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Humanities AND art

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783113/automated-uhplc-separation-of-10-pharmaceutical-compounds-using-software-modeling
#1
A Zöldhegyi, H-J Rieger, I Molnár, L Fekhretdinova
Human mistakes are still one of the main reasons of underlying regulatory affairs that in a compliance with FDA's Data Integrity and Analytical Quality by Design (AQbD) must be eliminated. To develop smooth, fast and robust methods that are free of human failures, a state-of-the-art automation was presented. For the scope of this study, a commercial software (DryLab) and a model mixture of 10 drugs were subjected to testing. Following AQbD-principles, the best available working point was selected and conformational experimental runs, i...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781680/provision-of-antiretroviral-therapy-for-children-in-nelson-mandela-bay-health-care-professionals-challenges
#2
Margaret Williams, Dalena R M Van Rooyen, Esmeralda J Ricks
BACKGROUND:  The human immunodeficiency virus and/or acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) pandemic continues to increase in prevalence worldwide, particularly in South Africa, and includes the often overlooked paediatric population. The provision of paediatric antiretroviral treatment (ART) is as essential for children as for adults, and has numerous obstacles, not least of which is lack of decentralisation of facilities to provide essential treatment. Optimising ART, care and support for HIV-positive children, and their caregivers, at public sector primary health care (PHC) clinics is crucial to improve morbidity and mortality rates in children...
March 12, 2018: African Journal of Primary Health Care & Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779754/introduction-art-and-the-brain-from-pleasure-to-well-being
#3
EDITORIAL
Julia F Christensen, Antoni Gomila
Empirical aesthetics in general, and neuroaesthetics in particular, have been very much influenced by Berlyne's psychobiological program. For him, aesthetic appreciation involved the brain's reward and aversion systems. From this point of view, art constitutes a set of potentially rewarding stimuli. Research has certainly made great advances in understanding how the process of artistic valuation takes places, and which brain circuits are involved in generating the pleasure we obtain from artistic practices, performances, and works...
2018: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779751/can-shared-mechanisms-of-cultural-evolution-illuminate-the-process-of-creativity-within-the-arts-and-the-sciences
#4
Rory Allen, Pamela Heaton
All creative activity brings about change, since it results in the production of something that did not previously exist. The act of creation is itself influenced by changes that have been previously brought about by others, including previous acts of creation. As with any human behavior, creativity has both biological and cultural aspects and is therefore influenced by biological as well as cultural evolution. However, biological evolution operates slowly and over a much longer timescale than cultural evolution, and change occurring within a human lifetime must be driven by cultural and social, rather than biological processes...
2018: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779747/art-energy-and-the-brain
#5
Robert Pepperell
Recent years have seen a growing interest among neuroscientists and vision scientists in art and aesthetics, exemplifying a more general trend toward interdisciplinary integration in the arts, humanities, and sciences. However, true art-science integration remains a distant prospect due to fundamental differences in outlook and approach between disciplines. I consider two great challenges for any project designed to explain the role of the brain in art appreciation. First, scientists and artists need to identify common ground, common questions, and a shared motivation for inquiry...
2018: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779746/art-and-brain-coevolution
#6
Camilo José Cela-Conde, Francisco J Ayala
The competence for appreciating beauty appears to be a human universal trait. This fact points out to a phylogenetically derived capacity that, somehow, evolved by means of natural selection. To detail how this evolutionary process took place is difficult to determine, because appreciating beauty is an elusive capacity, impossible to be detected in the fossil record. However, efforts have been made to understand the main characteristics of such competence, particularly by means of the advances of neuroaesthetics...
2018: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779745/the-impact-of-visual-art-and-emotional-sounds-in-specific-musical-anhedonia
#7
Ernest Mas-Herrero, Mikko Karhulahti, Josep Marco-Pallares, Robert J Zatorre, Antoni Rodriguez-Fornells
A small percentage of healthy individuals do not find music pleasurable, a condition known as specific musical anhedonia. These individuals have no impairment in music perception which might account for their anhedonia; their sensitivity to primary and secondary rewards is also preserved, and they do not show generalized depression. However, it is still unclear whether this condition is entirely specific to music, or rather reflects a more general deficit in experiencing pleasure, either from aesthetic rewards in general, or in response to other types of emotional sounds...
