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L-J Wang, L-P Liu, X L Gu, M Wang, L-M Liu
OBJECTIVE: The use of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) to cure the optic nerve injury was never shown previously. Here, we implanted purified ADSCs into optic nerve injury of rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were used in this study. The vision degeneration was detected by Flash-visual evoked potential (F-VEP) assay. The expression of Macrophage-1 (Mac-1), myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), and nuclear transcription factor-κB (NF-κB) were studied by Western blot...
March 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Nicole Hoppman, Kandelaria Rumilla, Emily Lauer, Hutton Kearney, Erik Thorland
PurposeSingle-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) microarrays can easily identify whole-chromosome isodisomy but are unable to detect whole-chromosome heterodisomy. However, most cases of uniparental disomy (UPD) involve combinations of heterodisomy and isodisomy, visualized on SNP microarrays as long continuous stretches of homozygosity (LCSH). LCSH raise suspicion for, but are not diagnostic of, UPD, and reporting necessitates confirmatory testing. The goal of this study was to define optimal LCSH reporting standards...
March 22, 2018: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
Safa Ouerghi, Rémi Boutteau, Xavier Savatier, Fethi Tlili
In this paper, we address the problem of vehicle localization in urban environments. We rely on visual odometry, calculating the incremental motion, to track the position of the vehicle and on place recognition to correct the accumulated drift of visual odometry, whenever a location is recognized. The algorithm used as a place recognition module is SeqSLAM, addressing challenging environments and achieving quite remarkable results. Specifically, we perform the long-term navigation of a vehicle based on the fusion of visual odometry and SeqSLAM...
March 22, 2018: Sensors
Abhimanyu Mahajan, Andrew Zillgitt, Susan M Bowyer, Christos Sidiropoulos
BACKGROUND: The proposed mechanisms for the sensory trick include peripheral sensory feedback to aid in correcting abnormal posture or movement. CASE REPORT: A 53-year-old woman with cervical dystonia underwent magnetoencephalography pre- and post-botulinum toxin injection and sensory trick, which was described as yawning. Study revealed connectivity between the left frontal and inferior frontal gyrus before yawning, which changed to the visual cortex and right middle frontal gyrus with yawning...
March 22, 2018: Brain Sciences
Dorota Watrobska-Swietlikowska, Agnieszka Szlagatys-Sidorkiewicz, Ronan MacLoughlin
INTRODUCTION: Newborn infants and small children require large amounts of calcium and phosphate in a low volume of solution which can increase the risk of precipitation of calcium phosphate. Calcium gluconate is the predominant calcium salt form employed in parenteral nutrition (PN) compounding due to its solubility profile with phosphate. Unfortunately, calcium gluconate contains higher levels of aluminum contamination than calcium chloride, resulting in an increased potential for aluminum toxicity in patients receiving traditional PN...
January 10, 2018: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
Zeinab El-Taher Hassan, Nehad M Farag, Wael M Elshemey
This work aims at designing a computer program to calculate the necessary amount of shielding for a given or proposed linear accelerator room design in radiotherapy. The program (Shield Calculation in Radiotherapy, SCR) is developed using Microsoft Visual Basic. It applies the treatment room shielding calculations of the NCRP report no. 151 to calculate proper shielding thicknesses for a given linear accelerator treatment room design. The program is composed of six main user-friendly interfaces. The first one enables the user to upload whatever treatment room design of his choice and to measure the distances required for shielding calculations...
March 22, 2018: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
Hui Wang, Tao Feng, Ning Hai Zhuang, Min Zhi Xu, Ran Ye, Min Sun
This review attempts to visualize the actual impact of starch nanoparticle-based materials in different areas. In recent patent databases, starch nanoparticles showed the importance of this material, as well as relevant topics concerning the applications of starch nanoparticles in different domains. Because starch is environmentally friendly, starch nanoparticles are suggested as one of the promising biomaterials for novel utilization in foods, papermaking, medicines as well as various composites. In this review, the most common techniques for starch nanoparticles preparation were found to be acid and enzymatic procedures, ultrasonic treatment, combination of hydrolysis and Ultrasonic treatment, high pressure homogenization, enzymatic hydrolysis and recrystallization and emulsion-crosslinking...
