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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339114/a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-cardiorespiratory-fitness-among-indigenous-populations-in-north-america-and-circumpolar-inuit-populations
#1
REVIEW
Lila M A Hedayat, Claire C Murchison, Heather J A Foulds
Indigenous populations experience health disparities including increased obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease rates. Cardiorespiratory fitness is beneficial for maintaining positive health outcomes. The objective of this systematic review is to evaluate cardiorespiratory fitness among Indigenous populations including comparisons across genders, Indigenous identities, age groups, decades, socio-demographic variables and in comparison to non-Indigenous groups. Included articles reported various cardiorespiratory fitness measures using maximal treadmill or cycle ergometer tests, 20 m shuttle run, 1 mile run/walk test and 6 min walk test...
January 12, 2018: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337928/protective-factors-in-the-inuit-population-of-nunavut-a-comparative-study-of-people-who-died-by-suicide-people-who-attempted-suicide-and-people-who-never-attempted-suicide
#2
Véronique Beaudoin, Monique Séguin, Nadia Chawky, William Affleck, Eduardo Chachamovich, Gustavo Turecki
Epidemiological data shows an alarming prevalence of suicide in Aboriginal populations around the world. In Canada, the highest rates are found in Inuit communities. In this article, we present the findings of a secondary analysis conducted with data previously collected as part of a larger study of psychological autopsies conducted in Nunavut, Canada. The objective of this secondary analysis was to identify protective factors in the Inuit population of Nunavut by comparing people who died by suicide, people from the general population who attempted suicide, and people from the general population who never attempted suicide...
January 16, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331158/dietary-sources-of-energy-and-nutrients-in-the-contemporary-diet-of-inuit-adults-results-from-the-2007-08-inuit-health-survey
#3
Tiff-Annie Kenny, Xue Feng Hu, Harriet V Kuhnlein, Sonia D Wesche, Hing Man Chan
OBJECTIVE: To characterize the major components of the contemporary Inuit diet and identify the primary sources of energy and essential nutrients. DESIGN: Dietary data were derived from the 24 h recall collected by the Inuit Health Survey (IHS) from 2007 to 2008. The population proportion method was used to determine the percentage contribution of each group. Unique food items/preparations (ninety-three country foods and 1591 market foods) were classified into eight country food groups and forty-one market food groups...
January 14, 2018: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323294/terminal-pleistocene-alaskan-genome-reveals-first-founding-population-of-native-americans
#4
J Víctor Moreno-Mayar, Ben A Potter, Lasse Vinner, Matthias Steinrücken, Simon Rasmussen, Jonathan Terhorst, John A Kamm, Anders Albrechtsen, Anna-Sapfo Malaspinas, Martin Sikora, Joshua D Reuther, Joel D Irish, Ripan S Malhi, Ludovic Orlando, Yun S Song, Rasmus Nielsen, David J Meltzer, Eske Willerslev
Despite broad agreement that the Americas were initially populated via Beringia, the land bridge that connected far northeast Asia with northwestern North America during the Pleistocene epoch, when and how the peopling of the Americas occurred remains unresolved. Analyses of human remains from Late Pleistocene Alaska are important to resolving the timing and dispersal of these populations. The remains of two infants were recovered at Upward Sun River (USR), and have been dated to around 11.5 thousand years ago (ka)...
January 11, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299979/communities-being-well-for-family-well-being-exploring-the-socio-ecological-determinants-of-well-being-in-an-inuit-community-of-northern-quebec
#5
Sarah L Fraser, Valérie Parent, Véronique Dupéré
Inuit communities of Canada experience many disparities in health and psychosocial context. Research in community psychology has shown associations between such socio-ecological factors and individual well-being. The objective of the study was to explore how community-level determinants of well-being influence family well-being in a northern community of Nunavik, Quebec. A total of 14 participants were interviewed. A thematic inductive analysis was conducted to extract community determinants of family well-being from the data...
January 1, 2018: Transcultural Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282272/our-health-counts-toronto-using-respondent-driven-sampling-to-unmask-census-undercounts-of-an-urban-indigenous-population-in-toronto-canada
#6
Michael A Rotondi, Patricia O'Campo, Kristen O'Brien, Michelle Firestone, Sara H Wolfe, Cheryllee Bourgeois, Janet K Smylie
OBJECTIVES: To provide evidence of the magnitude of census undercounts of 'hard-to-reach' subpopulations and to improve estimation of the size of the urban indigenous population in Toronto, Canada, using respondent-driven sampling (RDS). DESIGN: Respondent-driven sampling. SETTING: The study took place in the urban indigenous community in Toronto, Canada. Three locations within the city were used to recruit study participants. PARTICIPANTS: 908 adult participants (15+) who self-identified as indigenous (First Nation, Inuit or Métis) and lived in the city of Toronto...
