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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352409/recent-perspectives-on-the-molecular-basis-of-biofilm-formation-by-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-and-approaches-for-treatment-and-biofilm-dispersal
#1
REVIEW
Sinosh Skariyachan, Vaishnavi Sneha Sridhar, Swathi Packirisamy, Supreetha Toplar Kumargowda, Sneha Basavaraj Challapilli
Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium causes widespread diseases in humans. This bacterium is frequently related to nosocomial infections such as pneumonia, urinary tract infections (UTIs) and bacteriaemia especially in immunocompromised patients. The current review focuses on the recent perspectives on biofilms formation by these bacteria. Biofilms are communities of microorganisms in which cells stick to each other and often adhere to a surface. These adherent cells are usually embedded within a self-produced matrix of extracellular polymeric substance (EPS)...
January 19, 2018: Folia Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352389/detailed-t1-weighted-profiles-from-the-human-cortex-measured-in-vivo-at-3-tesla-mri
#2
Bart Ferguson, Natalia Petridou, Alessio Fracasso, Martijn P van den Heuvel, Rachel M Brouwer, Hilleke E Hulshoff Pol, René S Kahn, René C W Mandl
Studies into cortical thickness in psychiatric diseases based on T1-weighted MRI frequently report on aberrations in the cerebral cortex. Due to limitations in image resolution for studies conducted at conventional MRI field strengths (e.g. 3 Tesla (T)) this information cannot be used to establish which of the cortical layers may be implicated. Here we propose a new analysis method that computes one high-resolution average cortical profile per brain region extracting myeloarchitectural information from T1-weighted MRI scans that are routinely acquired at a conventional field strength...
January 19, 2018: Neuroinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351333/simultaneous-quantification-of-four-antiretroviral-drugs-in-breast-milk-samples-from-hiv-positive-women-by-an-ultra-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-uplc-ms-ms-method
#3
Alicia Ramírez-Ramírez, Elías Sánchez-Serrano, Giselle Loaiza-Flores, Noemí Plazola-Camacho, Rosa Georgina Rodríguez-Delgado, Ricardo Figueroa-Damián, Mauricio Domínguez-Castro, Margarita López-Martínez, Zayra Flores-García, Jessica Hernández-Pineda
The primary strategy to avoid mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) through breastfeeding is administration of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) to HIV-positive pregnant women. Because significant changes in the pharmacokinetics of antiretroviral (ARV) drugs occur during pregnancy, quantifying HAART and the viral load in breast milk in this population is essential. Here, we developed an analytical assay for the simultaneous quantification of four ARV drugs in breast milk using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350111/sustained-viral-suppression-with-co-administration-of-oxcarbazepine-and-dolutegravir
#4
Manar M Kandil, Melissa E Badowski, Christopher A Schriever
Co-administration of dolutegravir and oxcarbazepine has been reported to reduce levels of dolutegravir and therefore is contraindicated due to insufficient data to make dosing recommendations. We present eight cases in which patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) inadvertently received oxcarbazepine while concurrently receiving 50 mg of dolutegravir daily as part of their antiretroviral therapy. Upon further evaluation, lab results revealed that despite the risk of decreased levels of dolutegravir due to possible oxcarbazepine enzyme induction, patients maintained at or near virologic suppression (viral load <20 copies/ml)...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349517/a-novel-genomic-signature-predicting-fdg-uptake-in-diverse-metastatic-tumors
#5
Aurora Crespo-Jara, Maria Carmen Redal-Peña, Elena Maria Martinez-Navarro, Manuel Sureda, Francisco Jose Fernandez-Morejon, Francisco J Garcia-Cases, Ramon Gonzalez Manzano, Antonio Brugarolas
BACKGROUND: Building a universal genomic signature predicting the intensity of FDG uptake in diverse metastatic tumors may allow us to understand better the biological processes underlying this phenomenon and their requirements of glucose uptake. METHODS: A balanced training set (n = 71) of metastatic tumors including some of the most frequent histologies, with matched PET/CT quantification measurements and whole human genome gene expression microarrays, was used to build the signature...
