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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333262/selection-in-europeans-on-fatty-acid-desaturases-associated-with-dietary-changes
#1
Matthew T Buckley, Fernando Racimo, Morten E Allentoft, Majken K Jensen, Anna Jonsson, Hongyan Huang, Farhad Hormozdiari, Martin Sikora, Davide Marnetto, Eleazar Eskin, Marit E Jørgensen, Niels Grarup, Oluf Pedersen, Torben Hansen, Peter Kraft, Eske Willerslev, Rasmus Nielsen
FADS genes encode fatty acid desaturases that are important for the conversion of short chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) to long chain fatty acids. Prior studies indicate that the FADS genes have been subjected to strong positive selection in Africa, South Asia, Greenland, and Europe. By comparing FADS sequencing data from present-day and Bronze Age (5-3k years ago) Europeans, we identify possible targets of selection in the European population, which suggest that selection has targeted different alleles in the FADS genes in Europe than it has in South Asia or Greenland...
March 16, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279481/high-selenium-exposure-lowers-the-odds-ratios-for-hypertension-stroke-and-myocardial-infarction-associated-with-mercury-exposure-among-inuit-in-canada
#2
Xue Feng Hu, Kristin M Eccles, Hing Man Chan
BACKGROUND: Selenium (Se) has been reported to protect against the neurotoxicity of mercury (Hg). However, the effect of Se against Hg on cardiovascular diseases remains unclear. Inuit living in the Arctic have high exposure to both Se and Hg through their marine mammal and fish rich traditional diet. OBJECTIVE: To characterize the co-exposure of Hg and Se among Inuit in Canada and to assess the associations between Hg, Se and cardiovascular health outcomes, including stroke, hypertension, and myocardial infarction (MI)...
March 6, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270034/inuit-interpreters-engaged-in-end-of-life-care-in-nunavik-northern-quebec
#3
Shawn Renee Hordyk, Mary Ellen Macdonald, Paul Brassard
BACKGROUND: Inuit interpreters are key players in end-of-life (EOL) care for Nunavik patients and families. This emotionally intensive work requires expertise in French, English and Inuit dialects to negotiate linguistic and cultural challenges. Cultural differences among medical institutions and Inuit communities can lead to value conflicts and moral dilemmas as interpreters navigate how best to transmit messages of care at EOL. OBJECTIVES: Our goal was to understand the experience of Inuit interpreters in the context of EOL care in Nunavik in order to identify training needs...
2017: International Journal of Circumpolar Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222819/reliability-of-thyroglobulin-in-serum-compared-with-urinary-iodine-when-assessing-individual-and-population-iodine-nutrition-status
#4
Stig Andersen, Paneeraq Noahsen, Louise Westergaard, Peter Laurberg
The occurrence of thyroid disorders relies on I nutrition and monitoring of all populations is recommended. Measuring I in urine is standard but thyroglobulin in serum is an alternative. This led us to assess the reliability of studies using serum thyroglobulin compared with urinary I to assess the I nutrition level and calculate the number of participants needed in a study with repeated data sampling in the same individuals for 1 year. Diet, supplement use and life style factors were assessed by questionnaires...
February 22, 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214709/examining-the-correlates-of-current-smoking-among-off-reserve-first-nations-m%C3%A3-tis-and-inuit-youth-evidence-from-the-2012-aboriginal-peoples-survey
#5
Vanessa Van Bewer, Roberta L Woodgate
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 11, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202225/persistent-organic-pollutants-and-diabetes-among-inuit-in-the-canadian-arctic
#6
Kavita Singh, Hing Man Chan
Type 2 diabetes is a chronic metabolic disease that is of increasing concern in Inuit communities. Behavioural factors such as physical inactivity and poor diet are well-known risk factors. Exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) has emerged as an additional factor in the pathogenesis of diabetes. In this study, association between polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) with diabetes in Canadian Inuit was examined. Data from the Adult Inuit Health Survey (2007-2008) of Inuit participants from the Canadian Arctic were analyzed...
April 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28201922/diagnosis-of-osteoporosis-in-rural-arctic-greenland-a-clinical-case-using-plain-chest-radiography-for-secondary-prevention-and-consideration-of-tools-for-primary-prevention-in-remote-areas
#7
Inuuteq Fleischer, Louise K Schæbel, Nadja Albertsen, Vibeke N Sørensen, Stig Andersen
CONTEXT: Osteoporosis is a frequent disease in many populations. The hallmark is fragility fractures, which are harbingers of future fractures, disability, mortality and cost on society. The occurrence increases with age, low vitamin D level and smoking. Smoking rates are high, vitamin D is low and life expectancy is rising steeply in Greenland, as is the need for focus on osteoporosis. We report a case that uses a simple and readily available tool to diagnose osteoporosis at the hospital in Sisimiut, a town of 5000 inhabitants on the west coast of Greenland...
