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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929885/first-nations-inuit-and-m%C3%A3-tis-health-considerations-for-canadian-health-leaders-in-the-wake-of-the-truth-and-reconciliation-commission-of-canada-report
#1
Mary McNally, Debbie Martin
First Nations, Inuit and Métis peoples living in Canada face profound health disparities relative to non-Indigenous Canadians on almost every measure of health and well-being. Advancing health opportunities for Indigenous peoples require responses at all levels of healthcare delivery and policy. Therefore, it is critical for health leaders and providers within Canada's healthcare institutions, systems, and settings to understand and address the determinants of health unique to Indigenous peoples, including the legacy of colonialism and both long-standing and present-day racism...
March 2017: Healthcare Management Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929884/la-sant%C3%A3-des-premi%C3%A3-res-nations-des-inuits-et-des-m%C3%A3-tis-les-facteurs-que-doivent-envisager-les-leaders-en-sant%C3%A3-canadiens-dans-la-foul%C3%A3-e-du-rapport-de-la-commission-de-v%C3%A3-rit%C3%A3-et-r%C3%A3-conciliation-du-canada
#2
Mary McNally, Debbie Martin
Les peuples des Premières nations, inuits et métis qui habitent au Canada sont aux prises avec de profondes disparités en matière de santé par rapport aux Canadiens non autochtones, et ce, dans presque toutes les mesures liées à la santé et au bien-être. Pour faire progresser les services de santé auprès des peuples autochtones, il faut passer à l'action dans tous les ordres de prestation des soins et des politiques en santé. Il est donc essentiel que les leaders et les prestataires des établissements, des systèmes et des installations de santé du Canada comprennent et prennent en main les déterminants de la santé propres aux peuples autochtones, y compris l'héritage du colonialisme et le racisme ancien et actuel...
March 2017: Healthcare Management Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917159/the-obesity-associated-risk-of-cardiovascular-disease-and-all-cause-mortality-is-not-lower-in-inuit-compared-to-europeans-a-cohort-study-of-greenlandic-inuit-nunavik-inuit-and-danes
#3
Pernille Falberg Rønn, Michel Lucas, Elhadji A Laouan Sidi, Maria Tvermosegaard, Gregers Stig Andersen, Torsten Lauritzen, Ulla Toft, Bendix Carstensen, Dirk Lund Christensen, Marit Eika Jørgensen
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Inuit populations have lower levels of cardiometabolic risk factors for the same level of body mass index (BMI) or waist circumference (WC) compared to Europeans in cross-sectional studies. We aimed to compare the longitudinal associations of anthropometric measures with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality in Inuit and Europeans. METHODS: Using pooled data from three population-based studies in Canada, Greenland and Denmark, we conducted a cohort study of 10,033 adult participants (765 Nunavik Inuit, 2960 Greenlandic Inuit and 6308 Europeans)...
August 18, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879089/pathology-clinical-signs-and-tissue-distribution-of-toxoplasma-gondii-in-experimentally-infected-reindeer-rangifer-tarandus
#4
Émilie Bouchard, Rajnish Sharma, Nicholas Bachand, Alvin A Gajadhar, Emily J Jenkins
Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic parasite found in vertebrates worldwide for which felids serve as definitive hosts. Despite low densities of felids in northern Canada, Inuit people in some regions show unexpectedly high levels of exposure, possibly through handling and consumption of Arctic wildlife. Free-ranging caribou (Rangifer tarandus) are widely harvested for food across the Canadian North, show evidence of seroexposure to T. gondii, and are currently declining in numbers throughout the Arctic. We experimentally infected three captive reindeer (conspecific with caribou) with 1000, 5000 or 10,000 oocysts of T...
