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Medical Virtue

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818349/fifteen-year-decrease-in-general-surgery-resident-breast-operative-experience-are-we-training-proficient-breast-surgeons
#1
Kelsey E Larson, Stephen R Grobmyer, Mika A B Reschke, Stephanie A Valente
OBJECTIVE: The goal of the study was to evaluate trends in general surgery resident breast cases over the past 15 years. STUDY DESIGN: The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) Case Logs Statistics Reports from 2000 to 2015 were reviewed for average breast-specific case numbers and trends over time. ACGME data were available for all cases and breast-specific cases including the following: excisional biopsy/lumpectomy, simple mastectomy, modified radical mastectomy, and sentinel lymph node excision...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Surgical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815690/treatment-of-individuals-who-cannot-receive-blood-products-for-religious-or-other-reasons
#2
REVIEW
Carlton D Scharman, Joseph J Shatzel, Edward Kim, Thomas G DeLoughery
By virtue of their religious principles, Jehovah's Witnesses (JWs) generally object to receiving blood products, raising numerous ethical, legal, and medical challenges for providers who care for these patients, especially in the emergent setting. In this review, we discuss several areas relevant to the care of JWs, including the current literature on "bloodless" medical care in the setting of peri- and intra-operative management, acute blood loss, trauma, pregnancy, and malignancy. We have found that medical and administrative efforts in the form of bloodless medicine and surgery programs can be instrumental in helping to reduce risks of morbidity and mortality in these patients...
August 17, 2017: American Journal of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765415/making-difficult-decisions-with-older-patients-on-medical-wards
#3
Bushra Khizar, Rowan H Harwood
Decision making with older people can be difficult because of medical complexity, uncertainty (about prognosis, treatment effectiveness and priorities), difficulties brought by cognitive and communication impairment and the multiple family and other stakeholders who may need to be involved. The usual approach, based on balancing benefits and burdens of a treatment, and then deciding on the basis of autonomy (or best interests for someone lacking mental capacity), within the constraints of resources and equity, remains valid, but is often inadequate...
July 2017: Clinical Medicine: Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of London
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753607/total-and-differential-wbc-counts-are-related-with-coronary-artery-atherosclerosis-and-increase-the-risk-for-cardiovascular-disease-in-koreans
#4
Jung Hee Kim, Soo Lim, Kyong Soo Park, Hak Chul Jang, Sung Hee Choi
OBJECTIVE: Inflammation is a key mechanism of atherosclerosis. White blood cells (WBCs) play a pivotal role in the inflammatory process. We investigated the relationships between total and differential WBC counts and multi-detector cardiac computed tomography (MDCT) findings, as well as the risk of cardiovascular disease in asymptomatic patients in Korea. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We recruited asymptomatic men (n = 7274) and women (n = 5478) aged ≥30 years who were free of known coronary heart disease...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707631/-in-our-own-words-defining-medical-professionalism-from-a-latin-american-perspective
#5
Klaus Puschel, Paula Repetto, Margarita Bernales, Jorge Barros, Ivan Perez, Linda Snell
BACKGROUND: Latin America has experienced a tremendous growth in a number of medical schools, and there are concerns about their quality of training in critical areas such as professionalism. Medical professionalism is a cultural construct. The aim of the study was to compare published definitions of medical professionalism from Latin American and non-Latin American regions and to design an original and culturally sound definition. METHODS: A mixed methods approach was used with three phases...
January 2017: Education for Health: Change in Training & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704203/nurturing-virtues-of-the-medical-profession-does-it-enhance-medical-students-empathy
#6
Marcelo Schweller, Diego Lima Ribeiro, Eloisa Valer Celeri, Marco Antonio de Carvalho-Filho
Objectives: To examine if the empathy levels of first-year medical students are amenable to didactic interventions idealized to promote values inherent to medical professional identity. Methods: This is a pretest-posttest study designed to assess the empathy levels of first-year medical students (n=166) comprising two consecutive classes of a Brazilian medical school, performed before and after a didactic intervention. Students attended a course based on values and virtues related to medical professional identity once a week over four months...
July 11, 2017: International Journal of Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668645/herbal-medicinal-products-evidence-and-tradition-from-a-historical-perspective
#7
Robert Jütte, Michael Heinrich, Axel Helmstädter, Jost Langhorst, Günter Meng, Wilhelm Niebling, Tanja Pommerening, Hans J Trampisch
BACKGROUND: Aside from the fully licensed herbal medicines there are products on the European pharmaceutical market which are registered by virtue of their longstanding traditional use. The normal registration procedure does not apply to them because presently they do not meet the legal requirements for a full license as set out in the relevant European Union Directive. One of these requirements, "proof of tradition", has so far been dealt with in different ways and fails to meet the criteria of good practice...
