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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817552/effects-of-antiretroviral-therapy-to-prevent-hiv-transmission-to-women-in-couples-attempting-conception-when-the-man-has-hiv-infection-united-states-2017
#1
John T Brooks, Jennifer F Kawwass, Dawn K Smith, Dmitry M Kissin, Margaret Lampe, Lisa B Haddad, Sheree L Boulet, Denise J Jamieson
Existing U.S. guidelines recommend that men with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection should achieve virologic suppression* with effective antiretroviral therapy (ART) before attempting conception (1). Clinical studies have demonstrated that effective ART profoundly reduces the risk for HIV transmission (2-4). This information might be useful for counseling couples planning a pregnancy in which the man has HIV infection and the woman does not (i.e., a mixed HIV-status couple, often referred to as a serodiscordant couple)...
August 18, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816670/colorization-using-neural-network-ensemble
#2
Zezhou Cheng, Qingxiong Yang, Bin Sheng
This paper investigates into the colorization problem which converts a grayscale image to a colorful version. This is a difficult problem and normally requires manual adjustment to achieve artifact-free quality. For instance, it normally requires human-labelled color scribbles on the grayscale target image or a careful selection of colorful reference images. The recent learning-based colorization techniques automatically colorize a grayscale image using a single neural network. Since different scenes usually have distinct color styles, it is difficult to accurately capture the color characteristics using a single neural network...
August 16, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816656/tracking-by-detection-of-3d-human-shapes-from-surfaces-to-volumes
#3
Chun-Hao Huang, Benjamin Allain, Edmond Boyer, Jean-Sebastien Franco, Federico Tombari, Nassir Navab, Slobodan Ilic
3D Human shape tracking consists in fitting a template model to temporal sequences of visual observations. It usually comprises an association step, that finds correspondences between the model and the input data, and a deformation step, that fits the model to the observations given correspondences. Most current approaches follow the Iterative-Closest-Point (ICP) paradigm, where the association step is carried out by searching for the nearest neighbors. It fails when large deformations occur and errors in the association tend to propagate over time...
August 15, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815469/metagenome-analysis-a-powerful-tool-for-enzyme-bioprospecting
#4
Aravind Madhavan, Raveendran Sindhu, Binod Parameswaran, Rajeev K Sukumaran, Ashok Pandey
Microorganisms are found throughout every corner of nature, and vast number of microorganisms is difficult to cultivate by classical microbiological techniques. The advent of metagenomics has revolutionized the field of microbial biotechnology. Metagenomics allow the recovery of genetic material directly from environmental niches without any cultivation techniques. Currently, metagenomic tools are widely employed as powerful tools to isolate and identify enzymes with novel biocatalytic activities from the uncultivable component of microbial communities...
August 16, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814905/conjunctival-flora-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-patients-on-antiretroviral-treatment
#5
Kagmeni Giles, Yannick Bilong, Andin Viola Dohvoma, Steve Robert Ebana, Hortance Gonsu
OBJECTIVES: To determine the conjunctival flora of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients on antiretroviral treatment (ART). METHODOLOGY: A total of 104 conjunctival swabs from 104 HIV patients on ART underwent microbiological evaluation to describe the flora. RESULT: There were 71 (68.26%) women and 33 (31.74%) men. The mean age was 42.9 ± 9.77 (range: 22-70) years. Negative cultures were found in 39 (37.50%) cases. Bacterial growth occurred in 65 (62...
2017: Ophthalmology and Eye Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814592/fever-and-generalised-lymphadenopathy-in-an-hiv-positive-patient-a-diagnostic-challenge
#6
Bernardo Neves, Pedro Raimundo, Pedro Farinha
Fever and generalised lymphadenopathy is a common presentation of a variety of diseases and a thorough investigation is often necessary for appropriate diagnosis.We present a 53-year-old male patient admitted with fever, weight loss of 15 kg in 3 months and abdominal discomfort. Examination was only remarkable for axillary and inguinal lymphadenopathy. Blood tests showed normocytic normochromic anaemia, cholestasis and a previously unknown HIV-1 infection with lymphocyte CD4 +count of 239 cells/mm(3) and viral load 3...
August 16, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813960/towards-free-3d-end-point-control-for-robotic-assisted-human-reaching-using-binocular-eye-tracking
#7
Roni O Maimon-Dror, Jorge Fernandez-Quesada, Giuseppe A Zito, Charalambos Konnaris, Sabine Dziemian, A Aldo Faisal
Eye-movements are the only directly observable behavioural signals that are highly correlated with actions at the task level, and proactive of body movements and thus reflect action intentions. Moreover, eye movements are preserved in many movement disorders leading to paralysis (or amputees) from stroke, spinal cord injury, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, and muscular dystrophy among others. Despite this benefit, eye tracking is not widely used as control interface for robotic interfaces in movement impaired patients due to poor human-robot interfaces...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812841/university-of-global-health-equity-s-contribution-to-the-reduction-of-education-and-health-services-rationing
#8
EDITORIAL
Agnes Binagwaho
The inadequate supply of health workers and demand-side barriers due to clinical practice that heeds too little attention to cultural context are serious obstacles to achieving universal health coverage and the fulfillment of the human rights to health, especially for the poor and vulnerable living in remote rural areas. A number of strategies have been deployed to increase both the supply of healthcare workers and the demand for healthcare services. However, more can be done to improve service delivery as well as mitigate the geographic inequalities that exist in this field...
