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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145469/development-of-visual-cortical-function-in-infant-macaques-a-bold-fmri-study
#1
Tom J Van Grootel, Alan Meeson, Matthias H J Munk, Zoe Kourtzi, J Anthony Movshon, Nikos K Logothetis, Lynne Kiorpes
Functional brain development is not well understood. In the visual system, neurophysiological studies in nonhuman primates show quite mature neuronal properties near birth although visual function is itself quite immature and continues to develop over many months or years after birth. Our goal was to assess the relative development of two main visual processing streams, dorsal and ventral, using BOLD fMRI in an attempt to understand the global mechanisms that support the maturation of visual behavior. Seven infant macaque monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were repeatedly scanned, while anesthetized, over an age range of 102 to 1431 days...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145423/examining-the-relationships-between-body-image-eating-attitudes-bmi-and-physical-activity-in-rural-and-urban-south-african-young-adult-females-using-structural-equation-modeling
#2
Alessandra Prioreschi, Stephanie V Wrottesley, Emmanuel Cohen, Ankita Reddy, Rihlat Said-Mohamed, Rhian Twine, Stephen M Tollman, Kathleen Kahn, David B Dunger, Shane A Norris
The persistence of food insecurity, malnutrition, increasing adiposity, and decreasing physical activity, heightens the need to understand relationships between body image satisfaction, eating attitudes, BMI and physical activity levels in South Africa. Females aged 18-23 years were recruited from rural (n = 509) and urban (n = 510) settings. Body image satisfaction was measured using Stunkard's silhouettes, and the 26-item Eating Attitudes questionnaire (EAT-26) was used to evaluate participants' risk of disordered eating...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143320/accelerometer-measured-physical-activity-and-mortality-in-women-aged-63-to-99
#3
Michael J LaMonte, David M Buchner, Eileen Rillamas-Sun, Chongzhi Di, Kelley R Evenson, John Bellettiere, Cora E Lewis, I-Min Lee, Lesly F Tinker, Rebecca Seguin, Oleg Zaslovsky, Charles B Eaton, Marcia L Stefanick, Andrea Z LaCroix
OBJECTIVES: To prospectively examine associations between accelerometer-measured physical activity (PA) and mortality in older women, with an emphasis on light-intensity PA. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study with baseline data collection between March 2012 and April 2014. SETTING: Women's Health Initiative cohort in the United States. PARTICIPANTS: Community-dwelling women aged 63 to 99 (N = 6,382). MEASUREMENTS: Minutes per day of usual PA measured using hip-worn triaxial accelerometers, physical functioning measured using the Short Physical Performance Battery, mortality follow-up for a mean 3...
November 16, 2017: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140899/isotemporal-substitution-of-sedentary-behavior-and-physical-activity-on-function
#4
Nicholas L Lerma, Chi C Cho, Ann M Swartz, Nora E Miller, Kevin G Keenan, Scott J Strath
The amount of time spent in sedentary behaviors (SB) progressively increases with age, while reducing time spent in light (LPA) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). These trajectories in PA and SB are linked to accelerated reductions in physical functioning. PURPOSE: To examine the association of substituting SB time with LPA and MVPA on physical function in older adults. METHODS: Ninety-one older adults (mean age: 70.7 ± 10.2 yr) wore a hip-mounted accelerometer to measure SB, LPA, and MVPA time...
November 14, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140161/relationship-between-physical-activity-and-clinical-outcomes-after-acl-reconstruction
#5
Christopher Kuenze, Lisa Cadmus-Bertram, Karin Pfieffer, Stephanie Trigsted, Dane Cook, Caroline Lisee, David Bell
CONTEXT: Reductions in objectively measured moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) have been reported among individuals with ACLR. Self-reported measures of physical activity are commonly utilized to assess participation in physical activity after ACLR despite the lack of evidence to support the validity of such measures within this population. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this research was to determine the relationships between objectively measured MVPA, self-reported physical activity, and knee function among individuals with ACLR...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135784/fitness-fatness-physical-activity-and-autonomic-function-in-midlife
#6
Antti M Kiviniemi, Nelli Perkiömäki, Juha Auvinen, Maisa Niemelä, Tuija Tammelin, Katri Puukka, Aimo Ruokonen, Sirkka Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi, Mikko P Tulppo, Marjo-Riitta Järvelin, Timo Jämsä, Heikki V Huikuri, Raija Korpelainen
PURPOSE: Although low cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), physical inactivity, and obesity are associated with impaired autonomic function, they are also extensively interrelated. The present study aimed to assess the extent to which they contribute to autonomic function independently of each other. METHODS: At the age of 46 yr, 1383 men and 1761 women without cardiorespiratory diseases and diabetes underwent assessments of vagally mediated heart rate (HR) variability (root mean square of successive differences in R-R interval (rMMSD)), peak HR during a submaximal step test (CRF), and 60-s HR recovery (HRR)...
