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Medical bias

Xinyao Ji, Dylan S Small, Charles E Leonard, Sean Hennessy
Cohort studies can be biased by unmeasured confounding. We propose a hybrid ecologic-epidemiologic design called the trend-in-trend design, which requires a strong time-trend in exposure, but is unbiased unless there are unmeasured factors affecting outcome for which there are time-trends in prevalence that are correlated with time-trends in exposure across strata with different exposure trends. Thus, the conditions under which the trend-in-trend study is biased are a subset of those under which a cohort study is biased...
October 20, 2016: Epidemiology
Lucia Romo, Cindy Legauffre, Alice Guilleux, Marc Valleur, David Magalon, Mélina Fatséas, Isabelle Chéreau-Boudet, Amandine Luquiens, Jean-Luc Vénisse, Marie Grall-Bronnec, Gaëlle Challet-Bouju
Introduction The primary outcome of our study was to assess the links between the level of cognitive distortions and the severity of gambling disorder. We also aimed at assessing the links between patient gambling trajectories and attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Materials and methods The study population (n = 628) was comprised of problem and non-problem gamblers of both sexes between 18 and 65 years of age, who reported gambling on at least one occasion during the previous year. Data encompassed socio-demographic characteristics, gambling habits, the South Oaks Gambling Screen, the Gambling Attitudes and Beliefs Survey - 23, the Wender Utah Rating Scale - Child, and the Adult ADHD Self-report Scale...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Laura W Wesseldijk, Iryna O Fedko, Meike Bartels, Michel G Nivard, Catharina E M van Beijsterveldt, Dorret I Boomsma, Christel M Middeldorp
The assessment of children's psychopathology is often based on parental report. Earlier studies have suggested that rater bias can affect the estimates of genetic, shared environmental and unique environmental influences on differences between children. The availability of a large dataset of maternal as well as paternal ratings of psychopathology in 7-year old children enabled (i) the analysis of informant effects on these assessments, and (ii) to obtain more reliable estimates of the genetic and non-genetic effects...
October 24, 2016: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
Yuriko Doi
 Evidence-based medicine (EBM) is fundamental to ensuring high-quality medical care. It requires systematic reviews and meta-analyses to synthesize diverse information available from individual clinical studies. However, the literature reviewed may represent an incomplete and selective set of research findings, which could lead to publication/reporting biases and distort the true picture of research as a whole. Prospective registry of all clinical trials in the world is mandatory to reduce the biases, which have been disclosed on the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) of the World Health Organization (WHO) since 2007...
2016: [Nihon Kōshū Eisei Zasshi] Japanese Journal of Public Health
Aaron M Drucker, Patrick Fleming, An-Wen Chan
Systematic reviews are increasingly utilized in the medical literature to summarize available evidence on a research question. Like other studies, systematic reviews are at risk for bias from a number of sources. A systematic review should be based on a formal protocol developed and made publicly available before the conduct of the review; deviations from a protocol with selective presentation of data can result in reporting bias. Evidence selection bias occurs when a systematic review does not identify all available data on a topic...
November 2016: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
Qing Wang, Donglan Zhang, Zhiyuan Hou
The private health care sector has become an increasingly important complement to China's health care system. During the health care reform in 2009, China's central government established multiple initiatives to relax constraints on the growth of the private health care sector. However, private health services have not been growing as rapidly as private health care facilities. Using data from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study collected between 2011 and 2013, this study investigated patient choice between private and public providers for outpatient care and estimated its relationship with health insurance and socioeconomic status (SES)...
October 18, 2016: Social Science & Medicine
Eileen Hoskin, Analia Veitz-Keenan
Data sourcesCochrane Oral Health Group's Trials Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Clinical and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform. There were no language restrictions.Study selectionRandomised controlled trials which compared the relief of pain with systemic antibiotics and analgesics against placebo and analgesics in the preoperative phase of irreversible pulpitis. The primary interest was pain control with an antibiotic or without one in the presence of analgesics...
