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Criminal behavior

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430081/prevalence-and-factors-associated-with-criminal-behavior-among-illicit-drug-users-a-cross-sectional-study
#1
Rafael Alves Guimarães, Natália Silva Mesquita, Renata Silva Lopes, Roselma Lucchese, Rodrigo Lopes de Felipe, Ivânia Vera, Inaina Lara Fernandes, Paulo Alexandre de Castro, Luiz Henrique Batista Monteiro, Graciele Cristina Silva
BACKGROUND: Studies indicate high rates of criminal behavior, violent activities, and legal problems among illicit drug users (IDU) in Brazil. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and factors associated with criminal behavior among IDU undergoing treatment for chemical dependency in Central Brazil. METHODS: Cross-sectional study carried out with IDU undergoing treatment for chemical dependence. Data were collected by means of face-to-face interviews and analyzed using logistic regression...
April 21, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413921/preventing-the-onset-of-child-sexual-abuse-by-targeting-young-adolescents-with-universal-prevention-programming
#2
Elizabeth J Letourneau, Cindy M Schaeffer, Catherine P Bradshaw, Kenneth A Feder
Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a serious public health problem that increases risk for physical and mental health problems across the life course. Young adolescents are responsible for a substantial portion of CSA offending, yet to our knowledge, no validated prevention programs that target CSA perpetration by youth exist. Most existing efforts to address CSA rely on reactive criminal justice policies or programs that teach children to protect themselves; neither approach is well validated. Given the high rates of desistance from sexual offending following a youth's first CSA-related adjudication, it seems plausible that many youth could be prevented from engaging in their first offense...
May 2017: Child Maltreatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405265/socio-epidemiologic-aspects-and-cutaneous-side-effects-of-permanent-tattoos-in-germany-tattoos-are-not-restricted-to-a-specific-social-phenotype
#3
Cornelia Sigrid Lissi Müller, Angela Oertel, Rebecca Körner, Claudia Pföhler, Thomas Vogt
Background: More and more people of all age classes have a tattoo. Intriguingly, there are multiple prejudices in the general population and published data that concern tattooed persons, such as being criminals, having a low education, being alcohol or drug abusers, or more risky in their life style. Objective: To obtain and to evaluate sociodemographic data on tattooed persons, to investigate the incidence of tattoo-related cutaneous complications and to define personal risk factors and course of the persons after being tattooed concerning behavior of personal environment...
2017: Dermato-endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402839/borderline-personality-disorder-symptoms-and-criminal-justice-system-involvement-the-roles-of-emotion-driven-difficulties-controlling-impulsive-behaviors-and-physical-aggression
#4
Kelly E Moore, Matthew T Tull, Kim L Gratz
OBJECTIVE: Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is associated with elevated risk for a variety of risky behaviors, including criminal behaviors. Yet, limited research has examined the relation of BPD to criminal justice (CJ) involvement, or the mechanisms underlying this relation. PROCEDURES: This study examined the role of two mechanisms, emotion-driven difficulties controlling impulsive behaviors and physical aggression, in the relation between BPD symptom severity and CJ involvement among 118 patients in residential substance abuse treatment (76% male; 62% African-American)...
March 15, 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402565/impulsive-antisocial-psychopathic-traits-linked-to-increased-volume-and-functional-connectivity-within-prefrontal-cortex
#5
Cole Korponay, Maia Pujara, Philip Deming, Carissa Philippi, Jean Decety, David S Kosson, Kent A Kiehl, Michael Koenigs
Psychopathy is a personality disorder characterized by callous lack of empathy, impulsive antisocial behavior, and criminal recidivism. Studies of brain structure and function in psychopathy have frequently identified abnormalities in the prefrontal cortex. However, findings have not yet converged to yield a clear relationship between specific subregions of prefrontal cortex and particular psychopathic traits. We performed a multimodal neuroimaging study of prefrontal cortex volume and functional connectivity in psychopathy, using a sample of adult male prison inmates (N=124)...
April 11, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400064/sexually-violent-predator-risk-assessments-with-the-violence-risk-appraisal-guide-revised-a-shaky-practice
#6
REVIEW
Brian R Abbott
Twenty-two jurisdictions in the United States permit the involuntary civil confinement of sexual offenders upon expiration of their criminal sentence and, if committed, these individuals face possible lifetime commitment. One of the legal requirements that psychologists must address in sexually violent predator evaluations is the likelihood that an individual will engage in dangerous sexual behavior and consideration of the probabilities for sexual recidivism contained in actuarial experience tables best address this inquiry...
April 8, 2017: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384711/association-between-deliberate-self-harm-and-violent-criminality
#7
Hanna Sahlin, Ralf Kuja-Halkola, Johan Bjureberg, Paul Lichtenstein, Yasmina Molero, Mina Rydell, Erik Hedman, Bo Runeson, Jussi Jokinen, Brjánn Ljótsson, Clara Hellner
Importance: Individuals who self-harm may have an increased risk of aggression toward others, but this association has been insufficiently investigated. More conclusive evidence may affect assessment, treatment interventions, and clinical guidelines. Objective: To investigate the association between nonfatal self-harm and violent crime. Design, Setting, and Participants: This population-based longitudinal cohort study, conducted from January 1, 1997, through December 31, 2013, studied all Swedish citizens born between 1982 and 1998 who were 15 years and older (N = 1 850 252)...
