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Medical Virtue

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682610/the-empirical-effect-of-gaussian-noise-in-undersampled-mri-reconstruction
#1
Patrick Virtue, Michael Lustig
In Fourier-based medical imaging, sampling below the Nyquist rate results in an underdetermined system, in which a linear reconstruction will exhibit artifacts. Another consequence is lower signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) because of fewer acquired measurements. Even if one could obtain information to perfectly disambiguate the underdetermined system, the reconstructed image could still have lower image quality than a corresponding fully sampled acquisition because of reduced measurement time. The coupled effects of low SNR and underdetermined system during reconstruction makes it difficult to isolate the impact of low SNR on image quality...
December 2017: Tomography: a Journal for Imaging Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622085/l-inermis-loaded-nanofibrous-scaffolds-for-wound-dressing-applications
#2
Saeid Vakilian, Mohammad Norouzi, Mahsa Soufi-Zomorrod, Iman Shabani, Simzar Hosseinzadeh, Masoud Soleimani
Since ancient times, some herbal medicines have been extensively used for burn and wound treatments, showing preference to the common synthetic medications by virtue of having less side effects and faster healing rate. In this study, hybrid nanofibrous scaffolds of poly-l-lactic-acid (PLLA) and gelatin incorporated L. inermis were fabricated via electrospinning technique. Morphology and characteristics of the scaffolds were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), respectively...
April 2018: Tissue & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29584542/toward-decentralized-agrigenomic-surveillance-a-polymerase-chain-reaction-restriction-fragment-length-polymorphism-approach-for-adaptable-and-rapid-detection-of-user-defined-fungal-pathogens-in-potato-crops
#3
Manousos E Kambouris, Yiannis Manoussopoulos, Stavroula Kritikou, Aphroditi Milioni, Spyridon Mantzoukas, Aristea Velegraki
Agrigenomics is one of the emerging focus areas for omics sciences. Yet, agrigenomics differs from medical omics applications such as pharmacogenomics and precision medicine, by virtue of vastly distributed geography of applications at the intersection of agriculture, nutrition, and genomics research streams. Crucially, agrigenomics can address diagnostics and safety surveillance needs in remote and rural farming communities or decentralized food, crop, and environmental monitoring programs for prompt, selective, and differential identification of pathogens...
March 27, 2018: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29540881/harmful-consequences-of-specific-substances-on-the-oral-health
#4
Sameer Shaikh, Mohammad Aljanakh, Ibrahim Khalil Al Ibrahim, Mohammad Sohail Memon
Numerous substances may have an adverse influence on the oral region by virtue of their potentially harmful effects. Dental practitioners are often the first to see these effects in the head and neck region. Knowledge of the damaging consequences of agents such as alcohol, tobacco, areca nut, medications, alcohol-containing mouthwashes, dental devices and materials can assist the practitioners in clinical decision-making and accurate diagnosis of associated lesions. More importantly, timely diagnosis and prompt reporting of such harmful effects improve the quality of care...
March 2018: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29392472/single-dose-local-administration-of-parathyroid-hormone-1-34-pth-with-%C3%AE-tricalcium-phosphate-collagen-%C3%AE-tcp-col-enhances-bone-defect-healing-in-ovariectomized-rats
#5
Zhou-Shan Tao, Wan-Shu Zhou, Xin-Jing Wu, Lin Wang, Min Yang, Jia-Bing Xie, Zhu-Jun Xu, Guo-Zheng Ding
Parathyroid hormone (1-34, PTH) combined β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) achieves stable bone regeneration without cell transplantation in previous studies. Recently, with the development of tissue engineering slow release technology, PTH used locally to promote bone defect healing become possible. This study by virtue of collagen with a combination of drugs and has a slow release properties, and investigated bone regeneration by β-TCP/collagen (β-TCP/COL) with the single local administration of PTH. After the creation of a rodent critical-sized femoral metaphyseal bone defect, β-TCP/COL was prepared by mixing sieved granules of β-TCP and atelocollagen for medical use, then β-TCP/COL with dripped PTH solution (1...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29376973/-the-modular-strategy-for-the-informational-support-of-medical-activities-based-at-the-spa-and-health-resort-facilities-under-conditions-of-infrastructure-deficit
#6
V V Yezhov, D L Goldberg, P E Grigorev, V I Mizin, A V Olenchuk, I V Vasilieva
The Crimean peninsula, by virtue of its unique geographical conditions, has a variety of natural resources providing a basis for the maintenance of the health resort activities in the region. However, most local health centers suffer from the chronic and difficultly avoidable in the short term problems with logistical support, including the shortage of computers and the lack of modern network infrastructure. This circumstance limits the deployment capabilities of high-grade medical information systems for the automation of all components of the activity of health resorts and the significant improvement of the performance of other aspects of their work, such as efficient patient routing, workflow optimization, limiting the opportunities for the realization of certain corruption schemes by the staff...
