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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892516/in-vivo-coherent-raman-imaging-of-the-melanomagenesis-associated-pigment-pheomelanin
#1
Hequn Wang, Sam Osseiran, Vivien Igras, Alexander J Nichols, Elisabeth M Roider, Joachim Pruessner, Hensin Tsao, David E Fisher, Conor L Evans
Melanoma is the most deadly form of skin cancer with a yearly global incidence over 232,000 patients. Individuals with fair skin and red hair exhibit the highest risk for developing melanoma, with evidence suggesting the red/blond pigment known as pheomelanin may elevate melanoma risk through both UV radiation-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Although the ability to identify, characterize, and monitor pheomelanin within skin is vital for improving our understanding of the underlying biology of these lesions, no tools exist for real-time, in vivo detection of the pigment...
November 28, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887611/the-performance-of-interferon-gamma-release-assay-in-nontuberculous-mycobacterial-diseases-a-retrospective-study-in-china
#2
Mao-Shui Wang, Jun-Li Wang, Xin-Feng Wang
BACKGROUND: The interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA) is more specific than the tuberculin skin test to discriminate between tuberculosis (TB) and nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) diseases. Here we performed a retrospective study to evaluate the performance of the T-SPOT.TB in patients with NTM diseases. METHODS: Between March, 2013 and Nov, 2015, a total of 58 patients with NTM diseases had a T-SPOT.TB performed were enrolled, 30 patients had definite NTM diseases, 28 had probable diseases...
November 25, 2016: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866487/tuberculosis-infection-testing-in-hiv-positive-men-who-have-sex-with-men-from-xi-an-china
#3
H N Xin, X W Li, L Zhang, Z Li, H R Zhang, Y Yang, M F Li, B X Feng, H J Li, L Gao
In individuals with latent tuberculosis (TB) infection, those living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) had a 20-37 times higher risk of developing active TB compared to those without HIV infection. Systematic testing and treatment of latent TB infection are priorities in HIV-infected persons. In China, the prevalence of HIV infection in men who have sex with men (MSM) has gradually increased in the past decade. However, the prevalence of TB infection has been studied sparsely in HIV-infected MSM. Hence, we conducted a pilot study in MSM living with HIV infection in Xi'an city to evaluate TB infection status by means of interferon-γ release assay (IGRA)...
November 21, 2016: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866367/risk-for-latent-and-active-tuberculosis-in-germany
#4
Christian Herzmann, Giovanni Sotgiu, Oswald Bellinger, Roland Diel, Silke Gerdes, Udo Goetsch, Helga Heykes-Uden, Tom Schaberg, Christoph Lange
PURPOSE: Few individuals that are latently infected with M. tuberculosis latent tuberculosis infection(LTBI) progress to active disease. We investigated risk factors for LTBI and active pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in Germany. METHODS: Healthy household contacts (HHCs), health care workers (HCWs) exposed to M. tuberculosis and PTB patients were recruited at 18 German centres. Interferon-γ release assay (IGRA) testing was performed. LTBI risk factors were evaluated by comparing IGRA-positive with IGRA-negative contacts...
November 19, 2016: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863556/oral-vaccination-of-cattle-with-heat-inactivated-mycobacterium-bovis-does-not-compromise-bovine-tb-diagnostic-tests
#5
Gareth J Jones, Sabine Steinbach, Iker A Sevilla, Joseba M Garrido, Ramon Juste, H Martin Vordermeier
In this study we investigated whether oral uptake of a heat inactivated M. bovis wildlife vaccine by domestic cattle induced systemic immune responses that compromised the use of tuberculin or defined antigens in diagnostic tests for bovine TB. Positive skin test and blood-based IFN-γ release assay (IGRA) results were observed in all calves vaccinated via the parenteral route (i.e. intramuscular). In contrast, no positive responses to tuberculin or defined antigens were observed in either the skin test or IGRA test when performed in calves vaccinated via the oral route...
December 2016: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855476/-tuberculosis-contact-investigation-eight-years-of-experience-with-the-quantiferon-tb%C3%A2-gold-in-tube-in-lower-saxony-germany
#6
M Scharlach, K Brakensiek
Since the beginning of the 21(st) century, beside tuberculin skin tests (TST) and chest X-rays, interferon-gamma release assays (IGRA) have become available for diagnosing latent tuberculosis infection. In 2006, the Governmental Institute of Public Health of Lower Saxony (NLGA) established the IGRA in its laboratory, using the QuantiFERON-TB(®)Gold In-Tube (QFT). A cohort of 19 309 contact persons who were investigated during contact tracing by local public health departments (LPHD) was analyzed. Within 3 years, 75% of LPHDs in Lower Saxony established the QFT for tuberculosis contact tracing...
