keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Diversification

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432763/multiple-strong-postmating-and-intrinsic-postzygotic-reproductive-barriers-isolate-florally-diverse-species-of-jaltomata-solanaceae
#1
Jamie L Kostyun, Leonie C Moyle
Divergence in phenotypic traits often contributes to premating isolation between lineages, but could also promote isolation at postmating stages. Phenotypic differences could directly result in mechanical isolation or hybrids with maladapted traits; alternatively, when alleles controlling these trait differences pleiotropically affect other components of development, differentiation could indirectly produce genetic incompatibilities in hybrids. Here, we determined the strength of 9 postmating and intrinsic postzygotic reproductive barriers among 10 species of Jaltomata (Solanaceae), including species with highly divergent floral traits...
April 22, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432133/do-memory-cd4-t-cells-keep-their-cell-type-programming-plasticity-versus-fate-commitment-t-cell-heterogeneity-plasticity-and-selection-in-humans
#2
Federica Sallusto, Antonino Cassotta, Daniel Hoces, Mathilde Foglierini, Antonio Lanzavecchia
The wide range of effector and memory T cells is instrumental for immune regulation and tailored mechanisms of protection against pathogens. Here, we will focus on human CD4 T cells and discuss T-cell plasticity and intraclonal diversification in the context of a progressive and selective model of CD4 T-cell differentiation.
April 21, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431159/likelihood-of-tree-topologies-with-fossils-and-diversification-rate-estimation
#3
Gilles Didier, Marine Fau, Michel Laurin
Since the diversification process cannot be directly observed at the human scale, it has to be studied from the information available, namely the extant taxa and the fossil record. In this sense, phylogenetic trees including both extant taxa and fossils are the most complete representations of the diversification process that one can get. Such phylogenetic trees can be reconstructed from molecular and morphological data, to some extent. Among the temporal information of such phylogenetic trees, fossil ages are by far the most precisely known (divergence times are inferences calibrated mostly with fossils)...
April 18, 2017: Systematic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431105/extinction-vs-rapid-radiation-the-juxtaposed-evolutionary-histories-of-coelotine-spiders-support-the-eocene-oligocene-orogenesis-of-the-tibetan-plateau
#4
Zhe Zhao, Shuqiang Li
Evolutionary biology has long been concerned with how changing environments affect and drive the spatiotemporal development of organisms. Coelotine spiders (Agelenidae: Coelotinae) are common species in the temperate and subtropical areas of the Northern Hemisphere. Their long evolutionary history and the extremely imbalanced distribution of species richness suggest that Eurasian environments, especially since the Cenozoic, are the drivers of their diversification. We use phylogenetics, molecular dating, ancestral area reconstructions, diversity, and ecological niche analyses to investigate the spatiotemporal evolution of 286 coelotine species from throughout the region...
April 20, 2017: Systematic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430886/intrinsic-protein-disorder-reduces-small-scale-gene-duplicability
#5
Sanghita Banerjee, Felix Feyertag, David Alvarez-Ponce
Whereas the rate of gene duplication is relatively high, only certain duplications survive the filter of natural selection and can contribute to genome evolution. However, the reasons why certain genes can be retained after duplication whereas others cannot remain largely unknown. Many proteins contain intrinsically disordered regions (IDRs), whose structures fluctuate between alternative conformational states. Due to their high flexibility, IDRs often enable protein-protein interactions and are the target of post-translational modifications...
April 19, 2017: DNA Research: An International Journal for Rapid Publication of Reports on Genes and Genomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429828/genomic-clustering-of-adaptive-loci-during-parallel-evolution-of-an-australian-wildflower
#6
Federico Roda, Greg M Walter, Rick Nipper, Daniel Ortiz-Barrientos
The buildup of the phenotypic differences that distinguish species has long intrigued biologists. These differences are often inherited as stable polymorphisms that allow the co-segregation of adaptive variation within species, and facilitate the differentiation of complex phenotypes between species. It has been suggested that the clustering of adaptive loci could facilitate this process but evidence is still scarce. Here we used QTL analysis to study the genetic basis of phenotypic differentiation between coastal populations of the Australian wildflower Senecio lautus...
