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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736534/self-organizing-complex-networks-individual-versus-global-rules
#1
Korosh Mahmoodi, Bruce J West, Paolo Grigolini
We introduce a form of Self-Organized Criticality (SOC) inspired by the new generation of evolutionary game theory, which ranges from physiology to sociology. The single individuals are the nodes of a composite network, equivalent to two interacting subnetworks, one leading to strategy choices made by the individuals under the influence of the choices of their nearest neighbors and the other measuring the Prisoner's Dilemma Game payoffs of these choices. The interaction between the two networks is established by making the imitation strength K increase or decrease according to whether the last two payoffs increase or decrease upon increasing or decreasing K...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735708/brain-and-social-networks-fundamental-building-blocks-of-human-experience
#2
REVIEW
Emily B Falk, Danielle S Bassett
How do brains shape social networks, and how do social ties shape the brain? Social networks are complex webs by which ideas spread among people. Brains comprise webs by which information is processed and transmitted among neural units. While brain activity and structure offer biological mechanisms for human behaviors, social networks offer external inducers or modulators of those behaviors. Together, these two axes represent fundamental contributors to human experience. Integrating foundational knowledge from social and developmental psychology and sociology on how individuals function within dyads, groups, and societies with recent advances in network neuroscience can offer new insights into both domains...
July 20, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733796/beyond-integrating-social-sciences-reflecting-on-the-place-of-life-sciences-in-empirical-bioethics-methodologies
#3
Marcel Mertz, Jan Schildmann
Empirical bioethics is commonly understood as integrating empirical research with normative-ethical research in order to address an ethical issue. Methodological analyses in empirical bioethics mainly focus on the integration of socio-empirical sciences (e.g. sociology or psychology) and normative ethics. But while there are numerous multidisciplinary research projects combining life sciences and normative ethics, there is few explicit methodological reflection on how to integrate both fields, or about the goals and rationales of such interdisciplinary cooperation...
July 21, 2017: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726015/community-perceptions-of-hospitals-and-shared-physical-space-a-qualitative-study
#4
Daniel Skinner, Berkeley Franz, Kelly Kelleher, Robert Penfold
In addition to providing critical medical services to communities, hospitals are also forces of broader change when seen from the perspective of neighborhood development. Over the past few decades the obligation on the part of U.S. nonprofit hospitals to positively impact the communities in which they are located has become entrenched in both U.S. tax law and the practices of many hospitals. This article presents findings from a grounded theory qualitative study of the relationship between a non-profit children's hospital in Columbus, Ohio, and the neighborhood in which it is located...
July 19, 2017: Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725095/with-whom-do-researchers-collaborate-and-why
#5
Hajdeja Iglič, Patrick Doreian, Luka Kronegger, Anuška Ferligoj
Although research collaboration has been studied extensively, we still lack understanding regarding the factors stimulating researchers to collaborate with different kinds of research partners including members of the same research center or group, researchers from the same organization, researchers from other academic and non-academic organizations as well as international partners. Here, we provide an explanation of the emergence of diverse collaborative ties. The theoretical framework used for understanding research collaboration couples scientific and technical human capital embodied in the individual with the social organization and cognitive characteristics of the research field...
2017: Scientometrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721643/the-scientific-self-reclaiming-its-place-in-the-history-of-research-ethics
#6
Herman Paul
How can the history of research ethics be expanded beyond the standard narrative of codification-a story that does not reach back beyond World War II-without becoming so broad as to lose all distinctiveness? This article proposes a history of research ethics focused on the "scientific self," that is, the role-specific identity of scientists as typically described in terms of skills, competencies, qualities, or dispositions. Drawing on three agenda-setting texts from nineteenth-century history, biology, and sociology, the article argues that the "revolutions" these books sought to unleash were, among other things, revolts against inherited conceptions of scientific selfhood...
July 18, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712445/-sociological-aspects-of-health-service-access-points
#7
Mariana Lecarpentier
The work of health service access points highlights the process of exclusion through marginalisation, the phenomenon of precarity and anthropological tensions between hospitality and inhospitality or between the desirable and undesirable.
