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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214944/the-vascular-plants-open-system-of-growth
#1
REVIEW
Alice Basile, Marco Fambrini, Claudio Pugliesi
What is fascinating in plants (true also in sessile animals such as corals and hydroids) is definitely their open and indeterminate growth, as a result of meristematic activity. Plants as well as animals are characterized by a multicellular organization, with which they share a common set of genes inherited from a common eukaryotic ancestor; nevertheless, circa 1.5 billion years of evolutionary history made the two kingdoms very different in their own developmental biology. Flowering plants, also known as angiosperms, arose during the Cretaceous Period (145-65 million years ago), and up to date, they count around 235,000 species, representing the largest and most diverse group within the plant kingdom...
February 18, 2017: Development Genes and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214725/child-mortality-commodity-price-volatility-and-the-resource-curse
#2
Yousef Makhlouf, Neil M Kellard, Dmitri Vinogradov
Given many developing economies depend on primary commodities, the fluctuations of commodity prices may imply significant effects for the wellbeing of children. To investigate, this paper examines the relationship between child mortality and commodity price movements as reflected by country-specific commodity terms-of-trade. Employing a panel of 69 low and lower-middle income countries over the period 1970-2010, we show that commodity terms-of-trade volatility increases child mortality in highly commodity-dependent importers suggesting a type of 'scarce' resource curse...
February 1, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213971/mass-turnover-and-recovery-dynamics-of-a-diverse-australian-continental-radiation
#3
Ian G Brennan, Paul M Oliver
Trends in global and local climate history have been linked to observed macroevolutionary patterns across a variety of organisms. These climatic pressures may unilaterally or asymmetrically influence the evolutionary trajectory of clades. To test and compare signatures of changing global (Eocene-Oligocene boundary cooling) and continental (Miocene aridification) environments on a continental fauna, we investigated the macroevolutionary dynamics of one of Australia's most diverse endemic radiations, pygopodoid geckos...
February 18, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213964/when-sensing-is-gambling-an-experimental-system-reveals-how-plasticity-can-generate-tunable-bet-hedging-strategies
#4
Colin S Maxwell, Paul M Magwene
Genotypes can persist in unpredictable environments by 'hedging their bets' and producing diverse phenotypes. Theoretical studies have shown that the phenotypic variability needed for a bet-hedging strategy can be generated by factors either inside or outside an organism. However, sensing the environment and bet hedging are frequently treated as distinct evolutionary strategies. Furthermore, nearly all empirical studies of the molecular underpinnings of bet-hedging strategies to date have focused on internal sources of variability...
February 18, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213870/molecular-characterization-of-bovine-leukemia-virus-from-moldovan-dairy-cattle
#5
Aneta Pluta, Marzena Rola-Łuszczak, Piotr Kubiś, Svetlana Balov, Roman Moskalik, Bhudipa Choudhury, Jacek Kuźmak
Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is the causative agent of enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL), a disease that has worldwide distribution. Whilst it has been eradicated in most of Western Europe and Scandinavia, it remains a problem in other regions, particularly Eastern Europe and South America. For this study, in 2013, 24 cattle from three farms in three regions of Moldova were screened by ELISA and nested PCR. Of these cattle, 14 which were PCR positive, and these were molecularly characterized based on the nucleotide sequence of the env gene and the deduced amino acid sequence of the encoded gp51 protein...
February 17, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213433/chromosomal-instability-as-a-driver-of-tumor-heterogeneity-and-evolution
#6
Samuel F Bakhoum, Dan Avi Landau
Large-scale, massively parallel sequencing of human cancer samples has revealed tremendous genetic heterogeneity within individual tumors. Indeed, tumors are composed of an admixture of diverse subpopulations-subclones-that vary in space and time. Here, we discuss a principal driver of clonal diversification in cancer known as chromosomal instability (CIN), which complements other modes of genetic diversification creating the multilayered genomic instability often seen in human cancer. Cancer cells have evolved to fine-tune chromosome missegregation rates to balance the acquisition of heterogeneity while preserving favorable genotypes, a dependence that can be exploited for a therapeutic benefit...
