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Diversification

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055169/diversification-in-tropics-and-subtropics-following-the-mid-miocene-climate-change-a-case-study-of-the-spider-genus-nesticella
#1
Francesco Ballarin, Shuqiang Li
Caves may offer suitable refugia for troglophilic invertebrates during periods of unfavourable climatic conditions because of their stable microclimates. As a consequence, allopatric divergence from their epigean counterparts may occur, leading to formation of truly hypogean communities (the Climatic Relict Hypothesis). Unlike the well-studied effects of Pleistocene glaciations, we know little about how ancient climate changes drove the development of cave-dwelling organisms living at both middle and lower latitudes...
October 21, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055133/estimating-diversification-rates-for-higher-taxa-bamm-can-give-problematic-estimate-of-rates-and-rate-shifts
#2
Andreas L S Meyer, John J Wiens
Estimates of diversification rates are invaluable for many macroevolutionary studies. Recently, an approach called BAMM (Bayesian Analysis of Macro-evolutionary Mixtures) has become widely used for estimating diversification rates and rate shifts. At the same time, several papers have concluded that estimates of net diversification rates from the method-of-moments (MS) estimators are inaccurate. Yet, no studies have compared the ability of these two methods to accurately estimate clade diversification rates...
October 21, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055110/host-conservatism-geography-and-elevation-in-the-evolution-of-a-neotropical-moth-radiation
#3
Joshua P Jahner, Matthew L Forister, Thomas L Parchman, Angela M Smilanich, James S Miller, Joseph S Wilson, Thomas R Walla, Eric J Tepe, Lora A Richards, Mario Alberto Quijano-Abril, Andrea E Glassmire, Lee A Dyer
The origins of evolutionary radiations are often traced to the colonization of novel adaptive zones, including unoccupied habitats or unutilized resources. For herbivorous insects, the predominant mechanism of diversification is typically assumed to be a shift onto a novel lineage of host plants. However, other drivers of diversification are important in shaping evolutionary history, especially for groups residing in regions with complex geological histories. We evaluated the contributions of shifts in host plant clade, bioregion, and elevation to diversification in Eois (Lepidoptera: Geometridae), a hyper-diverse genus of moths found throughout the Neotropics...
October 21, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054168/early-evolutionary-diversification-of-mandible-morphology-in-the-new-world-monkeys-primate-platyrrhini
#4
Guido Rocatti, Leandro Aristide, Alfred L Rosenberger, S Ivan Perez
New World monkeys (order Primates) are an example of a major mammalian evolutionary radiation in the Americas, with a contentious fossil record. There is evidence of an early platyrrhine occupation of this continent by the Eocene-Oligocene transition, evolving in isolation from the Old World primates from then on, and developing extensive morphological and size variation. Previous studies postulated that the platyrrhine clade arose as a local version of the Simpsonian ecospace model, with an early phase involving a rapid increase in morphological and ecological diversity driven by selection and ecological opportunity, followed by a diversification rate that slowed due to niche-filling...
December 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053363/toward-a-periodic-table-of-niches-or-exploring-the-lizard-niche-hypervolume
#5
Eric R Pianka, Laurie J Vitt, Nicolás Pelegrin, Daniel B Fitzgerald, Kirk O Winemiller
Widespread niche convergence suggests that species can be organized according to functional trait combinations to create a framework analogous to a periodic table. We compiled ecological data for lizards to examine patterns of global and regional niche diversification, and we used multivariate statistical approaches to develop the beginnings for a periodic table of niches. Data (50+ variables) for five major niche dimensions (habitat, diet, life history, metabolism, defense) were compiled for 134 species of lizards representing 24 of the 38 extant families...
November 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050795/evolutionary-trade-off-between-secondary-sexual-traits-and-ejaculates
#6
REVIEW
Leigh W Simmons, Stefan Lüpold, John L Fitzpatrick
Recent theoretical models predict that the evolutionary diversification of the weapons and ornaments of pre-mating sexual selection should be influenced by trade-offs with male expenditure on ejaculates. However, the patterns of association between secondary sexual traits and ejaculate expenditure are frequently inconsistent in their support of this prediction. We show why consideration of additional life-history, ecological, and mating-system variables is crucial for the interpretation of associations between secondary sexual traits and ejaculate production...
October 16, 2017: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047258/identification-and-expression-analyses-of-equine-endogenous-retroviruses-in-horses
#7
Jeong-An Gim, Heui-Soo Kim
Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) have been integrated into vertebrate genomes and have momentously affected host organisms. Horses (Equus caballus) have been domesticated and selected for elite racing ability over centuries. ERVs played an important role in the evolutionary diversification of the horse genome. In the present study, we identified six equine ERV families (EqERVs-E1, I1, M2, P1, S1, and Y4), their fulllength viral open reading frames (ORFs), and elucidated their phylogenetic relationships. The divergence time of EqERV families assuming an evolutionary rate of 0...