March 20, 2018: Recent Patents on Food, Nutrition & Agriculture
Paolo Fogagnolo, Maurizio Digiuni, Giovanni Montesano, Chiara Rui, Marco Morales, Luca Rossetti
BACKGROUND: Compass (CenterVue, Padova, Italy) is a fundus automated perimeter which has been introduced in the clinical practice for glaucoma management in 2014. The aim of the article is to review Compass literature, comparing its performances against Humphrey Field Analyzer (Zeiss Humphrey Systems, Dublin, CA, USA). RESULTS: Analyses on both normal and glaucoma subjects agree on the fact that Humphrey Field Analyzer and Compass are interchangeable, as the difference of their global indices is largely inferior than test -retest variability for Humphrey Field Analyzer...
March 1, 2018: European Journal of Ophthalmology
Maria A Henriquez, Sandra Villegas, Mirel Rincon, Carmen Maldonado, Luis Izquierdo
PURPOSE: To evaluate the effectiveness of standard corneal collagen crosslinking for children with progressive keratoconus. METHODS: Prospective study including 26 eyes of 26 patients younger than 18 years old with progressive keratoconus at Oftalmosalud Instituto de Ojos, Lima, Peru. Standard epi-off corneal crosslinking was performed in all eyes between January 2012 and January 2013. Pre- and postoperative evaluation (at 3 years) included uncorrected and best-corrected visual acuity and Scheimpflug analysis...
March 1, 2018: European Journal of Ophthalmology
María José Blanco-Teijeiro, Manuel Bande Rodriguez, Raquel Mansilla Cuñarro, Laura Paniagua Fernández, Francisco Ruiz-Oliva Ruiz, Antonio Piñeiro Ces
PURPOSE: To determine the effectiveness of internal limiting membrane peeling during vitrectomy for macula-off primary rhegmatogenous retinal detachment in the prevention of postoperative epiretinal membrane formation and achievement of good visual outcomes and to identify preoperative and intraoperative risk factors for epiretinal membrane formation. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed data from 62 eyes of 62 consecutive patients with macula-off primary rhegmatogenous retinal detachment who underwent vitrectomy with (n = 30) or without (n = 32) internal limiting membrane peeling between January 2014 and March 2016 and were followed up for at least 12 months...
March 1, 2018: European Journal of Ophthalmology
Haoyang Cai
ChromothripsisDB ( ) is a manually curated database containing a unified description of published chromothripsis cases and relevant genomic aberrations. Available data includes copy number alterations, chromosome structural variations, and gene annotations. The criteria used for detecting chromothripsis in each study are also provided. At present, the molecular mechanisms involved in chromothripsis phenomenon are not fully understood. Thus, further studies with large number of identified chromothripsis samples are needed...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Sherif A Eissa, Amr Yassin
PURPOSE: To compare the outcomes of two different cross-linking (CXL) protocols, in pediatric keratoconus eyes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this prospective randomized contralateral eye interventional study, 68 eyes of 34 patients, 9-16 years old, underwent CXL and enrolled between October 2011 and October 2013. Group A represents conventional riboflavin-ultraviolet A (UVA)-induced CXL with 30 min of exposure to UVA irradiation of 3 mW/cm2 . Group B represents accelerated cross-linking with 5 min of continuous UVA irradiation of 18 mW/cm2 ...