July 2017: Soins; la Revue de Référence Infirmière
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711885/-factors-associated-with-job-satisfaction-of-human-resources-in-healthcare
#8
Тетяна А Вежновець, Валентин Д Парій, Іван І Вишнивецький, Максим В Москаленко
INTRODUCTION: Healthcare employee satisfaction is an important criterion for the efficiency of human resource management and prognostic impact factor for high turnover of staff. Furthermore, job satisfaction positively affects patient satisfaction, which is an important indicator for quality of care. AIM: The goal of our study was to identify factors associated with job satisfaction in healthcare organizations in Ukraine. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted sociological and psychological survey of 190 healthcare professionals (81% response rate) in Kherson City Hospital...
2017: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707047/the-quality-of-life-of-older-people-aging-in-place-a-literature-review
#9
REVIEW
Patricia Vanleerberghe, Nico De Witte, Claudia Claes, Robert L Schalock, Dominique Verté
PURPOSE: In order to cope with the challenges that are the result of an aging population, policies and services promote keeping elders in the community and letting them age in place rather than sending them to specialized institutions. Aging in place refers to the option where people can stay in their homes as they age. This policy option, however, poses various challenges and may also threaten the quality of life of the aging. A literature review was performed on the quality of life of older people aging in place to determine whether the actual assessment of quality of life can be used within aging in place...
July 13, 2017: Quality of Life Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706465/disability-and-the-family-in-south-wales-coalfield-society-c-1920-1939
#10
Ben Curtis, Steven Thompson
This article utilises the south Wales coalfield in the interwar period as a case study to illustrate the applicability of two sociological theories - family systems theory and the social ecology of the family - to impairment in the past. It demonstrates that a theoretically-informed approach can help to situate impairment in its particular contexts, most especially the family and the community, and give a better sense of the lived experience of disability. It also demonstrates the complexity of the experience of disability as the family and economic circumstances of each impaired individual varied and led to different forms of care-giving or the utilisation of different sources of support...
January 2, 2017: Family & Community History: Journal of the Family and Community Historical Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705562/la-%C3%A2-double-transition%C3%A2-des-jeunes-atteints-de-cancer
#11
Thibaud Pombet
THE "DOUBLE TRANSITION" OF YOUNG PEOPLE AFFECTED BY CANCER.: Transition can refer to the transfer of a patient from a paediatric institution to an adult department, but it can also refer to the constitutive process of moving into adulthood. Based on a sociological field survey carried out on devices dedicated to adolescents and young adults affected by cancer in France, the impact of this ambivalence on care practices can be assessed. The current paradoxes the medical and care relationship is exposed to are thus identified...
July 2017: Soins. Pédiatrie, Puériculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705364/political-democracy-economic-liberalization-and-macro-sociological-models-of-intergenerational-mobility
#12
Alexi Gugushvili
Building on the previously investigated macro-sociological models which analyze the consequences of economic development, income inequality, and international migration on social mobility, this article studies the specific contextual covariates of intergenerational reproduction of occupational status in post-communist societies. It is theorized that social mobility is higher in societies with democratic political regimes and less liberalized economies. The outlined hypotheses are tested by using micro- and macro-level datasets for 21 post-communist societies which are fitted into multilevel mixed-effects linear regressions...
August 2017: Social Science Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700360/stigma-and-substance-use-disorders-an-international-phenomenon
#13
Lawrence H Yang, Liang Y Wong, Margaux M Grivel, Deborah S Hasin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To collect and update published information on the stigma associated with substance abuse in nonclinical samples, which has not been recently reviewed. RECENT FINDINGS: Searching large databases, a total of only 17 articles were published since 1999, with the majority of studies conducted outside the United States. Using major stigma concepts from a sociological framework (stereotyping, devaluation in terms of status loss, discrimination, and negative emotional reactions), the studies reviewed predominantly indicated that the public holds very stigmatized views toward individuals with substance use disorders (SUDs), and that the level of stigma was higher toward individuals with SUDs than toward those with other psychiatric disorders...
July 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700077/belonging-across-the-lifetime-time-and-self-in-mass-observation-accounts
#14
Vanessa May
Our sense of belonging rarely stands still, yet the research literature has hitherto paid little attention to the temporal nature of belonging. Based on an analysis of 62 Mass Observation Project (MOP) accounts written by people living in the UK aged from their 20s to their 90s, this paper argues that as people age, how they locate belonging in time shifts. This has to do with changing concerns related to belonging, but also to metaphysical issues of temporality and mortality, namely how people experience their own finite lifetime...