December 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135657/adapted-sojourn-models-to-estimate-activity-intensity-in-youth-a-suite-of-tools
#7
Paul R Hibbing, Laura D Ellingson, Philip M Dixon, Gregory J Welk
The challenges of using physical activity data from accelerometers have been compounded with the recent focus on wrist-worn monitors and raw acceleration (as opposed to activity counts). PURPOSE: This study developed and systematically evaluated a suite of new accelerometer processing models for youth. METHODS: Four adaptations of the Sojourn method were developed using data from a laboratory-based experiment in which youth (N = 54) performed structured activity routines...
November 10, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134174/associations-between-mother-s-and-children-s-moderate-to-vigorous-physical-activity-and-sedentary-time-in-the-family-context
#8
MinKyoung Song, Nathan F Dieckmann, Sydnee Stoyles, Youngwon Kim, Julie C Lumeng
The manner in which mothers' and children's moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary time (ST) are associated across different settings (i.e., at home versus outside of the home, on weekdays versus weekends) is not well understood. The purposes of this study were to: (Strong et al., 2005) describe associations between mothers' and children's levels of MVPA and ST, and (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2008) determine how setting and mothers' and children's characteristics moderate the associations...
December 2017: Preventive Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128418/accelerometer-measured-sedentary-time-and-physical-activity-a-15-year-follow-up-of-mortality-in-a-swedish-population-based-cohort
#9
Ing-Mari Dohrn, Michael Sjöström, Lydia Kwak, Pekka Oja, Maria Hagströmer
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the associations of objectively assessed sedentary time, light intensity physical activity (PA), moderate to vigorous intensity PA (MVPA), and total PA with all-cause mortality and mortality from cardiovascular disease (CVD) or cancer in a Swedish population-based cohort with 15 years follow-up time. DESIGN: Longitudinal prospective cohort study. METHODS: Data from 851 persons (56% women) ≥35 years at baseline were included...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128417/exercise-more-or-sit-less-a-randomized-trial-assessing-the-feasibility-of-two-advice-based-interventions-in-obese-inactive-adults
#10
Kristian Overgaard, Kirstine Nannerup, Mette Kirstine Birk Lunen, Helle Terkildsen Maindal, Ryan G Larsen
OBJECTIVES: The risk of metabolic and cardiovascular disease may be reduced by a healthy pattern of daily physical activity. We investigated the feasibility and preliminary effectiveness of advice-based interventions aiming at either increasing moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA) or reducing sedentary time (ST) in obese volunteers. DESIGN: Randomized non-blinded two-armed trial. METHOD: Inactive, obese adults were randomly assigned to reduce sedentary behavior (SitLess) (n=30) or increase MVPA (ExMore) (n=29) for 4 weeks...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126915/steps-moderate-to-vigorous-physical-activity-and-cardiometabolic-profiles
#11
Samantha Hajna, Nancy A Ross, Kaberi Dasgupta
The relative benefits of meeting the current moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA) and 'active' step count recommendations are unknown. Using robust linear regressions, we compared cardiometabolic marker differences (blood pressure, lipid levels, Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR), hemoglobin A1C, C-reactive protein (CRP), and body mass index (BMI)) across MVPA (150min/week) and step (10,000 steps/day) thresholds and between step categories (low active: 5000 to 7499, somewhat active: 7500 to 9999, and active: ≥10,000 steps/day vs...
November 7, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120305/correlates-of-accelerometer-assessed-physical-activity-and-sedentary-time-among-adults-with-type-2-diabetes
#12
Nonsikelelo Mathe, Terry Boyle, Fatima Al Sayah, Clark Mundt, Jeff K Vallance, Jeffrey A Johnson, Steven T Johnson
OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to describe the volume and patterns of objectively assessed sedentary behaviour, light intensity physical activity (LPA) and moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and to examine socio-demographic correlates, among adults living with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: Participants (n = 166) wore an accelerometer (Actigraph® GT3X+) for seven consecutive days during waking hours and completed a questionnaire. Physical activity (PA) and sedentary time were described, and multivariable linear regression was used to estimate associations between socio-demographic characteristics and sedentary time and PA...
November 9, 2017: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120304/an-examination-of-school-and-student-level-characteristics-associated-with-the-likelihood-of-students-meeting-the-canadian-physical-activity-guidelines-in-the-compass-study
#13
Amanda Harvey, Guy Faulkner, Lora Giangregorio, Scott T Leatherdale
OBJECTIVES: To examine school- and student-level correlates of physical activity. METHODS: Cross-sectional Year 2 data collected from 45 298 grade 9-12 students attending 89 secondary schools in the COMPASS study were examined using multi-level modelling to predict the likelihood of students a) achieving 60 minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) daily; and b) achieving the Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology (CSEP) activity guideline for youth (60 minutes/MVPA daily, vigorous physical activity at least three days in a week, and resistance training at least three days in a week)...