October 17, 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046573/sex-specific-evolution-during-the-diversification-of-live-bearing-fishes
#8
Zachary W Culumber, Michael Tobler
Natural selection is often assumed to drive parallel functional diversification of the sexes. But males and females exhibit fundamental differences in their biology, and it remains largely unknown how sex differences affect macroevolutionary patterns. On microevolutionary scales, we understand how natural and sexual selection interact to give rise to sex-specific evolution during phenotypic diversification and speciation. Here we show that ignoring sex-specific patterns of functional trait evolution misrepresents the macroevolutionary adaptive landscape and evolutionary rates for 112 species of live-bearing fishes (Poeciliidae)...
August 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046549/adult-frogs-and-tadpoles-have-different-macroevolutionary-patterns-across-the-australian-continent
#9
Emma Sherratt, Marta Vidal-García, Marion Anstis, J Scott Keogh
Developmental changes through an animal's life are generally understood to contribute to the resulting adult morphology. Possible exceptions are species with complex life cycles, where individuals pass through distinct ecological and morphological life stages during their ontogeny, ending with metamorphosis to the adult form. Antagonistic selection is expected to drive low genetic correlations between life stages, theoretically permitting stages to evolve independently. Here we describe, using Australian frog radiation, the evolutionary consequences on morphological evolution when life stages are under different selective pressures...
September 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044782/phylogenomics-of-pike-cichlids-cichlidae-crenicichla-the-rapid-evolution-and-trophic-diversification-of-an-incipient-species-flock
#10
Edward D Burress, Fernando Alda, Alejandro Duarte, Marcelo Loureiro, Jonathan W Armbruster, Prosanta Chakrabarty
The rapid rise of phenotypic and ecological diversity in independent lake-dwelling groups of cichlids is emblematic of the East African Great Lakes. In this study, we show that similar ecologically-based diversification has occurred in pike cichlids (Crenicichla) throughout the Uruguay River drainage of South America. We collected genomic data from nearly 500 ultraconserved element (UCEs) loci and >260,000 base pairs across 33 species, to obtain a phylogenetic hypothesis for the major species-groups and to evaluate the relationships and genetic structure among five closely-related, endemic, co-occurring species (the Uruguay River species flock; URSF)...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043597/do-holocentric-chromosomes-represent-an-evolutionary-advantage-a-study-of-paired-analyses-of-diversification-rates-of-lineages-with-holocentric-chromosomes-and-their-monocentric-closest-relatives
#11
José Ignacio Márquez-Corro, Marcial Escudero, Modesto Luceño
Despite most of the cytogenetic research is focused on monocentric chromosomes, chromosomes with kinetochoric activity localized in a single centromere, several studies have been centered on holocentric chromosomes which have diffuse kinetochoric activity along the chromosomes. The eukaryotic organisms that present this type of chromosomes have been relatively understudied despite they constitute rather diversified species lineages. On the one hand, holocentric chromosomes may present intrinsic benefits (chromosome mutations such as fissions and fusions are potentially neutral in holocentrics)...
October 17, 2017: Chromosome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043049/polyphagy-and-diversification-in-tussock-moths-support-for-the-oscillation-hypothesis-from-extreme-generalists
#12
Houshuai Wang, Jeremy D Holloway, Niklas Janz, Mariana P Braga, Niklas Wahlberg, Min Wang, Sören Nylin
Theory on plasticity driving speciation, as applied to insect-plant interactions (the oscillation hypothesis), predicts more species in clades with higher diversity of host use, all else being equal. Previous support comes mainly from specialized herbivores such as butterflies, and plasticity theory suggests that there may be an upper host range limit where host diversity no longer promotes diversification. The tussock moths (Erebidae: Lymantriinae) are known for extreme levels of polyphagy. We demonstrate that this system is also very different from butterflies in terms of phylogenetic signal for polyphagy and for use of specific host orders...
October 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043045/radseq-dataset-with-90-missing-data-fully-resolves-recent-radiation-of-petalidium-acanthaceae-in-the-ultra-arid-deserts-of-namibia
#13
Erin A Tripp, Yi-Hsin Erica Tsai, Yongbin Zhuang, Kyle G Dexter
Deserts, even those at tropical latitudes, often have strikingly low levels of plant diversity, particularly within genera. One remarkable exception to this pattern is the genus Petalidium (Acanthaceae), in which 37 of 40 named species occupy one of the driest environments on Earth, the Namib Desert of Namibia and neighboring Angola. To contribute to understanding this enigmatic diversity, we generated RADseq data for 47 accessions of Petalidium representing 22 species. We explored the impacts of 18 different combinations of assembly parameters in de novo assembly of the data across nine levels of missing data plus a best practice assembly using a reference Acanthaceae genome for a total of 171 sequence datasets assembled...
