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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679596/observational-studies-of-inhaled-corticosteroid-effectiveness-in-copd-lessons-learned
#1
Samy Suissa, Pierre Ernst
BACKGROUND: Randomized controlled trials at times investigate findings suggested by observational studies. For example, the TORCH trial, which did not show a mortality reduction with inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), was motivated by some observational studies that suggested considerable reductions in mortality with these drugs. Reasons for these discrepancies are unclear. METHODS: We searched the literature to identify all observational studies, including cohort and case-control studies, investigating the effectiveness of ICS on major outcomes in COPD patients, including death and hospitalization for COPD...
April 18, 2018: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677918/collecting-patient-reported-outcomes-in-the-wild-opportunities-and-challenges
#2
Federico Cabitza, Linda Greta Dui
Collecting Patient Reported Outcomes (PROs) is generally seen as an effective way to assess the efficacy and appropriateness of medical interventions, from the patients' perspective. In 2016 the Galeazzi Orthopaedic Institute established a digitized program of PROs collection from spine, hip and knee surgery patients. In this work, we re-port the findings from the data analysis of the responses collected so far about the complementarity of PROs with respect to the data reported by the clinicians, and about the main biases that can undermine their validity and reliability...
2018: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677725/tribological-and-electrical-properties-of-diamond-like-carbon-films-deposited-by-filtered-vacuum-arc-method-for-medical-guidewire-application
#3
Ki-Noh Kang, Hyejeong Jeong, Jaehyeong Lee, Yong Seob Park
A good medical guidewires are used to introduce stents, catheters, and other medical devices inside the human body. In this study, diamond-like carbon (DLC) film was proposed to solve the poor adhesion problem of guidewire and to improve the tribological performance of guidewire. DLC films were fabricated on Si substrate by using FVA (Filtered Vacuum Arc) method. In this work, the tribological, structural, and electrical properties of the fabricated DLC films with various arc currents were experimentally investigated...
September 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673899/it-s-about-time-cesarean-sections-and-neonatal-health
#4
Ana María Costa-Ramón, Ana Rodríguez-González, Miquel Serra-Burriel, Carlos Campillo-Artero
Cesarean sections have been associated in the literature with poorer newborn health, particularly with a higher incidence of respiratory morbidity. Most studies suffer, however, from potential omitted variable bias, as they are based on simple comparisons of mothers who give birth vaginally and those who give birth by cesarean section. We try to overcome this limitation and provide credible causal evidence by using variation in the probability of having a c-section that is arguably unrelated to maternal and fetal characteristics: variation by time of day...
March 27, 2018: Journal of Health Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673266/level-of-agreement-between-medical-record-and-icd-10-am-coding-of-mental-health-alcohol-and-drug-conditions-in-trauma-patients
#5
Tu Q Nguyen, Pamela M Simpson, Sandra C Braaf, Peter A Cameron, Rodney Judson, Belinda J Gabbe
BACKGROUND: Despite the reliance on administrative data in epidemiological studies, there is little information on the completeness of co-morbidities in administrative data coded from medical records. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to quantify the agreement between the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, Australian Modification (ICD-10-AM) administrative coding of mental health, drug and alcohol co-morbidities and medical records in a severely injured patient population...
January 1, 2018: Health Information Management: Journal of the Health Information Management Association of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669583/protocol-for-a-systematic-review-and-thematic-synthesis-of-patient-experiences-of-central-venous-access-devices-in-anti-cancer-treatment
#6
Caoimhe Ryan, Hannah Hesselgreaves, Olivia Wu, Jim Paul, Judith Dixon-Hughes, Jonathan G Moss
BACKGROUND: Three types of central venous access devices (CVADs)-peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs), skin-tunnelled central catheters (Hickman-type devices), and implantable chest wall Ports (Ports)-are routinely used in the intravenous administration of anti-cancer treatment. These devices avoid the need for peripheral cannulation and allow for home delivery of treatment. Assessments of these devices have tended to focus on medical and economic factors, but there is increased interest in the importance of patient experiences and perspectives in this area...
April 18, 2018: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669175/antidepressants-for-preventing-postnatal-depression
#7
REVIEW
Emma Molyneaux, Laurence A Telesia, Carol Henshaw, Elizabeth Boath, Eleanor Bradley, Louise M Howard
BACKGROUND: Depression is common in the postnatal period and can lead to adverse effects on the infant and wider family, in addition to the morbidity for the mother. It is not clear whether antidepressants are effective for the prevention of postnatal depression and little is known about possible adverse effects for the mother and infant, particularly during breastfeeding. This is an update of a Cochrane Review last published in 2005. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of antidepressant medication for the prevention of postnatal depression, in comparison with any other treatment, placebo or standard care...