April 21, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427330/pan-genome-and-crispr-analyses-of-the-bacterial-fish-pathogen-moritella-viscosa
#7
Christian Karlsen, Erik Hjerde, Terje Klemetsen, Nils Peder Willassen
BACKGROUND: Winter-ulcer Moritella viscosa infections continue to be a significant burden in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) farming. M. viscosa comprises two main clusters that differ in genetic variation and phenotypes including virulence. Horizontal gene transfer through acquisition and loss of mobile genetic elements (MGEs) is a major driving force of bacterial diversification. To gain insight into genomic traits that could affect sublineage evolution within this bacterium we examined the genome sequences of twelve M...
April 20, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426818/alternative-glacial-interglacial-refugia-demographic-hypotheses-tested-on-cephalocereus-columna-trajani-cactaceae-in-the-intertropical-mexican-drylands
#8
Amelia Cornejo-Romero, Carlos Fabián Vargas-Mendoza, Gustavo F Aguilar-Martínez, Javier Medina-Sánchez, Beatriz Rendón-Aguilar, Pedro Luis Valverde, Jose Alejandro Zavala-Hurtado, Alejandra Serrato, Sombra Rivas-Arancibia, Marco Aurelio Pérez-Hernández, Gerardo López-Ortega, Cecilia Jiménez-Sierra
Historic demography changes of plant species adapted to New World arid environments could be consistent with either the Glacial Refugium Hypothesis (GRH), which posits that populations contracted to refuges during the cold-dry glacial and expanded in warm-humid interglacial periods, or with the Interglacial Refugium Hypothesis (IRH), which suggests that populations contracted during interglacials and expanded in glacial times. These contrasting hypotheses are developed in the present study for the giant columnar cactus Cephalocereus columna-trajani in the intertropical Mexican drylands where the effects of Late Quaternary climatic changes on phylogeography of cacti remain largely unknown...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424214/functional-conservation-and-divergence-among-homoeologs-of-taspl20-and-taspl21-two-sbp-box-genes-governing-yield-related-traits-in-hexaploid-wheat
#9
Bin Zhang, Weina Xu, Xia Liu, Xinguo Mao, Ang Li, Jingyi Wang, Xiaoping Chang, Xueyong Zhang, Ruilian Jing
Maintaining high and stable yields has become an increasing challenge in wheat breeding due to climate change. Although Squamosa-promoter binding protein (SBP)-box genes have important roles in plant development, very little is known about the actual biological functions of wheat SBP-box family members. Here, we dissect the functional conservation, divergence and exploitation of homoeologs of two paralogous TaSPL wheat loci during domestication and breeding. TaSPL20 and TaSPL21 were highly expressed in the lemma and palea...
April 19, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421087/evolutionary-analysis-of-the-lafl-genes-involved-in-the-land-plant-seed-maturation-program
#10
Jing-Dan Han, Xia Li, Chen-Kun Jiang, Gane K-S Wong, Carl J Rothfels, Guang-Yuan Rao
Seeds are one of the most significant innovations in the land plant lineage, critical to the diversification and adaptation of plants to terrestrial environments. From perspective of seed evo-devo, the most crucial developmental stage in this innovation is seed maturation, which includes accumulation of storage reserves, acquisition of desiccation tolerance, and induction of dormancy. Based on previous studies of seed development in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, seed maturation is mainly controlled by the LAFL regulatory network, which includes LEAFY COTYLEDON1 (LEC1) and LEC1-LIKE (L1L) of the NF-YB gene family, and ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE3 (ABI3), FUSCA3 (FUS3), and LEC2 (LEAFY COTYLEDON2) of the B3-AFL gene family...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418658/cp-rh-iii-bicyclic-olefin-co-catalyzed-c-h-bond-amidation-by-intramolecular-amide-transfer
#11
Xiaoming Wang, Tobias Gensch, Andreas Lerchen, Constantin G Daniliuc, Frank Glorius
A bicyclic olefin was discovered as a co-catalyst in a Cp*Rh(III)-catalyzed C-H bond amidation proceeding by an intramolecular amide transfer in N-phenoxyacetamide derivatives. Combining experimental and theoretical studies, we propose that the olefin promotes a Rh(III) intermediate to undergo oxidative addition into the O-N bond to form a Rh(V) nitrenoid species and subsequently direct the nitrenoid to add to the ortho position. The amide directing group plays a dual role as a cleavable coordinating moiety as well as an essential coupling part-ner for the C-H amidation...
