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Glomerulonephritis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151252/dominant-c3-glomerulopathy-new-roles-for-an-old-actor-in-renal-pathology
#1
REVIEW
Nicola Pirozzi, Antonella Stoppacciaro, Paolo Menè
Recently, a number of reports have described dominant C3 deposits in renal biopsies of patients with infection-related glomerulonephritis (GN). While acute post-infectious GN and membranoproliferative GN are commonly characterized by immune deposits containing C3 and/or C4, the absence of immunoglobulin (Ig) and/or immune complexes at light or electron microscopy is a rather unusual observation. Dominant C3 deposition is believed to result from the alternative pathway of complement activation via the C3bBb "tickover" convertase...
November 18, 2017: Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142962/what-genetics-tells-us-about-the-pathogenesis-of-iga-nephropathy-the%C3%A2-role%C3%A2-of-immune-factors-and-infection
#2
REVIEW
Yue-Miao Zhang, Xu-Jie Zhou, Hong Zhang
Immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) is the most common type of primary glomerulonephritis, which is characterized by IgA1-containing immune-deposits in the glomerular mesangium. The epidemiologic observations of familial clustering as well as ethnic and regional discrepancies indicate a genetic component to IgAN. Large, international, genome-wide association studies have identified several susceptibility genes and loci for IgAN, many of which have been implicated in immune regulation and are shared with other autoimmune diseases...
May 2017: KI Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142953/absence-of-hiv-associated-nephropathy-among-antiretroviral-naive-adults-with-persistent-albuminuria-in-western-kenya
#3
M K Koech, M O G Owiti, W D Owino-Ong'or, A K Koskei, M J Karoney, V D D'Agati, C M Wyatt
Introduction: HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) has been strongly linked to African ancestry. However, studies have demonstrated wide variability in the prevalence of HIVAN in different sub-Saharan African populations. Accurate assessment of the disease burden is important because antiretroviral therapy (ART) is increasingly available and may prevent progression to end-stage renal disease. Methods: We prospectively screened ART-naïve, afebrile, nonhypertensive, and nondiabetic adults attending a large HIV care program in Western Kenya for the presence of albuminuria (dipstick albumin ≥ trace or urine albumin to creatinine ratio [UACR] ≥ 30 mg/g)...
March 2017: KI Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142188/a-case-of-microscopic-polyangiitis-with-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-and-cardiovascular-complications
#4
Sae Aratani, Yukinao Sakai, Shuichi Tsuruoka
Microscopic polyangiitis (MPA) is a primary systemic vasculitis that predominantly affects small and medium vessels. MPA is rarely complicated with central nervous system or cardiovascular disease. We report a very rare case of MPA complicated with cerebral infarction, cardiovascular disease, and fatal subarachnoid hemorrhage in a 54-year-old man. During the first six days of hospitalization the patient was diagnosed with rapid progressive glomerulonephritis (RPGN), cerebral infarction, and unstable angina...
2017: Journal of Nippon Medical School, Nippon Ika Daigaku Zasshi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141920/parathyroid-hormone-related-protein-modulates-mice-mesangial-cells-inflammation-and-blunts-apoptosis-by-enhancing-cox-2-expression
#5
Mazène Hochane, Denis Raison, Catherine Coquard, Claire Béraud, Audrey Bethry, Sabrina Danilin, Thierry Massfelder, Mariette Barthelmebs
Mesangial cell (MC) injury is a prominent feature of glomerulonephritis. Activated MC secretes inflammatory mediators which induce cell apoptosis. Parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHrP) is a locally active cytokine that enhances cell survival and is upregulated by pro-inflammatory factors in many cell types. The aim of this study was to analyze the regulation of PTHrP expression by inflammatory cytokines, and to evaluate whether PTHrP itself acts as a pro-inflammatory and/or survival factor on male murine MC in primary culture...
November 15, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130681/nodular-glomerulosclerosis-not-always-diabetic-nephropathy
#6
Olga Balafa, Georgios Liapis
Nodular glomerulosclerosis -as it was originally described by Kimmelstiel and Wilson- is the main pathognomonic lesion of diabetic nephropathy. However, this particular pattern can also be seen in other conditions such as membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis, light or heavy chain deposition disease, amyloidosis, fibrillary and immunotactoid glomerulonephritis and Takayasu's arteritis. History of diabetes as well as other clinical and pathological features are of crucial importance in order to determine the precise cause of nodular glomerulosclerosis...