December 5, 2017: Voprosy Kurortologii, Fizioterapii, i Lechebnoĭ Fizicheskoĭ Kultury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29358464/mortality-reduction-in-empa-reg-outcome-trial-beyond-the-antidiabetes-effect
#7
Samy Suissa
Two recent large-scale cardiovascular outcome trials, a now common tool in assessing the safety of pharmacological treatments for type 2 diabetes, reported significant reductions in all-cause mortality. In EMPA-REG OUTCOME [BI 10773 (Empagliflozin) Cardiovascular Outcome Event Trial in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients], patients who received the SGLT2 inhibitor empagliflozin had a notable reduction of 9.2 deaths per 1,000 per year, while LEADER (Liraglutide Effect and Action in Diabetes: Evaluation of Cardiovascular Outcome Results-A Long Term Evaluation) found that the patients receiving the GLP-1 receptor agonist liraglutide had a reduction of 3...
February 2018: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351403/project-on-the-good-physician-further-evidence-for-the-validity-of-a-moral-intuitionist-model-of-virtuous-caring
#8
G Michael Leffel, Ross A Oakes Mueller, Sandra A Ham, Kyle E Karches, Farr A Curlin, John D Yoon
THEORY: In the Project on the Good Physician, the authors propose a moral intuitionist model of virtuous caring that places the virtues of Mindfulness, Empathic Compassion, and Generosity at the heart of medical character education. HYPOTHESES: Hypothesis 1a: The virtues of Mindfulness, Empathic Compassion, and Generosity will be positively associated with one another (convergent validity). Hypothesis 1b: The virtues of Mindfulness and Empathic Compassion will explain variance in the action-related virtue of Generosity beyond that predicted by Big Five personality traits alone (discriminant validity)...
January 19, 2018: Teaching and Learning in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346354/compassion-from-a-palliative-care-perspective
#9
Antonio Fernando, Conor Rea, Phillipa J Malpas
BACKGROUND: Compassion is a core virtue in medicine and lies at the heart of good medical care. It connects us to each other and reflects our need for relationships with others. AIM: Our aim is to explore how palliative care patients perceive, understand and experience compassion from health professionals, and to inform clinical practice. METHODS: Seven hospice managers in the North Island of New Zealand were contacted and invited to join the study...
January 19, 2018: New Zealand Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282423/establishment-of-medical-education-upon-internalization-of-virtue-ethics-bridging-the-gap-between-theory-and-practice
#10
Mansoureh Madani, Bagher Larijani, Ensieh Madani, Nazafarin Ghasemzadeh
During medical training, students obtain enough skills and knowledge. However, medical ethics accomplishes its goals when, together with training medical courses, it guides students behavior towards morality so that ethics-oriented medical practice is internalized. Medical ethics is a branch of applied ethics which tries to introduce ethics into physicians' practice and ethical decisions; thus, it necessitates the behavior to be ethical. Therefore, when students are being trained, they need to be supplied with those guidelines which turn ethical instructions into practice to the extent possible...
2017: Journal of Medical Ethics and History of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242573/extremely-premature-birth-informed-written-consent-and-the-greek-ideal-of-sophrosyne
#11
Joseph W Kaempf, Kevin Dirksen
Most extremely premature infants die in the intensive care unit or suffer significant neurologic impairment. Many therapies result in unhealthy consequences, and the emotional and financial turmoil for families warrant reappraisal of our motives. Shared decision-making and informed consent in preference-sensitive conditions imply the family: (a) understands the medical problem, (b) grasps the risks and benefits of each therapy, (c) has the opportunity to ask questions and reflect upon options, (d) knows their values and preferences are understood, and (e) accepts or declines therapies without judgment or penalty...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226050/determinants-of-computed-tomography-head-scan-ordering-for-patients-with-low-risk-headache-in-the-emergency-department
#12
Meaghan J Mackenzie, Rashi Hiranandani, Dongmei Wang, Tak Fung, Eddy Lang
Background Many specialty societies have found that neuroimaging in headache is a low-value intervention for benign presentations. This study describes factors that influence Emergency Room (ER) physicians' adherence to Choosing Wisely (CW) recommendations for low-risk headache patients presenting to Calgary's Emergency Departments (EDs). Emergency medicine has yet to address imaging in headache as a CW topic; however, this study may inform that decision. Methods Data were retrospectively collected for all patients presenting to Calgary EDs with headaches from April 1, 2014 to March 31, 2016...
October 9, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195773/cognitive-deficits-in-bipolar-disorders-implications-for-emotion
#13
REVIEW
Isabela M M Lima, Andrew D Peckham, Sheri L Johnson
Prominent cognitive deficits have been documented in bipolar disorder, and multiple studies suggest that these deficits can be observed among non-affected first-degree relatives of those with bipolar disorder. Although there is variability in the degree of cognitive deficits, these deficits are robustly relevant for functional outcomes. A separate literature documents clear difficulties in emotionality, emotion regulation, and emotion-relevant impulsivity within bipolar disorder, and demonstrates that these emotion-relevant variables are also central to outcome...