June 29, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664997/differentiating-predatory-scholarship-best-practices-in-scholarly-publication
#8
Jimmy Gonzalez, Mary Barna Bridgeman, Evelyn R Hermes-DeSantis
OBJECTIVE: The intent of this article is to define predatory publishing, identify the risks and costs associated with publishing scholarship with these types of organizations and to provide recommendations for best practices how a potential author can protect themselves against predatory organizations. METHODS: A thorough review of the literature concerning predatory publishing was conducted and gleaned for best practices along with the authors' experiences. KEY FINDINGS: Pharmacy scholars and researchers worldwide recognize the virtues of the open access (OA) publication system, which is intended to freely disseminate research electronically, stimulate innovation and improve access to scholarship...
June 30, 2017: International Journal of Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559456/can-exercise-suppress-tumour-growth-in-advanced-prostate-cancer-patients-with-sclerotic-bone-metastases-a-randomised-controlled-study-protocol-examining-feasibility-safety-and-efficacy
#9
Nicolas H Hart, Robert U Newton, Nigel A Spry, Dennis R Taaffe, Suzanne K Chambers, Kynan T Feeney, David J Joseph, Andrew D Redfern, Tom Ferguson, Daniel A Galvão
INTRODUCTION: Exercise may positively alter tumour biology through numerous modulatory and regulatory mechanisms in response to a variety of modes and dosages, evidenced in preclinical models to date. Specifically, localised and systemic biochemical alterations produced during and following exercise may suppress tumour formation, growth and distribution by virtue of altered epigenetics and endocrine-paracrine activity. Given the impressive ability of targeted mechanical loading to interfere with metastasis-driven tumour formation in human osteolytic tumour cells, it is of equal interest to determine whether a similar effect is observed in sclerotic tumour cells...
May 30, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543658/the-virtues-of-national-ethics-committees
#10
Jonathan Montgomery
The United Kingdom has many bodies that play their part in carrying out the work of national ethics committees, but its nearest equivalent of a U.S. presidential bioethics commission is the Nuffield Council on Bioethics, established in 1991. The Council is charged with examining ethical questions raised by developments in biological and medical research, publishing reports, and making representations to appropriate bodies in order to respond to or anticipate public concern. It is a nongovernment organization with no defined or guaranteed channels of influence...
May 2017: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502222/understanding-pain-physiology-and-its-application-to-person-with-intellectual-disability
#11
Owen Doody, Maria E Bailey
The issue of pain warrants attention as, by virtue of having an intellectual disability, a person may have associated medical or physical conditions and associated factors increasing their risk of pain disorders. People with intellectual disability experiencing pain need to be provided with the best possible care. The focus of this article is on the exploration of pain: physiology and types; manifestations and responses in the context of intellectual disability in order to promote effective, knowledgeable assessment and management of pain for this client group...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Intellectual Disabilities: JOID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448205/practicing-maternal-virtues-prematurely-the-phenomenology-of-maternal-identity-in-medically-high-risk-pregnancy
#12
Laura Curran, Judith McCoyd, Shari Munch, Bonnie Wilkenfeld
In this study, we examine the phenomenology of maternal identity development among U.S. women hospitalized with medically high-risk pregnancies (MHRP). We conducted 16 in-depth interviews with women and found that they drew on culturally normative notions of maternal nurture, worry, and sacrifice to construct maternal identity in the context of MHRP. Based on our findings, we suggest that MHRP shape women's sense of connection to and distinctive cognitive representations of their fetus. We conclude that hospitalization simultaneously promotes and challenges women's early maternal identifications...
April 27, 2017: Health Care for Women International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430569/courage-and-compassion-virtues-in-caring-for-so-called-difficult-patients
#13
Michael Hawking, Farr A Curlin, John D Yoon
What, if anything, can medical ethics offer to assist in the care of the "difficult" patient? We begin with a discussion of virtue theory and its application to medical ethics. We conceptualize the "difficult" patient as an example of a "moral stress test" that especially challenges the physician's character, requiring the good physician to display the virtues of courage and compassion. We then consider two clinical vignettes to flesh out how these virtues might come into play in the care of "difficult" patients, and we conclude with a brief proposal for how medical educators might cultivate these essential character traits in physicians-in-training...
April 1, 2017: AMA Journal of Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425740/-healthier-than-thou-practicing-what-you-preach-backfires-by-increasing-anticipated-devaluation-correction-to-howe-and-monin-2017
#14
(no author information available yet)
Reports an error in "Healthier Than Thou? "Practicing What You Preach" Backfires by Increasing Anticipated Devaluation" by Lauren C. Howe and Benoît Monin (Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Advanced Online Publication, Feb 27, 2017, np). In the article, the beginning phrase of the second paragraph of the Internal Meta-Analysis of Studies 3 Through 5 section is incorrect. It should instead begin as follows: Across the three studies. The Monin et al. (2014) reference in both the References list and in text is included in error...