January 2017: Rural and Remote Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198984/smoking-prevalence-among-inuit-in-canada
#8
Evelyne Bougie, Dafna Kohen
Using data from the 1991, 2001 and 2012 Aboriginal Peoples Survey, this study examines the prevalence of smoking among Inuit aged 15 or older, by location of residence, sex and age group. Overall, the prevalence of daily smoking was significantly lower in 2012 than in 1991; this was true for Inuit living inside and outside Inuit Nunangat, for men and women, for most age groups, and for those in all Inuit regions except Nunavik. The average number of cigarettes smoked per day by daily smokers decreased steadily and significantly over time, except among those living outside Inuit Nunangat or in Nunavik, and those aged 55 or older...
February 15, 2017: Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193867/genetic-signature-of-natural-selection-in-first-americans
#9
Carlos Eduardo G Amorim, Kelly Nunes, Diogo Meyer, David Comas, Maria Cátira Bortolini, Francisco Mauro Salzano, Tábita Hünemeier
When humans moved from Asia toward the Americas over 18,000 y ago and eventually peopled the New World they encountered a new environment with extreme climate conditions and distinct dietary resources. These environmental and dietary pressures may have led to instances of genetic adaptation with the potential to influence the phenotypic variation in extant Native American populations. An example of such an event is the evolution of the fatty acid desaturases (FADS) genes, which have been claimed to harbor signals of positive selection in Inuit populations due to adaptation to the cold Greenland Arctic climate and to a protein-rich diet...
February 28, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177857/end-of-life-care-in-nunavik-quebec-inuit-experiences-current-realities-and-ways-forward
#10
Shawn Renee Hordyk, Mary Ellen Macdonald, Paul Brassard
BACKGROUND: Increasing longevity for Inuit living in Nunavik, northern Quebec, has resulted in heightened rates of cancers and chronic diseases necessitating complex treatments. Consequently, end-of-life (EOL) care, once the domain of Inuit families and communities, has come to include professionalized healthcare providers with varying degrees of awareness of factors to consider in providing care to Inuit populations. OBJECTIVE: To better understand the factors shaping EOL care in Nunavik to support the development of a sustainable model of care...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169090/peripartum-cardiomyopathy-characteristics-and-outcomes-in-canadian-aboriginal-and-non-aboriginal-women
#11
Shuangbo Liu, Sobia A Zuberi, Amrit A Malik, Brett M Hiebert, Allan Schaffer, Shelley Zieroth, Francisco J Cordova
BACKGROUND: Peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) is a heterogeneous condition characterized by heart failure and left ventricular dysfunction (left ventricular ejection fraction [LVEF] < 45%) in the absence of an alternative cause and a previous diagnosis of cardiomyopathy. The Aboriginal population (Inuit, First Nations, Metis) of Canada often has barriers to health care, which can lead to delays in diagnosis and treatment. Our objectives are to describe PPCM in a Canadian population, and to determine if Canadian Aboriginal women have worse clinical outcomes than non-Aboriginal women...
November 11, 2016: Canadian Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168119/demographic-ecological-and-physiological-responses-of-ringed-seals-to-an-abrupt-decline-in-sea-ice-availability
#12
Steven H Ferguson, Brent G Young, David J Yurkowski, Randi Anderson, Cornelia Willing, Ole Nielsen
To assess whether demographic declines of Arctic species at the southern limit of their range will be gradual or punctuated, we compared large-scale environmental patterns including sea ice dynamics to ringed seal (Pusa hispida) reproduction, body condition, recruitment, and stress in Hudson Bay from 2003 to 2013. Aerial surveys suggested a gradual decline in seal density from 1995 to 2013, with the lowest density occurring in 2013. Body condition decreased and stress (cortisol) increased over time in relation to longer open water periods...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158207/cns-infections-in-greenland-a-nationwide-register-based-cohort-study
#13
Anne Christine Nordholm, Bolette Søborg, Mikael Andersson, Steen Hoffmann, Peter Skinhøj, Anders Koch
BACKGROUND: Indigenous Arctic people suffer from high rates of infectious diseases. However, the burden of central nervous system (CNS) infections is poorly documented. This study aimed to estimate incidence rates and mortality of CNS infections among Inuits and non-Inuits in Greenland and in Denmark. METHODS: We conducted a nationwide cohort study using the populations of Greenland and Denmark 1990-2012. Information on CNS infection hospitalizations and pathogens was retrieved from national registries and laboratories...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152433/the-epa-guidance-on-suicide-treatment-and-prevention-needs-to-be-adjusted-to-fight-the-epidemics-of-suicide-at-the-north-pole-area-and-other-autochthonous-communities
#14
P Charlier, J Malaurie, D Wasserman, V Carli, M Sarchiapone, C Dagenais-Everell, C Herve
More and more, youth suicide in the Inuit community is gaining importance, with a frequency in Greenland rising from 14.4 (1960-64) to 110.4 per 100,000 person-years (2010-11). The huge cultural/educational changes during the last 20 years and the role of globalization, especially of the occidental influence on this community may be at the origin of such an "epidemics" of suicide in this cultural region. Recently, a political organization representing the Inuit community in Canada (ITK for Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami) launched a National Inuit Suicide Prevention Strategy (NISP) based on the specificities of this community in comparison to the occidental civilization...