December 2017: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875087/tracing-hepatitis-b-virus-hbv-genotype-b5-formerly-b6-evolutionary-history-in-the-circumpolar-arctic-through-phylogeographic-modelling
#5
Remco Bouckaert, Brenna C Simons, Henrik Krarup, T Max Friesen, Carla Osiowy
BACKGROUND: Indigenous populations of the circumpolar Arctic are considered to be endemically infected (>2% prevalence) with hepatitis B virus (HBV), with subgenotype B5 (formerly B6) unique to these populations. The distinctive properties of HBV/B5, including high nucleotide diversity yet no significant liver disease, suggest virus adaptation through long-term host-pathogen association. METHODS: To investigate the origin and evolutionary spread of HBV/B5 into the circumpolar Arctic, fifty-seven partial and full genome sequences from Alaska, Canada and Greenland, having known location and sampling dates spanning 40 years, were phylogeographically investigated by Bayesian analysis (BEAST 2) using a reversible-jump-based substitution model and a clock rate estimated at 4...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827797/composite-likelihood-method-for-inferring-local-pedigrees
#6
Amy Ko, Rasmus Nielsen
Pedigrees contain information about the genealogical relationships among individuals and are of fundamental importance in many areas of genetic studies. However, pedigrees are often unknown and must be inferred from genetic data. Despite the importance of pedigree inference, existing methods are limited to inferring only close relationships or analyzing a small number of individuals or loci. We present a simulated annealing method for estimating pedigrees in large samples of otherwise seemingly unrelated individuals using genome-wide SNP data...
August 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798916/risk-benefit-assessment-of-monomethylmercury-and-omega-3-fatty-acid-intake-for-ringed-seal-consumption-with-particular-emphasis-on-vulnerable-populations-in-the-western-canadian-arctic
#7
Lena Gmelch, Holger Hintelmann, Brendan Hickie, Hermine Kienberger, Gary Stern, Michael Rychlik
Many northern Inuit communities rely on traditional food as major source of nourishment. An essential part of the traditional Arctic diet is marine mammals such as ringed seals or beluga. Being top predators, these animals are often highly contaminated with various toxins. In contrast, some tissues of marine mammals are also characterized by high amounts of n3-PUFAs (omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids). Here, we try to balance the risks associated with the consumption of different tissue types of ringed seals in terms of the neurotoxin monomethylmercury (MMHg) with the benefits of consumption due to high n3-PUFA concentrations...
2017: Frontiers in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748224/utility-of-genetic-testing-for-confirmation-of-abnormal-newborn-screening-in-disorders-of-long-chain-fatty-acids-a-missed-case-of-carnitine-palmitoyltransferase-1a-cpt1a-deficiency
#8
Leah Dowsett, Lauren Lulis, Can Ficicioglu, Sanmati Cuddapah
An 18-month-old male was evaluated after presenting with disproportionately elevated liver transaminases in the setting of acute gastroenteritis. He had marked hepatomegaly on physical exam that was later confirmed with an abdominal ultrasound. Given this clinical picture, suspicion for a fatty acid oxidation disorder was raised. Further investigation revealed that his initial newborn screen was positive for carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A (CPT1A) deficiency-a rare autosomal recessive disorder of long-chain fatty acid oxidation...
June 2017: International Journal of Neonatal Screening
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740106/environment-changes-genetic-effects-on-respiratory-conditions-and-allergic-phenotypes
#9
Yong Song, Michelle J Schwager, Vibeke Backer, Jing Guo, Celeste Porsbjerg, Siew-Kim Khoo, Ingrid A Laing, Eric K Moses, Peter LeSouëf, Guicheng Brad Zhang
The prevalence of asthma and allergic diseases is disproportionately distributed among different populations, with an increasing trend observed in Western countries. Here we investigated how the environment affected genotype-phenotype association in a genetically homogeneous, but geographically separated population. We evaluated 18 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) corresponding to 8 genes (ADAM33, ALOX5, LT-α, LTC4S, NOS1, ORMDL3, TBXA2R and TNF-α), the lung function and five respiratory/allergic conditions (ever asthma, bronchitis, rhinitis, dermatitis and atopy) in two populations of Inuit residing either in the westernized environment of Denmark or in the rural area of Greenland...
