Read by QxMD icon Read


Madhukar Pai, Marcel Behr
The identification of individuals with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is useful for both fundamental understanding of the pathogenesis of disease and for clinical and public health interventions (i.e., to prevent progression to disease). Basic research suggests there is a pathogenetic continuum from exposure to infection to disease, and individuals may advance or reverse positions within the spectrum, depending on changes in the host immunity. Unfortunately, there is no diagnostic test that resolves the various stages within the spectrum of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection...
October 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
Pham Huu Thuong, Do Bang Tam, Shinsaku Sakurada, Nguyen Thi Le Hang, Minako Hijikata, Le Thi Hong, Phan Thi Minh Ngoc, Pham Thu Anh, Vu Cao Cuong, Ikumi Matsushita, Luu Thi Lien, Naoto Keicho
BACKGROUND: Granulysin (GNLY) is produced by human lymphocyte subpopulations and exhibits antimicrobial activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. We examined the association between GNLY levels in blood and latent tuberculosis (TB) infection. METHODS: Latency of TB infection among Vietnamese healthcare workers was estimated using interferon-gamma release assays (IGRA), and serum GNLY concentrations were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The levels of GNLY expression in whole blood and the presence of GNLY alleles with the exon-4 polymorphism rs11127 were also determined using PCR-based methods...
October 18, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Ank E Nijhawan, Princess A Iroh, Larry S Brown, Daniel Winetsky, Esmaeil Porsa
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) disproportionately affects immigrants, HIV-infected individuals, and those living in crowded settings such as homeless shelters and correctional facilities. Although the majority of jails and prisons use a tuberculin skin test (TST) for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) screening, limited data exist on the clinical performance and costs of the TST compared to interferon gamma release assays (IGRAs) in this setting. METHODS: A prospective pilot study comparing cost between TST and an IGRA (QuantiFERON Gold In-tube, QFT-GIT) for the detection of LTBI in a convenience sample of inmates entering the Dallas County Jail (DCJ) was conducted June-October 2014...
October 12, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
M S Igra, D J A Connolly
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 7, 2016: Clinical Radiology
Yoo Jin Lee, Seojin Kim, Youngjin Kang, Jiyoon Jung, Eunjung Lee, Joo-Young Kim, Jeong Hyeon Lee, Youngseok Lee, Yang-Seok Chae, Chul Hwan Kim
Background: Mycobacterial culture is the gold standard test for diagnosing tuberculosis (TB), but it is time-consuming. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a highly sensitive and specific method that can reduce the time required for diagnosis. The diagnostic efficacy of PCR differs, so this study determined the actual sensitivity of TB-PCR in tissue specimens. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 574 cases. The results of the nested PCR of the IS6110 gene, mycobacterial culture, TB-specific antigen-induced interferon-γ release assay (IGRA), acid-fast bacilli (AFB) staining, and histological findings were evaluated...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine
Margret Johansson Gudjónsdóttir, Karsten Kötz, Ruth Stangebye Nielsen, Philip Wilmar, Sofia Olausson, Daniel Wallmyr, Birger Trollfors
BACKGROUND: Immigrants from countries with high incidence of tuberculosis (TB) are usually offered screening when they arrive to low incidence countries. The tuberculin skin test (TST) is often used. The interferon gamma release assays (IGRAs) are more specific and not affected by BCG vaccination. The aims of this study were 1. To see if there if there is a correlation between a positive IGRA (QFT) and presence of a BCG scar in children with TST ≥10 mm, 2. To compare the TST diameter with QFT result, 3...
October 6, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Chin-Chung Shu, Chia-Lin Hsu, Chih-Yuan Lee, Vin-Cent Wu, Feng-Jung Yang, Jann-Yuan Wang, Chong-Jen Yu, Li-Na Lee
The interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA) is useful for diagnosing latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI), however the rate of negative conversion is high, especially in dialysis patients. Few studies have focused on predicting persistently positive patients who are at high risk of tuberculosis reactivation. We screened dialysis patients, and used QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-tube (QFT-GIT) to identify LTBI. Of the 157 participants who had initially positive QFT-GIT, 82 had persistently positivity and 75 had negative conversion...