November 10, 2017: Minerva Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126817/serum-anti-pla2r-antibody-as-a-diagnostic-biomarker-of-idiopathic-membranous-nephropathy-the-optimal-cut-off-value-for-chinese-patients
#7
Yipeng Liu, Xuan Li, Chaoqun Ma, Ping Wang, Ju Liu, Hong Su, Hao Zhuo, Xianglei Kong, Dayu Xu, Dongmei Xu
BACKGROUND: The M-type phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R) is a specific target autoantigen identified in idiopathic membranous nephropathy (IMN). The autoantibody against PLA2R (anti-PLA2R) may be used to diagnose IMN. However, the appropriate diagnosis cut-off value for Chinese patients with IMN has not been established. METHODS: In total, 119 patients who underwent renal biopsy (57 patients with IMN and 62 patients with non-IMN glomerulonephritis) and 22 healthy individuals were recruited for our observation study from Qianfoshan Hospital between September 2011 and March 2016...
November 7, 2017: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124323/-goodpasture-syndrome-ocular-manifestation-in-a-young-man
#8
C Lommatzsch, A Lommatzsch, C Heinz, A Heiligenhaus
Goodpasture syndrome (GS) is a rare organ-specific autoimmune disease that may consist of glomerulonephritis and pulmonary hemorrhage. Only few case reports have been published on ocular symptoms in the context of GS. This is a case report of a 22-year-old male with GS who was referred to our practice because of visual disturbances. The anamnesis revealed pulmonary hemorrhage, acute renal failure and nephrotic syndrome, which was treated by immunosuppressive therapy with additional plasmapheresis. Ophthalmoscopically, bilateral cotton wool spots were found along the vessels and bilateral retinal hemorrhages predominantly at the posterior pole...
November 9, 2017: Der Ophthalmologe: Zeitschrift der Deutschen Ophthalmologischen Gesellschaft
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124008/rare-complicated-parapneumonic-effusion-mycoplasma-pneumoniae-with-new-onset-lupus-flare-case-report-and-literature-review
#9
Bharat Bajantri, Shaik Danial, Richard Duncalf, Misbahuddin Khaja
Mycoplasma pneumoniae has been associated with respiratory tract infections. Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia-related pleural effusion is rarely reported. Extra-pulmonary abnormalities such as encephalitis, myocarditis, glomerulonephritis, and myringitis have been reported. However pulmonary manifestations in systemic lupus erythematosus include pneumonitis, pleurisy, interstitial lung disease, and thromboembolic disease. We present the case of a 26-year-old male who came for evaluation of fever, cough, and shortness of breath with right-sided chest pain...
2017: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115212/endemic-influences-of-political-regimes-healthcare-systems-and-preferences-on-the-frequencies-and-incidences-of-nephropathies-in-eastern-saxony-germany%C3%A2
#10
Sam Sedaghat, Eleène Sahmila Heshmati, Thomas Frese, Wilma Gertrud Rasche, Filip Barinka, Florian Fahr, Joachim Beige, Stephan Schiekofer, Franz Maximilian Rasche
INTRODUCTION: The possible confounding influence of investigator-related preferences, available histological techniques, and healthcare systems on the frequencies and incidences of primary and secondary nephropathies was evaluated in this long-term observation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The observation time from 1983 to 2010 was divided in regard to the political regimes: a) prior to and after German reunification: German Democratic Republic (GDR, period 1 from 1983 to 1990)/Federal Republic of Germany (FRG, period 2 from 1990 to 2010); and the two heads of the division of nephrology, b) conductor 1 (1983 - 2006) and conductor 2 (2006 - 2010)...