February 17, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210246/prospects-of-in-vivo-incorporation-of-non-canonical-amino-acids-for-the-chemical-diversification-of-antimicrobial-peptides
#7
Tobias Baumann, Jessica H Nickling, Maike Bartholomae, Andrius Buivydas, Oscar P Kuipers, Nediljko Budisa
The incorporation of non-canonical amino acids (ncAA) is an elegant way for the chemical diversification of recombinantly produced antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). Residue- and site-specific installation methods in several bacterial production hosts hold great promise for the generation of new-to-nature AMPs, and can contribute to tackle the ongoing emergence of antibiotic resistance in pathogens. Especially from a pharmacological point of view, desirable improvements span pH and protease resistance, solubility, oral availability and circulation half-life...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209775/evidence-for-environmental-and-ecological-selection-in-a-microbe-with-no-geographic-limits-to-gene-flow
#8
Kerry A Whittaker, Tatiana A Rynearson
The ability for organisms to disperse throughout their environment is thought to strongly influence population structure and thus evolution of diversity within species. A decades-long debate surrounds processes that generate and support high microbial diversity, particularly in the ocean. The debate concerns whether diversification occurs primarily through geographic partitioning (where distance limits gene flow) or through environmental selection, and remains unresolved due to lack of empirical data. Here we show that gene flow in a diatom, an ecologically important eukaryotic microbe, is not limited by global-scale geographic distance...
February 16, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209133/house-spider-genome-uncovers-evolutionary-shifts-in-the-diversity-and-expression-of-black-widow-venom-proteins-associated-with-extreme-toxicity
#9
Kerry L Gendreau, Robert A Haney, Evelyn E Schwager, Torsten Wierschin, Mario Stanke, Stephen Richards, Jessica E Garb
BACKGROUND: Black widow spiders are infamous for their neurotoxic venom, which can cause extreme and long-lasting pain. This unusual venom is dominated by latrotoxins and latrodectins, two protein families virtually unknown outside of the black widow genus Latrodectus, that are difficult to study given the paucity of spider genomes. Using tissue-, sex- and stage-specific expression data, we analyzed the recently sequenced genome of the house spider (Parasteatoda tepidariorum), a close relative of black widows, to investigate latrotoxin and latrodectin diversity, expression and evolution...
February 16, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209121/evolution-of-toll-like-receptors-in-the-context-of-terrestrial-ungulates-and-cetaceans-diversification
#10
Edson Ishengoma, Morris Agaba
BACKGROUND: Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are the frontline actors in the innate immune response to various pathogens and are expected to be targets of natural selection in species adapted to habitats with contrasting pathogen burdens. The recent publication of genome sequences of giraffe and okapi together afforded the opportunity to examine the evolution of selected TLRs in broad range of terrestrial ungulates and cetaceans during their complex habitat diversification. Through direct sequence comparisons and standard evolutionary approaches, the extent of nucleotide and protein sequence diversity in seven Toll-like receptors (TLR2, TLR3, TLR4, TLR5, TLR7, TLR9 and TLR10) between giraffe and closely related species was determined...
February 16, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209119/plastome-phylogeny-and-early-diversification-of-brassicaceae
#11
Xinyi Guo, Jianquan Liu, Guoqian Hao, Lei Zhang, Kangshan Mao, Xiaojuan Wang, Dan Zhang, Tao Ma, Quanjun Hu, Ihsan A Al-Shehbaz, Marcus A Koch
BACKGROUND: The family Brassicaceae encompasses diverse species, many of which have high scientific and economic importance. Early diversifications and phylogenetic relationships between major lineages or clades remain unclear. Here we re-investigate Brassicaceae phylogeny with complete plastomes from 51 species representing all four lineages or 5 of 6 major clades (A, B, C, E and F) as identified in earlier studies. RESULTS: Bayesian and maximum likelihood phylogenetic analyses using a partitioned supermatrix of 77 protein coding genes resulted in nearly identical tree topologies exemplified by highly supported relationships between clades...