April 18, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416707/distinct-domains-confer-chea-with-unique-functions-in-chemotaxis-and-cell-length-in-azospirillum-brasilense-sp7
#12
Jessica M Gullett, Amber Bible, Gladys Alexandre
Chemotaxis is the movement of cells in response to gradients of diverse chemical cues. Motile bacteria utilize a conserved chemotaxis signal transduction system to bias their motility and navigate through a gradient. A central regulator of chemotaxis is the histidine kinase, CheA. This cytoplasmic protein interacts with membrane-bound receptors, which assemble into large polar arrays, to propagate the signal. In the alphaproteobacterium, Azospirillum brasilense, Che1 controls transient increases in swimming speed during chemotaxis, but it also biases the cell length at division...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414313/alternative-direct-stem-cell-derivatives-defined-by-stem-cell-location-and-graded-wnt-signalling
#13
Amy Reilein, David Melamed, Karen Sophia Park, Ari Berg, Elisa Cimetta, Nina Tandon, Gordana Vunjak-Novakovic, Sarah Finkelstein, Daniel Kalderon
Adult stem cells provide a renewable source of differentiated cells for a wide variety of tissues and generally give rise to multiple cell types. Basic principles of stem cell organization and regulation underlying this behaviour are emerging. Local niche signals maintain stem cells, while different sets of signals act outside the niche to diversify initially equivalent stem cell progeny. Here we show that Drosophila ovarian follicle stem cells (FSCs) produced two distinct cell types directly. This cell fate choice was determined by the anterior-posterior position of an FSC and by the magnitude of spatially graded Wnt pathway activity...
April 17, 2017: Nature Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414182/innate-lymphoid-cells-and-their-stromal-microenvironments
#14
REVIEW
Zoltán Kellermayer, Dóra Vojkovics, Péter Balogh
In addition to the interaction between antigen presenting cells, T and B lymphocytes, recent studies have revealed important roles for a diverse set of auxiliary cells that profoundly influence the induction and regulation of immune responses against pathogens. Of these the stromal cells composed of various non-hematopoietic constituents are crucial for the creation and maintenance of specialized semi-static three-dimensional lymphoid tissue microenvironment, whereas the more recently described innate lymphoid cells are generated by the diversification of committed lymphoid precursor cells independently from clonally rearranged antigen receptor genes...
April 13, 2017: Immunology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414099/molecular-evolution-of-the-plastid-genome-during-diversification-of-the-cotton-genus
#15
Zhiwen Chen, Corrinne E Grover, Pengbo Li, Yumei Wang, Hushuai Nie, Yanpeng Zhao, Meiyan Wang, Fang Liu, Zhongli Zhou, Xingxing Wang, Xiaoyan Cai, Kunbo Wang, Jonathan F Wendel, Jinping Hua
Cotton (Gossypium spp.) is commonly grouped into eight diploid genomic groups, designated A-G and K, and one tetraploid genomic group, namely AD. To gain insight into the phylogeny of Gossypium and molecular evolution of the chloroplast genome duringdiversification, chloroplast genomes (cpDNA) from 6 D-genome and 2 G-genome species of Gossypium (G. armourianum D2-1, G. harknessii D2-2, G. davidsonii D3-d, G. klotzschianum D3-k, G. aridum D4, G. trilobum D8, and G. australe G2, G. nelsonii G3) were newly reported here...