December 26, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261223/family-networks-and-health-among-m%C3%A3-tis-aged-45-or-older
#7
Pamela L Ramage-Morin, Evelyne Bougie
BACKGROUND: Social networks are important for promoting and maintaining health and well-being. Social networks, including family and friendship ties, are sources of emotional, practical and other support that enhance social participation and help combat isolation and loneliness. Aboriginal seniors have been identified as a population at risk of social isolation. DATA AND METHODS: The data are from the 2012 Aboriginal Peoples Survey, a national survey of First Nations people living off reserve, Métis, and Inuit...
December 20, 2017: Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259789/markedly-increased-intake-of-refined-carbohydrates-and-sugar-is-associated-with-the-rise-of-coronary-heart-disease-and-diabetes-among-the-alaskan-inuit
#8
EDITORIAL
James J DiNicolantonio, James O'Keefe
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Open Heart
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237712/receptor-activities-of-persistent-pollutant-serum-mixtures-and-breast-cancer-risk
#9
Maria Wielsøe, Christian Bjerregaard-Olesen, Peder Kern, Eva Cecilie Bonefeld-Jørgensen
Studies on associations between persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and breast cancer risk are inconclusive. The majority of studies have evaluated the effect of single compounds, without considering multiple exposures to and interactions between different POPs. The present study aimed at evaluating breast cancer risk related to combined effects of serum POP mixtures on cellular receptor functions. Data on breast cancer cases (n=77) and controls (n=84) was collected among Greenlandic Inuit women. Serum mixtures of lipophilic POPs (lipPOPs), perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), and dioxin-like POPs were extracted...
December 13, 2017: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227867/associations-between-vitamin-d-status-and-atherosclerosis-among-inuit-in-greenland
#10
Camilla U Gjødesen, Marit E Jørgensen, Peter Bjerregaard, Inger K Dahl-Petersen, Christina V L Larsen, Martin Noël, Mads Melbye, Arieh S Cohen, Marika Lundqvist, David M Hougaard, Jørn W Helge, Nina O Nielsen
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Low levels of vitamin D are suspected to be a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of subclinical atherosclerosis among Inuit in Greenland, and to evaluate the association with vitamin D status. We hypothesized that low vitamin D status could be associated with higher carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) as a marker of atherosclerosis. METHODS: 756 adults from the Inuit Health in Transition (IHIT) study carried out in Greenland in the period 2005-2010 were included...
December 1, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220501/combination-of-247-genome-wide-association-studies-reveals-high-cancer-risk-as-a-result-of-evolutionary-adaptation
#11
Konstantinos Voskarides
Analysis of GLOBOCAN-2012 data shows clearly here that cancer incidence worldwide is highly related with low average annual temperatures and extreme low temperatures. This applies for all cancers together or separately for many frequent or rare cancer types (all cancers P = 9.49 x 10-18). Supporting fact is that Inuit people, living at extreme low temperatures, have the highest cancer rates today. Hypothesizing an evolutionary explanation, 240 cancer genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and seven GWAS for cold and high-altitude adaptation were combined...
December 5, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203254/ethnic-dependent-differences-in-diagnostic-accuracy-of-glycated-hemoglobin-hba1c-in-canadian-adults
#12
Ronald A Booth, Ying Jiang, Howard Morrison, Heather Orpana, Susan Rogers Van Katwyk, Chantal Lemieux
AIM: Previous studies have shown varying sensitivity and specificity of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) to identify diabetes and prediabetes, compared to 2-hour oral glucose tolerance testing (OGTT) and fasting plasma glucose (FPG), in different ethnic groups. Within the Canadian population, the ability of HbA1c to identify prediabetes and diabetes in First Nations, Métis and Inuit, East and South Asian ethnic groups has yet to be determined. METHODS: We collected demographic, lifestyle information, biochemical results of glycemic status (FPG, OGTT, and HbA1c) from an ethnically diverse Canadian population sample, which included a purposeful sampling of First Nations, Métis, Inuit, South Asian and East Asian participants...
December 1, 2017: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149856/naukan-ethnobotany-in-post-soviet-times-lost-edibles-and-new-medicinals
#13
Kevin A Jernigan, Olga S Belichenko, Valeria B Kolosova, Darlene J Orr
BACKGROUND: This study focuses on health-related plant use among speakers of the critically endangered Naukan language (Inuit-Yupik-Unangan family) in the Russian Far East. The Naukan people were forced, in 1958, under Soviet consolidation, to move from their original settlement on Cape Dezhnev, leading to significant changes in spiritual worldview, subsistence, social structure, and language proficiency in the years that followed. Here, we focus on changes that elders report in their edible, medicinal, and spiritual uses of local plant species since their childhood...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145891/the-inuit-gut-microbiome-is-dynamic-over-time-and-shaped-by-traditional-foods
#14
Geneviève Dubois, Catherine Girard, François-Joseph Lapointe, B Jesse Shapiro
BACKGROUND: The human gut microbiome represents a diverse microbial community that varies across individuals and populations, and is influenced by factors such as host genetics and lifestyle. Diet is a major force shaping the gut microbiome, and the effects of dietary choices on microbiome composition are well documented. However, it remains poorly known how natural temporal variation in diet can affect the microbiome. The traditional Inuit diet is primarily based on animal products, which are thought to vary seasonally according to prey availability...