November 9, 2017: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119828/a-pilot-study-of-children-s-physical-activity-levels-during-imagination-based-mobile-games
#14
James W Patten, Grace Iarocci, Nis Bojin
This research looked at Biba: a suite of mobile games intended to get kids back out to playgrounds and engaging in more moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Year after year, annual national surveys report a general decline in physical activity amongst children and a corresponding increase in screen time. Further to this, time spent outside by children has been reported to be on the decline since the 1980s. Recent work has suggested that in order to 'maintain the outdoor recreation participation of children across America, park and recreation professionals may need to embrace the expanding role of technology'...
September 2017: Journal of Child Health Care: for Professionals Working with Children in the Hospital and Community
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119519/brief-report-physical-activity-body-mass-index-and-arterial-stiffness-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-preliminary-findings
#15
Kevin S Heffernan, Luis Columna, Natalie Russo, Beth A Myers, Christine E Ashby, Michael L Norris, Tiago V Barreira
We examined the association between physical activity (PA), body mass index (BMI) and novel measures of subclinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) in 15 children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (mean age 7 ± 2 years, 2 girls). PA was objectively assessed using accelerometry as time spent in moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Arterial stiffness was measured via aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV) and taken as a marker of subclinical CVD risk. MVPA was inversely associated with aortic PWV (r = - 0...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118062/wearables-for-promoting-physical-activity
#16
REVIEW
Scott J Strath, Taylor W Rowley
BACKGROUND: The rapid expansion and popularity of consumer-wearable physical activity monitors (WPAMs) has enabled the integration of technology into physical activity (PA) intervention, deployment, and evaluation. This brief review reports on the accuracy of consumer-WPAMs, considers the intervention effects of using consumer-WPAMs, and offers future considerations as the proliferation of this area of product development and consumer use continues to escalate. CONTENT: The studies reviewed document the utility for consumer-WPAMs to objectively assess PA, with output metrics similar to research-grade activity monitors...
November 8, 2017: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111632/rating-of-perceived-capacity-a-proposal-to-predict-adequate-levels-of-physical-activity-in-visually-impaired-individuals
#17
Diego G Barbosa, Rubian D Andrade, Andreia Pelegrini, Érico P Felden
BACKGROUND: There are several instruments that are generally used to analyze levels of physical activity (PA) in people with visual impairment. However, few instruments are validated for this population.The purpose of this study was to compare the subjective and objective variables of PA and to propose the use of the Rating of Perceived Capacity (RPC) to evaluate the level of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) per day in this population. METHODS: Thirty-seven individuals with visual impairment participated in the study (19 blind without light perception and 18 low-vision)...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110714/subjectively-and-objectively-assessed-social-and-physical-environmental-correlates-of-preschoolers-accelerometer-based-physical-activity
#18
Michael Eichinger, Sven Schneider, Freia De Bock
BACKGROUND: Overweight and low levels of physical activity (PA) in preschoolers are major public health concerns. However, to date only few studies have investigated subjective and objective correlates of PA across different socioecological domains in preschoolers. We therefore simultaneously investigate associations between preschoolers' objectively measured leisure-time PA and a comprehensive set of subjective and objective potential PA correlates across the behavioral, social and physical environmental domains on both family- and community-level...
November 6, 2017: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109088/accelerometer-measured-physical-activity-and-sedentary-behavior-in-relation-to-all-cause-mortality-the-women-s-health-study
#19
I-Min Lee, Eric J Shiroma, Kelly R Evenson, Masamitsu Kamada, Andrea Z LaCroix, Julie E Buring
Physical inactivity is estimated to cause as many deaths globally each year as smoking. Current guidelines recommend ≥150 min/wk of moderate-intensity aerobic physical activity (PA) and muscle-strengthening exercises on ≥2 d/wk.2 These guidelines are based primarily on studies using self-reported moderate- to vigorous-intensity PA (MVPA). Technological developments now enable device assessments of light-intensity PA (LPA) and sedentary behavior, and well-designed studies with such assessments that investigate clinical outcomes are needed for updating current guidelines...
November 6, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108029/accelerometric-estimates-of-physical-activity-vary-unstably-with-data-handling
#20
Maia P Smith, Marie Standl, Joachim Heinrich, Holger Schulz
BACKGROUND: Because of unreliable self-report, accelerometry is increasingly used to objectively monitor physical activity (PA). However, results of accelerometric studies vary depending on the chosen cutpoints between activity intensities. Population-specific activity patterns likely affect the size of these differences. To establish their size and stability we apply three sets of cutpoints, including two calibrated to a single reference, to our accelerometric data and compare PA estimates...
2017: PloS One
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