November 17, 2016: Das Gesundheitswesen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776599/comparative-utility-of-interferon-%C3%AE-release-assay-quantiferon-%C3%A2-tb-git-and-t-spot-%C3%A2-tb-in-rheumatoid-arthritis
#7
R Matsumura, H Igari, T Nakazawa, S Ishikawa, M Tsuyuzaki, K Suzuki, F Yamagishi
SETTING: National hospital for tuberculosis (TB) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in Japan. OBJECTIVE: To compare two interferon-γ release assays (IGRAs), QuantiFERON(®)-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT) and T-SPOT(®).TB (T-SPOT), in RA patients for detecting latent tuberculous infection (LTBI). DESIGN: QFT and T-SPOT were conducted concurrently in 230 prospectively enrolled RA patients. RESULTS: There were no active TB patients...
November 2016: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776586/controversies-in-tuberculous-infection-among-pediatric-infectious-disease-specialists-in-north-america
#8
A T Cruz, A L Hersh, J R Starke, S E Beekmann, P M Polgreen, R Banerjee
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the extent to which advancements in the diagnosis and treatment of latent tuberculous infection (LTBI) have been integrated into practice by pediatric infectious disease (PID) specialists. DESIGN: We conducted an online survey of the Infectious Diseases Society of America's Emerging Infections Network (EIN) membership. RESULTS: Of the 323 members, 197 (61%) responded: 7% cared for ⩾5 children with TB disease and 34% for ⩾5 children with LTBI annually...
November 2016: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27763261/latent-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection-and-interferon-gamma-release-assays
#9
Madhukar Pai, Marcel Behr
The identification of individuals with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is useful for both fundamental understanding of the pathogenesis of disease and for clinical and public health interventions (i.e., to prevent progression to disease). Basic research suggests there is a pathogenetic continuum from exposure to infection to disease, and individuals may advance or reverse positions within the spectrum, depending on changes in the host immunity. Unfortunately, there is no diagnostic test that resolves the various stages within the spectrum of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection...
October 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756230/circulating-granulysin-levels-in-healthcare-workers-and-latent-tuberculosis-infection-estimated-using-interferon-gamma-release-assays
#10
Pham Huu Thuong, Do Bang Tam, Shinsaku Sakurada, Nguyen Thi Le Hang, Minako Hijikata, Le Thi Hong, Phan Thi Minh Ngoc, Pham Thu Anh, Vu Cao Cuong, Ikumi Matsushita, Luu Thi Lien, Naoto Keicho
BACKGROUND: Granulysin (GNLY) is produced by human lymphocyte subpopulations and exhibits antimicrobial activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. We examined the association between GNLY levels in blood and latent tuberculosis (TB) infection. METHODS: Latency of TB infection among Vietnamese healthcare workers was estimated using interferon-gamma release assays (IGRA), and serum GNLY concentrations were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The levels of GNLY expression in whole blood and the presence of GNLY alleles with the exon-4 polymorphism rs11127 were also determined using PCR-based methods...
October 18, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733123/cost-analysis-of-tuberculin-skin-test-and-the-quantiferon-tb-gold-in-tube-test-for-tuberculosis-screening-in-a-correctional-setting-in-dallas-texas-usa
#11
Ank E Nijhawan, Princess A Iroh, Larry S Brown, Daniel Winetsky, Esmaeil Porsa
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) disproportionately affects immigrants, HIV-infected individuals, and those living in crowded settings such as homeless shelters and correctional facilities. Although the majority of jails and prisons use a tuberculin skin test (TST) for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) screening, limited data exist on the clinical performance and costs of the TST compared to interferon gamma release assays (IGRAs) in this setting. METHODS: A prospective pilot study comparing cost between TST and an IGRA (QuantiFERON Gold In-tube, QFT-GIT) for the detection of LTBI in a convenience sample of inmates entering the Dallas County Jail (DCJ) was conducted June-October 2014...
October 12, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27726851/virtual-special-issue-neuroradiology
#12
M S Igra, D J A Connolly
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 7, 2016: Clinical Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725619/does-polymerase-chain-reaction-of-tissue-specimens-aid-in-the-diagnosis-of-tuberculosis
#13
Yoo Jin Lee, Seojin Kim, Youngjin Kang, Jiyoon Jung, Eunjung Lee, Joo-Young Kim, Jeong Hyeon Lee, Youngseok Lee, Yang-Seok Chae, Chul Hwan Kim
BACKGROUND: Mycobacterial culture is the gold standard test for diagnosing tuberculosis (TB), but it is time-consuming. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a highly sensitive and specific method that can reduce the time required for diagnosis. The diagnostic efficacy of PCR differs, so this study determined the actual sensitivity of TB-PCR in tissue specimens. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 574 cases. The results of the nested PCR of the IS6110 gene, mycobacterial culture, TB-specific antigen-induced interferon-γ release assay (IGRA), acid-fast bacilli (AFB) staining, and histological findings were evaluated...
November 2016: Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716176/relation-between-bcg-vaccine-scar-and-an-interferon-gamma-release-assay-in-immigrant-children-with-positive-tuberculin-skin-test-%C3%A2-10%C3%A2-mm
#14
Margret Johansson Gudjónsdóttir, Karsten Kötz, Ruth Stangebye Nielsen, Philip Wilmar, Sofia Olausson, Daniel Wallmyr, Birger Trollfors
BACKGROUND: Immigrants from countries with high incidence of tuberculosis (TB) are usually offered screening when they arrive to low incidence countries. The tuberculin skin test (TST) is often used. The interferon gamma release assays (IGRAs) are more specific and not affected by BCG vaccination. The aims of this study were 1. To see if there if there is a correlation between a positive IGRA (QFT) and presence of a BCG scar in children with TST ≥10 mm, 2. To compare the TST diameter with QFT result, 3...
