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Evelyne Bougie, Dafna E Kohen
BACKGROUND: Although rates of daily smoking among Inuit have been decreasing since 1991, Inuit are still much more likely to smoke relative to the Canadian population as a whole. However, little population-based empirical research has identified characteristics associated with cigarette use among this population. DATA AND METHODS: Based on data from the 2012 Aboriginal Peoples Survey, sex-specific logistic regression analyses, informed by an Inuit social determinants of health framework, described associations between current smoking and selected socio-demographic characteristics among Inuit men and women aged 18 or older who resided in Inuit Nunangat...
March 21, 2018: Health Reports
Trine Jul Larsen, Marit Eika Jørgensen, Christina Viskum Lytken Larsen, Inger Katrine Dahl-Petersen, Pernille Falberg Rønn, Peter Bjerregaard, Stine Byberg
BACKGROUND: Studies have found mercury to be associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD), however, primarily in populations with low exposure. The highest levels, and variations in the levels, of whole blood mercury (WBM) worldwide have been found in Greenland. We prospectively assessed the association between WBM and the risk of developing CVD in the Greenlandic population. METHODS: We assessed the effects of WBM levels on incident CVD among 3083 Greenlandic Inuit, participating in a population-based cohort study conducted from 2005 to 2010...
March 16, 2018: Environmental Research
Sirui Zhou, Ziv Gan-Or, Amirthagowri Ambalavanan, Dongbing Lai, Pingxing Xie, Cynthia V Bourassa, Stephanie Strong, Jay P Ross, Alexandre Dionne-Laporte, Dan Spiegelman, Nicolas Dupré, Tatiana M Foroud, Lan Xiong, Patrick A Dion, Guy A Rouleau
Intracranial Aneurysm (IA) is a common disease with a worldwide prevalence of 1-3%. In the French-Canadian (FC) population, where there is an important founder effect, the incidence of IA is higher and is frequently seen in families. In this study, we genotyped a cohort of 257 mostly familial FC IA patients and 1,992 FC controls using the Illumina NeuroX SNP-chip. The most strongly associated loci were tested in 34 Inuit IA families and in 32 FC IA patients and 106 FC controls that had been exome sequenced (WES)...
March 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Elspeth Ready
Social institutions that facilitate sharing and redistribution may help mitigate the impact of resource shocks. In the North American Arctic, traditional food sharing may direct food to those who need it and provide a form of natural insurance against temporal variability in hunting returns within households. Here, network properties that facilitate resource flow (network size, quality, and density) are examined in a country food sharing network comprising 109 Inuit households from a village in Nunavik (Canada), using regressions to investigate the relationships between these network measures and household socioeconomic attributes...
2018: PloS One
Maria Wielsøe, Hans Eiberg, Mandana Ghisari, Peder Kern, Ole Lind, Eva Cecilie Bonefeld-Jørgensen
The present study investigated the effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in xenobiotic and steroid hormone-metabolizing genes in relation to breast cancer risk and explored possible effect modifications on persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and breast cancer associations. The study also assessed effects of Greenlandic BRCA1 founder mutations. Greenlandic Inuit women (77 cases and 84 controls) were included. We determined two founder mutations in BRCA1: Cys39Gly (rs80357164) and 4684delCC, and five SNPs in xenobiotic and oestrogen-metabolizing genes: CYP17A1 -34T>C (rs743572), CYP19A1 *19C>T (rs10046), CYP1A1 Ile462Val (rs1048943), CYP1B Leu432Val (rs1056836) and COMT Val158Met (rs4680)...
March 6, 2018: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
Janet Jull, Maegan Mazereeuw, Amanada Sheppard, Alethea Kewayosh, Richard Steiner, Ian D Graham
Plain English summary: Tailoring and testing a peer support decision making strategy with First Nations, Inuit and Métis people making decisions about their cancer care: A study protocol.First Nations, Inuit and Métis (FNIM) people face higher risks for cancer compared to non-FNIM populations. They also face cultural barriers to health service use. Within non-FNIM populations an approach to health decision making, called shared decision making (SDM), has been found to improve the participation of people in their healthcare...
2018: Research Involvement and Engagement
Stig Andersen, Paneeraq Noahsen, Karsten F Rex, Inuuteq Fleischer, Nadja Albertsen, Marit E Jørgensen, Louise K Schæbel, Mogens B Laursen
Ca homoeostasis is important to human health and tightly controlled by powerful hormonal mechanisms that display ethnic variation. Ethnic variations could occur also in Arctic populations where the traditional Inuit diet is low in Ca and sun exposure is limited. We aimed to assess factors important to parathyroid hormone (PTH) and Ca in serum in Arctic populations. We included Inuit and Caucasians aged 50-69 years living in the capital city in West or in rural East Greenland. Lifestyle factors were assessed by questionnaires...