May 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414143/the-use-of-hemoglobin-vesicles-for-delivering-medicinal-gas-for-the-treatment-of-intractable-disorders
#15
REVIEW
Kazuaki Taguchi, Keishi Yamasaki, Hiromi Sakai, Toru Maruyama, Masaki Otagiri
Bioactive gaseous molecules, such as oxygen (O2) and carbon monoxide (CO), are essential elements for most living organisms to maintain their homeostasis and biological activities. An accumulating body of evidence suggests that such molecules can be used in clinics as a medical gas in the treatment of various intractable disorders. Recent developments in hemoglobin-encapsulated liposomes, namely hemoglobin vesicles (HbV), possess great potential for retaining O2 and CO and could lead to strategies for the development of novel pharmacological agents as medical gas donors...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386310/the-utility-of-ovotransferrin-and-ovotransferrin-derived-peptides-as-possible-candidates-in-the-clinical-treatment-of-cardiovascular-diseases
#16
REVIEW
Shuang Chen, Hongmei Jiang, Hanhui Peng, Xiaosong Wu, Jun Fang
Several of the most prevalent etiological factors which contribute towards global death rates are associated with cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), which include a range of conditions such as angina, rheumatic heart disease, and venous thrombosis. Extensive research has been conducted into the role played by oxidative stress and inflammation in the functional transformations associated with the progression of CVDs, while the research findings from these investigations have been both fruitful and informative. In view of the adverse secondary effects that result from the clinical administration of many synthetic medications, research which explored the treatment of severe and long-lasting conditions, including CVDs, has primarily centered on the potential benefits displayed by natural agents, one of which is food protein-based bioactive peptides...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361455/development-of-albumin-coupled-cholesterol-stabilized-lipid-nanoemulsion-of-methotrexate-and-tnf-%C3%AE-inhibitor-for-improved-in-vivo-efficacy-against-rheumatoid-arthritis
#17
Xiao-Yan Li, Hui Li, Yan Zhang, Shan Gao, Chun-Ping Dong, Gui-Fu Wu
Methotrexate (MTX; an anti-folate) and etanercept (ET; a TNF-α inhibitor) are used against arthritis; however, limitations like short biological half-life, low cutaneous absorption, and acidic instability limit their clinical relevance. Therefore, the aim of the investigation was to develop albumin coupled lipid nanoemulsion of MTX and ET for improved efficacy by virtue of their controlled release and specificity at the arthritic site. This emulsion was prepared by high-speed homogenization and stabilized using cholesterol...
March 30, 2017: AAPS PharmSciTech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303366/ancillary-care-obligations-in-light-of-an-african-bioethic-from-entrustment-to-communion
#18
Thaddeus Metz
Henry Richardson recently published the first book ever devoted to ancillary care obligations, which roughly concern what medical researchers are morally required to provide to participants beyond what safety requires. In it, Richardson notes that he is presenting the 'only fully elaborated view out there' on this topic, which he calls the 'partial-entrustment model'. In this article, I provide a new theory of ancillary care obligations, one that is grounded on ideals of communion salient in the African philosophical tradition and that is intended to rival and surpass Richardson's model, which is a function of Western considerations of autonomy...
March 16, 2017: Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274325/consent-for-the-diagnosis-of-preclinical-dementia-states-a-review
#19
REVIEW
Julian C Hughes, Thomas A Ingram, Aron Jarvis, Elise Denton, Zoe Lampshire, Cathy Wernham
It is now possible to detect the pathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD) many years before symptoms and signs otherwise become manifest. Biomarkers of disease include evidence of amyloid and tau in the cerebrospinal fluid and neuroimaging which (for instance) allows amyloid in the brain to be visualized. There is, thus, a preclinical state in which it is possible to identify Alzheimer's pathology long before there is clinical evidence of disease. Much research focuses on this preclinical state because it seems likely that treatments will be more effective before the disease is established...
April 2017: Maturitas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247484/the-involvement-of-coordinative-interactions-in-the-binding-of-dihydrolipoamide-dehydrogenase-to-titanium-dioxide-localization-of-a-putative-binding-site
#20
Avraham Dayan, Gilad Babin, Assaf Ganoth, Nivin Samir Kayouf, Neta Nitoker Eliaz, Srijana Mukkala, Yossi Tsfadia, Gideon Fleminger
Titanium (Ti) and its alloys are widely used in orthodontic and orthopedic implants by virtue to their high biocompatibility, mechanical strength, and high resistance to corrosion. Biointegration of the implants with the tissue requires strong interactions, which involve biological molecules, proteins in particular, with metal oxide surfaces. An exocellular high-affinity titanium dioxide (TiO2 )-binding protein (TiBP), purified from Rhodococcus ruber, has been previously studied in our lab. This protein was shown to be homologous with the orthologous cytoplasmic rhodococcal dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (rhDLDH)...
February 28, 2017: Journal of Molecular Recognition: JMR
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