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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534456/effects-of-folic-acid-fortification-on-orofacial-clefts-prevalence-a-meta-analysis
#1
Natalia Millacura, Rosa Pardo, Lucia Cifuentes, José Suazo
OBJECTIVE: Orofacial clefts (OFC) are the most prevalent craniofacial birth defect. Folic acid (FA) supplementation has been demonstrated as an effective intervention to reduce risk of OFC occurrence. However, the effect of mandatory FA fortification of wheat and/or maize flour on OFC prevalence has shown controversial results among countries adopting this policy. Thus, we performed a meta-analysis to synthesize the available evidence evaluating the global impact of this mandatory policy on OFC occurrence...
May 23, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533319/evaluating-the-cardiovascular-safety-of-nonsteroidal-anti-inflammatory-drugs
#2
REVIEW
Elliott M Antman
Some drugs used to treat noncardiovascular conditions may adversely impact the cardiovascular status of individuals both with and without known cardiovascular disease. When the US Food and Drug Administration judges the potential cardiovascular safety signal to be of sufficient concern, it may require the pharmaceutical manufacturer of the drug in question to conduct a postmarketing (phase 4) randomized controlled trial (RCT). Although historically many phase 4 RCTs focused on efficacy (using a superiority design), contemporary phase 4 RCTs often are focused on safety and use a noninferiority design...
May 23, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533136/effect-of-artificial-pancreas-systems-on-glycaemic-control-in-patients-with-type-1-diabetes-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-outpatient-randomised-controlled-trials
#3
Alanna Weisman, Johnny-Wei Bai, Marina Cardinez, Caroline K Kramer, Bruce A Perkins
BACKGROUND: Closed-loop artificial pancreas systems have been in development for several years, including assessment in numerous varied outpatient clinical trials. We aimed to summarise the efficacy and safety of artificial pancreas systems in outpatient settings and explore the clinical and technical factors that can affect their performance. METHODS: We did a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials comparing artificial pancreas systems (insulin only or insulin plus glucagon) with conventional pump therapy (continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion [CSII] with blinded continuous glucose monitoring [CGM] or unblinded sensor-augmented pump [SAP] therapy) in adults and children with type 1 diabetes...
May 19, 2017: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532938/posterior-corneal-shape-comparison-of-height-data-from-3-corneal-topographers
#4
Tim de Jong, Matthew T Sheehan, Steven A Koopmans, Nomdo M Jansonius
PURPOSE: To compare the ability of 3 clinical corneal topographers to describe the posterior corneal shape. SETTING: University Medical Center Groningen, the Netherlands. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. METHODS: Corneas of healthy participants were measured twice with a dual Scheimpflug instrument (Galilei G2), a scanning-slit system (Orbscan IIz), and a single Scheimpflug instrument (Pentacam HR). Height data describing the posterior corneal shape were fit with Zernike polynomials...
April 2017: Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532893/making-a-difference-in-medical-trainees-attitudes-toward-latino-patients-a-pilot-study-of-an-intervention-to-modify-implicit-and-explicit-attitudes
#5
Mimi V Chapman, William J Hall, Kent Lee, Robert Colby, Tamera Coyne-Beasley, Steve Day, Eugenia Eng, Alexandra F Lightfoot, Yesenia Merino, Florence M Simán, Tainayah Thomas, Kari Thatcher, Keith Payne
Negative attitudes and discrimination against Latinos exist in the dominant U.S. culture and in healthcare systems, contributing to ongoing health disparities. This article provides findings of a pilot test of Yo Veo Salud (I See Health), an intervention designed to positively modify attitudes toward Latinos among medical trainees. The research question was: Compared to the comparison group, did the intervention group show lower levels of implicit bias against Latinos versus Whites, and higher levels of ethnocultural empathy, healthcare empathy, and patient-centeredness? We used a sequential cohort, post-test design to evaluate Yo Veo Salud with a sample of 69 medical trainees...
May 5, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532611/hijacked-evidence-based-medicine-stay-the-course-and-throw-the-pirates-overboard
#6
John P A Ioannidis
The article discusses a number of criticisms that have been raised against evidence-based medicine, such as focusing on benefits and ignoring adverse events; being interested in averages and ignoring the wide variability in individual risks and responsiveness; ignoring clinician-patient interaction and clinical judgement; leading to some sort of reductionism; and falling prey to corruption from conflicts of interest. I argue that none of these deficiencies are necessarily inherent to evidence-based medicine...
April 2017: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527672/quality-of-life-among-long-term-survivors-of-advanced-stage-ovarian-cancer-a-cross-sectional-approach
#7
Susan K Lutgendorf, Eileen Shinn, Jeanne Carter, Susan Leighton, Keith Baggerly, Michele Guindani, Bryan Fellman, Marianne Matzo, George M Slavich, Marc T Goodman, William Tew, Jenny Lester, Kathleen M Moore, Beth Y Karlan, Douglas A Levine, Anil K Sood
PURPOSE: Long-term survival of women with advanced-stage ovarian cancer is relatively rare. Little is known about quality of life (QOL) and survivorship concerns of these women. Here, we describe QOL of women with advanced-stage ovarian cancer surviving for 8.5 years or longer and compare women with 0-1 recurrence to those with multiple recurrences. METHODS: Participants (n=56) recruited from 5 academic medical centers and the Ovarian Cancer Research Fund Alliance completed surveys regarding QOL (FACT-O), mood (CESD), social support (SPS), physical activity (IPAQ-SF), diet, and clinical characteristics...