February 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
Anne-Kathrine Carstens, Lise Fensby, Luit Penninga
Appendicitis is the most common nonobstetric surgical disease during pregnancy. Appendicitis during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of morbidity and perforation compared with the general population. Furthermore, it may cause preterm birth and fetal loss, and quick surgical intervention is the established treatment option in pregnant women with appendicitis. In Greenland, geographical distances are very large, and weather conditions can be extreme, and surgical care is not always immediately available...
January 2018: American Journal of Perinatology Reports
Ahmed Ahmed, Amir Hakim, Allan Becker
Background: Little is known about the prevalence of asthma, allergic rhinitis, eczema and allergies among Canadian Inuit children, especially those living in the arctic and subarctic areas. Methods: A cross-sectional study among Grade 1 students attending schools in Iqaluit, the capital of Nunavut, was conducted during the 2015/2016 school year. We used the International Study of Allergy and Asthma in Children questionnaire with added questions relevant to the population...
2018: Allergy, Asthma, and Clinical Immunology
Radha Jetty
While tobacco is sacred in many Indigenous cultures, the recreational misuse of commercial tobacco is highly addictive and harmful. Tobacco misuse is the leading preventable cause of premature death in the world. Smoking rates among Canadian Indigenous youth are at least three times higher than for their non-Aboriginal peers, an alarming statistic on many levels. The tolls on health from extensive tobacco use range from disproportionately high individual mortality and morbidity to heavy socioeconomic burdens on Indigenous communities...
October 2017: Paediatrics & Child Health
Emil V R Appel, Ida Moltke, Marit E Jørgensen, Peter Bjerregaard, Allan Linneberg, Oluf Pedersen, Anders Albrechtsen, Torben Hansen, Niels Grarup
We previously showed that a common genetic variant leads to a remarkably increased risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in the small and historically isolated Greenlandic population. Motivated by this, we aimed at discovering novel genetic determinants for glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C ) and at estimating the effect of known HbA1C -associated loci in the Greenlandic population. We analyzed genotype data from 4049 Greenlanders generated using the Illumina Cardio-Metabochip. We performed the discovery association analysis by an additive linear mixed model...
February 26, 2018: European Journal of Human Genetics: EJHG
Karen M Lawford, Audrey R Giles, Ivy L Bourgeault
BACKGROUND: Aboriginal peoples in Canada are comprised of First Nations, Métis, and Inuit. Health care services for First Nations who live on rural and remote reserves are mostly provided by the Government of Canada through the federal department, Health Canada. One Health Canada policy, the evacuation policy, requires all First Nations women living on rural and remote reserves to leave their communities between 36 and 38 weeks gestational age and travel to urban centres to await labour and birth...
February 10, 2018: Women and Birth: Journal of the Australian College of Midwives
Stephanie A Prince, Lisa A McDonnell, Michele A Turek, Sarah Visintini, Amy Nahwegahbow, Sujane Kandasamy, Louise Y Sun, Thais Coutinho
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death among Indigenous peoples in Canada. As rates of CVD rise, the impacts among the growing population of Indigenous women will emerge as an important health issue. The objective of this scoping review was to advance the state of knowledge about cardiovascular health research in Indigenous women in Canada. Five databases and grey literature (non-peer reviewed works) were searched to identify all studies that reported on the prevalence, pathophysiology, diagnosis, treatment, or interventions for CVD among adult Indigenous women in Canada, including First Nations, Métis, and Inuit...
December 5, 2017: Canadian Journal of Cardiology
Jessy El Hayek Fares, Hope A Weiler
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence and correlates of healthy vitamin D status in lactating Inuit women living in remote regions of the Arctic. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. SETTING: Households were selected randomly in thirty-six communities of Nunavut, Nunatsiavut and Inuvialuit Settlement Region. Dietary intake was assessed using a 24 h recall and an FFQ. Anthropometric measurements, household living conditions, supplement use and health status were assessed...