September 2016: Evidence-based Dentistry
Sami Al Kasab, Michael J Lynn, Tanya N Turan, Colin P Derdeyn, David Fiorella, Bethany F Lane, L Scott Janis, Marc I Chimowitz
BACKGROUND: An American Heart Association/American Stroke Association (AHA/ASA) writing committee has recently recommended that tissue evidence of cerebral infarction associated with temporary symptoms (CITS) lasting <24 hours should be considered a stroke. We analyzed the impact of considering CITS as equivalent to stroke on the results of the Stenting and Aggressive Medical Management for Preventing Recurrent Stroke in Intracranial Stenosis (SAMMPRIS) trial. METHODS: We compared outcomes in the medical (n = 227) and stenting (n = 224) groups in SAMMPRIS using the following primary end point (new components in bold): any stroke, CITS, or death within 30 days after enrollment or within 30 days after a revascularization procedure for the qualifying lesion during follow-up; or ischemic stroke or CITS in the territory of the qualifying artery beyond 30 days...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
Matthew Thomas Sims, Zachary Carter Sanchez, James Murphy Herrington, James Barrett Hensel, Nolan Michael Henning, Caleb Josiah Scheckel, Matt Vassar
INTRODUCTION: With the intent of improving transparency in clinical research, the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) established guidelines in 2005 regarding prospective clinical trial registration. This action worked to address bias related to selective outcome reporting in the medical literature. The objective of this study was to assess and characterize the quality of registration of clinical trials appearing in shoulder arthroplasty-related medical journals...
2016: PloS One
Toshihiro Shoji, Atsushi Nakagomi, Sho Okada, Yuji Ohno, Yoshio Kobayashi
BACKGROUND: Studies have established the prognostic value of central SBP and pulse pressure (PP). The SphygmoCor XCEL (AtCor Medical, Sydney, Australia) device provides practical central blood pressure (BP) measurement for daily clinical use with its easy-to-use, operator-independent procedure. However, this device has not been validated against invasive measurement. METHOD: Simultaneous oscillometric and high-fidelity invasive measurements of central SBP and PP were compared for 36 patients who underwent coronary arteriography...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Lauren E Arthur, Russell S Kizor, Adrian G Selim, Mieke L van Driel, Leonardo Seoane
BACKGROUND: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality, complicating the medical course of approximately 10% of mechanically-ventilated patients, with an estimated attributable mortality of 13%. To treat VAP empirically, the American Thoracic Society currently recommends antibiotic therapy based on the patients' risk of colonisation by an organism with multidrug resistance. The selection of initial antibiotic therapy in VAP is important, as inappropriate initial antimicrobial treatment is associated with higher mortality and longer hospital stay in intensive care unit (ICU) patients...
October 20, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Philippe Chouvarine, Lutz Wiehlmann, Patricia Moran Losada, David S DeLuca, Burkhard Tümmler
Ever-increasing affordability of next-generation sequencing makes whole-metagenome sequencing an attractive alternative to traditional 16S rDNA, RFLP, or culturing approaches for the analysis of microbiome samples. The advantage of whole-metagenome sequencing is that it allows direct inference of the metabolic capacity and physiological features of the studied metagenome without reliance on the knowledge of genotypes and phenotypes of the members of the bacterial community. It also makes it possible to overcome problems of 16S rDNA sequencing, such as unknown copy number of the 16S gene and lack of sufficient sequence similarity of the "universal" 16S primers to some of the target 16S genes...
2016: PloS One
Stephen B Soumerai, Rachel Ceccarelli, Ross Koppel
Some medical scientists argue that only data from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are trustworthy. They claim data from natural experiments and administrative data sets are always spurious and cannot be used to evaluate health policies and other population-wide phenomena in the real world. While many acknowledge biases caused by poor study designs, in this article we argue that several valid designs using administrative data can produce strong findings, particularly the interrupted time series (ITS) design...