January 18, 2018: EJNMMI Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346443/exposure-to-previous-cart-is-associated-with-significant-liver-fibrosis-and-cirrhosis-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-patients
#6
Evrim Anadol, Kristina Lust, Christoph Boesecke, Carolynne Schwarze-Zander, Raphael Mohr, Jan-Christian Wasmuth, Jürgen Kurt Rockstroh, Jonel Trebicka
INTRODUCTION: Combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) has improved survival in HIV-patients. While the first antiretrovirals, which became available in particular D-drugs (especially didanosine and stavudine) and unboosted protease inhibitors, may impair liver function, the modern cART seems to decrease liver fibrosis. This study assessed the influence of exposure to previous antiretrovirals on liver fibrosis in HIV-infected patients. METHODS: This observational cross-sectional single-center study recruited 333 HIV patients and assessed liver fibrosis using transient elastography (TE)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346424/higher-sequence-diversity-in-the-vaginal-tract-than-in-blood-at-early-hiv-1-infection
#7
Katja Klein, Gabrielle Nickel, Immaculate Nankya, Fred Kyeyune, Korey Demers, Emmanuel Ndashimye, Cynthia Kwok, Pai-Lien Chen, Sandra Rwambuya, Art Poon, Marshall Munjoma, Tsungai Chipato, Josaphat Byamugisha, Peter Mugyenyi, Robert A Salata, Charles S Morrison, Eric J Arts
In the majority of cases, human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection is transmitted through sexual intercourse. A single founder virus in the blood of the newly infected donor emerges from a genetic bottleneck, while in rarer instances multiple viruses are responsible for systemic infection. We sought to characterize the sequence diversity at early infection, between two distinct anatomical sites; the female reproductive tract vs. systemic compartment. We recruited 72 women from Uganda and Zimbabwe within seven months of HIV-1 infection...
January 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344988/recent-advances-in-articular-cartilage-evaluation-using-computed-tomography-and-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#8
REVIEW
B B Nelson, C E Kawcak, M F Barrett, C W McIlwraith, M W Grinstaff, L R Goodrich
Articular cartilage is a critical joint tissue and its evaluation remains a diagnostic challenge in horses. Coupled with a poor capacity for healing, early degenerative changes in articular cartilage are difficult to characterise using routine diagnostic imaging evaluations. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) both provide volumetric joint assessment and highlight morphologic and quantitative properties of articular cartilage, improving assessment of this essential tissue. While the use of CT and MRI for joint evaluation is not new, there still remains a shortage of literature and scientific studies on the ability of these methods to evaluate articular cartilage in the horse...
January 17, 2018: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343582/hiv-replication-and-latency-in-a-humanized-nsg-mouse-model-during-suppressive-oral-combinational-art
#9
Sangeetha Satheesan, Haitang Li, John C Burnett, Mayumi Takahashi, Shasha Li, Shiny Xiaqin Wu, Timothy W Synold, John J Rossi, Jiehua Zhou
Although current combinatorial antiretroviral therapy (cART) is therapeutically effective in the majority of HIV patients, interruption of therapy can cause a rapid rebound in viremia, demonstrating the existence of a stable reservoir of latently infected cells. HIV latency is therefore considered a primary barrier to HIV eradication. Identifying, quantifying, and purging the HIV reservoir is crucial to effectively curing patients and relieving them from the lifelong requirement for therapy. Latently infected transformed cell models have been used to investigate HIV latency; however, they cannot accurately represent the quiescent cellular environment of primary latently infected cells in vivo...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343272/biotechnologies-that-empower-transgender-persons-to-self-actualize-as-individuals-partners-spouses-and-parents-are-defining-new-ways-to-conceive-a-child-psychological-considerations-and-ethical-issues
#10
REVIEW
Agnès Condat, Nicolas Mendes, Véronique Drouineaud, Nouria Gründler, Chrystelle Lagrange, Colette Chiland, Jean-Philippe Wolf, François Ansermet, David Cohen
Today, thanks to biomedical technologies advances, some persons with fertility issues can conceive. Transgender persons benefit also from these advances and can not only actualize their self-identified sexual identities but also experience parenthood. Based on clinical multidisciplinary seminars that gathered child psychiatrists and psychoanalysts interested in the fields of assisted reproduction technology (ART) and gender dysphoria, philosophers interested in bioethics, biologists interested in ART, and endocrinologists interested in pubertal suppression, we explore how new biotechnical advances, whether in gender transition or procreation, could create new ways to conceive a child possible...