November 16, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140536/birth-outcomes-among-first-nations-inuit-and-m%C3%A3-tis-populations
#15
Amanda J Sheppard, Gabriel D Shapiro, Tracey Bushnik, Russell Wilkins, Serenity Perry, Jay S Kaufman, Michael S Kramer, Seungmi Yang
BACKGROUND: First Nations, Inuit, and Métis are at higher risk of adverse birth outcomes than are non-Indigenous people. However, relatively little perinatal information is available at the national level for Indigenous people overall or for specific identity groups. DATA AND METHODS: This analysis describes and compares rates of preterm birth, small-for-gestational-age birth, large-for-gestational-age birth, stillbirth, and infant mortality (neonatal, postneonatal, and cause-specific) in a nationally representative sample of First Nations, Inuit, Métis, and non-Indigenous births...
November 15, 2017: Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132004/how-are-perceptions-associated-with-water-consumption-in-canadian-inuit-a-cross-sectional-survey-in-rigolet-labrador
#16
Carlee J Wright, Jan M Sargeant, Victoria L Edge, James D Ford, Khosrow Farahbakhsh, Inez Shiwak, Charlie Flowers, Allan C Gordon, Sherilee L Harper
Concerns regarding the safety and aesthetic qualities of one's municipal drinking water supply are important factors influencing drinking water perceptions and consumption patterns (i.e. sources used and daily volume of consumption). In northern Canada, Inuit communities face challenges with drinking water quality, and many Inuit have reported concerns regarding the safety of their drinking water. The objectives of this research were to describe perceptions of municipal tap water, examine use of water sources and changes following the installation of a potable water dispensing unit (PWDU) in 2014, and identify factors associated with water consumption in the Inuit community of Rigolet...
November 10, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079497/alcohol-use-among-inuit-pregnant-women-validity-of-alcohol-ascertainment-measures-over-time
#17
Marilyn Fortin, Gina Muckle, Sandra W Jacobson, Joseph L Jacobson, Richard E Bélanger
BACKGROUND: Frequency and quantity of alcohol consumed by women are two important indicators of the risks associated with drinking during pregnancy. Some studies have compared the validity of maternal alcohol report obtained during and after pregnancy. However, to date none have examined alcohol use in a Native Canadian population, such as the Inuit. Effective measurement methods are necessary to better understand why children from some communities seem at increased risk of alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorders...
October 24, 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055805/-people-try-and-label-me-as-someone-i-m-not-the-social-ecology-of-indigenous-people-living-with-hiv-stigma-and-discrimination-in-manitoba-canada
#18
Roberta L Woodgate, Melanie Zurba, Pauline Tennent, Carla Cochrane, Mike Payne, Javier Mignone
Indigenous peoples (First Nations, Inuit, and Métis) are currently overrepresented in the HIV epidemic in Canada and are infected at a younger age than those who are not Indigenous. This article presents our findings on the stigma and discrimination (as well as related themes such as disclosure) experienced by Indigenous people who contracted HIV in their youth and live in urban and non-urban settings in Manitoba, Canada. The findings were derived from a qualitative study that sought to understand the experiences and needs of Indigenous people living with HIV (including AIDS)...
October 14, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035785/association-of-blood-polychlorinated-biphenyls-and-cholesterol-levels-among-canadian-inuit
#19
Kavita Singh, Hing Man Chan
BACKGROUND: It has generally been thought that Inuit populations have low risk of cardiovascular disease due to high consumption of omega-3 fatty acids found in traditional marine-based diets. However, results of recent surveys showed that Inuit populations are experiencing increasing rates of cardiovascular disease and related risk factors. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate if blood polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are associated with high cholesterol and related parameters in Canadian Inuit, known risk factors for cardiovascular disease...
October 13, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034810/adult-idiopathic-cholestasis-a-condition-more-common-in-the-canadian-inuit
#20
Gerald Y Minuk, Galia Pollock, Julia Uhanova
Despite extensive investigations, some patients have no identifiable cause for their cholestatic liver enzyme abnormalities. The aim of this study was to document the clinical, laboratory, radiologic and histologic features of adult patients with idiopathic cholestasis (AIC). A computerised database of referred patients to a tertiary care hospital outpatient department for assessment of hepatobiliary disorders between 2005 and 2015 was employed to identify and describe features associated with AIC. Of 6,560 patient referrals, sufficient documentation to warrant a diagnosis of AIC was present in 17 (0...
2017: International Journal of Circumpolar Health
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