May 29, 2017: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811349/brain-macrophages-in-simian-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-antiretroviral-suppressed-macaques-a-functional-latent-reservoir
#9
Claudia R Avalos, Celina M Abreu, Suzanne E Queen, Ming Li, Sarah Price, Erin N Shirk, Elizabeth L Engle, Ellen Forsyth, Brandon T Bullock, Feilim Mac Gabhann, Stephen W Wietgrefe, Ashley T Haase, M Christine Zink, Joseph L Mankowski, Janice E Clements, Lucio Gama
A human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection cure requires an understanding of the cellular and anatomical sites harboring virus that contribute to viral rebound upon treatment interruption. Despite antiretroviral therapy (ART), HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) are reported in HIV-infected individuals on ART. Biomarkers for macrophage activation and neuronal damage in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of HIV-infected individuals demonstrate continued effects of HIV in brain and suggest that the central nervous system (CNS) may serve as a viral reservoir...
August 15, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810905/omni-polya-a-method-and-tool-for-accurate-recognition-of-poly-a-signals-in-human-genomic-dna
#10
Arturo Magana-Mora, Manal Kalkatawi, Vladimir B Bajic
BACKGROUND: Polyadenylation is a critical stage of RNA processing during the formation of mature mRNA, and is present in most of the known eukaryote protein-coding transcripts and many long non-coding RNAs. The correct identification of poly(A) signals (PAS) not only helps to elucidate the 3'-end genomic boundaries of a transcribed DNA region and gene regulatory mechanisms but also gives insight into the multiple transcript isoforms resulting from alternative PAS. Although progress has been made in the in-silico prediction of genomic signals, the recognition of PAS in DNA genomic sequences remains a challenge...
August 15, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810691/improvement-of-implantation-potential-in-mouse-blastocysts-derived-from-ivf-by-combined-treatment-with-prolactin-epidermal-growth-factor-and-4-hydroxyestradiol
#11
Miki Takeuchi, Misato Seki, Etsuko Furukawa, Akihito Takahashi, Kyosuke Saito, Mitsuru Kobayashi, Kenji Ezoe, Emiko Fukui, Midori Yoshizawa, Hiromichi Matsumoto
STUDY QUESTION: Can supplementation of medium with prolactin (PRL), epidermal growth factor (EGF) and 4-hydroxyestradiol (4-OH-E2) prior to embryo transfer improve implantation potential in mouse blastocysts derived from IVF? SUMMARY ANSWER: Combined treatment with PRL, EGF and 4-OH-E2 improves mouse blastocyst implantation rates, while alone, each factor is ineffective. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Blastocyst dormancy during delayed implantation caused by ovariectomy is maintained by continued progesterone treatment in mice, and estrogen injection rapidly activates blastocysts to implantation-induced status in vivo...
August 1, 2017: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810166/humanized-mouse-models-of-latent-hiv-infection
#12
REVIEW
Maud Deruaz, Andrew M Tager
Antiretroviral therapy can efficiently control HIV viral replication, resulting in low viral loads and sustained CD4(+) T cell counts in HIV-infected persons. However, fast viral rebound occurs in most infected persons when therapy is interrupted. The principal component of persistent infection is a latent but replication-competent HIV reservoir. The long half-life of this reservoir is a major barrier to cure, and its elimination is the target of important research efforts. Animal models that can recapitulate this aspect of human infection are needed to examine the HIV reservoir in tissues in vivo, and to test eradication strategies...
August 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808275/screening-drug-target-interactions-with-positive-unlabeled-learning
#13
Lihong Peng, Wen Zhu, Bo Liao, Yu Duan, Min Chen, Yi Chen, Jialiang Yang
Identifying drug-target interaction (DTI) candidates is crucial for drug repositioning. However, usually only positive DTIs are deposited in known databases, which challenges computational methods to predict novel DTIs due to the lack of negative samples. To overcome this dilemma, researchers usually randomly select negative samples from unlabeled drug-target pairs, which introduces a lot of false-positives. In this study, a negative sample extraction method named NDTISE is first developed to screen strong negative DTI examples based on positive-unlabeled learning...