January 17, 2018: Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine: PEHM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343268/time-homogeneous-markov-process-for-hiv-aids-progression-under-a-combination-treatment-therapy-cohort-study-south-africa
#11
Claris Shoko, Delson Chikobvu
BACKGROUND: As HIV enters the human body, its main target is the CD4 cell which it turns into a factory that produces millions of other HIV particles. These HIV particles target new CD4 cells resulting in the progression of HIV infection to AIDS. A continuous depletion of CD4 cells results in opportunistic infections, for example tuberculosis (TB). The purpose of this study is to model and describe the progression of HIV/AIDS disease in an individual on antiretroviral therapy (ART) follow up using a continuous time homogeneous Markov process...
January 18, 2018: Theoretical Biology & Medical Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343165/hiv-and-renal-disease-a-contemporary-review
#12
Joana Gameiro, Sofia Jorge, José A Lopes
The presence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related kidney disease is an important cause of mortality and morbidity. HIV infection induces renal injury by direct cytotoxicity or immune complex-mediated glomerulonephritis in patients with genetic susceptibility factors. In the last decades, with the development and diffusion of combination antiretroviral therapy, which has prolonged patient survival, there has been a shift in the spectrum of renal diseases in HIV-infected patients, with the decrease of glomerular diseases and increase in the role of nephrotoxicity and co-morbidities...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341438/natural-antisense-transcripts-in-diseases-from-modes-of-action-to-targeted-therapies
#13
REVIEW
Elżbieta Wanowska, Magdalena Regina Kubiak, Wojciech Rosikiewicz, Izabela Makałowska, Michał Wojciech Szcześniak
Antisense transcription is a widespread phenomenon in mammalian genomes, leading to production of RNAs molecules referred to as natural antisense transcripts (NATs). NATs apply diverse transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms to carry out a wide variety of biological roles that are important for the normal functioning of living cells, but their dysfunctions can be associated with human diseases. In this review, we attempt to provide a molecular basis for the involvement of NATs in the etiology of human disorders such as cancers and neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases...
January 17, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. RNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340013/the-small-molecule-si113-synergizes-with-mitotic-spindle-poisons-in-arresting-the-growth-of-human-glioblastoma-multiforme
#14
Claudia Abbruzzese, Giada Catalogna, Enzo Gallo, Simona di Martino, Anna M Mileo, Mariantonia Carosi, Vincenzo Dattilo, Silvia Schenone, Francesca Musumeci, Patrizia Lavia, Nicola Perrotti, Rosario Amato, Marco G Paggi
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the deadliest brain tumor. State-of-art GBM therapy often fails to ensure control of a disease characterized by high frequency of recurrences and progression. In search for novel therapeutic approaches, we assayed the effect of compounds from a cancer drug library on the ADF GBM cell line, establishing their elevated sensitivity to mitotic spindle poisons. Our previous work showed that the effectiveness of the spindle poison paclitaxel in inhibiting cancer cell growth was dependent on the expression of RANBP1, a regulatory target of the serine/threonine kinase SGK1...
