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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908054/can-weekly-noise-levels-of-urban-road-traffic-as-predominant-noise-source-estimate-annual-ones
#1
Carlos Prieto Gajardo, Juan Miguel Barrigón Morillas, Guillermo Rey Gozalo, Rosendo Vílchez-Gómez
The effects of noise pollution on human quality of life and health were recognised by the World Health Organisation a long time ago. There is a crucial dilemma for the study of urban noise when one is looking for proven methodologies that can allow, on the one hand, an increase in the quality of predictions, and on the other hand, saving resources in the spatial and temporal sampling. The temporal structure of urban noise is studied in this work from a different point of view. This methodology, based on Fourier analysis, is applied to several measurements of urban noise, mainly from road traffic and one-week long, carried out in two cities located on different continents and with different sociological life styles (Cáceres, Spain and Talca, Chile)...
November 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906529/genes-behavior-and-behavior-genetics
#2
REVIEW
Evan Charney
According to the 'first law' of behavior genetics, 'All human behavioral traits are heritable.' Accepting the validity of this first law and employing statistical methods, researchers within psychology, sociology, political science, economics, and business claim to have demonstrated that all the behaviors studied by their disciplines are heritable-no matter how culturally specific these behaviors appear to be. Further, in many cases they claim to have identified specific genes that play a role in those behaviors...
December 1, 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904877/lifestyles-through-expenditures-a-case-based-approach-to-saving
#3
Lisa A Keister, Richard Benton, James Moody
Treating people as cases that are proximate in a behavior space-representing lifestyles-rather than as markers of single variables has a long history in sociology. Yet, because it is difficult to find analytically tractable ways to implement this idea, this approach is rarely used. We take seriously the idea that people are whole packages, and we use household spending to identify groups who occupy similar positions in social space. Using detailed data on household consumption, we identify eight positions that are clearly similar in lifestyle...
2016: Sociological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904563/the-risk-of-using-intrauterine-devices-to-benign-reproductive-system-conditions-in-postmenopausal-women-a-case-control-study
#4
Xiaohua Zhang, Liping Xiao, Haoping Zhu, Linan Cheng
BACKGROUND: To investigate the effect of using intrauterine devices (IUDs) during the fertile window on women's reproductive system health. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 2,744 postmenopausal women in the Minhang District, Shanghai, China were enrolled. In the IUDs group there were 2,253 women; in the tubal ligation group there were 202 women and there were 289 women in the control group. We selected subjects according to the cases number in different hospital by using step sampling, and, in addition, collected the sociological data and information of the previously used contraceptives by the subjects, which included whether the contraceptives were used appropriately and the effect they had...
2016: Journal of Research in Medical Sciences: the Official Journal of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898175/interventions-for-promoting-participation-in-shared-decision-making-for-children-with-cancer
#5
REVIEW
Imelda Coyne, Dónal P O'Mathúna, Faith Gibson, Linda Shields, Edith Leclercq, Greg Sheaf
BACKGROUND: This is an update of the Cochrane systematic review of shared decision-making (SMD) making published in 2013. Children's rights to have their views heard in matters that affect their lives are now well established since the publication of the UN Convention treaty (1989). Children with cancer generally prefer to be involved in decision-making and consider it important that they have the opportunity to take part in decision-making concerning their health care, even in end-of-life decisions...
