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Medical heuristics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616775/informing-reimbursement-decisions-using-cost-effectiveness-modelling-a-guide-to-the-process-of-generating-elicited-priors-to-capture-model-uncertainties
#1
Laura Bojke, Bogdan Grigore, Dina Jankovic, Jaime Peters, Marta Soares, Ken Stein
In informing decisions, utilising health technology assessment (HTA), expert elicitation can provide valuable information, particularly where there is a less-developed evidence-base at the point of market access. In these circumstances, formal methods to elicit expert judgements are preferred to improve the accountability and transparency of the decision-making process, help reduce bias and the use of heuristics, and also provide a structure that allows uncertainty to be expressed. Expert elicitation is the process of transforming the subjective and implicit knowledge of experts into their quantifiable expressions...
June 15, 2017: PharmacoEconomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558674/learning-rule-sets-from-survival-data
#2
Łukasz Wróbel, Adam Gudyś, Marek Sikora
BACKGROUND: Survival analysis is an important element of reasoning from data. Applied in a number of fields, it has become particularly useful in medicine to estimate the survival rate of patients on the basis of their condition, examination results, and undergoing treatment. The recent developments in the next generation sequencing open new opportunities in survival study as they allow vast amount of genome-, transcriptome-, and proteome-related features to be investigated. These include single nucleotide and structural variants, expressions of genes and microRNAs, DNA methylation, and many others...
May 30, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557534/the-influence-of-information-appraisals-and-information-behaviors-on-the-acceptance-of-health-information-a-study-of-television-medical-talk-shows-in-south-korea
#3
Jae-Seon Jeong, Seungyoon Lee
As television medical talk shows have become an increasingly popular source of health information, it is important to understand the processes by which people come to accept, at times unconditionally, the information presented by these shows. Based on the heuristic-systematic model (HSM), this study explores the way by which individuals process health information from television medical talk shows. Specifically, this study examines the relationship between information exposure, information appraisals (e.g., appropriateness and incoherence), information behaviors (e...
May 30, 2017: Health Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554209/real-world-evidence-and-the-behavioral-economics-of-physician-prescribing
#4
Bruce Feinberg
The projections for the rising cost of healthcare have spurred robust dialogue, and among the many targets for cost control are specialty drugs. An important question thus becomes: Are behavioral economic factors driving physician prescribing? This article presents a review of leading behavioral economic theories and their application to the results of an Oncology Medical Home pilot that reversed incentives from drug administration to patient care. A host of these theories may explain the irrational economic actors in regard to physician prescribing, including heuristics, framing, and defaults...
April 2017: American Journal of Managed Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552971/qualitative-analysis-of-how-patients-decide-that-they-want-risk-reducing-mastectomy-and-the-implications-for-surgeons-in-responding-to-emotionally-motivated-patient-requests
#5
Stephen L Brown, Demian Whiting, Hannah G Fielden, Pooja Saini, Helen Beesley, Christopher Holcombe, Susan Holcombe, Lyn Greenhalgh, Louise Fairburn, Peter Salmon
OBJECTIVE: Contemporary approaches to medical decision-making advise that clinicians should respect patients' decisions. However, patients' decisions are often shaped by heuristics, such as being guided by emotion, rather than by objective risk and benefit. Risk-reducing mastectomy (RRM) decisions focus this dilemma sharply. RRM reduces breast cancer (BC) risk, but is invasive and can have iatrogenic consequences. Previous evidence suggests that emotion guides patients' decision-making about RRM...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551859/cognitive-workload-reduction-in-hospital-information-systems-decision-support-for-order-set-optimization
#6
Daniel Gartner, Yiye Zhang, Rema Padman
Order sets are a critical component in hospital information systems that are expected to substantially reduce physicians' physical and cognitive workload and improve patient safety. Order sets represent time interval-clustered order items, such as medications prescribed at hospital admission, that are administered to patients during their hospital stay. In this paper, we develop a mathematical programming model and an exact and a heuristic solution procedure with the objective of minimizing physicians' cognitive workload associated with prescribing order sets...
May 27, 2017: Health Care Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550998/anticipating-anonymity-in-screening-program-databases
#7
Rafael Caballero, Sagar Sen, Jan F Nygård
In this paper, we propose a technique for improving anonymity in screening program databases to increase the privacy for the participants in these programs. The data generated by the invitation process (screening centre, appointment date) is often made available to researchers for medical research and for evaluation and improvement of the screening program. This information, combined with other personal quasi-identifiers such as the ZIP code, gender or age, can pose a risk of disclosing the identity of the individuals participating in the program, and eventually their test results...