July 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728554/the-rise-and-fall-of-dental-therapy-in-canada-a-policy-analysis-and-assessment-of-equity-of-access-to-oral-health-care-for-inuit-and-first-nations-communities
#10
Victoria Leck, Glen E Randall
BACKGROUND: Inequality between most Canadians and those from Inuit and First Nations communities, in terms of both access to oral health care services and related health outcomes, has been a long-standing problem. Efforts to close this equity gap led to the creation of dental therapy training programs. These programs were designed to produce graduates who would provide services in rural and northern communities. The closure of the last dental therapy program in late 2011 has ended the supply of dental therapists and governments do not appear to have any alternative solutions to the growing gap in access to oral health care services between most Canadians and those from Inuit and First Nations communities...
July 20, 2017: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702908/water-quality-and-health-in-northern-canada-stored-drinking-water-and-acute-gastrointestinal-illness-in-labrador-inuit
#11
Carlee J Wright, Jan M Sargeant, Victoria L Edge, James D Ford, Khosrow Farahbakhsh, Inez Shiwak, Charlie Flowers, Sherilee L Harper
One of the highest self-reported incidence rates of acute gastrointestinal illness (AGI) in the global peer-reviewed literature occurs in Inuit communities in the Canadian Arctic. This high incidence of illness could be due, in part, to the consumption of contaminated water, as many northern communities face challenges related to the quality of municipal drinking water. Furthermore, many Inuit store drinking water in containers in the home, which could increase the risk of contamination between source and point-of-use (i...
July 12, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691646/participatory-methods-for-inuit-public-health-promotion-and-programme-evaluation-in-nunatsiavut-canada
#12
Manpreet Saini
Engaging stakeholders is crucial for health promotion and programme evaluations; understanding how to best engage stakeholders is less clear, especially within Indigenous communities. The objectives of this thesis research were to use participatory methods to: (1) co-develop and evaluate a whiteboard video for use as a public health promotion tool in Rigolet, Nunatsiavut, and (2) develop and validate a framework for participatory evaluation of Inuit public health initiatives in Nunatsiavut, Labrador. Data collection tools included interactive workshops, community events, interviews, focus-group discussions and surveys...
2017: International Journal of Circumpolar Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669327/reproductive-factors-lifestyle-and-dietary-habits-among-pregnant-women-in-greenland-the-accept-sub-study-2013-2015
#13
Anne Seneca Terkelsen, Manhai Long, Lise Hounsgaard, Eva Cecilie Bonefeld-Jørgensen
BACKGROUND: During past decades the formerly active lifestyle in Greenland has become sedentary, and the intake of traditional food has gradually been replaced with imported food. These lifestyle and dietary habits may affect pregnant women. AIM: To describe age and regional differences in reproductive factors, lifestyle and diet among Greenlandic pregnant women in their first trimester. METHODS: A cross-sectional study during 2013-2015 including 373 pregnant women was conducted in five Greenlandic regions (West, Disko Bay, South, North and East)...
June 1, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630224/successful-conservative-treatment-of-severe-frostbite-lesions-in-a-greenlandic-inuit
#14
Martin Ekdahl, Luit Penninga
Frostbite may cause lesions. The severity ranges from superficial wounds to severe cases with loss of limbs and tissue. Hence, proper treatment is of utmost importance. We present a case of an 18-year-old man from Arctic Greenland who was admitted with severe frostbite lesions involving both hands. The patient had fallen asleep outside during extreme temperatures. He was treated conservatively with proper wound care, antibiotics and intensive physical therapy. The patient made a full recovery without sequelae...