October 5, 2016: Scientific Reports
Ida Wergeland, Jörg Assmus, Anne Ma Dyrhol-Riise
BACKGROUND: Interferon gamma release assays (IGRAs) do not discriminate between active tuberculosis (TB) and latent TB infection (LTBI), which limit their use in TB endemic areas. Subjects with QuantiFERON-TB (QFT) results around the diagnostic cut-off more likely show inconsistent results on serial testing which makes the interpretation of the assay difficult. We have studied potential biomarkers in patients with various stages of TB infection and with borderline QFT tests compared to those with higher values...
2016: PloS One
Alessandro Sanduzzi, Antonio Ponticiello, Marialuisa Bocchino, Francesco Perna, Alessandro Vatrella
Screening of latent infection by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (LTBI) and treatment of positive subjects is the key point in the prevention of TB; such a strategy should be performed mainly among individuals with risk of progression. Progression from LTBI to active TB is highest both in recent contacts of patients with active TB, and in immunocompromised subjects. Therefore, LTBI could either be considered a permanent host defence or, seen from the opposite point of view, it could represent a long-lasting threat if the efficiency of the immune system declines over a lifetime...
September 1, 2016: Le Infezioni in Medicina
Synne Jenum, Sivmakumaran Dhanasekaran, Christian Ritz, Ragini Macaden, T Mark Doherty, Harleen M S Grewal
We have explored the added value of IFNγ-inducible protein 10 as a read-out of Mycobacterium tuberculosis specific immunity in young Indian children where the sensitivity of the IGRA for tuberculosis (TB) is poor. Reduced frequency of indeterminate results and an increased sensitivity for TB, suggest a potential for fewer missed cases with a combined IFNγ/IP-10 read-out in a 4 generation IGRA.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4...
September 15, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Erfan Ayubi, Amin Doosti-Irani, Ali Sanjari Moghaddam, Mohadeseh Sani, Milad Nazarzadeh, Ehsan Mostafavi
BACKGROUND: Accurate diagnosis of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is becoming increasingly concerning due to the increasing the HIV epidemic, which have increased the risk for reactivation to active tuberculosis (TB) infection. LTBI is diagnosed by tuberculin skin test (TST) and interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs). OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to conduct a meta-analysis of published papers on the agreement (kappa) between TST and QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT-GIT) tests for diagnosis of LTBI in HIV patient...
2016: PloS One
Séverine Carrère-Kremer, Pierre-Alain Rubbo, Amandine Pisoni, Sophie Bendriss, Grégory Marin, Marianne Peries, Karine Bolloré, Dominique Terru, Sylvain Godreuil, Arnaud Bourdin, Philippe Van de Perre, Edouard Tuaillon
Interferon gamma (IFN-γ) release assays (IGRAs) detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection regardless of the active (ATB) or latent (LTBI) forms of tuberculosis (TB). In this study, Mtb-specific T cell response against region of deletion 1 (RD1) antigens were explored by a microbead multiplex assay performed in T-SPOT TB assay (T-SPOT) supernatants from 35 patients with ATB and 115 patients with LTBI. T-SPOT is positive when over 7 IFN-γ secreting cells (SC)/250 000 peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) are enumerated...
2016: PloS One
Leila C Kahwati, Cynthia Feltner, Michael Halpern, Carol L Woodell, Erin Boland, Halle R Amick, Rachel Palmieri Weber, Daniel E Jonas
IMPORTANCE: Five to ten percent of individuals with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) progress to active tuberculosis (TB) disease. Identifying and treating LTBI is a key component of the strategy for reducing the burden of TB disease. OBJECTIVE: To review the evidence about targeted screening and treatment for LTBI among adults in primary care settings to support the US Preventive Services Task Force in updating its 1996 recommendation. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, and trial registries, searched through August 3, 2015; references from pertinent articles; and experts...
September 6, 2016: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Magdalena Druszczynska, Marcin Wlodarczyk, Grzegorz Kielnierowski, Malwina Kawka, Wieslawa Rudnicka
Clinical data regarding the prediction of active tuberculosis (TB) development in close TB contacts are scarce. To address this problem, we performed a 2-year follow-up study of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) antigen-driven IFN-gamma responses and serum levels of soluble macrophage CD14 receptor in individuals with recent or prolonged M.tb exposure. Between June 2011 and June 2013, we studied 60 healthy Polish adults with recent household or long-term work TB contact and individuals without known M.tb exposure...