April 13, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413161/rapid-and-recent-evolution-of-ltr-retrotransposons-drives-rice-genome-evolution-during-the-speciation-of-aa-genome-oryza-species
#16
Qun-Jie Zhang, Li-Zhi Gao
The dynamics of LTR retrotransposons and their contribution to genome evolution during plant speciation have remained largely unanswered. Here, we perform a genome-wide comparison of all eight Oryza AA- genome species, and identify 3,911 intact LTR retrotransposons classified into 790 families. The top 44 most abundant LTR retrotransposon families show patterns of rapid and distinct diversification since the species split over the last ~4.8 Myr. Phylogenetic and read depth analyses of 11 representative retrotransposon families further provide a comprehensive evolutionary landscape of these changes...
April 16, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413103/do-larval-types-affect-genetic-connectivity-at-sea-testing-hypothesis-in-two-sibling-marine-gastropods-with-contrasting-larval-development
#17
Maria Vittoria Modica, Valeria Russini, Giulia Fassio, Marco Oliverio
In marine environments, connectivity among populations of benthic invertebrates is provided primarily by dispersion of larvae, with the duration of pelagic larval phase (PLD) supposed to represent one of the major factor affecting connectivity. In marine gastropods, PLD is linked to specific larval development types, which may be entirely intracapsular (thus lacking a pelagic dispersal), or include a short pelagic lecithotrophic or a long planktotrophic phase. In the present study, we investigated two sibling species of the cosmopolitan neogastropod genus Columbella (commonly known as dove shells): Columbella adansoni Menke, 1853, from the Macaronesian Atlantic archipelagos, with planktotrophic development, and Columbella rustica Linnaeus, 1758, from the Mediterranean Sea, with intracapsular development...
April 4, 2017: Marine Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412535/complex-biogeographic-scenarios-revealed-in-the-diversification-of-the-largest-woodpecker-radiation-in-the-new-world
#18
Adolfo G Navarro-Sigüenza, Hernán Vázquez-Miranda, Germán Hernández-Alonso, Erick A García-Trejo, Luis A Sánchez-González
Phylogenetic relationships and patterns of evolution within Melanerpes, one of the most diverse groups of New World woodpeckers (22-23 lineages), have been complicated due to complex plumages and morphological adaptations. In an attempt to resolve these issues, we obtained sequence data from four nuclear introns and two mitochondrial protein-coding genes for 22 of the 24 currently recognized species in the genus. We performed phylogenetic analyses involving Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian Inference, species-tree divergence dating, and biogeographic reconstructions...
April 12, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410408/pleistocene-climate-changes-shaped-the-population-structure-of-partamona-seridoensis-apidae-meliponini-an-endemic-stingless-bee-from-the-neotropical-dry-forest
#19
Elder Assis Miranda, Kátia Maria Ferreira, Airton Torres Carvalho, Celso Feitosa Martins, Carlo Rivero Fernandes, Marco Antonio Del Lama
Partamona seridoensis is an endemic stingless bee from the Caatinga, a Neotropical dry forest in northeastern Brazil. Like other stingless bees, this species plays an important ecological role as a pollinator. The aim of the present study was to investigate the genetic structure and evolutionary history of P. seridoensis across its current geographic range. Workers from 84 nests from 17 localities were analyzed for COI and Cytb genic regions. The population structure tests (Bayesian phylogenetic inference, AMOVA and haplotype network) consistently characterized two haplogroups (northwestern and eastern), with little gene flow between them, generating a high differentiation between them as well as among the populations within each haplogroup...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409196/evolutionary-analysis-of-the-mammalian-tuftelin-sequence-reveals-features-of-functional-importance
#20
S Delgado, D Deutsch, J Y Sire
Tuftelin (TUFT1) is an acidic, phosphorylated glycoprotein, initially discovered in developing enamel matrix. TUFT1 is expressed in many mineralized and non-mineralized tissues. We performed an evolutionary analysis of 82 mammalian TUFT1 sequences to identify residues and motifs that were conserved during 220 million years (Ma) of evolution. We showed that 168 residues (out of the 390 residues composing the human TUFT1 sequence) are under purifying selection. Our analyses identified several, new, putatively functional domains and confirmed previously described functional domains, such as the TIP39 interaction domain, which correlates with nuclear localization of the TUFT1 protein, that was demonstrated in several tissues...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Molecular Evolution
keyword
keyword
24612
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"