October 18, 2016: Journal of General Internal Medicine
L Jefferson, C Fairhurst, E Cooper, C Hewitt, T Torgerson, L Cook, P Tharmanathan, S Cockayne, D Torgerson
OBJECTIVE: Time-lag from study completion to publication is a potential source of publication bias in randomised controlled trials. This study sought to update the evidence base by identifying the effect of the statistical significance of research findings on time to publication of trial results. DESIGN: Literature searches were carried out in four general medical journals from June 2013 to June 2014 inclusive (BMJ, JAMA, the Lancet and the New England Journal of Medicine)...
October 2016: JRSM Open
Myriam Cielo Pérez, Nanor Minoyan, Valéry Ridde, Marie-Pierre Sylvestre, Mira Johri
BACKGROUND: Cluster randomised trials (CRTs) are a key instrument to evaluate public health interventions, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Fidelity assessment examines study processes to gauge whether an intervention was delivered as initially planned. Evaluation of implementation fidelity (IF) is required to establish whether the measured effects of a trial are due to the intervention itself and may be particularly important for CRTs of complex interventions...
October 19, 2016: Systematic Reviews
Savino Spadaro, Maurizia Capuzzo, Giorgia Valpiani, Sara Bertacchini, Riccardo Ragazzi, Francesca Dalla Corte, Simona Terranova, Elisabetta Marangoni, Carlo Alberto Volta
BACKGROUND: Fatigue has not been investigated in long-term Intensive Care Unit (ICU) survivors. This study aimed to assess fatigue through a specific instrument, namely the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy Fatigue (FACIT-F) scale, in ICU survivors one year after hospital discharge. A secondary aim was to compare the findings of FACIT-F with those of the Vitality domain (VT) of the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36). METHODS: This prospective cohort study was performed on 56 adult patients with a Length Of Stay (LOS) in ICU longer than 72 h...
October 18, 2016: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes
Yutaka Imai
It has been confirmed that clinical significance of home blood pressure measurements (HBPM) is higher than clinic BP measurements and ambulatory BP monitoring. However, several drawbacks of HBPM have also been mentioned, e.g. selection and reporting biases, difficulties of calculation of multiple measurements, difficulties of onsite judgement of numerous recordings, etc. Recent devices for HBPM incorporate memory function. This function can overcome such drawbacks of HBPM. These memorized data can transmit, storage, retrieve, be arithmetic and control, be judged based on algorithm and be got feedback...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Paul J Planet, Apurva Narechania, Liang Chen, Barun Mathema, Sam Boundy, Gordon Archer, Barry Kreiswirth
A deluge of whole-genome sequencing has begun to give insights into the patterns and processes of microbial evolution, but genome sequences have accrued in a haphazard manner, with biased sampling of natural variation that is driven largely by medical and epidemiological priorities. For instance, there is a strong bias for sequencing epidemic lineages of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) over sensitive isolates (methicillin-sensitive S. aureus: MSSA). As more diverse genomes are sequenced the emerging picture is of a highly subdivided species with a handful of relatively clonal groups (complexes) that, at any given moment, dominate in particular geographical regions...
October 14, 2016: Trends in Microbiology
Michael Laxy, Gabriella Knoll, Michaela Schunk, Christa Meisinger, Cornelia Huth, Rolf Holle
OBJECTIVE: Little is known about the development of the quality of diabetes care in Germany. The aim of this study is to analyze time trends in patient self-management, physician-delivered care, medication, risk factor control, complications and quality of life from 2000 to 2014. METHODS: Analyses are based on data from individuals with type 2 diabetes of the population-based KORA S4 (1999-2001, n = 150), F4 (2006-2008, n = 203), FF4 (2013/14, n = 212) cohort study...
2016: PloS One
Eric W Djimeu, Annette N Brown
BACKGROUND: Seven new impact evaluations of pilot programs for increasing the demand for voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) provide evidence of what works and what does not. The study findings suggest that financial compensation designed to relieve the opportunity or transportation costs from undergoing the procedure can increase the uptake of VMMC. There is also evidence that programs using peer influence can be effective, although so far only sports-based programs demonstrate a strong effect...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
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