March 2017: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125087/carnitine-palmitoyltransferase-1a-p479l-and-infant-death-policy-implications-of-emerging-data
#15
REVIEW
Alison E Fohner, Nanibaa' A Garrison, Melissa A Austin, Wylie Burke
Carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 isoform A (CPT1A) is a crucial enzyme for the transport of long-chain fatty acids into the mitochondria. The CPT1A p.P479L variant is found in high frequencies among indigenous populations residing on the west and north coasts of Alaska and Canada and in northeast Siberia and Greenland. Epidemiological studies have reported a statistical association between P479L homozygosity and infant death in Alaska Native and Canadian Inuit populations. Here, we review the available evidence about the P479L variant and apply to these data the epidemiological criteria for assessing causal associations...
January 26, 2017: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087813/ethnic-differences-in-anthropometric-measures-and-abdominal-fat-distribution-a-cross-sectional-pooled-study-in-inuit-africans-and-europeans
#16
Pernille F Rønn, Gregers S Andersen, Torsten Lauritzen, Dirk L Christensen, Mette Aadahl, Bendix Carstensen, Marit E Jørgensen
BACKGROUND: Ethnic variation in abdominal fat distribution may explain differences in cardiometabolic risk between populations. However, the ability of anthropometric measures to quantify abdominal fat is not clearly understood across ethnic groups. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between anthropometric measures and visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAT) in Inuit, Africans and Europeans. METHODS: We combined cross-sectional data from 3 studies conducted in Greenland, Kenya and Denmark using similar methodology...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086846/stochastic-agent-based-modeling-of-tuberculosis-in-canadian-indigenous-communities
#17
Ashleigh R Tuite, Victor Gallant, Elaine Randell, Annie-Claude Bourgeois, Amy L Greer
BACKGROUND: In Canada, active tuberculosis (TB) disease rates remain disproportionately higher among the Indigenous population, especially among the Inuit in the north. We used mathematical modeling to evaluate how interventions might enhance existing TB control efforts in a region of Nunavut. METHODS: We developed a stochastic, agent-based model of TB transmission that captured the unique household and community structure. Evaluated interventions included: (i) rapid treatment of active cases; (ii) rapid contact tracing; (iii) expanded screening programs for latent TB infection (LTBI); and (iv) reduced household density...
January 13, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070563/gut-microbiome-of-the-canadian-arctic-inuit
#18
Catherine Girard, Nicolas Tromas, Marc Amyot, B Jesse Shapiro
Diet is a major determinant of community composition in the human gut microbiome, and "traditional" diets have been associated with distinct and highly diverse communities, compared to Western diets. However, most traditional diets studied have been those of agrarians and hunter-gatherers consuming fiber-rich diets. In contrast, the Inuit of the Canadian Arctic have been consuming a traditional diet low in carbohydrates and rich in animal fats and protein for thousands of years. We hypothesized that the Inuit diet and lifestyle would be associated with a distinct microbiome...
January 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007980/archaic-adaptive-introgression-in-tbx15-wars2
#19
Fernando Racimo, David Gokhman, Matteo Fumagalli, Amy Ko, Torben Hansen, Ida Moltke, Anders Albrechtsen, Liran Carmel, Emilia Huerta-Sánchez, Rasmus Nielsen
A recent study conducted the first genome-wide scan for selection in Inuit from Greenland using SNP chip data. Here, we report that selection in the region with the second most extreme signal of positive selection in Greenlandic Inuit favored a deeply divergent haplotype that is closely related to the sequence in the Denisovan genome, and was likely introgressed from an archaic population. The region contains two genes, WARS2 and TBX15, and has previously been associated with adipose tissue differentiation and body-fat distribution in humans...
December 21, 2016: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974140/an-update-on-risk-communication-in-the-arctic
#20
Eva-Maria Krümmel, Andrew Gilman
BACKGROUND: Arctic residents can be exposed to a wide range of contaminants through consumption of traditional (country) foods (i.e. food from wild animals and plants that are hunted, caught or collected locally in the Arctic). Yet these foods provide excellent nutrition, promote social cohesion, meet some spiritual needs for connectedness to the land and water, reinforce cultural ties, are economically important and promote overall good health for many. The risk and benefit balance associated with the consumption of traditional Arctic foods is complicated to communicate and has been referred to as the "Arctic Dilemma"...
2016: International Journal of Circumpolar Health
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