropicalis, and X...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544607/spotted-gar-and-the-evolution-of-innate-immune-receptors
#9
Dustin J Wcisel, Tatsuya Ota, Gary W Litman, Jeffrey A Yoder
The resolution of the gar genome affords an opportunity to examine the diversification and functional specialization of immune effector molecules at a distant and potentially informative point in phylogenetic development. Although innate immunity is effected by a particularly large number of different families of molecules, the focus here is to provide detailed characterization of several families of innate receptors that are encoded in large multigene families, for which orthologous forms can be identified in other species of bony fish but not in other vertebrate groups as well as those for which orthologs are present in other vertebrate species...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544475/thiazole-based-sigma-1-receptor-ligands-diversity-by-late-stage-c-h-arylation-of-thiazoles-structure-affinity-and-selectivity-relationships-and-molecular-interactions
#10
Bernhard Wünsch, Artur Kokornaczyk, Dirk Schepmann, Junichiro Yamaguchi, Kenichiro Itami, Erik Laurini, Maurizio Fermeglia, Sabrina Pricl
Spirocyclic thiophene derivatives represent promising sigma-1 ligands with high sigma-1 affinity and selectivity over the sigma-2 subtype. In order to increase ligand efficiency, the thiophene ring was replaced bioisosterically by a thiazole ring and the pyran ring was opened. Late-stage diversification by regioselective C-H arylation of thiazoles 9a-c resulted in a set of 53 compounds with high diversity. This set of compounds was analyzed with respect to sigma-1 affinity, sigma-1/sigma-2 selectivity, lipophilicity (logD7...
May 24, 2017: ChemMedChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543982/the-rna-binding-protein-caper-is-required-for-sensory-neuron-development-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#11
Eugenia C Olesnicky, Jeremy M Bono, Laura Bell, Logan T Schachtner, Meghan C Lybecker
BACKGROUND: Alternative splicing mediated by RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) is emerging as a fundamental mechanism for the regulation of gene expression. Alternative splicing has been shown to be a widespread phenomenon that facilitates the diversification of gene products in a tissue specific manner. Although defects in alternative splicing are rooted in many neurological disorders, only a small fraction of splicing factors have been investigated in detail. RESULTS: We find that the splicing factor Caper is required for the development of multiple different mechanosensory neuron subtypes at multiple life stages in Drosophila melanogaster...
May 23, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543871/tropical-specialist-versus-climate-generalist-diversification-and-demographic-history-of-sister-species-of-carlia%C3%A2-skinks-from-northwestern-australia
#12
Ana C Afonso Silva, Jason G Bragg, Sally Potter, Carlos Fernandes, Maria Manuela Coelho, Craig Moritz
Species endemic to the tropical regions are expected to be vulnerable to future climate change due in part to their relatively narrow climatic niches. In addition, these species are more likely to have responded strongly to past climatic change, and this can be explored through phylogeographic analyses. To test the hypothesis that tropical specialists are more sensitive to climate change than climate generalists, we generated and analyze sequence data from mtDNA and ~2500 exons to compare scales of historical persistence and population fluctuation in two sister species of Australian rainbow skinks: the tropical specialist Carlia johnstonei and the climate generalist C...
May 24, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543308/exocytic-trafficking-pathways-in-plants-why-and-how-they-are-redirected
#13
REVIEW
Takehiko Kanazawa, Takashi Ueda
The membrane trafficking system is responsible for precise transportation and localization of proteins, lipids, and polysaccharides among single membrane-bound organelles, the plasma membrane, and the extracellular space. While the exocytic trafficking pathway is considered to be a default transport pathway in many organisms, including land plants, research has shown that evolutionary processes led to an increase in the number of machinery components involved in the plant exocytic pathway. This study provides an overview of the diversification of exocytic trafficking pathways in plants, which mediate the formation and maintenance of cell polarity, interaction with symbiotic and pathogenic microbes, and cytokinesis...
May 25, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543226/interactions-within-and-between-clades-shaped-the-diversification-of-terrestrial-carnivores
#14
Mathias M Pires, Daniele Silvestro, Tiago B Quental
A longstanding debate in evolutionary biology and paleontology is whether ecological interactions such as competition impose diversity dependence on speciation and extinction rates. Here we analyze the fossil record of terrestrial mammalian carnivores in North America and Eurasia using a Bayesian framework to assess whether their diversity dynamics were affected by diversity dependence within and between families (12 in Eurasia, 10 in North America). We found eight instances of within-clade diversity dependence suppressing speciation rates and detected between-clade effects increasing extinction rates in six instances...