February 16, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207889/genetic-variation-of-maturity-groups-and-four-e-genes-in-the-chinese-soybean-mini-core-collection
#12
Jicun Li, Xiaobo Wang, Wenwen Song, Xinyang Huang, Jing Zhou, Haiyan Zeng, Shi Sun, Hongchang Jia, Wenbin Li, Xinan Zhou, Suzhen Li, Pengyin Chen, Cunxiang Wu, Yong Guo, Tianfu Han, Lijuan Qiu
The mini core collection (MCC) has been established by streamlining core collection (CC) chosen from China National Genebank including 23,587 soybean (Glycine max) accessions by morphological traits and simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Few studies have been focused on the maturity that has been considered as one of the most critical traits for the determination of the adaptation-growing region of the soybean. In the current study, two hundred and ninty-nine accessions of MCC planted for two years at four locations namely in Heihe, Harbin, Jining and Wuhan cities in China were used to assess the variation of maturity in MCC and identify the integrated effect of 4 E loci on flowering and maturity time in soybean...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205535/phylogenetic-analysis-of-eukaryotic-neet-proteins-uncovers-a-link-between-a-key-gene-duplication-event-and-the-evolution-of-vertebrates
#13
Madhuri A Inupakutika, Soham Sengupta, Rachel Nechushtai, Patricia A Jennings, Jose' N Onuchic, Rajeev K Azad, Pamela Padilla, Ron Mittler
NEET proteins belong to a unique family of iron-sulfur proteins in which the 2Fe-2S cluster is coordinated by a CDGSH domain that is followed by the "NEET" motif. They are involved in the regulation of iron and reactive oxygen metabolism, and have been associated with the progression of diabetes, cancer, aging and neurodegenerative diseases. Despite their important biological functions, the evolution and diversification of eukaryotic NEET proteins are largely unknown. Here we used the three members of the human NEET protein family (CISD1, mitoNEET; CISD2, NAF-1 or Miner 1; and CISD3, Miner2) as our guides to conduct a phylogenetic analysis of eukaryotic NEET proteins and their evolution...
February 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202813/female-fecundity-variation-affects-reproducibility-of-experiments-on-host-plant-preference-and-acceptance-in-a-phytophagous-insect
#14
Alexander Schäpers, Hampus Petrén, Christopher W Wheat, Christer Wiklund, Magne Friberg
Reproducibility is a scientific cornerstone. Many recent studies, however, describe a reproducibility crisis and call for assessments of reproducibility across scientific domains. Here, we explore the reproducibility of a classic ecological experiment-that of assessing female host plant preference and acceptance in phytophagous insects, a group in which host specialization is a key driver of diversification. We exposed multiple cohorts of Pieris napi butterflies from the same population to traditional host acceptance and preference tests on three Brassicaceae host species...
February 22, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202809/mammal-body-size-evolution-in-north-america-and-europe-over-20-myr-similar-trends-generated-by-different-processes
#15
Shan Huang, Jussi T Eronen, Christine M Janis, Juha J Saarinen, Daniele Silvestro, Susanne A Fritz
Because body size interacts with many fundamental biological properties of a species, body size evolution can be an essential component of the generation and maintenance of biodiversity. Here we investigate how body size evolution can be linked to the clade-specific diversification dynamics in different geographical regions. We analyse an extensive body size dataset of Neogene large herbivores (covering approx. 50% of the 970 species in the orders Artiodactyla and Perissodactyla) in Europe and North America in a Bayesian framework...