February 13, 2018: Public Health Nutrition
Qiuyan Li, Kexian Dong, Lidan Xu, Xueyuan Jia, Jie Wu, Wenjing Sun, Xuelong Zhang, Songbin Fu
BACKGROUND: Heilongjiang Province located in northeast China is a multi-ethnic region with people who have lived in cold conditions for several generations. Fatty acids are important to people with cold resistance. CPT1A encodes a protein that imports long-chain fatty acids into the mitochondria for fatty-acid oxidation. FADS is an essential enzyme for the synthesis of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. RESULTS: In the present study, we investigated the distributions of three cold resistance-related SNPs (rs80356779 G > A in CPT1A, rs7115739 T > G in FADS3 and rs174570 C > T in FADS2) from six populations that included 1093 individuals who have lived in Heilongjiang Province for at least three generations...
February 12, 2018: BMC Genomics
Lynden Lindsay Crowshoe, Han Han, Betty Calam, Rita Henderson, Kristen Jacklin, Leah Walker, Michael E Green
INTRODUCTION: Health education about Indigenous populations in Canada (First Nations, Inuit, and Métis people) is one approach to enable health services to mitigate health disparities faced by Indigenous peoples related to a history of colonization and ongoing social inequities. This evaluation of a continuing medical education workshop, to enhance family physicians' clinical approach by including social and cultural dimensions within diabetes management, was conducted to determine whether participation in the workshop improved self-reported knowledge, skills, and confidence in working with Indigenous patients with type 2 diabetes...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Continuing Education in the Health Professions
Kianoush Dehghani, Zhiyi Lan, Peizhi Li, Sascha Wilk Michelsen, Sean Waites, Andrea Benedetti, Pierre Lejeune, Jill Torrie, Elizabeth Robinson, Berenica Vejvoda, Muhammad Mullah, Diana Redwood, Michael Cooper, Anne Fanning, Wadieh Yacoub, Gonzalo G Alvarez, Bolette Søborg, Richard Long, Dick Menzies
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis continues to disproportionately affect many Indigenous populations in the USA, Canada, and Greenland. We aimed to investigate whether population-based tuberculosis-specific interventions or changes in general health and socioeconomic indicators, or a combination of these factors, were associated with changes in tuberculosis incidence in these Indigenous populations. METHODS: For this population-based study we examined annual tuberculosis notification rates between 1960 and 2014 in six Indigenous populations of the USA, Canada, and Greenland (Inuit [Greenland], American Indian and Alaska Native [Alaska, USA], First Nations [Alberta, Canada], Cree of Eeyou Istchee [Quebec, Canada], Inuit of Nunavik [Quebec, Canada], and Inuit of Nunavut [Canada]), as well as the general population of Canada...
February 6, 2018: Lancet. Public Health
Melanie O'Gorman, Stephen Penner
This paper documents the association between water and sanitation infrastructure and health indicators in Canada for First Nations, Métis and Inuit individuals living on and off-reserve in Canada. We use two data sources: the Aboriginal Peoples Survey and a survey conducted in a First Nations community in northern Manitoba-St. Theresa Point First Nation. We find statistically significant relationships between water infrastructure and health status in both sources of data. In particular, among individuals living off-reserve, contaminated water is associated with a 5-7% lower likelihood of reporting good self-rated health and a 4% higher probability of reporting a health condition or stomach problem...
February 8, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Daniel García-Martínez, Shahed Nalla, Maria Teresa Ferreira, Ricardo A Guichón, Manuel D D'Angelo Del Campo, Markus Bastir
OBJECTIVES: According to eco-geographic rules, humans from high latitude areas present larger and wider trunks than their low-latitude areas counterparts. This issue has been traditionally addressed on the pelvis but information on the thorax is largely lacking. We test whether ribcages are larger in individuals inhabiting high latitudes than in those from low latitudes and explored the correlation of rib size with latitude. We also test whether a common morphological pattern is exhibited in the thorax of different cold-adapted populations, contributing to their hypothetical widening of the trunk...
February 8, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Lindsay M Henderson, Katrina G Claw, Erica L Woodahl, Renee F Robinson, Bert B Boyer, Wylie Burke, Kenneth E Thummel
Indigenous North American populations, including American Indian and Alaska Native peoples in the United States, the First Nations, Métis and Inuit peoples in Canada and Amerindians in Mexico, are historically under-represented in biomedical research, including genomic research on drug disposition and response. Without adequate representation in pharmacogenetic studies establishing genotype-phenotype relationships, Indigenous populations may not benefit fully from new innovations in precision medicine testing to tailor and improve the safety and efficacy of drug treatment, resulting in health care disparities...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Personalized Medicine
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