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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323523/trauma-across-generations-and-paths-to-adaptation-and-resilience
#1
Amy Lehrner, Rachel Yehuda
OBJECTIVE: There is a growing literature on the intergenerational transmission of trauma, representing approaches across psychodynamic, family systems, epidemiological, sociological, and biological levels of analysis. Embitterment has been proposed as a response to severe, but normative, stressful events, different from the life-threatening trauma that precedes posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). METHOD: This article reviews the potential applicability of the construct of embitterment to trauma and intergenerational effects through (a) a historical review of the intergenerational transmission of trauma literature, (b) a discussion of embitterment versus PTSD, (c) a brief review of theories of mechanisms of transmission, and (d) a discussion of biological findings and their interpretation...
January 2018: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321096/chemsex-as-edgework-towards-a-sociological-understanding
#2
Ford Hickson
Sexual sessions between men, organised through mobile technologies and combined with stimulants intended to extend and intensify the session have been reified into the phenomena of 'chemsex'. Understanding chemsex requires multiple levels of analysis and interpretation. This paper considers chemsex through the lens of edgework, a sociological category for voluntary risk taking identified in 1990 by Stephen Lyng. Edgework activities involve a clear and present danger to the self, intense emotions and sensations and an opportunity to exercise specialist skills...
January 11, 2018: Sexual Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316503/membership-categorization-analysis-as-an-important-qualitative-method-in-evaluation
#3
Justin Paulsen
This paper presents Membership Categorization Analysis (MCA) as a useful qualitative methodology in evaluation study. MCA is closely connected to Conversation Analysis and is most frequently used in Sociology studies. MCA provides evaluators unique insights into the boundaries different categories (e.g. teachers, students) place on themselves and their actions. The paper includes an illustrated example of the value added of MCA in an evaluation of an early childhood educator improvement program.
January 2, 2018: Evaluation and Program Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314096/formats-of-responsibility-elective-surgery-in-the-era-of-evidence-based-medicine
#4
Ariel Ducey, Shoghi Nikoo
This article illustrates what pragmatic sociology refers to as investments in form, by examining the formats created and used by a group of surgeons to determine when elective surgery for pelvic floor disorders could be responsibly undertaken. Drawing upon ethnographic observations of surgical consultations at an academic medical centre in Canada, we show how two specific formats - that the patient is sufficiently bothered and the patient accepts the risks of surgery - allow for justifiable action in conditions of uncertainty and contingency and in light of the demands of dominant imperatives in medicine and health care, especially evidence-based medicine (EBM)...
January 3, 2018: Sociology of Health & Illness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311553/epidemiological-modelling-of-the-2005-french-riots-a-spreading-wave-and-the-role-of-contagion
#5
Laurent Bonnasse-Gahot, Henri Berestycki, Marie-Aude Depuiset, Mirta B Gordon, Sebastian Roché, Nancy Rodriguez, Jean-Pierre Nadal
As a large-scale instance of dramatic collective behaviour, the 2005 French riots started in a poor suburb of Paris, then spread in all of France, lasting about three weeks. Remarkably, although there were no displacements of rioters, the riot activity did travel. Access to daily national police data has allowed us to explore the dynamics of riot propagation. Here we show that an epidemic-like model, with just a few parameters and a single sociological variable characterizing neighbourhood deprivation, accounts quantitatively for the full spatio-temporal dynamics of the riots...
January 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307954/a-tutorial-on-multilevel-survival-analysis-methods-models-and-applications
#6
Peter C Austin
Data that have a multilevel structure occur frequently across a range of disciplines, including epidemiology, health services research, public health, education and sociology. We describe three families of regression models for the analysis of multilevel survival data. First, Cox proportional hazards models with mixed effects incorporate cluster-specific random effects that modify the baseline hazard function. Second, piecewise exponential survival models partition the duration of follow-up into mutually exclusive intervals and fit a model that assumes that the hazard function is constant within each interval...
August 2017: International Statistical Review, Revue Internationale de Statistique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307222/-professional-identity-of-hungarian-psychiatrist-experiences-of-a-study
#7
Adrienne Incze, Szabolcs Kéri, György Szekeres
INTRODUCTION: A main determinant of professional identity is the integrity of the discipline. The complexity of psychiatry in biological, psychological and sociological aspects is a typical instance of the necessity for integration. AIM: Based on the bio-psycho-social dimensions and on their opinion about acceptance of psychiatry, we explored the professional identities of physicians working in Hungarian contemporary psychiatry. METHOD: Voluntary, anonymous responses were collected by using a 10-point evaluation scale on professional attitude, appreciation of psychiatry from lay society and other medical professions, and the importance of biology, psychology and sociology within psychiatry...