July 2017: International Journal of Medical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535696/the-role-of-the-affect-heuristic-and-cancer-anxiety-in-responding-to-negative-information-about-medical-tests
#8
Laura D Scherer, Victoria A Shaffer, Tanner Caverly, Aaron M Scherer, Brian J Zikmund-Fisher, Jeffrey T Kullgren, Angela Fagerlin
OBJECTIVE: Little is known about the affective implications of communicating negative information about medical tests. This research explored how affective processes - particularly the Affect Heuristic and cancer anxiety - influence the way in which people respond to such information. DESIGN: Participants received different types of information about PSA screening for prostate cancer and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans for migraine headaches. This was a 2 (Test harm information: present vs...
May 23, 2017: Psychology & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534169/-capacity-to-consent-to-treatment-in-dementia-patients-interdisciplinary-perspectives
#9
REVIEW
Julia Haberstroh, Tanja Müller
BACKGROUND: Currently, there are no concrete, evidence-based default procedures to adequately assess the capacity to consent to medical treatment. This explains why different raters use individual heuristics, differing both within and between disciplines. The lack of a procedure that is standardized, validated, and equally accepted across disciplines to assess the capacity to consent to treatment has led to an uncertainty in legal and medical practice regarding appropriate action and decision making...
May 22, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Gerontologie und Geriatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472938/exploring-generative-mechanisms-of-the-antiretroviral-adherence-club-intervention-using-the-realist-approach-a-scoping-review-of-research-based-antiretroviral-treatment-adherence-theories
#10
Ferdinand C Mukumbang, Sara Van Belle, Bruno Marchal, Brian van Wyk
BACKGROUND: Poor retention in care and non-adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) continue to undermine the success of HIV treatment and care programmes across the world. There is a growing recognition that multifaceted interventions - application of two or more adherence-enhancing strategies - may be useful to improve ART adherence and retention in care among people living with HIV/AIDS. Empirical evidence shows that multifaceted interventions produce better results than interventions based on a singular perspective...
May 4, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438724/toward-a-more-usable-home-based-video-telemedicine-system-a-heuristic-evaluation-of-the-clinician-user-interfaces-of-home-based-video-telemedicine-systems
#11
Sruthy Agnisarman, Shraddhaa Narasimha, Kapil Chalil Madathil, Brandon Welch, Fnu Brinda, Aparna Ashok, James McElligott
BACKGROUND: Telemedicine is the use of technology to provide and support health care when distance separates the clinical service and the patient. Home-based telemedicine systems involve the use of such technology for medical support and care connecting the patient from the comfort of their homes with the clinician. In order for such a system to be used extensively, it is necessary to understand not only the issues faced by the patients in using them but also the clinician. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to conduct a heuristic evaluation of 4 telemedicine software platforms-Doxy...
April 24, 2017: JMIR Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413365/integrating-the-principles-of-evidence-based-medicine-and-evidence-based-public-health-impact-on-the-quality-of-patient-care-and-hospital-readmission-rates-in-jordan
#12
Mohammad S Alyahya, Heba H Hijazi, Hussam A Alshraideh, Mohammad Aser Alsharman, Rabah Al Abdi, Heather Lea Harvey
INTRODUCTION: Hospital readmissions impose not only an extra burden on health care systems but impact patient health outcomes. Identifying modifiable behavioural risk factors that are possible causes of potentially avoidable readmissions can lower readmission rates and healthcare costs. METHODS: Using the core principles of evidence based medicine and public health, the purpose of this study was to develop a heuristic guide that could identify what behavioural risk factors influence hospital readmissions through adopting various methods of analysis including regression models, t-tests, data mining, and logistic regression...
August 31, 2016: International Journal of Integrated Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394995/video-analysis-of-factors-associated-with-response-time-to-physiologic-monitor-alarms-in-a-children-s-hospital
#13
Christopher P Bonafide, A Russell Localio, John H Holmes, Vinay M Nadkarni, Shannon Stemler, Matthew MacMurchy, Miriam Zander, Kathryn E Roberts, Richard Lin, Ron Keren
Importance: Bedside monitor alarms alert nurses to life-threatening physiologic changes among patients, but the response times of nurses are slow. Objective: To identify factors associated with physiologic monitor alarm response time. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective cohort study used 551 hours of video-recorded care administered by 38 nurses to 100 children in a children's hospital medical unit between July 22, 2014, and November 11, 2015...
June 1, 2017: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368826/sparse-pathway-induced-dynamic-network-biomarker-discovery-for-early-warning-signal-detection-in-complex-diseases
#14
Abolfazl Doostparast Torshizi, Linda Petzold
In many complex diseases, the transition process from healthy stage to catastrophic stage does not occur gradually. Recent studies indicate that the initiation and progression of such diseases are comprised of three steps including healthy stage, pre-disease stage, and disease stage. It has been demonstrated that a certain set of trajectories can be observed in the genetic signatures at the molecular level, which might be used to detect the pre-disease stage and to take necessary medical interventions. In this paper, we propose two optimization-based algorithms for extracting the dynamic network biomarkers responsible for catastrophic transition into the disease stage, and to open new horizons to reverse the disease progression at an early stage through pinpointing molecular signatures provided by high-throughput microarray data...
