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Bushra Farah Nasir, Leanne Hides, Steve Kisely, Geetha Ranmuthugala, Geoffrey C Nicholson, Emma Black, Neeraj Gill, Srinivas Kondalsamy-Chennakesavan, Maree Toombs
BACKGROUND: Suicide is a leading cause of death among Indigenous youth worldwide. The aim of this literature review was to determine the cultural appropriateness and identify evidence for the effectiveness of current gatekeeper suicide prevention training programs within the international Indigenous community. METHOD: Using a systematic strategy, relevant databases and targeted resources were searched using the following terms: 'suicide', 'gatekeeper', 'training', 'suicide prevention training', 'suicide intervention training' and 'Indigenous'...
October 21, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
Andrew Paul Gray, Faisca Richer, Sam Harper
OBJECTIVES: Following the onset of intensive colonial intervention and rapid social change in the lives of Inuit people, youth in Nunavik have experienced high rates of mental health problems and suicide. Inuit people describe a broad range of contextual influences on mental wellness based on lived experience, but most epidemiological studies have focused on individual risk factors and pathologies. This study aimed to assess the influence of multiple determinants of mental wellness among Inuit youth in Nunavik, including culturally meaningful activities, housing and community social characteristics...
October 20, 2016: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
Patricio Lopez-Jaramillo
Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are major causes of death and illness worldwide. In recent decades an increased prevalence of CVD mortality has been reported in low-medium income countries, which has been associated with changes in life styles, deficiencies in health systems and the persistence of social inequities.The metabolic syndrome comprises a cluster of cardiometabolic risk factors, with insulin resistance and increased adiposity as its central features. Identifying individuals with metabolic syndrome is important due to its association with an increased risk of coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2)...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Patricia J Martens, Leigh Anne Shafer, Heather J Dean, Elizabeth A C Sellers, Jennifer Yamamoto, Sora Ludwig, Maureen Heaman, Wanda Phillips-Beck, Heather J Prior, Margaret Morris, Jonathan McGavock, Allison B Dart, Garry X Shen
OBJECTIVE: To examine associations between breastfeeding initiation and subsequent diabetes among First Nations (indigenous people in Canada who are not Métis or Inuit) and non-First Nations mothers and their offspring with and without gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). METHODS: This retrospective database study included 334,553 deliveries (1987-2011) in Manitoba with up to 24 years of follow-up for diabetes using population-based databases. Information of breastfeeding initiation before hospital discharge was obtained from hospital abstracts recorded by nurses in postpartum wards...
October 6, 2016: Obstetrics and Gynecology
Michael J Kral
Inuit in Canada have among the highest suicide rates in the world, and it is primarily among their youth. Risk factors include known ones such as depression, substance use, a history of abuse, and knowing others who have made attempts or have killed themselves, however of importance are the negative effects of colonialism. This took place for Inuit primarily during the government era starting in the 1950s, when Inuit were moved from their family-based land camps to crowded settlements run by white men, and children were removed from their parents and placed into residential or day schools...
November 2016: Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie
Faiz Ahmad Khan, Greg J Fox, Robyn S Lee, Mylene Riva, Andrea Benedetti, Jean-François Proulx, Shelley Jung, Karen Hornby, Marcel A Behr, Dick Menzies
BACKGROUND: Between November 2011 and November 2012, an Inuit village in Nunavik, Quebec experienced a surge in the occurrence of active TB; contact investigations showed that TB infection was highly prevalent (62.6%), particularly among those over age 14 years (78.8%). A nested case-control study showed that nutritional inadequacy was associated with acquisition of infection but not progression to disease. We performed a study to determine whether characteristics of one's dwelling were associated with 1) acquisition of newly diagnosed TB infection and 2) progression to confirmed or probable disease among those with TB infection...
July 2016: CMAJ Open
Marlene Z Bloom
It was four months in Alaska, in the middle of winter, that changed Joseph Marek's view of what it means to be a pharmacist. Marek was on his last rotation in pharmacy school when he experienced the kind of practice that he wanted for himself. He found that kind of practice as a consultant pharmacist, and next month, Marek, 49, will become the 2016-2017 president of the American Society of Consulting Pharmacists. Working at the Public Health Service (PHS) in the Arctic Circle in 1990, he dispensed and carried out clinical duties with the chief pharmacist and provided care to the native Inuit population through the Indian Health Service...
2016: Consultant Pharmacist: the Journal of the American Society of Consultant Pharmacists
Farihah Anwar, Angela Turalba
BACKGROUND: Glaucoma is the second leading cause of blindness in the world. Angle closure glaucoma accounts for 25% of all glaucoma, with Asia having the highest rate. Angle closure is an anatomical variation, making the Inuit, Chinese, and other Asians more susceptible. Current treatments include medical, laser, and surgical modalities. PURPOSE: To identify the current treatment protocols for primary angle closure. DISCUSSION: The current general protocol to treat angle closure is to lower the intraocular pressure with medications and perform laser iridotomy...
September 29, 2016: Seminars in Ophthalmology
Dylan G Clark, James D Ford, Tristan Pearce, Lea Berrang-Ford
Injury is the leading cause of death for Canadians aged 1 to 44, occurring disproportionately across regions and communities. In the Inuit territory of Nunavut, for instance, unintentional injury rates are over three times the Canadian average. In this paper, we develop a framework for assessing vulnerability to injury and use it to identify and characterize the determinants of injuries on the land in Nunavut. We specifically examine unintentional injuries on the land (outside of hamlets) because of the importance of land-based activities to Inuit culture, health, and well-being...
