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Ákos Lehotsky, András Falus, Ágnes Lukács, Andrea Rita Füzi, Edina Gradvohl, Sarolta Mészárosné Darvay, Ilona Bihariné Krekó, Kata Berta, Alexandra Deák, Helga Judit Feith
INTRODUCTION AND AIM: In the case of primary school children in Budapest (n = 165), data on their social status and their previous knowledge on hand hygiene were elicited with the help of pre-knowledge questionnaires issued by students of higher education. The aim of the research was introducing a novel pedagogical procedure - application and optimization of peer education in the development of proper hand hygiene among primary school students. METHOD: The knowledge-based survey was conducted after four (n = 85) and eight hours of teaching (n = 36)...
March 2018: Orvosi Hetilap
N M Kriznik, A L Kinmonth, T Ling, M P Kelly
Background: A strong focus on individual choice and behaviour informs interventions designed to reduce health inequalities in the UK. We review evidence for wider mechanisms from a range of disciplines, demonstrate that they are not yet impacting on programmes, and argue for their systematic inclusion in policy and research. Methods: We identified potential mechanisms relevant to health inequalities and their amelioration from different disciplines and analysed six policy documents published between 1976 and 2010 using Bacchi's 'What's the problem represented to be?' framework for policy analysis...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Public Health
B Kim, P Patterson, K White
The literature concerning the impact of having cancer during adolescence and emerging adulthood has been widely discussed in relation to the unique nature of psychosocial challenges. The current study presents these findings within the context of developmental literature to further our understanding on how their developmental transitioning can be affected by having cancer. Specifically, two developmental milestones considered to be the pre-requisites for acquiring an adult status were focused on: forming identity and establishing independence...
March 15, 2018: European Journal of Cancer Care
Sarah Jane Holcombe
Unsafe abortion is one of the three leading causes of maternal mortality in low-income countries; however, few countries have reformed their laws to permit safer, legal abortion, and professional medical associations have not tended to spearhead this type of reform. Support from a professional association typically carries more weight than does that from an individual medical professional. However, theory predicts and the empirical record largely reveals that medical associations shy from engagement in conflictual policymaking such as on abortion, except when professional autonomy or income is at stake...
March 12, 2018: Health Policy and Planning
Karina Araujo Pinto, Rosane Harter Griep, Lucia Rotenberg, Maria da Conceição Chagas Almeida, Rosane Sousa Barreto, Estela M L Aquino
Perceived time constraints have been highlighted in sociological studies as representing a core issue in determining quality of life. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that gender inequalities regarding insufficiency of time play a role in the development of overweight and obesity in adults. The study used baseline data (2008-2010) from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil), which monitors a cohort of 15,105 civil servants of 35 to 74 years of age. Insufficient time for personal care and leisure due to professional and domestic duties, as detailed in a structured questionnaire, comprised the main exposure variable...
2018: PloS One
John Noel M Viaña, Frederic Gilbert
Memory dysfunction and cognitive impairments due to Alzheimer's disease can affect the selfhood and identity of afflicted individuals, causing distress to both people with Alzheimer's disease and their caregivers. Recently, a number of case studies and clinical trials have been conducted to determine the potential of deep brain stimulation as a therapeutic modality for people with Alzheimer's disease. Some of these studies have shown that deep brain stimulation could induce flashbacks and stabilize or even improve memory...
January 1, 2018: Dementia
Giovanni De Feo, Sabino De Gisi, Sabato De Vita, Michele Notarnicola
The main aim of this study was to define and apply a multidisciplinary and multi-criteria approach to sustainability in evaluating alternative end-uses for disused areas. Taking into account the three pillars of sustainability (social, economic and environmental dimension) as well as the need for stakeholders to have new practical instruments, the innovative approach consists of four modules stated (i) sociological, (ii) economic, (iii) environmental and (iv) multi-criteria assessment. By means of a case study on a small Municipality in Southern Italy, three end-uses alternatives, representing three essential services for citizens, were selected: Municipal gym; Market area; Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) separate collection centre...
March 7, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Benjamin M Hunter
In many contexts there are a range of individuals and organisations offering healthcare services that differ widely in cost, quality and outcomes. This complexity is exacerbated by processes of healthcare commercialisation. Yet reliable information on healthcare provision is often limited, and progress to and through the healthcare system may depend on knowledge drawn from prior experiences, social networks and the providers themselves. It is in these contexts that healthcare brokerage emerges and third-party actors facilitate access to healthcare...
March 2, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
Karen Parsons, Alice Gaudine, Michelle Swab
BACKGROUND: Most developed countries throughout the world are experiencing an aging nursing workforce as their population ages. Older nurses often experience different challenges then their younger nurse counterparts. With the increase in older nurses relative to younger nurses potentially available to work in hospitals, it is important to understand the experience of older nurses on high paced hospital nursing units. This understanding will lend knowledge to ways of lessening the loss of these highly skilled experienced workers and improve patient outcomes...
March 2018: JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports
Malcolm Harris, Tara Brantley, Douglas Hammond, Sabah Kalamchi
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the demographic profile of Native American patients with concomitant facial fractures and closed head injuries (CHIs) and to explore the validation of the craniofacial crumple zone. STUDY DESIGN: This was a retrospective, observational, case-control study of 2131 maxillofacial fractures from 2010 to 2014, of which 173 (8%) had concomitant CHIs. RESULTS: Of the study patients, 133 (77%) were males (mean age 40...