November 8, 2017: Clinical Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114699/glomerulonephritis-disease-pattern-at-saudi-tertiary-care-center
#11
Khalid I AlMatham, Ali F AlFayez, Raghdah A AlHarthi, Falah S AlMutairi, Fahad S Alrasheedi, Abdulrehman Mustafa, Mustafa Ahmed, Basim A AlMatouq, Fadil A AlRowaei
To assess changes in the pattern of glomerular diseases to help guide optimal allocation of resources, to focus future reasearch, and improve outcomes. Methods: A retrospective chart review was conducted on kidney biopsies taken between 2007 and 2016 at a single tertiary care center in Saudi Arabia (King Fahad Medical City, Riyadh) to evaluate the prevalence and pattern of glomerulonephritis (GN). Results: The most common primary GN in 102 biopsies from adult patients with a mean age of 28.9 ± 13.6 years and 40...
November 2017: Saudi Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114065/bim-suppresses-the-development-of-sle-by-limiting-myeloid-inflammatory-responses
#12
FuNien Tsai, Philip J Homan, Hemant Agrawal, Alexander V Misharin, Hiam Abdala-Valencia, G Kenneth Haines, Salina Dominguez, Christina L Bloomfield, Rana Saber, Anthony Chang, Chandra Mohan, Jack Hutcheson, Anne Davidson, G R Scott Budinger, Philippe Bouillet, Andrea Dorfleutner, Christian Stehlik, Deborah R Winter, Carla M Cuda, Harris Perlman
The Bcl-2 family is considered the guardian of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. We demonstrate that Bim acts as a molecular rheostat by controlling macrophage function not only in lymphoid organs but also in end organs, thereby preventing the break in tolerance. Mice lacking Bim in myeloid cells (LysM(Cre)Bim(fl/fl)) develop a systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)-like disease that mirrors aged Bim(-/-) mice, including loss of marginal zone macrophages, splenomegaly, lymphadenopathy, autoantibodies (including anti-DNA IgG), and a type I interferon signature...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111236/reprint-of-dual-blockade-of-the-pro-inflammatory-chemokine-ccl2-and-the-homeostatic-chemokine-cxcl12-is-as-effective-as-high-dose-cyclophosphamide-in-murine-proliferative-lupus-nephritis
#13
Satish Kumar Devarapu, Santhosh Kumar Vr, Khader Valli Rupanagudi, Onkar P Kulkarni, Dirk Eulberg, Sven Klussmann, Hans-Joachim Anders
Induction therapy of proliferative lupus nephritis still requires the use of unselective immunosuppressive drugs with significant toxicities. In search of more specific drugs with equal efficacy but fewer side effects we considered blocking pro-inflammatory chemokine monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1/CCL2) and homeostatic chemokine stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1/CXCL12), which both contribute to the onset and progression of proliferative lupus nephritis yet through different mechanisms. We hypothesized that dual antagonism could be as potent on lupus nephritis as the unselective immunosuppressant cyclophosphamide (CYC)...
October 27, 2017: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108517/inferior-long-term-outcomes-for-kidney-transplant-recipients-with-an-immunologically-mediated-primary-renal-disease
#14
Evaldo Favi, José Alberto Rodrigues Pedroso, Maria Paola Salerno, Gionata Spagnoletti, Jacopo Romagnoli, Franco Citterio
OBJECTIVES: Recurrent glomerulonephritis can negatively affect kidney allograft survival. However, how primary renal disease affects transplant outcomes in the new era of immunosuppression remains unclear. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We categorized 426 kidney transplant recipients (performed from 1996 to 2007) into 4 disease groups: (1) 99 recipients with biopsy-proven immunologically mediated kidney disease, (2) 40 recipients with urologic disease, (3) 67 recipients with polycystic kidney disease, and (4) 220 recipients with other causes of terminal renal failure/uncertain kidney disease...
October 31, 2017: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106654/the-population-level-costs-of-immunosuppression-medications-for-the-treatment-of-glomerulonephritis-are-increasing-over-time-due-to-changing-patterns-of-practice
#15
Sean Barbour, Clifford Lo, Gabriela Espino-Hernandez, Sharareh Sajjadi, John Feehally, Scott Klarenbach, Jagbir Gill
Background: Immunosuppression (IS) is the main treatment for most types of glomerulonephritis (GN). Quantifying the cost of IS is necessary to ensure equitable access to therapies and optimal health outcomes, but the real-world cost of IS treatment for GN is largely unknown. We examined temporal changes in the population-level IS medication costs for GN over a 14-year period in a large Canadian province. Methods: We linked a provincial pathology database (containing all GN cases from 2000 to 2012) with renal and medication administrative databases to capture clinical characteristics and IS medications, with follow-up until 2013...