September 16, 2016: Social Science & Medicine
James D Ford, Ellie Stephenson, Ashlee Cunsolo Willox, Victoria Edge, Khosrow Farahbakhsh, Christopher Furgal, Sherilee Harper, Susan Chatwood, Ian Mauro, Tristan Pearce, Stephanie Austin, Anna Bunce, Alejandra Bussalleu, Jahir Diaz, Kaitlyn Finner, Allan Gordon, Catherine Huet, Knut Kitching, Marie-Pierre Lardeau, Graham McDowell, Ellen McDonald, Lesya Nakoneczny, Mya Sherman
Community-based adaptation (CBA) has emerged over the last decade as an approach to empowering communities to plan for and cope with the impacts of climate change. While such approaches have been widely advocated, few have critically examined the tensions and challenges that CBA brings. Responding to this gap, this article critically examines the use of CBA approaches with Inuit communities in Canada. We suggest that CBA holds significant promise to make adaptation research more democratic and responsive to local needs, providing a basis for developing locally appropriate adaptations based on local/indigenous and Western knowledge...
March 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Climate Change
Patricio Lopez-Jaramillo
Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are major causes of death and illness worldwide. In recent decades an increased prevalence of CVD mortality has been reported in low-medium income countries, which has been associated with changes in life styles, deficiencies in health systems and the persistence of social inequities.The metabolic syndrome comprises a cluster of cardiometabolic risk factors, with insulin resistance and increased adiposity as its central features. Identifying individuals with metabolic syndrome is important due to its association with an increased risk of coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2)...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Allison Crawford
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 10, 2016: Lancet
Adel Achouba, Pierre Dumas, Nathalie Ouellet, Mélanie Lemire, Pierre Ayotte
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 30, 2016: Environment International
Olivier Boucher, Gina Muckle, Pierre Ayotte, Eric Dewailly, Sandra W Jacobson, Joseph L Jacobson
BACKGROUND: Motor deficits have frequently been reported in methylmercury (MeHg) poisoning in adults. However, whether exposure to neurotoxic contaminants from environmental sources early in life is associated with neuromotor impairments has received relatively little attention. This study examines the relation of developmental exposure to MeHg, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and lead to motor function in school-age Inuit children exposed through their traditional diet. METHODS: In a prospective study in Nunavik, children (mean age=11...
October 2016: Environment International
T Cameron Wild, Yan Yuan, Brian R Rush, Karen A Urbanoski
OBJECTIVE: Mixed evidence on the effectiveness of using legal referrals to leverage treatment participation may reflect unmeasured variability in client motivations for seeking care. We hypothesized that associations between legal referral and client engagement would be moderated by reasons that clients sought treatment, as conceptualized by self-determination theory (SDT). METHODS: Adults entering a Western Canadian residential addiction treatment program (N=325; 49...
October 2016: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
Dwight Read
Richerson et al. propose cultural group selection (CGS) as the basis for understanding the evolution of cultural systems. Their proposal does not take into account the nature of cultural idea systems as being constituted at an organizational, rather than an individual level. The sealing partners of the Netsilik Inuit exemplify the problem with their account.
January 2016: Behavioral and Brain Sciences
Despoina Manousaki, Jack W Kent, Karin Haack, Sirui Zhou, Pingxing Xie, Celia M Greenwood, Paul Brassard, Deborah E Newman, Shelley Cole, Jason G Umans, Guy Rouleau, Anthony G Comuzzie, J Brent Richards
OBJECTIVE: A common nonsense mutation in TBC1D4 was recently found to substantially increase the odds of type 2 diabetes in Greenlandic Inuit, leading to exclusively increased postprandial glucose. We investigated the frequency and effect of the TBC1D4 mutation on glucose metabolism and type 2 diabetes diagnosis among Canadian and Alaskan Inuit. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Exome sequencing of the TBC1D4 variant was performed in 114 Inuit from Nunavik, Canada, and Sanger sequencing was undertaken in 1,027 Alaskan Inuit from the Genetics of Coronary Artery Disease in Alaska Natives (GOCADAN) Study...
August 25, 2016: Diabetes Care
Cheryl Barnabe, Bonnie Healy, Andrew Portolesi, Gilaad G Kaplan, Brenda Hemmelgarn, Charles Weaselhead
BACKGROUND: Uncontrolled disease activity in inflammatory diseases of the joints, skin and bowel leads to morbidity and disability. Disease-modifying therapies are widely used to suppress this disease activity, but cost-coverage is variable. For Treaty First Nations and Inuit people in Canada without alternative private or public health insurance, cost-coverage for disease-modifying therapy is provided through Non-Insured Health Benefits (NIHB). Our objective was to describe the prevalence and patterns of treatment with disease-modifying therapy for the NIHB claimant population, and also examine adjuvant therapy (analgesics, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), corticosteroids) use...
2016: BMC Health Services Research
Angie Chiu, Ellen Goddard, Brenda Parlee
Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) found in both farmed and wild deer, elk, and moose in the United States and Canada. Surveillance efforts in North America identified the geographical distribution of the disease and mechanisms underlying distribution, although the possibility of transmission to other cervids, including caribou, and noncervids, including humans, is not well understood. Because of the documented importance of caribou (Rangifer tarandus) to human populations in the northern regions of Canada, a risk-management strategy for CWD requires an understanding of the extent of potential dietary exposure to CWD...
2016: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
Maria Lopopolo, Claus Børsting, Vania Pereira, Niels Morling
OBJECTIVES: The Greenlandic population history is characterized by a number of migrations of people of various ethnicities. In this work, the analysis of the complete mtDNA genome aimed to contribute to the ongoing debate on the origin of current Greenlanders and, at the same time, to address the migration patterns in the Greenlandic population from a female inheritance demographic perspective. METHODS: We investigated the maternal genetic variation in the Greenlandic population by sequencing the whole mtDNA genome in 127 Greenlandic individuals using the Illumina MiSeq(®) platform...
August 24, 2016: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
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