November 29, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893845/meta-heuristics-in-short-scale-construction-ant-colony-optimization-and-genetic-algorithm
#6
Ulrich Schroeders, Oliver Wilhelm, Gabriel Olaru
The advent of large-scale assessment, but also the more frequent use of longitudinal and multivariate approaches to measurement in psychological, educational, and sociological research, caused an increased demand for psychometrically sound short scales. Shortening scales economizes on valuable administration time, but might result in inadequate measures because reducing an item set could: a) change the internal structure of the measure, b) result in poorer reliability and measurement precision, c) deliver measures that cannot effectively discriminate between persons on the intended ability spectrum, and d) reduce test-criterion relations...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893759/the-condition-for-generous-trust
#7
Obayashi Shinya, Inagaki Yusuke, Takikawa Hiroki
Trust has been considered the "cement" of a society and is much studied in sociology and other social sciences. Most studies, however, have neglected one important aspect of trust: it involves an act of forgiving and showing tolerance toward another's failure. In this study, we refer to this concept as "generous trust" and examine the conditions under which generous trust becomes a more viable option when compared to other types of trust. We investigate two settings. First, we introduce two types of uncertainties: uncertainty as to whether trustees have the intention to cooperate, and uncertainty as to whether trustees have enough competence to accomplish the entrusted tasks...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891627/narrative-collisions-sociocultural-pressures-and-dementia-the-relational-basis-of-personhood-reconsidered
#8
Edward Tolhurst, Bernhard Weicht, Paul Kingston
The concept of personhood developed by Tom Kitwood highlights that the experience of dementia has relational dimensions that transcend the neurodegenerative impacts of the condition. This relational focus, however, has been narrowly conceptualised, with the impact of broader sociocultural factors on experience underplayed. The empirical exploration of interaction also requires reinforcement: a tendency for dyadic studies to portray findings in an individualised format hinders the interrogation of interpersonal negotiations...
November 27, 2016: Sociology of Health & Illness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889721/concept-of-health-care-counseling-for-pediatricians
#9
M Kc Nair, M L Leena, K Ajithkumar
Health care counseling (HCC) is a relatively new concept that amalgamates human biology, human psychology and medical sociology principles, and applies the same in real-time clinical situations. In India, there is a real paucity of trained mental health personnel, and hence counseling services are restricted to few departments. HCC is especially important for the child population, as the pediatricians need to partner the parenting responsibilities in different illness care settings covering the period from newborn to adolescence...
November 15, 2016: Indian Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886740/local-peace-and-contemporary-conflict-constructing-commonality-and-exclusion-during-war-in-afghanistan
#10
Daniel Karell
Despite the "local turn" in international peacekeeping and the emphasis on community-centered development during the recent wars in Afghanistan and Iraq, it remains poorly understood how local actors-both foreign and indigenous-shape local-level wartime settings. This article explores the processes and consequences of one military unit's efforts to "win hearts and minds" in Afghanistan during 2012-13. The first portion of the analysis examines original textual data with a novel methodological approach depicting the unit's perceptions of commonalities between itself and local actors...
January 2017: Social Science Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885651/barossa-night-cohesion-in-the-british-army-officer-corps
#11
Patrick Bury
Contrasting the classical explanation of military group cohesion as sustained by interpersonal bonds, recent scholars have highlighted the importance of ritualized communication, training and drills in explaining effective military performance in professional armies. While this has offered a welcome addition to the cohesion literature and a novel micro-sociological method of examining cohesion, its primary evidential base has been combat groups. Indeed, despite their prominent role in directing operations over the past decade, the British Army's officer corps has received relatively little attention from sociologists during this period...
November 25, 2016: British Journal of Sociology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885639/cosmopolitanism-and-the-relevance-of-zombie-concepts-the-case-of-anomic-suicide-amongst-alevi-kurd-youth
#12
Umit Cetin
Against Beck's claims that conventional sociological concepts and categories are zombie categories, this paper argues that Durkheim's theoretical framework in which suicide is a symptom of an anomic state of society can help us understand the diversity of trajectories that transnational migrants follow and that shape their suicide rates within a cosmopolitan society. Drawing on ethnographic data collected on eight suicides and three attempted suicide cases of second-generation male Alevi Kurdish migrants living in London, this article explains the impact of segmented assimilation/adaptation trajectories on the incidence of suicide and how their membership of a 'new rainbow underclass', as a manifestation of cosmopolitan society, is itself an anomic social position with a lack of integration and regulation...
November 25, 2016: British Journal of Sociology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884588/colour-preference-between-adults-and-children-during-a-dental-treatment-session
#13
Magrur Kazak
BACKGROUND: It is evidently shown that colour has physical, psychological and sociological effects on human beings. There are many studies showing the effects of colours on brain activity. Colour preferences may change from childhood to adulthood and are significantly different in various age groups. The aim of this study was to evaluate the adults and children in their preference for mouthrinses in various colours under stress condition during a dental treatment session. METHODS: 240 adults and 263 children were included in the study...