February 22, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202755/low-pathogenic-influenza-a-viruses-in-north-american-diving-ducks-contribute-to-the-emergence-of-a-novel-highly-pathogenic-influenza-a-h7n8-virus
#16
Yifei Xu, Andrew M Ramey, Andrew S Bowman, Thomas J DeLiberto, Mary L Killian, Scott Krauss, Jacqueline M Nolting, Mia Kim Torchetti, Andrew B Reeves, Richard J Webby, David E Stallknecht, Xiu-Feng Wan
Introductions of low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses of subtypes H5 and H7 into poultry from wild birds have the potential to mutate to highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI), but such viruses' origins are often unclear. In January 2016, a novel H7N8 HPAI virus caused an outbreak in turkeys in Indiana, USA. To determine the virus's origin, we sequenced genomes of 441 wild bird-origin influenza A viruses (IAVs) from North America and subjected them to evolutionary analyses. Results showed that the H7N8 LPAI virus most likely circulated among diving ducks in the Mississippi flyway during autumn 2015 and was subsequently introduced to Indiana turkeys, in which it evolved high pathogenicity...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199757/genetic-enzymatic-and-metabolite-profiling-of-the-lactobacillus-casei-group-reveals-strain-biodiversity-and-potential-applications-for-flavour-diversification
#17
Ewelina Stefanovic, Kieran N Kilcawley, Mary C Rea, Gerald F Fitzgerald, Olivia McAuliffe
AIMS: The Lactobacillus casei group represents a widely explored group of lactic acid bacteria, characterised by a high level of biodiversity. In this study, the genetic and phenotypic diversity of a collection of more than 300 isolates of the L. casei group and their potential to produce volatile metabolites important for flavour development in dairy products was examined. METHODS AND RESULTS: Following confirmation of species by 16S rRNA PCR, the diversity of the isolates was determined by pulsed field gel electrophoresis...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199442/phylogeographic-history-of-south-american-populations-of-the-silky-anteater-cyclopes-didactylus-pilosa-cyclopedidae
#18
Raphael Teodoro Franciscani Coimbra, Flávia Regina Miranda, Camila Clozato Lara, Marco Antônio Alves Schetino, Fabrício Rodrigues Dos Santos
Cyclopes didactylus, commonly called silky anteater, is the smallest and least studied of the anteaters. It is an arboreal species occurring in rainforests, ranging from southern Mexico to Central and South America, with an apparently disjoint distribution between Amazon and Atlantic rainforests in Brazil. Although seven subspecies are recognized, little is known about its geographical variation. Thus, to evaluate the population dynamics and evolutionary history of the South American silky anteater, we analyzed 1542 bp sequences of the mitochondrial control region (CR), COI and Cyt-b genes of 32 individuals...
February 13, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199022/recent-advances-in-exploring-the-neural-underpinnings-of-auditory-scene-perception
#19
Joel S Snyder, Mounya Elhilali
Studies of auditory scene analysis have traditionally relied on paradigms using artificial sounds-and conventional behavioral techniques-to elucidate how we perceptually segregate auditory objects or streams from each other. In the past few decades, however, there has been growing interest in uncovering the neural underpinnings of auditory segregation using human and animal neuroscience techniques, as well as computational modeling. This largely reflects the growth in the fields of cognitive neuroscience and computational neuroscience and has led to new theories of how the auditory system segregates sounds in complex arrays...
February 15, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198677/decipher-the-ancestry-of-the-plant-specific-lbd-gene-family
#20
Yimeng Kong, Peng Xu, Xinyun Jing, Longxian Chen, Laigeng Li, Xuan Li
BACKGROUND: Lateral Organ Boundaries Domain (LBD) genes arise from charophyte algae and evolve essential functions in land plants in regulating organ development and secondary metabolism. Although diverse plant species have been investigated to construct the phylogeny of LBD gene family, a detailed and reliable ancestry that characterizes their evolutionary patterns has not been revealed. RESULTS: We develop an improved bioinformatic method that allows robust detection of 431 LBD genes in 11 high-quality land plant genomes...
January 25, 2017: BMC Genomics
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