2018: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779740/the-influence-of-sensorimotor-experience-on-the-aesthetic-evaluation-of-dance-across-the-life-span
#8
Louise P Kirsch, Emily S Cross
Understanding how action perception, embodiment, and emotion interact is essential for advancing knowledge about how we perceive and interact with each other in a social world. One tool that has proved particularly useful in the past decade for exploring the relationship between perception, action, and affect is dance. Dance is, in its essence, a rich and multisensory art form that can be used to help answer not only basic questions about social cognition but also questions concerning how aging shapes the relationship between action perception, and the role played by affect, emotion, and aesthetics in social perception...
2018: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779738/culture-and-art-importance-of-art-practice-not-aesthetics-to-early-human-culture
#9
Dahlia W Zaidel
Art is expressed in multiple formats in today's human cultures. Physical traces of stone tools and other archaeological landmarks suggest early nonart cultural behavior and symbolic cognition in the early Homo sapiens (HS) who emerged ~300,000-200,000 years ago in Africa. Fundamental to art expression is the neural underpinning for symbolic cognition, and material art is considered its prime example. However, prior to producing material art, HS could have exploited symbolically through art-rooted biological neural pathways for social purpose, namely, those controlling interpersonal motoric coordination and sound codependence...
2018: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779732/music-dance-and-other-art-forms-new-insights-into-the-links-between-hedonia-pleasure-and-eudaimonia-well-being
#10
Eloise A Stark, Peter Vuust, Morten L Kringelbach
For Aristotle, the goal of human life was to live well, to flourish, and to ultimately have a good life. These goals can be conceptualized as "eudaimonia," a concept distinct from "hedonia" (pleasure). Many people would argue that the arts play a large role in their well-being and eudaimonia. Music in particular is a culturally ubiquitous phenomenon which brings joy and social bonding to listeners. Research has given insights into how the "sweet anticipation" of music and other art forms can lead to pleasure, but a full understanding of eudaimonia from the arts is still missing...
2018: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777923/diagnosis-and-management-of-pulmonary-infection-due-to-rhodococcus-equi
#11
REVIEW
Weijie V Lin, Robert L Kruse, Katharine Yang, Daniel M Musher
BACKGROUND: Rhodococcus equi is a recognized cause of disease in humans, especially in patients who are immunocompromised. Because diphtheroids are regarded as part of normal respiratory flora, the importance of R. equi as a pulmonary pathogen may not be fully appreciated and its prevalence underestimated. Most treatment recommendations for R. equi infection were established before antiretroviral drugs became available for HIV/AIDS therapy, and therapeutic strategies may need to be updated...
May 16, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775551/pharmacogenetic-associations-with-cytochrome-p450-in-antiretroviral-therapy-what-does-the-future-hold
#12
Gabriel Stillemans, Leila Belkhir, Dennis A Hesselink, Vincent Haufroid, Laure Elens
Several antiretroviral drugs used to treat infection with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) are substrates of enzymes belonging to the cytochrome P450 (CYP) superfamily, which are polymorphically expressed. It may therefore be useful to take into account the genetic variation in these enzymes to predict the likelihood of anti-HIV treatment success, toxicity and the potential for drug-drug interactions. Areas covered: In this manuscript, the authors discuss the current state of knowledge regarding pharmacogenetic associations between CYP and all major antiretrovirals, as well as the importance of these associations...
May 18, 2018: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773224/early-env-specific-ctls-effectively-suppress-viral-replication-in-shiv-controller-macaques
#13
Jin Fan, Hua Liang, Tao Shen, Shuo Wang, Xiaolin Ji, Cassian Yee, Fengmin Lu, Yiming Shao
Early immunological events in acute HIV infection are thought to fundamentally influence long-term disease outcomes. Though the contribution of Gag-specific CD8 T cell responses to early viral control is well established, little is known about the role of Env-specific CD8 T cell responses in controlling viral replication during acute infection. In a macaque simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) model, some macaques who were able to control SHIV replication after ART interruption showed expansion of Env-specific CD8 T cell responses during acute infection, compared to macaques who progressed to viral rebound...
May 5, 2018: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773069/high-altitude-pulmonary-hypertension
#14
Maurizio Bussotti, Giovanni Marchese
The effects of hypoxia on the human organism has been considered doubly fascinating by the scientific community: the knowledge of the discrete mechanisms allowing the acclimatization both at the genetic level or through the cell mediators production in addition to the macroscopic responses of the cardio-circulatory and ventilatory systems to a hypoxic environment has been progressively developed since the last century; moreover granting a safer stay in hypoxic conditions not only for the residents but also for the different cathegories of workers, sportsmen and tourists has been considered a worthy aim of the medical activity...
