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Medical bias

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913434/factors-influencing-child-protection-professionals-decision-making-and-multidisciplinary-collaboration-in-suspected-abusive-head-trauma-cases-a-qualitative-study
#1
Laura E Cowley, Sabine Maguire, Daniel M Farewell, Harriet D Quinn-Scoggins, Matthew O Flynn, Alison M Kemp
Clinicians face unique challenges when assessing suspected child abuse cases. The majority of the literature exploring diagnostic decision-making in this field is anecdotal or survey-based and there is a lack of studies exploring decision-making around suspected abusive head trauma (AHT). We aimed to determine factors influencing decision-making and multidisciplinary collaboration in suspected AHT cases, amongst 56 child protection professionals. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with clinicians (25), child protection social workers (10), legal practitioners (9, including 4 judges), police officers (8), and pathologists (4), purposively sampled across southwest United Kingdom...
June 15, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913324/substance-use-recovery-and-linguistics-the-impact-of-word-choice-on-explicit-and-implicit-bias
#2
Robert D Ashford, Austin M Brown, Brenda Curtis
BACKGROUND: The general public, treatment professionals, and healthcare professionals have been found to exhibit an explicit negative bias towards substance use and individuals with a substance use disorder (SUD). Terms such as "substance abuser" and "opioid addict" have shown to elicit greater negative explicit bias. However, other common terms have yet to be empirically studied. METHODS: 1,288 participants were recruited from ResearchMatch...
June 13, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913256/the-effect-of-glucocorticoids-on-bone-mineral-density-in-patients-with-rheumatoid-arthritis-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#3
Anne-Birgitte Blavnsfeldt, Annette de Thurah, Malissa Dawn Thomsen, Simon Tarp, Bente Langdahl, Ellen-Margrethe Hauge
PURPOSE: The role of glucocorticoids in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is widely debated. Impairment of bone formation may be counter-balanced by reduced systemic inflammation. This review aims to assess the effect of prednisolone/prednisone on bone mineral density (BMD) in patients with RA analyzed in randomized, controlled trials. METHODS: We performed a systematic literature search and identified randomized, double-blinded placebo-controlled studies including patients with RA and using prednisolone or prednisone as the intervention...
June 15, 2018: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912724/selection-of-patients-recumbent-position-laterality-according-to-physician-handedness-bias-increases-the-success-rate-of-lumbar-puncture-a-multicenter-study
#4
Jian-Lan Zhao, Yi-Rui Sun, Qiao Shan, Zhi-Peng Xiao, Ben-Chao Hou, Jin Hu
BACKGROUND: Lumbar puncture (LP) is a medical procedure required during spinal anesthesia and for obtaining cerebrospinal fluid samples in the diagnosis of neurological disorders. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of physicians' handedness bias and the laterality of patients' recumbent position on the success rate of LPs. METHODS AND PATIENTS: A prospective multicenter study including 36 physicians (18 left-handed and 18 right-handed) and 7200 patients was conducted in 6 medical centers...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29910060/revival-of-transcatheter-pfo-closure-a-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials-impact-of-shunt-size-and-age
#5
REVIEW
Markus Reinthaler, Ann-Kathrin Ozga, David Sinning, Jonathan Curio, Haitham S Al-Hindwan, Johan Bäckemo Johansson, Friedrich Jung, Andreas Lendlein, Geraldine Rauch, Ulf Landmesser
BACKGROUND: Transcatheter foramen ovale closure (TPC) has emerged as a potential treatment option for patients with cryptogenic strokes and persistent foramen ovale (PFO). However, previous randomized controlled trials could hardly demonstrate any benefit compared to medical treatment (Med-Tx). Recently new data have become available which may change current practice of transcatheter PFO closure. METHODS: A systematic review and meta-analysis comparing TPC and Med-Tx based on all available multicentric randomized controlled trials was performed...
July 2018: American Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909524/suitability-and-setup-of-next-generation-sequencing-based-method-for-taxonomic-characterization-of-aquatic-microbial-biofilm
#6
Tomas Bakal, Jiri Janata, Lenka Sabova, Roman Grabic, Vladimir Zlabek, Lucie Najmanova
A robust and widely applicable method for sampling of aquatic microbial biofilm and further sample processing is presented. The method is based on next-generation sequencing of V4-V5 variable regions of 16S rRNA gene and further statistical analysis of sequencing data, which could be useful not only to investigate taxonomic composition of biofilm bacterial consortia but also to assess aquatic ecosystem health. Five artificial materials commonly used for biofilm growth (glass, stainless steel, aluminum, polypropylene, polyethylene) were tested to determine the one giving most robust and reproducible results...
June 16, 2018: Folia Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908037/alpha-blockers-as-medical-expulsive-therapy-for-ureteral-stones-a-cochrane-systematic-review
#7
Thijs Campschroer, Xiaoye Zhu, Robin W M Vernooij, M T W Tycho Lock
OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of alpha-blockers compared to standard therapy or placebo for ureteral stones 1 cm and less confirmed by imaging in adult patients presenting with symptoms of ureteral stone disease. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We performed a systematic search in multiple databases and grey literature with no restrictions on the language of publication or publication status, up until November 2017. We included randomised controlled trials evaluating ureteral stone passage in adult patients, that compared alpha-blockers with standard therapy or placebo...