November 21, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882716/toward-a-sociology-of-the-reconciliation-of-conflicting-desires
#14
Susan O'Donnell, David Perley
Desire-based research provides people and communities the opportunity to share their dreams and hopes for a better future. However, conflicting desires are difficult to reconcile. We suggest that sociological research to understand conflicting desires is required to support reconciliation work by Indigenous and non-Indigenous people in Canada. Our contribution begins by identifying much of current and past sociological research about Indigenous people and communities as damaged-centered, that is, identifying problems and obstacles in the hope that the knowledge will lead to change...
November 2016: Canadian Review of Sociology, Revue Canadienne de Sociologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882712/in-memoriam-thelma-mccormack-1921-to-2016-professor-emerita-sociology-york
#15
Meg Luxton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Canadian Review of Sociology, Revue Canadienne de Sociologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882568/the-evolution-of-weak-standards-the-case-of-the-swedish-rheumatology-quality-registry
#16
Anna Essén, Michael Sauder
Research in sociology suggests that the effects of standards are not nearly as straightforward or as homogenising as they first appear. The present study extends these insights by demonstrating how even standards designed simply to collect data can produce extensive and unanticipated effects in medical fields as their uses evolve across actors and contexts. We draw on an embedded case study exploring the multifaceted consequences of the use of a practice-driven voluntary documentation standard: the Swedish rheumatology quality registry from 1995-2014...
November 23, 2016: Sociology of Health & Illness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878879/classificatory-multiplicity-intimate-partner-violence-diagnosis-in-emergency-department-consultations
#17
Philippa Olive
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The aim of this research was to explore the naming, or classification, of physical assaults by a partner as 'intimate partner violence' during emergency department consultations. BACKGROUND: Research continues to evidence instances when intimate partner physical violence is 'missed' or unacknowledged during emergency department consultations. METHODS: Theoretically this research was approached through complexity theory and the sociology of diagnosis...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878849/leading-change-a-concept-analysis
#18
Heather V Nelson-Brantley, Debra J Ford
AIM: To report an analysis of the concept of leading change. BACKGROUND: Nurses have been called to lead change to advance the health of individuals, populations and systems. Conceptual clarity about leading change in the context of nursing and healthcare systems provides an empirical direction for future research and theory development that can advance the science of leadership studies in nursing. DESIGN: Concept analysis. DATA SOURCES: CINAHL, PubMed, PsycINFO, Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection, Health Business Elite and Business Source Premier databases were searched using the terms: leading change, transformation, reform, leadership and change...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Advanced Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878820/youth-and-the-great-recession-are-values-achievement-orientation-and-outlook-to-the-future-affected
#19
Ingrid Schoon, Jeylan Mortimer
This special section brings together leading experts in psychology and sociology to examine the consequences of the Great Recession for young people's values, achievement orientation, and outlook to the future. Evidence from Europe and the United States suggests that the impact of the recession varies for distinct outcomes and by age, the latter pointing to potential sensitive periods for interventions. Although the direct effects of the recession are not strong, they accelerate pre-existing trends towards more prolonged and precarious transitions to independence, and are likely to bring with them long-term scarring with respect to health and well-being...
November 23, 2016: International Journal of Psychology: Journal International de Psychologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859004/eating-together-and-eating-alone-meal-arrangements-in-british-households
#20
Luke Yates, Alan Warde
Sociology traditionally accounts for eating in terms of the social organization of meals, their provision and consumption. A recurrent public concern is that the meal is being subverted. This paper examines meal arrangements in British households in 2012, drawing on an online survey in the format of a food diary administered to 2784 members of a supermarket consumer panel. It charts the organization of contemporary eating occasions, paying attention to socio-demographic variation in practice. Especially, it explores companionless meals, putting them in contexts of food provisioning and temporal rhythms...
November 18, 2016: British Journal of Sociology
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