January 31, 2018: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology
Mattias Strand
French historian and literary critic René Girard (1923-2015), most widely known for the concepts of mimetic desire and scapegoating, also engaged in the discussion of the surge of eating disorders in his 1996 essay Eating Disorders and Mimetic Desire. This article explores Girard's ideas on the mimetic nature and origin of eating disorders from a clinical psychiatric perspective and contextualizes them within the field of eating disorders research as well as in relation to broader psychological, sociological and anthropological models of social comparison and non-consumption...
March 7, 2018: Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry
James C Wo
Although some urban sociology perspectives suggest how certain sociodeomgraphic characteristics influence nonprofit development, there is a dearth of empirical research to assess neighborhood differences in nonprofit organizations. The goal of the current study is to build upon the extant literature by examining how both concentrated disadvantage and violent crime impact nonprofit density across neighborhoods. Using data from Los Angeles census tracts from 2010 to 2012, I test for linear and nonlinear influences that these two neighborhood factors might exert on nonprofit density...
March 2018: Social Science Research
Raoul S Liévanos, Pierce Greenberg, Ryan Wishart
This article advances an environmental-sociological and quantitative spatial-analytic approach to the study of environmental inequality formation in coal country. We use spatial error regression models in a case study of 2000 census block group proximity to hazardous coal waste impoundments amidst shifting coal production trajectories and impoundment disaster contexts in the declining Eastern Kentucky coalfields. Proximity to abandoned and sealed mines, coal production density, and the "buffering effect" of rural-agricultural context are the most powerful predictors of impoundment proximity in the period encapsulating the boom years of coal production and culminating in 2000...
March 2018: Social Science Research
Riccardo Valente, Sergi Valera Pertegas
Perception of insecurity arises as a complex social phenomenon affected by factors that go beyond actual crime rates. Previous contributions to the field of fear of crime studies have shown, for instance, that the perception of social and physical disorder may generate insecurity among residents even in contexts where crime is comparatively low. Meanwhile, sociological approaches have led to a conceptualization of insecurity as an umbrella sentiment grounded in a wider feeling of unease. Building further on this assumption, data gathered in a large-scale survey in Italy (n = 15,428) were analysed by implementing exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis with the objective of assessing the validity of a model of "ontological insecurity"...
March 2018: Social Science Research
J Wertz, A Caspi, D W Belsky, A L Beckley, L Arseneault, J C Barnes, D L Corcoran, S Hogan, R M Houts, N Morgan, C L Odgers, J A Prinz, K Sugden, B S Williams, R Poulton, T E Moffitt
Drawing on psychological and sociological theories of crime causation, we tested the hypothesis that genetic risk for low educational attainment (assessed via a genome-wide polygenic score) is associated with criminal offending. We further tested hypotheses of how polygenic risk relates to the development of antisocial behavior from childhood through adulthood. Across the Dunedin and Environmental Risk (E-Risk) birth cohorts of individuals growing up 20 years and 20,000 kilometers apart, education polygenic scores predicted risk of a criminal record with modest effects...
March 1, 2018: Psychological Science
Edward McCann, Michael Brown
BACKGROUND: An inclusive health curriculum within undergraduate and continuing professional development programmes (CPD) should include issues related to people whom identify as LGBT+. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this systematic review was to examine the education and training requirements of undergraduate students and health professionals regarding the inclusion of LGBT+ health issues. DESIGN: A systematic review of the available published empirical studies...
February 26, 2018: Nurse Education Today
Alistair Fraser, John M Hagedorn
Across the globe, the phenomenon of youth gangs has become an important and sensitive public issue. In this context, an increasing level of research attention has focused on the development of universalized definitions of gangs in a global context. In this article, we argue that this search for similarity has resulted in a failure to recognize and understand difference. Drawing on an alternative methodology we call a 'global exchange', this article suggests three concepts-homologies of habitus, vectors of difference and transnational reflexivity-that seek to re-engage the sociological imagination in the study of gangs and globalization...
February 2018: Theoretical Criminology
Mi-Chia Ma, Jian-Kang Chao, Jia-Yi Hung, Su-Ching Sung, I-Hsin Candy Chao
BACKGROUND: Sexual dysfunction occurs commonly in patients with psychiatric illness and may be related to the primary mental disorder, comorbidity with sexual disorders or medical illness, or medications used for mental disorders treatment, but the magnitude of this problem is unknown. AIM: To estimate the prevalence of current sexual activity, sexual dysfunction, and sexual attitude and influence of factors on patients with schizophrenia. METHODS: This study used a cross-sectional design with a total of 317 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia...
March 2018: Journal of Sexual Medicine
Sacha Kendall, Sarah Redshaw, Stephen Ward, Sarah Wayland, Elizabeth Sullivan
BACKGROUND: The paper presents a systematic review and metasynthesis of findings from qualitative evaluations of community reentry programs. The programs sought to engage recently released adult prison inmates with either problematic drug use or a mental health disorder. METHODS: Seven biomedical and social science databases, Cinahl, Pubmed, Scopus, Proquest, Medline, Sociological abstracts and Web of Science and publisher database Taylor and Francis were searched in 2016 resulting in 2373 potential papers...
March 2, 2018: Health & Justice
Marco J Haenssgen, Nutcha Charoenboon, Thomas Althaus, Rachel C Greer, Daranee Intralawan, Yoel Lubell
New and affordable point-of-care testing (POCT) solutions are hoped to guide antibiotic prescription and to help limit antimicrobial resistance (AMR)-especially in low- and middle-income countries where resource constraints often prevent extensive diagnostic testing. Anthropological and sociological research has illuminated the role and impact of rapid point-of-care malaria testing. This paper expands our knowledge about the social implications of non-malarial POCT, using the case study of a C-reactive-protein point-of-care testing (CRP POCT) clinical trial with febrile patients at primary-care-level health centres in Chiang Rai province, northern Thailand...
February 23, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
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