July 12, 2017: British Journal of Sociology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698488/dementia-at-the-end-of-life-and-family-partners-a-symbolic-interactionist-perspective-on-communication
#15
Christopher Johnson, Jordan Kelch, Roxanna Johnson
People with dementia are not dying; they are experiencing changes in the brain. This paper utilizes a symbolic interaction theoretical perspective to outline communicative alternatives to polypharmacy. There is a growing interest in sociological interventions to untangle the "disordered discourses" associated with dementia. Such practices challenge common stigmas attached to dementia as an "ongoing funeral" or "death certificate." Changing the expectations, attitudes and communication patterns of family care partners can positively impact them and the person living with dementia at the end of life...
July 9, 2017: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697921/new-frameworks-for-understanding-sudden-unexpected-deaths-in-infancy-sudi-in-socially-vulnerable-families
#16
REVIEW
Rebecca Shipstone, Jeanine Young, Lauren Kearney
THEORETICAL PRINCIPLES: Sociological frameworks may enhance understanding of the complex and multidimensional nature of disadvantage, which is prevalent among families who experience Sudden Unexpected Death in Infancy (SUDI). PHENOMENA ADDRESSED: SUDI is the largest category of postneonatal death and largely associated with the social determinants of health. The highly successful 'Back to Sleep' campaign has resulted in a more than 85% decrease in SUDI. However, social inequalities have accompanied this decrease, and the burden of SUDI now lies with the most disadvantaged and socially vulnerable families...
July 8, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687532/studying-scale-up-and-spread-as-social-practice-theoretical-introduction-and-empirical-case-study
#17
James Shaw, Sara Shaw, Joseph Wherton, Gemma Hughes, Trisha Greenhalgh
BACKGROUND: Health and care technologies often succeed on a small scale but fail to achieve widespread use (scale-up) or become routine practice in other settings (spread). One reason for this is under-theorization of the process of scale-up and spread, for which a potentially fruitful theoretical approach is to consider the adoption and use of technologies as social practices. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to use an in-depth case study of assisted living to explore the feasibility and usefulness of a social practice approach to explaining the scale-up of an assisted-living technology across a local system of health and social care...
July 7, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684401/computer-vision-uncovers-predictors-of-physical-urban-change
#18
Nikhil Naik, Scott Duke Kominers, Ramesh Raskar, Edward L Glaeser, César A Hidalgo
Which neighborhoods experience physical improvements? In this paper, we introduce a computer vision method to measure changes in the physical appearances of neighborhoods from time-series street-level imagery. We connect changes in the physical appearance of five US cities with economic and demographic data and find three factors that predict neighborhood improvement. First, neighborhoods that are densely populated by college-educated adults are more likely to experience physical improvements-an observation that is compatible with the economic literature linking human capital and local success...
July 6, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683744/understanding-sexual-healthcare-seeking-behaviour-why-a-broader-research-perspective-is-needed
#19
Fiona Mapp, Kaye Wellings, Ford Hickson, Catherine H Mercer
BACKGROUND: Despite effective and accessible treatments, many sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in high-income countries go untreated, causing poor sexual health for individuals and their partners. Research into STI care has tended to focus on biomedical aspects of infections using patient samples and prioritised attendance at healthcare services. This approach overlooks the broader social context of STIs and healthcare-seeking behaviours, which are important to better understand the issue of untreated infections...
July 6, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681921/now-or-never-smoking-cessation-discussions-in-the-face-of-serious-illness
#20
Clara Iversen
Sociological research on medical discussions of lifestyle suggests that smoking patients may be seen as knowingly causing their medical problems. Therefore, it may be interactionally problematic for doctors to raise the issue of smoking cessation in relation to patients' serious health problems. While a serious illness can be expected to bring to the fore the relevance of smoking cessation advice, it may also give rise to questions about patients' right to treatment. This study uses conversation analysis to explicate how patients and doctors manage issues of responsibility in smoking cessation discussions in the face of a serious medical problem that strongly correlates with smoking...
July 6, 2017: Sociology of Health & Illness
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