January 2018: Orvosi Hetilap
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306894/income-and-obesity-what-is-the-direction-of-the-relationship-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#8
Tae Jun Kim, Olaf von dem Knesebeck
OBJECTIVE: It was repeatedly shown that lower income is associated with higher risks for subsequent obesity. However, the perspective of a potential reverse causality is often neglected, in which obesity is considered a cause for lower income, when obese people drift into lower-income jobs due to labour-market discrimination and public stigmatisation. This review was performed to explore the direction of the relation between income and obesity by specifically assessing the importance of social causation and reverse causality...
January 5, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287299/-laudation-at-the-presentation-of-the-salomon-neumann-medal-2017-to-prof-dr-med-med-bernt-peter-robra-mph
#9
Heiner Raspe
The German Society for Social Medicine and Prevention (DGSMP) confers the Salomon Neumann Medal for outstanding merit in the field of Preventive and Social Medicine. The Salomon Neumann Medal 2017 was awarded to Bernt-Peter Robra, Institute for Social Medicine and Health Economics (ISMG) of the Otto von Guericke University Magdeburg. It honours an outstanding representative of social medicine, in whose person and Institute the essential problem areas of social medicine as well as the competencies of the 3 scientific bodies that gathered in Lübeck - epidemiology, medical sociology and social medicine - and the sociopolitical engagement of Salomon Neumann come together...
December 2017: Das Gesundheitswesen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286503/population-morbidity-in-the-zaporizhzhia-nuclear-power-plant-observation-zone-as-an-integral-part-of-public-health
#10
I M Khomenko, N V Zakladna, N M Orlova
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the health status of adult population living in the Ukrainian nuclear power industry obser vation zone on the example of Zaporizhzhia Nuclear Power Plant. MATERIALS AND METHODS: System review, analytic, sociological survey and statistical methods. RESULTS: There was established an increase in the incidence of digestive diseases among adult population in Nikopol of Dnipropetrovsk region, which is included in the Zaporizhzhia NPP observation zone...
December 2017: Problemy Radiat︠s︡iĭnoï Medyt︠s︡yny Ta Radiobiolohiï
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286502/social-safety-and-medical-maintenance-of-the-labour-pool-in-surveillance-areas-of-the-nuclear-power-plants
#11
V A Prylipko, Yu Yu Ozerova, O V Kotsubinskij, M M Morozova, O O Petrychenko, I V Bondarenko
OBJECTIVE: To study the contentment of population of NPP surveillance areas i.e. monitoring zones with specific components of quality of life, namely the social security, medical care, and socio economic compensation of risk. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A sociological study of public opinion about the specific components of quality of life has been conducted in population of the NPP monitoring zone. A questionnaire with independent question blocks was developed. A non repeatable probabilistic selection was applied in population opinion poll...
December 2017: Problemy Radiat︠s︡iĭnoï Medyt︠s︡yny Ta Radiobiolohiï
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285757/agency-in-advanced-liberal-services-grounding-sociological-knowledge-in-homeless-people-s-accounts
#12
Cameron Parsell, Andrew Clarke
This paper aims to understand how people who are homeless respond to advanced liberal social services that endeavour to promote their autonomy and responsible actions. We prioritize the experiences and positions of people who are homeless, and what agentic action means to them. Sociological literature is selective about what accounts are deemed agentic. Agency is associated with accounts that resist or subvert dominant neoliberal framings of homelessness as failure of individuals. When people experiencing homelessness or poverty themselves foreground autonomy or responsibility, sociologists treat them as cultural dopes who have internalized neoliberal discourse...
December 29, 2017: British Journal of Sociology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276343/for-reflexivity-as-an-epistemic-criterion-of-ontological-coherence-and-virtuous-social-theorizing
#13
Christoforos Bouzanis
This article offers an approach that combines, on the one hand, the philosophical notion of reflexivity, which is related to the ideas of self-reference and paradox, and, on the other hand, the sociological discussion of epistemic reflexivity as a problem of coherence, which was mainly initiated by certain branches of ethnomethodology and social constructionism. This combinatory approach argues for reflexivity as an epistemic criterion of ontological coherence, which suggests that social ontologies should account for the possibility of self-reflective subjectivity - for otherwise they result in a paradoxical conclusion according to which a social scientist reflects on her or his ontological commitments even though these commitments deny her or him the capacity for self-reflection...