December 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339817/cooperating-with-machines
#15
Jacob W Crandall, Mayada Oudah, Tennom, Fatimah Ishowo-Oloko, Sherief Abdallah, Jean-François Bonnefon, Manuel Cebrian, Azim Shariff, Michael A Goodrich, Iyad Rahwan
Since Alan Turing envisioned artificial intelligence, technical progress has often been measured by the ability to defeat humans in zero-sum encounters (e.g., Chess, Poker, or Go). Less attention has been given to scenarios in which human-machine cooperation is beneficial but non-trivial, such as scenarios in which human and machine preferences are neither fully aligned nor fully in conflict. Cooperation does not require sheer computational power, but instead is facilitated by intuition, cultural norms, emotions, signals, and pre-evolved dispositions...
January 16, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339228/stability-and-plasmatic-protein-binding-of-novel-zidovudine-prodrugs-targeting-site-ii-of-human-serum-albumin
#16
Esteban M Schenfeld, Sergio R Ribone, Mario A Quevedo
Despite its vastly demonstrated clinical efficacy, zidovudine (AZT) exhibits several suboptimal pharmacokinetic properties. In particular, its short plasmatic half-life (t1/2 ~ 1 h) is related to its low bound fraction to whole plasmatic proteins and in particular to human serum albumin (HSA). The design of prodrugs constitutes a promising strategy to enhance AZT pharmacokinetic properties, including its affinity for HSA. Recently, we reported the synthesis and chemical stability evaluation of three novel prodrugs of AZT obtained by derivatization with dicarboxylic acids (1-3)...
January 12, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338331/the-impact-of-hiv-diagnosis-on-length-of-hospital-stay-in-new%C3%A2-york-city-ny-usa
#17
Tawandra L Rowell-Cunsolo, Jianfang Liu, Yanhan Shen, Amber Britton, Elaine Larson
While hospitalizations among people living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLWH) have been elevated in the past compared to their uninfected counterparts, the introduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART) has resulted in great strides in controlling symptomatic infection. However, research largely overlooks important differences among HIV-infected individuals, primarily PLWH who are symptomatic versus those who are asymptomatic. We conducted a retrospective study assessing the length of hospital stay among 717,237 admissions from three hospitals in the New York City area...
January 17, 2018: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337990/clustering-gene-expression-time-series-data-using-an-infinite-gaussian-process-mixture-model
#18
Ian C McDowell, Dinesh Manandhar, Christopher M Vockley, Amy K Schmid, Timothy E Reddy, Barbara E Engelhardt
Transcriptome-wide time series expression profiling is used to characterize the cellular response to environmental perturbations. The first step to analyzing transcriptional response data is often to cluster genes with similar responses. Here, we present a nonparametric model-based method, Dirichlet process Gaussian process mixture model (DPGP), which jointly models cluster number with a Dirichlet process and temporal dependencies with Gaussian processes. We demonstrate the accuracy of DPGP in comparison to state-of-the-art approaches using hundreds of simulated data sets...
January 16, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337870/glioblastoma-under-siege-an-overview-of-current-therapeutic-strategies
#19
REVIEW
Mayra Paolillo, Cinzia Boselli, Sergio Schinelli
Glioblastoma is known to be one of the most lethal and untreatable human tumors. Surgery and radiotherapy in combination with classical alkylating agents such as temozolomide offer little hope to escape a poor prognosis. For these reasons, enormous efforts are currently devoted to refine in vivo and in vitro models with the specific goal of finding new molecular aberrant pathways, suitable to be targeted by a variety of therapeutic approaches, including novel pharmaceutical formulations and immunotherapy strategies...
January 16, 2018: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337702/changing-concepts-of-hiv-infection-and-renal-disease
#20
Jean Hou, Cynthia C Nast
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) was identified as the major renal manifestation of HIV infection early in the HIV epidemic. However, HIV infection now is associated with a different spectrum of renal lesions leading to chronic kidney disease. This review examines the changes in kidney injury occurring in the current HIV era and the factors involved in this transformation of disease expression. RECENT FINDINGS: The incidence of HIVAN and opportunistic infections in HIV-infected individuals has declined in concert with the use of effective combination antiretroviral agents...
January 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
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