May 17, 2017: Gynecologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527518/effectiveness-of-treatments-for-medication-related-osteonecrosis-of%C3%A2-the-jaw-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#8
REVIEW
Mohamed El-Rabbany, Adam Sgro, David K Lam, Prakeshkumar S Shah, Amir Azarpazhooh
BACKGROUND: The effectiveness of management strategies used for the treatment of medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (MRONJ) remains poorly understood. The authors evaluated systematically the effectiveness of the various treatment modalities used for MRONJ. TYPES OF STUDIES REVIEWED: The authors conducted a comprehensive search of MEDLINE, Embase, the Cochrane Library, and Scopus to identify randomized controlled trials, nonrandomized controlled trials, and prospective cohort studies to evaluate comparatively the effectiveness of management strategies for the treatment of MRONJ...
May 18, 2017: Journal of the American Dental Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525542/semiparametric-model-and-inference-for-spontaneous-abortion-data-with-a-cured-proportion-and-biased-sampling
#9
Jin Piao, Jing Ning, Christina D Chambers, Ronghui Xu
Evaluating and understanding the risk and safety of using medications for autoimmune disease in a woman during her pregnancy will help both clinicians and pregnant women to make better treatment decisions. However, utilizing spontaneous abortion (SAB) data collected in observational studies of pregnancy to derive valid inference poses two major challenges. First, the data from the observational cohort are not random samples of the target population due to the sampling mechanism. Pregnant women with early SAB are more likely to be excluded from the cohort, and there may be substantial differences between the observed SAB time and those in the target population...
May 18, 2017: Biostatistics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524930/nutrition-support-in-hospitalised-adults-at-nutritional-risk
#10
REVIEW
Joshua Feinberg, Emil Eik Nielsen, Steven Kwasi Korang, Kirstine Halberg Engell, Marie Skøtt Nielsen, Kang Zhang, Maria Didriksen, Lisbeth Lund, Niklas Lindahl, Sara Hallum, Ning Liang, Wenjing Xiong, Xuemei Yang, Pernille Brunsgaard, Alexandre Garioud, Sanam Safi, Jane Lindschou, Jens Kondrup, Christian Gluud, Janus C Jakobsen
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of disease-related malnutrition in Western European hospitals is estimated to be about 30%. There is no consensus whether poor nutritional status causes poorer clinical outcome or if it is merely associated with it. The intention with all forms of nutrition support is to increase uptake of essential nutrients and improve clinical outcome. Previous reviews have shown conflicting results with regard to the effects of nutrition support. OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits and harms of nutrition support versus no intervention, treatment as usual, or placebo in hospitalised adults at nutritional risk...
May 19, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524026/-high-flow-nasal-cannulae-oxygen-in-patients-with-respiratory-failure-a-meta-analysis
#11
Weigang Yue, Zhigang Zhang, Caiyun Zhang, Liping Yang, Jufang He, Yuying Hou, Ying Tang, Jinhui Tian
OBJECTIVE: To systematically evaluate the efficacy of high-flow nasal cannulae oxygen (HFNC) in patients with respiratory failure. METHODS: Computerized PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library, CNKI, CBM, VIP, Wanfang Database up to March 31st, 2017, all published available randomized controlled trials (RCTs) or cohort studies about HFNC therapy for patients with respiratory failure were searched. The control group was treated with face mask oxygen therapy (FM) or non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV), while the experimental group was treated with HFNC...
May 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523743/applying-lessons-from-social-psychology-to-transform-the-culture-of-error-disclosure
#12
Jason Han, Denise LaMarra, Neha Vapiwala
CONTEXT: The ability to carry out prompt and effective error disclosure has been described in the literature as an essential skill among physicians that can lead to improved patient satisfaction, staff well-being and hospital outcomes. However, few studies have addressed the social psychology principles that may influence physician behaviour. METHODS: The authors provide an overview of recent administrative measures designed to encourage physicians to disclose error, but note that deliberate practice, buttressed with lessons from social psychology, is needed to implement further productive behavioural changes...
May 18, 2017: Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523224/the-treatment-methods-for-post-stroke-visual-impairment-a%C3%A2-systematic-review
#13
REVIEW
Kerry Louise Hanna, Lauren Rachel Hepworth, Fiona J Rowe
AIM: To provide a systematic overview of interventions for stroke related visual impairments. METHOD: A systematic review of the literature was conducted including randomized controlled trials, controlled trials, cohort studies, observational studies, systematic reviews, and retrospective medical note reviews. All languages were included and translation obtained. This review covers adult participants (aged 18 years or over) diagnosed with a visual impairment as a direct cause of a stroke...