August 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805487/state-of-the-art-nanopathological-diagnostics
#14
Luca Roncati, Giuseppe Barbolini
The nanopathological diagnostics (ND) is an ultra-specialized branch of pathological anatomy aimed to identify the nanoparticles of metallic, semimetallic, or nonmetallic elements in the inorganic particulate matter present inside pathological tissues, even on the nanometer scale. ND exploits an environmental scanning electron microscope, connected to an X-ray microprobe mounted on an energy-dispersive spectrometer. The searching of nanoparticles can be performed on paraffin-embedded material, omitting emissions of black overlay and plating procedures...
August 14, 2017: Ultrastructural Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803740/vorinostat-renders-the-replication-competent-latent-reservoir-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-hiv-vulnerable-to-clearance-by-cd8-t-cells
#15
Julia A Sung, Katherine Sholtis, Jennifer Kirchherr, Joann D Kuruc, Cynthia L Gay, Jeffrey L Nordstrom, Catherine M Bollard, Nancie M Archin, David M Margolis
Latently human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected cells are transcriptionally quiescent and invisible to clearance by the immune system. To demonstrate that the latency reversing agent vorinostat (VOR) induces a window of vulnerability in the latent HIV reservoir, defined as the triggering of viral antigen production sufficient in quantity and duration to allow for recognition and clearance of persisting infection, we developed a latency clearance assay (LCA). The LCA is a quantitative viral outgrowth assay (QVOA) that includes the addition of immune effectors capable of clearing cells expressing viral antigen...
July 29, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803703/viral-hijacking-of-formins-in-neurodevelopmental-pathologies
#16
REVIEW
Karen Racicot, Sarah VanOeveren, Art Alberts
The 2015 Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak caused global concern when it was determined to cause microcephaly, hearing loss, and other neurodevelopmental manifestations upon fetal exposure. Significant progress has been made in our understanding of the interactions between ZIKV and the pregnant host, but there is still a critical need to understand how ZIKV and other neurotropic viruses affect fetal neurodevelopment. Diaphanous-related formins (Diaphs) have recently been identified as microcephaly-associated proteins in humans and mice...
August 10, 2017: Trends in Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803049/modeling-aging-in-hiv-infection-in-nonhuman-primates-to-address-an-emerging-challenge-of-the-post-art-era
#17
REVIEW
Tianyu He, Elizabeth Falwell, Egidio Brocca-Cofano, Ivona Pandrea
The advent of antiretroviral therapy (ART) has dramatically improved both quality and length of life for subjects infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), delaying or preventing progression to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). However, the virus induces aging-related changes to the immune system which confound treatment. Additionally, the normal physiologic events that occur during aging lead to deficiencies in immunity which not only exacerbate HIV pathogenesis but also trigger a variety of comorbidities...
August 9, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802824/highly-accurate-prediction-of-protein-self-interactions-by-incorporating-the-average-block-and-pssm-information-into-the-general-pseaac
#18
Jing-Xuan Zhai, Tian-Jie Cao, Ji-Yong An, Yong-Tao Bian
It is a challenging task for fundamental research whether proteins can interact with their partners. Protein self-interaction (SIP) is a special case of PPIs, which plays a key role in the regulation of cellular functions. Due to the limitations of experimental self-interaction identification, it is very important to develop an effective biological tool for predicting SIPs based on protein sequences. In the study, we developed a novel computational method called RVM-AB that combines the Relevance Vector Machine (RVM) model and Average Blocks (AB) for detecting SIPs from protein sequences...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801255/decoding-naturalistic-experiences-from-human-brain-activity-via-distributed-representations-of-words
#19
REVIEW
Satoshi Nishida, Shinji Nishimoto
Natural visual scenes induce rich perceptual experiences that are highly diverse from scene to scene and from person to person. Here, we propose a new framework for decoding such experiences using a distributed representation of words. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure brain activity evoked by natural movie scenes. Then, we constructed a high-dimensional feature space of perceptual experiences using skip-gram, a state-of-the-art distributed word embedding model. We built a decoder that associates brain activity with perceptual experiences via the distributed word representation...
August 8, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800469/immunotherapy-in-ovarian-endometrial-and-cervical-cancer-state-of-the-art-and-future-perspectives
#20
REVIEW
Jole Ventriglia, Immacolata Paciolla, Carmela Pisano, Sabrina Chiara Cecere, Marilena Di Napoli, Rosa Tambaro, Daniela Califano, Simona Losito, Giosuè Scognamiglio, Sergio Venanzio Setola, Laura Arenare, Sandro Pignata, Chiara Della Pepa
The tumors of the female genital tract represent a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among women worldwide. Substantial progresses have been made in ovarian cancer, with the increasing knowledge about BRCA mutated tumors and the recent development of PARP inhibitors, and in cervical cancer, thanks to extensive screening and widespread of vaccination against Human Papilloma Virus. Nevertheless many needs remain unmet, advanced stage diseases are still incurable and cervical and endometrial carcinoma, as well as platinum-resistant ovarian carcinoma, can certainly be classifiable among the cancers with poor sensitivity to conventional chemotherapy...
July 31, 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
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