May 22, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543189/rapid-radiations-of-both-kiwifruit-hybrid-lineages-and-their-parents-shed-light-on-a-two-layer-mode-of-species-diversification
#15
Yifei Liu, Dawei Li, Qiong Zhang, Chi Song, Caihong Zhong, Xudong Zhang, Ying Wang, Xiaohong Yao, Zupeng Wang, Shaohua Zeng, Ying Wang, Yangtao Guo, Shuaibin Wang, Xinwei Li, Li Li, Chunyan Liu, Honour C McCann, Weiming He, Yan Niu, Min Chen, Liuwen Du, Junjie Gong, Paul M Datson, Elena Hilario, Hongwen Huang
Reticulate speciation caused by interspecific hybridization is now recognized as an important mechanism in the creation of biological diversity. However, depicting the patterns of phylogenetic networks for lineages that have undergone interspecific gene flow is challenging. Here we sequenced 25 taxa representing natural diversity in the genus Actinidia with an average mapping depth of 26× on the reference genome to reconstruct their reticulate history. We found evidence, including significant gene tree discordance, cytonuclear conflicts, and changes in genome-wide heterozygosity across taxa, collectively supporting extensive reticulation in the genus...
May 25, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542593/lack-of-the-pga-exopolysaccharide-in-salmonella-as-an-adaptive-trait-for-survival-in-the-host
#16
Maite Echeverz, Begoña García, Amaia Sabalza, Jaione Valle, Toni Gabaldón, Cristina Solano, Iñigo Lasa
Many bacteria build biofilm matrices using a conserved exopolysaccharide named PGA or PNAG (poly-β-1,6-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine). Interestingly, while E. coli and other members of the family Enterobacteriaceae encode the pgaABCD operon responsible for PGA synthesis, Salmonella lacks it. The evolutionary force driving this difference remains to be determined. Here, we report that Salmonella lost the pgaABCD operon after the divergence of Salmonella and Citrobacter clades, and previous to the diversification of the currently sequenced Salmonella strains...
May 24, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539522/maintaining-mimicry-diversity-optimal-warning-colour-patterns-differ-among-microhabitats-in-amazonian-clearwing-butterflies
#17
Keith R Willmott, Julia C Robinson Willmott, Marianne Elias, Chris D Jiggins
Mimicry is one of the best-studied examples of adaptation, and recent studies have provided new insights into the role of mimicry in speciation and diversification. Classical Müllerian mimicry theory predicts convergence in warning signal among protected species, yet tropical butterflies are exuberantly diverse in warning colour patterns, even within communities. We tested the hypothesis that microhabitat partitioning in aposematic butterflies and insectivorous birds can lead to selection for different colour patterns in different microhabitats and thus help maintain mimicry diversity...
May 31, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537738/a-peptoid-square-helix-via-synergistic-control-of-backbone-dihedral-angles
#18
Benjamin Craig Gorske, Emily M Mumford, Charles G Gerrity, Imelda Ko
The continued expansion of the fields of macromolecular chemistry and nanoscience has motivated the development of new secondary structures that can serve as architectural elements of innovative materials, molecular machines, biological probes, and even commercial medicines. Synthetic foldamers are particularly attractive systems for developing such elements because they are specifically designed to facilitate synthetic manipulation and functional diversity. However, relatively few predictive design principles exist that permit both rational and modular control of foldamer secondary structure, while maintaining the capacity for facile diversification of displayed functionality...
May 24, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536987/sexual-deception-in-the-eucera-pollinated-ophrys-leochroma-a-chemical-intermediate-between-wasp-and-andrena-pollinated-species
#19
Monica Cuervo, Demetra Rakosy, Carlos Martel, Stefan Schulz, Manfred Ayasse
Ophrys flowers mimic sex pheromones of attractive females of their pollinators and attract males, which attempt to copulate with the flower and thereby pollinate it. Virgin females and orchid flowers are known to use the same chemical compounds in order to attract males. The composition of the sex pheromone and its floral analogue, however, vary between pollinator genera. Wasp-pollinated Ophrys species attract their pollinators by using polar hydroxy acids, whereas Andrena-pollinated species use a mixture of non-polar hydrocarbons...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536984/phylogeny-and-biogeography-of-the-genus-stevia-asteraceae-eupatorieae-an-example-of-diversification-in-the-asteraceae-in-the-new-world
#20
Akiko Soejima, Akifumi S Tanabe, Izumi Takayama, Takayuki Kawahara, Kuniaki Watanabe, Miyuki Nakazawa, Misako Mishima, Tetsukazu Yahara
The genus Stevia comprises approximately 200 species, which are distributed in North and South America, and are representative of the species diversity of the Asteraceae in the New World. We reconstructed the phylogenetic relationships using sequences of ITS and cpDNA and estimated the divergence times of the major clade of this genus. Our results suggested that Stevia originated in Mexico 7.0-7.3 million years ago (Mya). Two large clades, one with shrub species and another with herb species, were separated at about 6...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Plant Research
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