March 27, 2017: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329465/youtube-as-a-source-of-health-information-analysis-of-sun-protection-and-skin-cancer-prevention-related-issues
#15
Linda Ruppert, Brian Køster, Anna Maria Siegert, Christian Cop, Lindsay Boyers, Chante Karimkhani, Helena Winston, Jessica Mounessa, Robert P Dellavalle, Daphne Reinau, Thomas Diepgen, Christian Surber
Although social media ubiquitously supplementstraditional information sources such as newspapers,magazines, radio, and television, investigation of onlinehealth information related to sun protection and skincancer prevention has been scarce and largely limitedto English language sources. Using the search terms"sun protection," "sunscreen," "skin cancer prevention,"tanning bed" and "vitamin D," we investigated 281YouTube videos presented in 6 languages: English,German, French, Spanish, Swedish, and Danish. Foreach video, we used a four-sectioned checklist toassess general information, popularity, expert drivenmeasures, and heuristic driven measures...
January 15, 2017: Dermatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328885/introducing-therioepistemology-the-study-of-how-knowledge-is-gained-from-animal-research
#16
REVIEW
Joseph P Garner, Brianna N Gaskill, Elin M Weber, Jamie Ahloy-Dallaire, Kathleen R Pritchett-Corning
This focus issue of Lab Animal coincides with a tipping point in biomedical research. For the first time, the scale of the reproducibility and translatability crisis is widely understood beyond the small cadre of researchers who have been studying it and the pharmaceutical and biotech companies who have been living it. Here we argue that an emerging literature, including the papers in this focus issue, has begun to congeal around a set of recurring themes, which themselves represent a paradigm shift. This paradigm shift can be characterized at the micro level as a shift from asking "what have we controlled for in this model?" to asking "what have we chosen to ignore in this model, and at what cost?" At the macro level, it is a shift from viewing animals as tools (the furry test tube), to viewing them as patients in an equivalent human medical study...
March 22, 2017: Lab Animal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269240/automated-abo-rh-d-blood-type-detection-using-smartphone-imaging-for-point-of-care-medical-diagnostics
#17
Neha Srivathsa, Dhananjaya Dendukuri
We present a novel methodology for automated ABO Rh-D blood typing using simple morphological image processing algorithms to be used in conjunction with a fabric strip based rapid diagnostic test. Images of the fabric strip post testing are acquired using low cost mobile phones and the proposed algorithm proceeds to automatically identify the blood type by processing the images using steps comprising of noise reduction, range filtering and empirically derived heuristics. The ultimate goal is to provide a simple mobile phone application to enable automated, rapid and accessible blood type detection at the point-of-care...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269081/an-adapted-double-threshold-protocol-for-spastic-muscles
#18
Pedro M Vieira, Joao F Ferreira, Pedro R Gomes, Carlos S Lima
The onset of muscle contraction has been an important element in the understanding of human motor control system as well as in the development of medical devices. This task is problematic in the study of spasticity using surface Electromyography (sEMG). In fact, spasticity is characterized by involuntary muscle contractions that can be seen as both, a non-stationary background if they are weak or a severe non-stationary EMG signal if they are strong. In other hand, these sEMG signals present a very low signal to noise ratio, beyond the added noise that contaminates this signal...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227474/automated-abo-rh-d-blood-type-detection-using-smartphone-imaging-for-point-of-care-medical-diagnostics
#19
Neha Srivathsa, Dhananjaya Dendukuri, Neha Srivathsa, Dhananjaya Dendukuri, Neha Srivathsa, Dhananjaya Dendukuri
We present a novel methodology for automated ABO Rh-D blood typing using simple morphological image processing algorithms to be used in conjunction with a fabric strip based rapid diagnostic test. Images of the fabric strip post testing are acquired using low cost mobile phones and the proposed algorithm proceeds to automatically identify the blood type by processing the images using steps comprising of noise reduction, range filtering and empirically derived heuristics. The ultimate goal is to provide a simple mobile phone application to enable automated, rapid and accessible blood type detection at the point-of-care...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227301/an-adapted-double-threshold-protocol-for-spastic-muscles
#20
Pedro M Vieira, Joao F Ferreira, Pedro R Gomes, Carlos S Lima, Pedro M Vieira, Joao F Ferreira, Pedro R Gomes, Carlos S Lima, Pedro M Vieira, Joao F Ferreira, Pedro R Gomes, Carlos S Lima
The onset of muscle contraction has been an important element in the understanding of human motor control system as well as in the development of medical devices. This task is problematic in the study of spasticity using surface Electromyography (sEMG). In fact, spasticity is characterized by involuntary muscle contractions that can be seen as both, a non-stationary background if they are weak or a severe non-stationary EMG signal if they are strong. In other hand, these sEMG signals present a very low signal to noise ratio, beyond the added noise that contaminates this signal...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
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