March 21, 2018: International Ophthalmology
Seul Ki Lee, Tiffany M Schmidt
Melanopsin-expressing, intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) are a relatively recently discovered class of photoreceptor. ipRGCs can be subdivided into at least five subtypes (M1-M5), each of which has a distinct complement of morphological and physiological properties. ipRGC subtypes can be identified morphologically based on a combination of dendritic morphology and immunostaining for a cell-type specific marker. In this chapter, we describe methods for conclusively identifying each of the five ipRGC subtypes through a combination of patch clamp electrophysiology, Neurobiotin filling, visualization of ipRGC dendrites, and immunostaining for the marker SMI-32...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Chase B Hellmer, Tomomi Ichinose
Retinal first-order neurons, photoreceptors, receive visual inputs and convert them to neural signals. The second-order neurons, bipolar cells then sort out the visual signals and encode them through multiple neural streams. Approximately 15 morphological types of bipolar cells have been identified, which are thought to encode different aspects of visual signals such as motion and color (Ichinose et al. J Neurosci 34(26):8761-8771, 2014; Euler et al. Nat Rev Neurosci 15(8):507-519, 2014). To investigate functional aspects of OFF bipolar cells, single cell recordings are preferred; however, bipolar cells in the mouse retina are small and hard to distinguish from other types of cells...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Johan Pahlberg, Anurima Majumder, Nikolai O Artemyev
Mice have been widely used as a model organism to study mechanisms of phototransduction and synaptic transmission in the retina. Genetic manipulations and electrophysiological techniques for analysis of photoreceptor and rod bipolar cell function in mice are uniquely advanced. Here, we describe a set of biochemical and electrophysiological techniques for evaluation of synaptic transmission at the rod-rod bipolar cell synapse, which represents the first and key step in the processing of dim-light visual information...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Naoyuki Tanimoto, Mathias W Seeliger
Electroretinography (ERG) is important for functional diagnostics of the retina. Types of information about retinal function obtainable by ERG differ depending on recording conditions, e.g., a combination of light stimulus and adaptation. In terms of stimulation, single-flash and flicker stimuli are frequently used because response properties have been well investigated, allowing an assessment of fundamental retinal functionality; for example, how photoreceptors and bipolar cells, including signal transmission between them, are affected under pathological conditions...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Bhubanananda Sahu, Akiko Maeda
The retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) is a single layer of polarized epithelial cells which plays many important roles for visual function. One of such roles is production of visual chromophore, 11-cis-retinal through the visual cycle. The visual cycle consists of biochemical processes for regenerating chromophore by a collective action of the RPE and photoreceptor. Photoreceptors harbor the G protein-coupled receptors, opsin which enables to receive light when it bounds to 11-cis-retinal. With absorption of a photon of light, 11-cis-retinal photoisomerizes to all-trans-retinal...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Rodrigo G Arzate-Mejía, Paula Licona-Limón, Félix Recillas-Targa
Over the years, the study of gene function during development involved the implementation of sophisticated transgenic strategies to visualize how organisms change during their lifetime. These strategies are diverse and extremely useful and allowed the discovery of some of the fundamental mechanisms governing organism's development. Such strategies can be time-consuming, in some cases expensive, and require complex infrastructure. With the advent of the genome editing CRISPR-Cas9 RNA-guided DNA endonuclease system a tremendous progress has been achieved in manipulating diverse organisms and cell types...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Lisa L Hua, Takashi Mikawa
Chromosome painting enables the visualization of chromosomes and has been used extensively in cytogenetics. Chromosome paint probes, which consist of a pooled composite of DNA-FISH probes, bind to nonrepetitive sequences for individual chromosomes [1, 2]. Here we describe the process of using chromosome paint to study the organization of chromosomes without fragmenting the nucleus. This method can be used to analyze chromosome position, and identify translocations and ploidy within the nucleus. The preservation of nuclear morphology is crucial in understanding interchromosomal interactions and dynamics in the nucleus during the cell cycle...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Ju Hee Lee, Azadeh Yeganeh, Hisato Konoeda, Joon Ho Moon, Hoon-Ki Sung
Flow cytometry and fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) techniques have significantly advanced the characterization of adipocyte precursor cell (APC) populations. They allow immunophenotyping, quantification, and isolation of distinct populations, which is critical for understanding adipose tissue development and homeostasis. Here, we describe the identification and purification of adipocyte precursor cells using flow cytometry and FACS, defined by previously established surface marker profiles. In addition, we describe the mouse models and whole adipose tissue visualization techniques that will enable us to characterize the plasticity and the cellular origin of APCs...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
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