April 18, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669005/fertility-and-neonatal-outcomes-of-embryos-achieving-blastulation-on-day-7-are-they-of-clinical-value
#8
Tong Du, Yun Wang, Yong Fan, Shiyi Zhang, Zhiguang Yan, Weina Yu, Qianwen Xi, Qiuju Chen, Ben W Mol, Qifeng Lyu, Yanping Kuang
STUDY QUESTION: Is transferring embryos that achieve blastulation on Day 7 effective and safe? SUMMARY ANSWER: Embryos that achieve blastulation on Day 7 resulted in clinically relevant rates of clinical pregnancy (32.5%) and live birth (25.2%), and newborns have a similar risk of low birth weight, congenital malformations or early neonatal death compared with those derived from Days 5 and 6 blastocysts. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Potential advantages of blastocyst transfer over cleavage embryo transfer have led to a shift toward the former in IVF practice...
April 13, 2018: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668839/prognostic-factors-of-functional-outcome-after-hip-fracture-surgery-a-systematic-review
#9
K J Sheehan, L Williamson, J Alexander, C Filliter, B Sobolev, P Guy, L M Bearne, C Sackley
Objective: this systematic review aimed to identify immutable and modifiable prognostic factors of functional outcomes and their proposed mechanism after hip fracture surgery. Design: systematic search of MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, PEDRO, OpenGrey and ClinicalTrials.gov for observational studies of prognostic factors of functional outcome after hip fracture among surgically treated adults with mean age of 65 years and older. Study selection, quality assessment, and data extraction were completed independently by two reviewers...
April 12, 2018: Age and Ageing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667565/longitudinal-associations-between-different-dementia-diagnoses-and-medication-use-jointly-accounting-for-dropout
#10
George O Agogo, Christine M Ramsey, Danijela Gnjidic, Daniela C Moga, Heather Allore
ABSTRACTBackground:Longitudinal studies of older adults are characterized by high dropout rates, multimorbid conditions, and multiple medication use, especially proximal to death. We studied the association between multiple medication use and incident dementia diagnoses including Alzheimer's disease (AD), vascular dementia (VD), and Lewy-body dementia (LBD), simultaneously accounting for dropout. METHODS: Using the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center data with three years of follow-up, a set of covariate-adjusted models that ignore dropout was fit to complete-case data, and to the whole-cohort data...
April 18, 2018: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666309/hospital-admissions-associated-with-medication-non-adherence-a-systematic-review-of-prospective-observational-studies
#11
Pajaree Mongkhon, Darren M Ashcroft, C Norman Scholfield, Chuenjid Kongkaew
BACKGROUND: Medication non-adherence in ambulatory care has received substantial attention in the literature, but less so as it affects acute care. Accordingly, we aimed to estimate the frequency with which non-adherence to medication contributes to hospital admissions. METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Library, EMBASE, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts and PubMed (until December 2017) to identify prospective observational studies that examined prevalence rates of hospital admissions associated with medication non-adherence...
April 17, 2018: BMJ Quality & Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666136/systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-diabetes-mellitus-cardiovascular-and-respiratory-condition-epidemiology-in-sexual-minority-women
#12
Catherine Meads, Adam Martin, Jeffrey Grierson, Justin Varney
OBJECTIVE: Sexual minority women (SMW) experience higher chronic disease risk factors than heterosexual counterparts. However, it was unclear if these risks translate into higher physical condition rates. This systematic review evaluates cardiovascular disease (CVD), hypertension, respiratory disease and diabetes mellitus in SMW. METHODS: A protocol was registered with the Prospero database (CRD42016050299). Included were studies reporting mortality, incidence or prevalence of the above-listed conditions in SMW compared with heterosexual women...
April 17, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665780/writing-a-discussion-section-how-to-integrate-substantive-and-statistical-expertise
#13
REVIEW
Michael Höfler, John Venz, Sebastian Trautmann, Robert Miller
BACKGROUND: When discussing results medical research articles often tear substantive and statistical (methodical) contributions apart, just as if both were independent. Consequently, reasoning on bias tends to be vague, unclear and superficial. This can lead to over-generalized, too narrow and misleading conclusions, especially for causal research questions. MAIN BODY: To get the best possible conclusion, substantive and statistical expertise have to be integrated on the basis of reasonable assumptions...
April 17, 2018: BMC Medical Research Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665617/transradial-versus-transfemoral-approach-for-diagnostic-coronary-angiography-and-percutaneous-coronary-intervention-in-people-with-coronary-artery-disease
#14
REVIEW
Ahmed A Kolkailah, Rabah S Alreshq, Ahmed M Muhammed, Mohamed E Zahran, Marwah Anas El-Wegoud, Ashraf F Nabhan
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the major cause of mortality worldwide. Coronary artery disease (CAD) contributes to half of mortalities caused by CVD. The mainstay of management of CAD is medical therapy and revascularisation. Revascularisation can be achieved via coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) or percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Peripheral arteries, such as the femoral or radial artery, provide the access to the coronary arteries to perform diagnostic or therapeutic (or both) procedures...