June 19, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625107/associations-between-omega-3-fatty-acids-and-25-oh-d-and-psychological-distress-among-inuit-in-canada
#15
Hans-Ragnar Skogli, Dominique Geoffroy, Hope A Weiler, Grethe S Tell, Laurence J Kirmayer, Grace M Egeland
BACKGROUND: Inuit in Canada have experienced dietary changes over recent generations, but how this relates to psychological distress has not been investigated. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate how nutritional biomarkers are related to psychological distress. DESIGN: A total of 36 communities in northern Canada participated in the International Polar Year Inuit Health Survey (2007-2008). Of 2796 households, 1901 (68%) participated; 1699 Inuit adults gave blood samples for biomarker analysis and answered the Kessler 6-item psychological distress questionnaire (K6)...
2017: International Journal of Circumpolar Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619039/food-insecurity-and-food-consumption-by-season-in-households-with-children-in-an-arctic-city-a-cross-sectional-study
#16
Catherine Huet, James D Ford, Victoria L Edge, Jamal Shirley, Nia King, Sherilee L Harper
BACKGROUND: High rates of food insecurity are documented among Inuit households in Canada; however, data on food insecurity prevalence and seasonality for Inuit households with children are lacking, especially in city centres. This project: (1) compared food consumption patterns for households with and without children, (2) compared the prevalence of food insecurity for households with and without children, (3) compared food consumption patterns and food insecurity prevalence between seasons, and (4) identified factors associated with food insecurity in households with children in Iqaluit, Nunavut, Canada...
June 15, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614392/psychometric-validation-of-the-household-food-insecurity-access-scale-among-inuit-pregnant-women-from-northern-quebec
#17
Lisa Teh, Catherine Pirkle, Chris Furgal, Myriam Fillion, Michel Lucas
BACKGROUND: Globally, food insecurity is a major public health concern. In North America, it is particularly prevalent in certain sub-groups, including Indigenous communities. Although many Indigenous and remote communities harvest and share food, most food security assessment tools focus on economic access. This study describes the psychometric evaluation of a modified Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS), developed for mixed economies, to assess food insecurity among pregnant Inuit women...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613122/water-quality-and-inuit-health-an-examination-of-drinking-water-consumption-perceptions-and-contamination-in-rigolet-canada
#18
Carlee Wright
Canadian Inuit have often reported concerns about the quality of their municipal drinking water; research has also shown that some Inuit communities experience some of the highest incidence rates of self-reported acute gastrointestinal illness (AGI) in Canada and globally. The goal of this thesis research was to investigate drinking water perceptions and consumption patterns, as well as water contamination and potential associations with AGI in the Inuit community of Rigolet, Canada. Three census cross-sectional surveys captured data on AGI, drinking water, and water storage (2012-2014); additionally, bacterial contamination of household drinking water was assessed alongside the 2014 survey...
2017: International Journal of Circumpolar Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611035/metabolic-anthropology-selection-pressure-shapes-fatty-acid-metabolism-in-greenlandic-inuit-populations
#19
EDITORIAL
Robert W McGarrah
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Circulation. Cardiovascular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611031/cpt1a-missense-mutation-associated-with-fatty-acid-metabolism-and-reduced-height-in-greenlanders
#20
Line Skotte, Anders Koch, Victor Yakimov, Sirui Zhou, Bolette Søborg, Mikael Andersson, Sascha W Michelsen, Johan E Navne, Jacqueline M Mistry, Patrick A Dion, Michael L Pedersen, Malene L Børresen, Guy A Rouleau, Frank Geller, Mads Melbye, Bjarke Feenstra
BACKGROUND: Inuit have lived for thousands of years in an extremely cold environment on a diet dominated by marine-derived fat. To investigate how this selective pressure has affected the genetic regulation of fatty acid metabolism, we assessed 233 serum metabolic phenotypes in a population-based sample of 1570 Greenlanders. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using array-based and targeted genotyping, we found that rs80356779, a p.Pro479Leu variant in CPT1A, was strongly associated with markers of n-3 fatty acid metabolism, including degree of unsaturation (P=1...
June 2017: Circulation. Cardiovascular Genetics
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