October 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042575/role-of-the-qinghai-tibetan-plateau-uplift-in-the-northern-hemisphere-disjunction-evidence-from-two-herbaceous-genera-of-rubiaceae
#14
Tao Deng, Jian-Wen Zhang, Ying Meng, Sergei Volis, Hang Sun, Ze-Long Nie
To assess the role of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau uplift in shaping the intercontinental disjunction in Northern Hemisphere, we analyzed the origin and diversification within a geological timeframe for two relict herbaceous genera, Theligonum and Kelloggia (Rubiaceae). Phylogenetic relationships within and between Theligonum and Kelloggia as well as their relatives were inferred using five chloroplast markers with parsimony, Bayesian and maximum-likelihood approaches. Migration routes and evolution of these taxa were reconstructed using Bayesian relaxed molecular clock and ancestral area reconstruction...
October 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040752/expansion-of-the-dehydrin-gene-family-in-the-pinaceae-is-associated-with-considerable-structural-diversity-and-drought-responsive-expression
#15
Juliana Stival Sena, Isabelle Giguère, Philippe Rigault, Jean Bousquet, John Mackay
Temperatures are expected to increase over the next century in all terrestrial biomes and particularly in boreal forests, where drought-induced mortality has been predicted to rise. Genomics research is helping to develop hypotheses regarding the molecular basis of drought tolerance and recent work proposed that the osmo-protecting dehydrin proteins have undergone a clade-specific expansion in the Pinaceae, a major group of conifer trees. The objectives of this study were to identify all of the putative members of the gene family, trace their evolutionary origin, examine their structural diversity and test for drought-responsive expression...
October 13, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040657/highly-expressed-genes-are-preferentially-co-opted-for-c4-photosynthesis
#16
Jose J Moreno-Villena, Luke T Dunning, Colin P Osborne, Pascal-Antoine Christin
Novel adaptations are generally assembled by co-opting pre-existing genetic components, but the factors dictating the suitability of genes for new functions remain poorly known. In this work, we used comparative transcriptomics to determine the attributes that increased the likelihood of some genes being co-opted for C4 photosynthesis, a convergent complex trait that boosts productivity in tropical conditions. We show that independent lineages of grasses repeatedly co-opted the gene lineages that were the most highly expressed in non-C4 ancestors to produce their C4 pathway...
October 11, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040393/extending-the-scope-of-darwin-s-abominable-mystery-integrative-approaches-to-understanding-angiosperm-origins-and-species-richness
#17
Ofir Katz
Background and aims: Angiosperms are the most species-rich group of land plants, but their origins and fast and intense diversification still require an explanation. Scope: Extending research scopes can broaden theoretical frameworks and lines of evidence that can lead to solving this 'abominable mystery'. Solutions lie in understanding evolutionary trends across taxa and throughout the Phanerozoic, and integration between hypotheses and ideas that are derived from multiple disciplines...
October 10, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040379/contrasting-evolutionary-processes-during-quaternary-climatic-changes-and-historical-orogenies-a-case-study-of-the-japanese-endemic-primroses-primula-sect-reinii
#18
Masaya Yamamoto, Masato Ohtani, Kaoruko Kurata, Hiroaki Setoguchi
Background and Aims: Recent biogeographic studies have illustrated that Quaternary climatic changes and historical orogenies have driven the development of high levels of biodiversity. In this context, phylogenetic niche conservatism may play a role as a major precursor of allopatric speciation. However, the effects of niche evolution on the diversification patterns of plant species under rapid habitat changes are still unknown. Here, Primula section Reinii, one of the few primroses endemic to the Japanese Archipelago, was investigated...
October 13, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036642/striking-a-balance-regulation-of-transposable-elements-by-zfp281-and-mll2-in-mouse-embryonic-stem-cells
#19
Qian Dai, Yang Shen, Yan Wang, Xin Wang, Joel Celio Francisco, Zhuojuan Luo, Chengqi Lin
Transposable elements (TEs) compose about 40% of the murine genome. Retrotransposition of active TEs such as LINE-1 (L1) tremendously impacts genetic diversification and genome stability. Therefore, transcription and transposition activities of retrotransposons are tightly controlled. Here, we show that the Krüppel-like zinc finger protein Zfp281 directly binds and suppresses a subset of retrotransposons, including the active young L1 repeat elements, in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells. In addition, we find that Zfp281-regulated L1s are highly enriched for 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) and H3K4me3...
September 25, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034568/innovation-not-recovery-dynamic-redox-promotes-metazoan-radiations
#20
Rachel Wood, Douglas H Erwin
Environmental fluctuations in redox may reinforce rather than hinder evolutionary transitions, such that variability in near-surface oceanic oxygenation can promote morphological evolution and novelty. Modern, low-oxygen regions are heterogeneous and dynamic habitats that support low diversity and are inhabited by opportunistic and non-skeletal metazoans. We note that several major radiation episodes follow protracted or repeating intervals (>1 million years) of persistent and dynamic shallow marine redox (oceanic anoxic events)...
October 16, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
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