April 18, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664900/accuracy-and-precision-of-scvo2-measured-with-the-cevox-device-a-prospective-study-in-patients-with-a-wide-variation-of-scvo2-values
#15
Alexander Herner, Bernhard Haller, Ulrich Mayr, Sebastian Rasch, Lea Offman, Roland Schmid, Wolfgang Huber
INTRODUCTION: Central-venous oxygen saturation (ScvO2) is a key parameter of hemodynamic monitoring and has been suggested as therapeutic goal for resuscitation. Several devices offer continuous monitoring features. The CeVOX-device (Pulsion Medical Systems) uses a fibre-optic probe inserted through a conventional central-venous catheter (CVC) to obtain continuous ScvO2. OBJECTIVES: Since there is a lack of studies validating the CeVOX, we prospectively analyzed data from 24 patients with CeVOX-monitoring...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664233/positive-predictive-value-of-a-register-based-algorithm-using-the-danish-national-registries-to-identify-suicidal-events
#16
Christiane Gasse, Andreas Aalkjaer Danielsen, Marianne Giørtz Pedersen, Carsten Bøcker Pedersen, Ole Mors, Jakob Christensen
PURPOSE: It is not possible to fully assess intention of self-harm and suicidal events using information from administrative databases. We conducted a validation study of intention of suicide attempts/self-harm contacts identified by a commonly applied Danish register-based algorithm (DK-algorithm) based on hospital discharge diagnosis and emergency room contacts. METHODS: Of all 101 530 people identified with an incident suicide attempt/self-harm contact at Danish hospitals between 1995 and 2012 using the DK-algorithm, we selected a random sample of 475 people...
April 17, 2018: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664187/exercise-interventions-and-patient-beliefs-for-people-with-hip-knee-or-hip-and-knee-osteoarthritis-a-mixed-methods-review
#17
REVIEW
Michael Hurley, Kelly Dickson, Rachel Hallett, Robert Grant, Hanan Hauari, Nicola Walsh, Claire Stansfield, Sandy Oliver
BACKGROUND: Chronic peripheral joint pain due to osteoarthritis (OA) is extremely prevalent and a major cause of physical dysfunction and psychosocial distress. Exercise is recommended to reduce joint pain and improve physical function, but the effect of exercise on psychosocial function (health beliefs, depression, anxiety and quality of life) in this population is unknown. OBJECTIVES: To improve our understanding of the complex inter-relationship between pain, psychosocial effects, physical function and exercise...
April 17, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663484/association-between-psychotropic-medications-and-presence-of-sleep-bruxism-a-systematic-review
#18
REVIEW
Gilberto Melo, Kamile Leonardi Dutra, Rubens Rodrigues Filho, Adriana de Oliveira Lira Ortega, André Luís Porporatti, Bruce Dick, Carlos Flores-Mir, Graziela De Luca Canto
The purpose of this study was to systematically review the literature for studies that investigated the association between use of psychotropic medications and presence of sleep bruxism (SB). Observational studies were selected in a two-phase process. Searches were performed on six electronic databases and a grey literature search was conducted on three databases. SB diagnosis was based on questionnaires or clinical examinations; no polysomnography exams were performed. Risk of bias was assessed using the Joanna Briggs Institute Critical Appraisal Checklist for Analytical Cross-Sectional Studies...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Oral Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662931/ulcerative-colitis-are-we-neglecting-its-progressive-character
#19
Paulo Massinha, Francisco Portela, Sara Campos, Gabriela Duque, Manuela Ferreira, Sofia Mendes, Ana Margarida Ferreira, Carlos Sofia, Luís Tomé
Introduction: Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic disease but its progressive character, with structural damage, is insufficiently studied. Objectives: To analyze a group of patients without referral bias, regarding its clinical course, the morphological damage, and functional status. Methods: We evaluated UC patients diagnosed between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2004, living in the direct referral area of the hospital and determined the medication use, colectomy rate, structural damage ("lead pipe," stenosis, pseudopolyps, fibrous bridges), and anorectal function (prospective evaluation with the Cleveland Clinic Incontinence Score [CCIS] and the Fecal Incontinence Quality of Life Scale)...
March 2018: GE Portuguese Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661516/lisdexamfetamine-targets-amygdala-mechanisms-that-bias-cognitive-control-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#20
Kurt P Schulz, Beth Krone, Lenard A Adler, Anne-Claude V Bédard, Stephanie Duhoux, Juan Pedraza, Sanweda Mahagabin, Jeffrey H Newcorn
BACKGROUND: Prefrontal-limbic circuits that form the neural architecture for emotion to influence behavior have been implicated in the pathophysiology of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and represent a potentially important target of medication treatment that has not been substantively evaluated. This study tested the effect of the psychostimulant prodrug lisdexamfetamine dimesylate on amygdala activation and connectivity during the emotional bias of response execution and inhibition...
March 19, 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
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