October 6, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27703202/inflammatory-markers-and-clinical-characteristics-for-predicting-persistent-positivity-of-interferon-gamma-release-assay-in-dialysis-population
#15
Chin-Chung Shu, Chia-Lin Hsu, Chih-Yuan Lee, Vin-Cent Wu, Feng-Jung Yang, Jann-Yuan Wang, Chong-Jen Yu, Li-Na Lee
The interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA) is useful for diagnosing latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI), however the rate of negative conversion is high, especially in dialysis patients. Few studies have focused on predicting persistently positive patients who are at high risk of tuberculosis reactivation. We screened dialysis patients, and used QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-tube (QFT-GIT) to identify LTBI. Of the 157 participants who had initially positive QFT-GIT, 82 had persistently positivity and 75 had negative conversion...
October 5, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27685462/cytokine-patterns-in-tuberculosis-infection-il-1ra-il-2-and-ip-10-differentiate-borderline-quantiferon-tb-samples-from-uninfected-controls
#16
Ida Wergeland, Jörg Assmus, Anne Ma Dyrhol-Riise
BACKGROUND: Interferon gamma release assays (IGRAs) do not discriminate between active tuberculosis (TB) and latent TB infection (LTBI), which limit their use in TB endemic areas. Subjects with QuantiFERON-TB (QFT) results around the diagnostic cut-off more likely show inconsistent results on serial testing which makes the interpretation of the assay difficult. We have studied potential biomarkers in patients with various stages of TB infection and with borderline QFT tests compared to those with higher values...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27668896/latent-tuberculosis-infection-ltbi-a-real-host-defence-or-a-permanent-threat
#17
Alessandro Sanduzzi, Antonio Ponticiello, Marialuisa Bocchino, Francesco Perna, Alessandro Vatrella
Screening of latent infection by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (LTBI) and treatment of positive subjects is the key point in the prevention of TB; such a strategy should be performed mainly among individuals with risk of progression. Progression from LTBI to active TB is highest both in recent contacts of patients with active TB, and in immunocompromised subjects. Therefore, LTBI could either be considered a permanent host defence or, seen from the opposite point of view, it could represent a long-lasting threat if the efficiency of the immune system declines over a lifetime...
September 1, 2016: Le Infezioni in Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27642776/added-value-of-ip-10-as-a-read-out-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-specific-immunity-in-young-children
#18
Synne Jenum, Sivmakumaran Dhanasekaran, Christian Ritz, Ragini Macaden, T Mark Doherty, Harleen M S Grewal
We have explored the added value of IFNγ-inducible protein 10 as a read-out of Mycobacterium tuberculosis specific immunity in young Indian children where the sensitivity of the IGRA for tuberculosis (TB) is poor. Reduced frequency of indeterminate results and an increased sensitivity for TB, suggest a potential for fewer missed cases with a combined IFNγ/IP-10 read-out in a 4 generation IGRA.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4...
September 15, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27622293/the-clinical-usefulness-of-tuberculin-skin-test-versus-interferon-gamma-release-assays-for-diagnosis-of-latent-tuberculosis-in-hiv-patients-a-meta-analysis
#19
Erfan Ayubi, Amin Doosti-Irani, Ali Sanjari Moghaddam, Mohadeseh Sani, Milad Nazarzadeh, Ehsan Mostafavi
BACKGROUND: Accurate diagnosis of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is becoming increasingly concerning due to the increasing the HIV epidemic, which have increased the risk for reactivation to active tuberculosis (TB) infection. LTBI is diagnosed by tuberculin skin test (TST) and interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs). OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to conduct a meta-analysis of published papers on the agreement (kappa) between TST and QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT-GIT) tests for diagnosis of LTBI in HIV patient...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27603919/high-ifn-%C3%AE-release-and-impaired-capacity-of-multi-cytokine-secretion-in-igra-supernatants-are-associated-with-active-tuberculosis
#20
Séverine Carrère-Kremer, Pierre-Alain Rubbo, Amandine Pisoni, Sophie Bendriss, Grégory Marin, Marianne Peries, Karine Bolloré, Dominique Terru, Sylvain Godreuil, Arnaud Bourdin, Philippe Van de Perre, Edouard Tuaillon
Interferon gamma (IFN-γ) release assays (IGRAs) detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection regardless of the active (ATB) or latent (LTBI) forms of tuberculosis (TB). In this study, Mtb-specific T cell response against region of deletion 1 (RD1) antigens were explored by a microbead multiplex assay performed in T-SPOT TB assay (T-SPOT) supernatants from 35 patients with ATB and 115 patients with LTBI. T-SPOT is positive when over 7 IFN-γ secreting cells (SC)/250 000 peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) are enumerated...
2016: PloS One
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