July 2, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106627/bi-nucleation-of-podocytes-is-uniformly-accompanied-by-foot-processes-widening-in-renal-disease
#16
Johanna Mühldorfer, Eva Pfister, Maike Büttner-Herold, Monika Klewer, Kerstin Amann, Christoph Daniel
Background: Podocytes are terminally differentiated glomerular cells expressing a highly complex architecture and lacking the ability to proliferate. However, during renal injury or stress these cells can re-enter into the cell cycle but fail to divide. As a consequence, bi- and multi-nucleated podocytes can be identified in renal biopsies from patients with various kidney diseases. It is still unclear whether the occurrence of such cells is dependent on or correlates with renal damage and if bi- or multi-nucleation results in ultrastructural alterations such as e...
July 2, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104670/expression-of-foxp3-in-renal-tissue-of-patients-with-hbv-associated-glomerulonephritis-and-their-clinical-and-pathological-characteristics
#17
Wenge Zhao, Yanli Ma, Mingmin Wang, Changhe Shi, Jianping Sun, Kaiqiu Chu, Chuansheng Liu
Our study retrospectively investigated the expression of forkhead/winged helix transcription factor (Foxp3) in renal tissue and clinical features of patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV)-associated glomerulonephritis (HBV-GN). A total of 58 patients with HBV-GN were assigned to group A; 45 serum and renal tissue HBsAg-negative patients with nephritis were group B; 24 serum HBsAg-positive and renal tissue HBsAg-negative patients with slightly increased serum creatinine without nephritis were group C. Clinical manifestations, laboratory indices and renal biopsies were recorded...
November 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104431/a-case-of-rare-diffuse-alveolar-hemorrhage-and-review-of-literature
#18
Viviana Scollo, Luca Zanoli, Elisa Russo, Giulio Distefano, Francesco Rapisarda
It is well known that some disorders can cause concomitant kidney dysfunction with lung involvement. These syndromes, characterized by the simultaneous presence of intra-alveolar hemorrhage and acute glomerulonephritis, are caused by numerous and variable disorders. The most frequent are the antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA)-associated vasculitis and Goodpasture syndrome. A quick discerning of the underlying causes and initiation of adequate treatment is crucial to prevent acute respiratory failure and irreversible loss of renal function...
2017: Clinical Medicine Insights. Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101552/long-term-renal-outcome-in-pediatric-glomerulonephritis-associated-with-crescent-formation
#19
Pornpimol Rianthavorn, Manunya Chacranon
BACKGROUND: Information on long-term renal outcome of pediatric glomerulonephritis associated with crescent formation is limited. A single center retrospective study was conducted to assess long-term renal survival and to determine whether the 2010 classification for antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated glomerulonephritis can predict renal outcome in pediatric glomerulonephritis associated with crescent formation. METHODS: Biopsy and clinical data of children, aged ≤ 18 years with ≥ 10 glomeruli and ≥ 10% crescentic glomeruli during January 1998 to December 2015, were reviewed...
November 3, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098140/mpgn-and-mixed-cryoglobulinemia-in-a-patient-with-hepatitis-c-new-treatment-implications-and-renal-outcomes
#20
Shannon B Palombo, Eric C Wendel, Laura R Kidd, Farshid Yazdi, Mihran V Naljayan
. INTRODUCTION: The association of hepatitis C virus (HCV), cryoglobulinemia, and membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN) is well known. Treatment of underlying HCV infection has greatly improved in recent years with the introduction of direct-acting antivirals (DAA), which have demonstrated curative sustained viral response (SVR) rates for select viral genotypes with the added benefit of less drug side effects. However, a mainstay of newer DAAs is sofosbuvir, which is contraindicated in patients with severe renal impairment...
2017: Clin Nephrol Case Stud
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