May 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521367/driving-problems-in-the-elderly-and-cognitively-impaired
#14
Robert Haussmann, Maria Buthut, Markus Donix
Driving ability in the elderly and cognitively impaired is of growing demographic relevance. Driving represents a complex task for which multiple central resources are needed. In mild cognitive impairment and dementia, we need to closely monitor driving ability, as it gets irrecoverably lost in the course of the disease. In normal aging, people are often able to self-regulate driving behavior with respect to their medical conditions. Some studies demonstrated that older drivers perform well compared with younger drivers...
May 18, 2017: Pharmacopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521197/association-of-%C3%AE-3-adrenergic-receptor-rs4994-polymorphisms-with-the-risk-of-type-2-diabetes-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#15
Jin Ah Ryuk, Xin Zhang, Byoung-Seob Ko, James W Daily, Sunmin Park
AIM: The association of ADRB3 polymorphism with the risk of T2DM remains unclear perhaps due to different ethnicities and small study sizes. We systemically evaluated the association of β3-adrenergic receptor(ADRB3)rs4994 and type 2 diabetes(T2DM) by pooling all of the case-control studies reported, and also elucidated the association according to the ethnicity and obesity of the subjects. METHODS: A literature search was conducted using PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Korean scientific database, Chinese medical databases, and the Indian medical database to identify eligible studies for determining the association of ADRB3 rs4994 and T2DM risk...
May 5, 2017: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518179/cleaning-disinfection-and-sterilization-protocols-employed-for-customized-implant-abutments-an-international-survey-of-100-universities-worldwide
#16
Luigi Canullo, Marco Tallarico, Stephen Chu, David Pennarocha, Mutlu Özcan, Paolo Pesce
PURPOSE: American and European standards recommend sterilization of customized abutments before connecting them to implants, as customized abutments are considered semi-critical medical devices. Since standardized procedures could not be identified in the literature on implantology, this survey evaluated the protocols employed at different universities worldwide to clean, disinfect, and/or sterilize customized abutments before their connection to bone-level implants. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The survey took place between October 2015 and January 2016...
May 18, 2017: International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518130/how-to-conduct-and-interpret-systematic-reviews-and-meta-analyses
#17
Siddharth Singh
Systematic reviews with or without meta-analyses serve a key purpose in critically and objectively synthesizing all available evidence regarding a focused clinical question and can inform clinical practice and clinical guidelines. Performing a rigorous systematic review is multi-step process, which includes (a) identifying a well-defined focused clinically relevant question, (b) developing a detailed review protocol with strict inclusion and exclusion criteria, (c) systematic literature search of multiple databases and unpublished data, in consultation with a medical librarian, (d) meticulous study identification and (e) systematic data abstraction, by at least two sets of investigators independently, (f) risk of bias assessment, and (g) thoughtful quantitative synthesis through meta-analysis where relevant...
May 18, 2017: Clinical and Translational Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516442/vaccines-for-the-common-cold
#18
REVIEW
Daniel Simancas-Racines, Juan Va Franco, Claudia V Guerra, Maria L Felix, Ricardo Hidalgo, Maria José Martinez-Zapata
BACKGROUND: The common cold is a spontaneously remitting infection of the upper respiratory tract, characterised by a runny nose, nasal congestion, sneezing, cough, malaise, sore throat, and fever (usually < 37.8º C). The widespread morbidity caused by the common cold worldwide is related to its ubiquitousness rather than its severity. The development of vaccines for the common cold has been difficult because of antigenic variability of the common cold virus and the indistinguishable multiple other viruses and even bacteria acting as infective agents...
May 18, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515818/pharmacogenomic-testing-for-psychotropic-medication-selection-a-systematic-review-of-the-assurex-genesight-psychotropic-test
#19
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: A large proportion of the Ontario population lives with a diagnosed mental illness. Nearly 5% of Ontarians have major depressive disorder, and another 5% have another type of depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, anxiety, or some other disorder not otherwise specified. Medications are commonly used to treat mental illness, but choosing the right medication for each patient is challenging, and more than 40% of patients discontinue their medication within 90 days because of adverse effects or lack of response...
2017: Ontario Health Technology Assessment Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513761/socioeconomic-determinants-of-access-to-health-services-among-older-adults-a-systematic-review
#20
Ana Paula Santana Coelho Almeida, Bruno Pereira Nunes, Suele Manjourany Silva Duro, Luiz Augusto Facchini
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to analyze the association between the socioeconomic characteristics and the access to or use of health services among older adults. METHODS: This is a systematic review of the literature. The search has been carried out in the databases PubMed, LILACS and Web of Science, without restriction of dates and languages; however we have included only articles published in Portuguese, English, and Spanish. The inclusion criteria were: observational design, socioeconomic factors as variables of interest in the analysis of the access to or use of health services among older adults, representative sample of the target population, adjustment for confounding factors, and no selection bias...
May 15, 2017: Revista de Saúde Pública
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