May 17, 2018: Cardiovascular & Hematological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772664/the-cholinergic-anti-inflammatory-response-and-the-role-of-macrophages-in-hiv-induced-inflammation
#15
REVIEW
Manuel Delgado-Vélez, José A Lasalde-Dominicci
Macrophages are phagocytic immune cells that protect the body from foreign invaders and actively support the immune response by releasing anti- and proinflammatory cytokines. A seminal finding revolutionized the way macrophages are seen. The expression of the neuronal alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7-nAChR) in macrophages led to the establishment of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory response (CAR) in which the activation of this receptor inactivates macrophage production of proinflammatory cytokines...
May 16, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772268/determination-and-regulation-of-hepatotoxic-pyrrolizidine-alkaloids-in-food-a-critical-review-of-recent-research
#16
Chuanhui Ma, Yang Liu, Lin Zhu, Hong Ji, Xun Song, Hui Guo, Tao Yi
Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are secondary metabolites of plants. PAs have been reported to be hepatotoxic, mutagenic, and carcinogenic; they are a significant group of natural toxins affecting livestock, wildlife, and humans. To date, over 10,000 PAs poisoning cases have been reported worldwide. In recent years, many articles have reported the detection of PAs in various foods, including honey, milk, meat, eggs, tea and salad. This review summarized the contamination of PAs in foods, state of the art detection methods and regulations by different countries and authorities, hoping to propose effective solutions to minimize the consumption of PAs in food...
May 14, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771871/trends-in-antiretroviral-therapy-eligibility-and-coverage-among-children-aged-15-years-with-hiv-infection-20-pepfar-supported-sub-saharan-african-countries-2012-2016
#17
Amanda Burrage, Monita Patel, Kelsey Mirkovic, Eric Dziuban, Wondimu Teferi, Laura Broyles, Emilia Rivadeneira
Rapid disease progression and associated opportunistic infections contribute to high mortality rates among children aged <15 years with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection (1). Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has decreased childhood HIV-associated morbidity and mortality rates over the past decade (2). As accumulating evidence revealed lower HIV-associated mortality with early ART initiation, the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines broadened ART eligibility for children with HIV infection (2)...
May 18, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770183/colour-for-behavioural-success
#18
Birgitta Dresp-Langley, Adam Reeves
Colour information not only helps sustain the survival of animal species by guiding sexual selection and foraging behaviour but also is an important factor in the cultural and technological development of our own species. This is illustrated by examples from the visual arts and from state-of-the-art imaging technology, where the strategic use of colour has become a powerful tool for guiding the planning and execution of interventional procedures. The functional role of colour information in terms of its potential benefits to behavioural success across the species is addressed in the introduction here to clarify why colour perception may have evolved to generate behavioural success...
March 2018: I-Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770143/a-census-of-tandemly-repeated-polymorphic-loci-in-genic-regions-through-the-comparative-integration-of-human-genome-assemblies
#19
Loredana M Genovese, Filippo Geraci, Lucia Corrado, Eleonora Mangano, Romina D'Aurizio, Roberta Bordoni, Marco Severgnini, Giovanni Manzini, Gianluca De Bellis, Sandra D'Alfonso, Marco Pellegrini
Polymorphic Tandem Repeat (PTR) is a common form of polymorphism in the human genome. A PTR consists in a variation found in an individual (or in a population) of the number of repeating units of a Tandem Repeat (TR) locus of the genome with respect to the reference genome. Several phenotypic traits and diseases have been discovered to be strongly associated with or caused by specific PTR loci. PTR are further distinguished in two main classes: Short Tandem Repeats (STR) when the repeating unit has size up to 6 base pairs, and Variable Number Tandem Repeats (VNTR) for repeating units of size above 6 base pairs...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770057/aids-in-canada-surveillance-report-2016
#20
L Jonah, A C Bourgeois, M Edmunds, A Awan, O Varsaneux, W Siu
Background: Although there continues to be a global epidemic of people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) there has been a decrease in the number of people dying of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), largely due to successful treatment with antiretroviral therapy. Objective: To provide a descriptive overview of the reported cases of AIDS in Canada by identifying trends by geographic location, sex, age group and mortality. While the descriptive analysis focuses on the year 2016, results are presented for reported cases from the beginning of national AIDS surveillance in 1979...
December 7, 2017: Canada Communicable Disease Report, Relevé des Maladies Transmissibles Au Canada
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