December 2017: History of the Human Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273656/pathways-to-diagnosis-of-a-second-primary-cancer-protocol-for-a-mixed-methods-systematic-review
#14
Lovney Kanguru, Annemieke Bikker, Debbie Cavers, Karen Barnett, David H Brewster, David Weller, Christine Campbell
INTRODUCTION: As cancer survivors continue to live longer, the incidence of second primary cancers (SPCs) will also rise. Relatively little is understood about the diagnostic pathway for SPCs, how people appraise, interpret symptoms and seek help for a second different cancer and the experiences (including challenges) of healthcare providers relating to SPCs. This study aims to systematically appraise and synthesise the literature on the pathways to diagnosis of an SPC and the associated patient and healthcare provider experiences...
December 21, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251748/-disturbances-of-the-body-image-a-cultural-and-historical-comparison-between-the-glass-delusion-and-body-dysmorphic-disorder
#15
E I Müller
background Research on body dysmorphic disorder (bdd) shows that many debates in the field of psychology, sociology and philosophy already focus on the ways 'ideals of the perfect body' influence this disorder. However, more work needs to be done on the question in what ways bdd is culturally, historically and technologically mediated. AIM: To argue that norms and values of the perfect body and the ways a society prescribes how body and mind should be related, are technologically mediated through different time frames, which influence disorders of disturbances of the body image...
2017: Tijdschrift Voor Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251226/infusing-fundamental-cause-theory-with-features-of-pierre-bourdieu-s-theory-of-symbolic-power
#16
Gerry Veenstra
The theory of fundamental causes is one of the more influential attempts to provide a theoretical infrastructure for the strong associations between indicators of socioeconomic status (education, income, occupation) and health. It maintains that people of higher socioeconomic status have greater access to flexible resources such as money, knowledge, prestige, power, and beneficial social connections that they can use to reduce their risks of morbidity and mortality and minimize the consequences of disease once it occurs...
December 1, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239292/ethnic-density-effects-for-adult-mental-health-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-international-studies
#17
Laia Bécares, Michael E Dewey, Jayati Das-Munshi
BACKGROUND: Despite increased ethnic diversity in more economically developed countries it is unclear whether residential concentration of ethnic minority people (ethnic density) is detrimental or protective for mental health. This is the first systematic review and meta-analysis covering the international literature, assessing ethnic density associations with mental health outcomes. METHODS: We systematically searched Medline, PsychINFO, Sociological Abstracts, Web of Science from inception to 31 March 2016...
December 14, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239048/drug-and-alcohol-treatment-providers-views-about-the-disease-model-of-addiction-and-its-impact-on-clinical-practice-a-systematic-review
#18
REVIEW
Anthony I Barnett, Wayne Hall, Craig L Fry, Ella Dilkes-Frayne, Adrian Carter
ISSUES: Addiction treatment providers' views about the disease model of addiction (DMA), and their contemporary views about the brain disease model of addiction (BDMA), remain an understudied area. We systematically reviewed treatment providers' attitudes about the DMA/BDMA, examined factors associated with positive or negative attitudes and assessed their views on the potential clinical impact of both models. APPROACH: Pubmed, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL Plus and Sociological Abstracts were systematically searched...
December 14, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238319/evaluating-distal-and-proximal-explanations-for-withdrawal-a-rejoinder-to-varnum-and-kwon-s-the-ecology-of-withdrawal
#19
Vinai Norasakkunkit, Yukiko Uchida, Kosuke Takemura
In their 2016 commentary on our theorizing about how youth withdrawal from economic and social participation in Japanese society (i.e., NEET and Hikikomori phenomena) stems from generational inequality of economic opportunities, Varnum and Kwon correctly point out that our explanation for withdrawal is yet untested. They then offered an alternative, evolutionary psychological explanation for withdrawal in which they claim that in resource-rich ecologies like Japan, the option to withdraw from participating in society is a possible life strategy, a strategy that would be much more costly in resource-poor ecologies...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237198/-sociology-as-a-major-factor-for-the-psychiatrie-enquete-in-the-federal-republic-of-germany-results-from-expert-interviews-and-document-analyses
#20
Felicitas Söhner, Heiner Fangerau, Thomas Becker
Objective This paper examines the influence of sociology as a discipline on the Psychiatrie-Enquete by analysing interviews with expert (psychiatrist, psychologist, sociologist etc.) witnesses of the Enquete process and by analysing pertinent documents. Methods 24 interviews were conducted and analysed using qualitative secondary analysis. Results Sociological texts and research results influenced the professional development of psychiatrists at the time. Cross-talk between psychiatry and sociology developed through seminal sociological analyses of psychiatric institutions and the interest taken in medical institutions in a number of sociological texts...
December 13, 2017: Psychiatrische Praxis
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