June 16, 2018: BJU International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905770/improved-genomic-island-predictions-with-islandpath-dimob
#8
Claire Bertelli, Fiona S L Brinkman
Motivation: Genomic islands (GIs) are clusters of genes of probable horizontal origin that play a major role in bacterial and archaeal genome evolution and microbial adaptability. They are of high medical and industrial interest, due to their enrichment in virulence factors, some antimicrobial resistance genes and adaptive metabolic pathways. The development of more sensitive but precise prediction tools, using either sequence composition-based methods or comparative genomics, is needed as large-scale analyses of microbial genomes increase...
February 23, 2018: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904286/utility-of-venous-blood-gases-in-severe-sepsis-and-septic-shock
#9
Heath D White, Alfredo Vazquez-Sandoval, Pedro F Quiroga, Juhee Song, Shirley F Jones, Alejandro C Arroliga
Acid-base status is frequently assessed in severe sepsis and septic shock. Venous blood gas sampling is proposed as a less-invasive modality but lacks evidence within this population. The objective of this study was to evaluate the correlation and agreement between arterial blood gas (ABG), peripheral venous blood gas (pVBG), and central venous blood gas (cVBG) in severe sepsis and septic shock. We conducted a prospective, observational cohort study in subjects admitted to the medical intensive care unit. Simultaneous blood gas samples, including ABG, pVBG, and cVBG, were analyzed for correlation and agreement...
July 2018: Proceedings of the Baylor University Medical Center
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903496/a-systematic-map-of-medical-data-preprocessing-in-knowledge-discovery
#10
REVIEW
A Idri, H Benhar, J L Fernández-Alemán, I Kadi
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Datamining (DM) has, over the last decade, received increased attention in the medical domain and has been widely used to analyze medical datasets in order to extract useful knowledge and previously unknown patterns. However, historical medical data can often comprise inconsistent, noisy, imbalanced, missing and high dimensional data. These challenges lead to a serious bias in predictive modeling and reduce the performance of DM techniques. Data preprocessing is, therefore, an essential step in knowledge discovery as regards improving the quality of data and making it appropriate and suitable for DM techniques...
August 2018: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29901582/are-adhd-medications-under-or-over-prescribed-worldwide-protocol-for-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#11
Carlos Renato Moreira-Maia, Rafael Massuti, Luca Tessari, Fausto Campani, Glaucia Chiyoko Akutagava-Martins, Samuele Cortese, Luis Augusto Rohde
INTRODUCTION: Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder, characterized by age inappropriate and impairing levels of inattention and/or hyperactivity/impulsivity. Pharmacotherapy is an important part of the ADHD multimodal treatment. The extent to which ADHD is pharmacologically over or under treated worldwide is controversial. We aimed to estimate the pooled worldwide rate of ADHD pharmacological treatment in individuals with and without the disorder...
June 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29900913/a-comparative-study-to-evaluate-the-efficacy-of-lycopene-and-curcumin-in-oral-submucous-fibrosis-patients-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#12
Gargi Saran, Deepak Umapathy, Neeta Misra, Shivakumar Ganiga Channaiah, Priya Singh, Saurabh Srivastava, Sahana Shivakumar
Background: : Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) is a most prevalent potentially malignant disorder associated with betel quid chewing frequently observed in the Indian population. The present study conducted is much of a keen interest because there is much new information, both in the press and the medical literature, about the benefits of fresh fruits and vegetables and antioxidants (such as lycopene and curcumin) for both prevention and treatment of diseases. As clinicians, we often prescribe medications with significant adverse effects, and certainly, if armed with evidence to support using such antioxidants as safer therapeutic alternatives for treatment of OSMF...
May 2018: Indian Journal of Dental Research: Official Publication of Indian Society for Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29900572/hazard-ratio-estimation-and-inference-in-clinical-trials-with-many-tied-event-times
#13
Devan V Mehrotra, Yiwei Zhang
The medical literature contains numerous examples of randomized clinical trials with time-to-event endpoints in which large numbers of events accrued over relatively short follow-up periods, resulting in many tied event times. A generally common feature across such examples was that the logrank test was used for hypothesis testing and the Cox proportional hazards model was used for hazard ratio estimation. We caution that this common practice is particularly risky in the setting of many tied event times for two reasons...