June 2016: Indian Journal of Microbiology
Robert J Blount, Minh-Chi Tran, Charles K Everett, Adithya Cattamanchi, John Z Metcalfe, Denise Connor, Cecily R Miller, Jennifer Grinsdale, Julie Higashi, Payam Nahid
BACKGROUND: Interferon-gamma release assays may be used as an alternative to the tuberculin skin test for detection of M. tuberculosis infection. However, the risk of active tuberculosis disease following screening using interferon-gamma release assays in immigrants is not well defined. To address these uncertainties, we determined the incidence rates of active tuberculosis disease in a cohort of high-risk immigrants with Class B TB screened with interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs) upon arrival in the United States...
2016: BMC Public Health
Shani Dror, Laureen Sander, Hila Schwartz, Danna Sheinboim, Aviv Barzilai, Yuval Dishon, Sebastien Apcher, Tamar Golan, Shoshana Greenberger, Iris Barshack, Hagar Malcov, Alona Zilberberg, Lotan Levin, Michelle Nessling, Yael Friedmann, Vivien Igras, Ohad Barzilay, Hananya Vaknine, Ronen Brenner, Assaf Zinger, Avi Schroeder, Pinchas Gonen, Mehdi Khaled, Neta Erez, Jörg D Hoheisel, Carmit Levy
Melanoma originates in the epidermis and becomes metastatic after invasion into the dermis. Prior interactions between melanoma cells and dermis are poorly studied. Here, we show that melanoma cells directly affect the formation of the dermal tumour niche by microRNA trafficking before invasion. Melanocytes, cells of melanoma origin, are specialized in releasing pigment vesicles, termed melanosomes. In melanoma in situ, we found melanosome markers in distal fibroblasts before melanoma invasion. The melanosomes carry microRNAs into primary fibroblasts triggering changes, including increased proliferation, migration and pro-inflammatory gene expression, all known features of cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs)...
September 2016: Nature Cell Biology
Niro Okimoto, Takeyuki Kurihara, Naoyuki Miyashita
OBJECTIVE: We analyzed the use of QFT-TB Gold in Tube and T-SPOT.TB in diagnosing patients with suspected pulmonary tuberculosis. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We evaluated 122 patients with suspected pulmonary tuberculosis (where chest X-ray showed consolidation or. tumor shadow in predilection sites of pulmonary tuberculosis and through contact investigation). QFT-TB Gold and T-SPOT.TB were performed for all the patients. The positive response rate and history of pulmonary tuberculosis in patients who showed positive results for the tests were evaluated...
April 2016: Kekkaku: [Tuberculosis]
Annachiara Malin Igra, Florencia Harari, Ying Lu, Esperanza Casimiro, Marie Vahter
BACKGROUND: Boron is a metalloid found at highly varying concentrations in soil and water. Experimental data indicate that boron is a developmental toxicant, but the few human toxicity data available concern mostly male reproduction. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate potential effects of boron exposure through drinking water on pregnancy outcomes. METHODS: In a mother-child cohort in northern Argentina (n=194), 1-3 samples of serum, whole blood and urine were collected per woman during pregnancy and analyzed for boron and other elements to which exposure occurred, using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry...
October 2016: Environment International
Ki Wook Yun, Young Kwang Kim, Hae Ryun Kim, Mi Kyung Lee, In Seok Lim
PURPOSE: Latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) in young children may progress to severe active tuberculosis (TB) disease and serve as a reservoir for future transmission of TB disease. There are limited data on interferon-γ release assay (IGRA) performance in young children, which our research aims to address by investigating the usefulness of IGRA for the diagnosis of LTBI. METHODS: We performed a tuberculin skin test (TST) and IGRA on children who were younger than 18 years and were admitted to Chung-Ang University Hospital during May 2011-June 2015...
June 2016: Korean Journal of Pediatrics
Anne Meynard, Eva Pfarrwaller, Claire-Anne Wyler Lazarevic
Recent immigrantyouth have multiple health needs that need to be adapted to the context of migration. School health services provide a systematic health check to allyoung immigrants starting school in Geneva, including a tuberculin skin test if coming from a middle or high incidence country. Positive tests are confirmed with Interferon Gamma Release Assay (IGRA) and if indicated, offered treatment of latent tuberculosis even in the absence of clear guidelines. Collective and individual benefits outweigh the difficult logistics: reducing risk of reactivation of latent tuberculosis for populations living in promiscuity, effective collaboration between primary care and school health services to answer the needs of these underserved youth...
June 8, 2016: Revue Médicale Suisse
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"