February 2018: Clinical Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183249/truth-telling-decision-making-and-ethics-among-cancer-patients-in-nursing-practice-in-china
#14
Dong-Lan Ling, Hong-Jing Yu, Hui-Ling Guo
BACKGROUND: Truth-telling toward terminally ill patients is a challenging ethical issue in healthcare practice. However, there are no existing ethical guidelines or frameworks provided for Chinese nurses in relation to decision-making on truth-telling of terminal illness and the role of nurses thus is not explicit when encountering this issue. OBJECTIVES: The intention of this paper is to provide ethical guidelines or strategies with regards to decision-making on truth-telling of terminal illness for Chinese nurses...
January 1, 2017: Nursing Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162500/the-emerging-role-of-immune-dysfunction-in-mitochondrial-diseases-as-a-paradigm-for-understanding-immunometabolism
#15
REVIEW
Senta M Kapnick, Susan E Pacheco, Peter J McGuire
Immunometabolism aims to define the role of intermediary metabolism in immune cell function, with bioenergetics and the mitochondria recently taking center stage. To date, the medical literature on mitochondria and immune function extols the virtues of mouse models in exploring this biologic intersection. While the laboratory mouse has become a standard for studying mammalian biology, this model comprises part of a comprehensive approach. Humans, with their broad array of inherited phenotypes, serve as a starting point for studying immunometabolism; specifically, patients with mitochondrial disease...
November 18, 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133075/spinal-cord-self-repair-during-tail-regeneration-in-polypedates-maculatus-and-putative-role-of-fgf1-as-a-neurotrophic-factor
#16
Jutshina Hota, Sushri Sangita Pati, Pravati Kumari Mahapatra
Spinal cord injury could be fatal in man and often results in irreversible medical conditions affecting mobility. However, anuran amphibians win over such pathological condition by the virtue of regeneration abilities. The tail of anuran tadpoles therefore allures researchers to study spinal cord injury and self- repair process. In the present study, we inflicted injury to the spinal cord by means of surgical transection of the tail and investigated the self-repair activity in the tadpoles of the Indian tree frog Polypedates maculatus...
March 2018: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095468/silk-fibroin-assisted-exfoliation-and-functionalization-of-transition-metal-dichalcogenide-nanosheets-for-antibacterial-wound-dressings
#17
Xiao-Wei Huang, Jing-Jing Wei, Tong Liu, Xue-Liang Zhang, Shu-Meng Bai, Huang-Hao Yang
Two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) have attracted rapidly increasing attention due to their fascinating properties and potential applications. However, scalable and cost-effective methods to produce thin-layer TMD nanosheets and their functional composites with environmental benignity are still limited. Herein, we develop a facile and environmentally friendly method for the scalable production of thin-layer TMD nanosheets in an aqueous medium by using silk fibroin, a natural and abundant biopolymer, as the exfoliating agent...
November 16, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089015/a-response-to-proposed-budget-cuts-affecting-children-s-mental-health-protecting-policies-and-programs-that-promote-collective-efficacy
#18
Kimberly Eaton Hoagwood, Marc Atkins, Sarah Horwitz, Krista Kutash, S Serene Olin, Barbara Burns, Robin Peth-Pierce, Anne Kuppinger, Geraldine Burton, Priscilla Shorter, Kelly J Kelleher
Children stand to lose if the federal government follows through on threats to cut funding for critical safety-net programs that have long supported families and communities. Although cuts directly targeting children's mental health are a great concern, cuts to policies that support health, housing, education, and family income are equally disturbing. These less publicized proposed cuts affect children indirectly, but they have direct effects on their families and communities. The importance of these services is supported by an extensive body of social learning research that promotes collective efficacy-neighbors positively influencing each other-shown to have positive long-term effects on children's development and adult outcomes...
March 1, 2018: Psychiatric Services: a Journal of the American Psychiatric Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058946/impact-of-a-novel-interprofessional-dental-and-pharmacy-student-tobacco-cessation-education-programme-on-dental-patient-outcomes
#19
Shannon Myers Virtue, Melissa E Rotz, Matthew Boyd, Jillian L Lykon, Elizabeth M Waldron, Jacqueline Theodorou
The dental setting presents a unique opportunity to assist patients with tobacco cessation. Many dental providers do not feel prepared to provide tobacco cessation, particularly with regard to education on pharmacological treatments. An interprofessional practice experience with dental and pharmacy students provides a novel approach to tobacco cessation in the dental setting, but it is not known whether such methods affect patient outcomes. The goal of the study was to examine the impact of a novel dental and pharmacy student tobacco cessation education programme on patient knowledge gained, barriers to utilising cessation medications, quit intentions, and quit behaviours as compared to standard care...
January 2018: Journal of Interprofessional Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049112/america-s-opioid-epidemic-supply-and-demand-considerations
#20
REVIEW
David J Clark, Mark A Schumacher
America is in the midst of an opioid epidemic characterized by aggressive prescribing practices, highly prevalent opioid misuse, and rising rates of prescription and illicit opioid overdose-related deaths. Medical and lay public sentiment have become more cautious with respect to prescription opioid use in the past few years, but a comprehensive strategy to reduce our reliance on prescription opioids is lacking. Addressing this epidemic through reductions in unnecessary access to these drugs while implementing measures to reduce demand will be important components of any comprehensive solution...
November 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
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