June 13, 2018: Statistics in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29900526/transplacental-versus-direct-fetal-corticosteroid-treatment-for-accelerating-fetal-lung-maturation-where-there-is-a-risk-of-preterm-birth
#14
REVIEW
Debby P Utama, Caroline A Crowther
BACKGROUND: Despite major advances in medical technology, the incidence of preterm birth remains high. The use of antenatal corticosteroid administered transplacentally, by intramuscular injection to women at risk of preterm birth, has reduced the incidence of respiratory distress syndrome and increased the survival rates of preterm infants. However, this intervention also comes with its own risks and side effects. Animal studies and early studies in pregnant women at risk of preterm birth have reported the use of an alternative route of administration, by direct intramuscular injection of corticosteroid into the fetus under ultrasound guidance, in an attempt to minimise the side-effect profile...
June 14, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29898715/blind-blur-assessment-of-mri-images-using-parallel-multiscale-difference-of-gaussian-filters
#15
Michael E Osadebey, Marius Pedersen, Douglas L Arnold, Katrina E Wendel-Mitoraj
BACKGROUND: Rician noise, bias fields and blur are the common distortions that degrade MRI images during acquisition. Blur is unique in comparison to Rician noise and bias fields because it can be introduced into an image beyond the acquisition stage such as postacquisition processing and the manifestation of pathological conditions. Most current blur assessment algorithms are designed and validated on consumer electronics such as television, video and mobile appliances. The few algorithms dedicated to medical images either requires a reference image or incorporate manual approach...
June 13, 2018: Biomedical Engineering Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29898609/verification-study-on-the-norip-ldh-reference-intervals-with-a-proposed-new-upper-reference-limit
#16
Søren Kristiansen, Lennart Friis-Hansen, Claus Antonio Juel Jensen, Steen Ingemann Hansen
We verified the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) reference interval (RI) provided by the Nordic Reference Interval Project (NORIP). The serum LDH concentration was analysed on the Dimension Vista 1500 system with an IFCC method with a bias of +2.1 % and +2.7 % against NFKK Reference Serum X and ERM-AD453/IFCC, respectively, showing verification of transference of the NORIP RI. Selective data mining in clinical laboratory information systems for retrospective serum LDH test results was used to calculate an indirect RI...
June 13, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29897635/iridotomy-to-slow-progression-of-visual-field-loss-in-angle-closure-glaucoma
#17
REVIEW
Jimmy T Le, Benjamin Rouse, Gus Gazzard
BACKGROUND: Primary angle-closure glaucoma is a type of glaucoma associated with a physically obstructed anterior chamber angle. Obstruction of the anterior chamber angle blocks drainage of fluids (aqueous humor) within the eye and may raise intraocular pressure (IOP). Elevated IOP is associated with glaucomatous optic nerve damage and visual field loss. Laser peripheral iridotomy (often just called 'iridotomy') is a procedure to eliminate pupillary block by allowing aqueous humor to pass directly from the posterior to anterior chamber through use of a laser to create a hole in the iris...
June 13, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29897445/the-effectiveness-of-social-robots-for-older-adults-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-studies
#18
Lihui Pu, Wendy Moyle, Cindy Jones, Michael Todorovic
Background and Objectives: Social robots may promote the health of older adults by increasing their perceived emotional support and social interaction. This review aims to summarize the effectiveness of social robots on outcomes (psychological, physiological, quality of life, or medications) of older adults from randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Research Design and Methods: A mixed-method systematic review of RCTs meeting the study inclusion criteria was undertaken...
June 12, 2018: Gerontologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29893920/superior-vena-cava-stenosis-in-haemodialysis-patients-with-a-tunnelled-cuffed-catheter-prevalence-and-risk-factors
#19
Laura Labriola, Benjamin Seront, Ralph Crott, Pauline Borceux, Frank Hammer, Michel Jadoul
Background: Although superior vena cava (SVC) stenosis may be a life-threatening complication of haemodialysis (HD) catheters, its prevalence and risk factors in HD patients are unknown. Our aim was to assess the prevalence and risk factors for SVC stenosis in HD patients with a tunnelled cuffed catheter (TCC) and to describe its clinical presentation. Methods: In this single-centre, retrospective cohort study, all in-centre chronic HD patients carrying a TCC (1 January 2008-31 December 2012) were included (n = 117 patients, 214 TCC, 80 911 catheter-days)...
June 8, 2018: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29892372/the-polyphyly-of-plasmodium-comprehensive-phylogenetic-analyses-of-the-malaria-parasites-order-haemosporida-reveal-widespread-taxonomic-conflict
#20
Spencer C Galen, Janus Borner, Ellen S Martinsen, Juliane Schaer, Christopher C Austin, Christopher J West, Susan L Perkins
The evolutionary relationships among the apicomplexan blood pathogens known as the malaria parasites (order Haemosporida), some of which infect nearly 200 million humans each year, has remained a vexing phylogenetic problem due to limitations in taxon sampling, character sampling and the extreme nucleotide base composition biases that are characteristic of this clade. Previous phylogenetic work on the malaria parasites has often lacked sufficient representation of the broad taxonomic diversity within the Haemosporida or the multi-locus sequence data needed to resolve deep evolutionary relationships, rendering our understanding of haemosporidian life-history evolution and the origin of the human malaria parasites incomplete...
May 2018: Royal Society Open Science
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