April 5, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379674/mens-rea-and-methamphetamine-high-time-for-a-modern-doctrine-acknowledging-the-neuroscience-of-addiction
#8
Meredith Cusick
In American criminal law, actus non facit reum, nisi mens sit rea, "an act does not make one guilty, without a guilty mind." Both actus reus and mens rea are required to justify criminal liability. The Model Penal Code's (MPC) section on culpability has been especially influential on mens rea analysis. An issue of increasing importance in this realm arises when an offensive act is committed while the actor is under the influence of drugs. Several legal doctrines address the effect of intoxication on mental state, including the MPC, limiting or eliminating its relevance to the mens rea analysis...
April 2017: Fordham Law Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375656/evidence-based-treatment-and-supervision-practices-for-co-occurring-mental-and-substance-use-disorders-in-the-criminal-justice-system
#9
Roger H Peters, M Scott Young, Elizabeth C Rojas, Claire M Gorey
BACKGROUND: Over seven million persons in the United States are supervised by the criminal justice system, including many who have co-occurring mental and substance use disorders (CODs). This population is at high risk for recidivism and presents numerous challenges to those working in the justice system. OBJECTIVES: To provide a contemporary review of the existing research and examine key issues and evidence-based treatment and supervision practices related to CODs in the justice system...
April 4, 2017: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367592/whose-guns-are-stolen-the-epidemiology-of-gun-theft-victims
#10
David Hemenway, Deborah Azrael, Matthew Miller
BACKGROUND: Gun theft is an important source of guns used by criminals. Yet no empirical work has focused on the characteristics of gun owners that distinguish those who have had their guns stolen from those who have not. In this study, we examine the demographics and behavioral characteristics of gun owners who report having had a gun stolen. METHODS: Data come from a nationally representative probability-based online survey conducted in April 2015, with a linked follow-up survey in November 2015 that asked gun owners about any theft of their guns in the past 5 years...
December 2017: Injury Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361197/aspirations-expectations-and-delinquency-the-moderating-effect-of-impulse-control
#11
Alissa Mahler, Cortney Simmons, Paul J Frick, Laurence Steinberg, Elizabeth Cauffman
Although prior research finds a robust link between delinquent behavior and expectations, or an adolescent's perceived likelihood of obtaining one's future goals, fewer studies have evaluated aspirations, or the perceived importance of achieving one's goals. In addition, few studies consider how individual traits such as impulsivity affect the degree to which expectations and aspirations motivate or deter delinquent behavior. We contribute to this body of research by evaluating the independent effects of expectations and aspirations, and the aspiration-expectation gap (i...
March 30, 2017: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352238/communicating-the-neuroscience-of-psychopathy-and-its-influence-on-moral-behavior-protocol-of-two-experimental-studies
#12
Robert Blakey, Adrian D Askelund, Matilde Boccanera, Johanna Immonen, Nejc Plohl, Cassandra Popham, Clarissa Sorger, Julia Stuhlreyer
Neuroscience has identified brain structures and functions that correlate with psychopathic tendencies. Since psychopathic traits can be traced back to physical neural attributes, it has been argued that psychopaths are not truly responsible for their actions and therefore should not be blamed for their psychopathic behaviors. This experimental research aims to evaluate what effect communicating this theory of psychopathy has on the moral behavior of lay people. If psychopathy is blamed on the brain, people may feel less morally responsible for their own psychopathic tendencies and therefore may be more likely to display those tendencies...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349605/predictors-of-premature-match-closure-in-youth-mentoring-relationships
#13
Janis B Kupersmidt, Kathryn N Stump, Rebecca L Stelter, Jean E Rhodes
Although mentoring is a popular and effective means of intervention with youth, the positive effects of mentoring can be diminished by premature match closure of relationships. Program, mentor, and mentee characteristics were examined as predictors of premature match closure. Secondary data analyses were conducted on a large national database of mentoring programs consisting of match and youth risk information from 170 mentoring programs and 6468 matches from across the U.S. Premature closure was associated with mentee age at match inception and 19 individual mentee characteristics...
March 2017: American Journal of Community Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333534/effects-of-multisystemic-therapy-on-caregivers-of-serious-juvenile-offenders-a-20-year-follow-up-to-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#14
Benjamin D Johnides, Charles M Borduin, David V Wagner, Alex R Dopp
OBJECTIVE: Caregivers of serious juvenile offenders often hold favorable attitudes about criminality and frequently have histories of involvement in antisocial behaviors themselves. In the present study, the authors examined the long-term criminal and noncriminal outcomes for caregivers of serious juvenile offenders who had participated two decades earlier in a randomized clinical trial of multisystemic therapy (MST; Borduin et al., 1995). METHOD: Participants were 276 caregivers of serious juvenile offenders who were originally randomized to MST or individual therapy (IT)...
April 2017: Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327508/adverse-childhood-experiences-commitment-offense-and-race-ethnicity-are-the-effects-crime-race-and-ethnicity-specific
#15
Matt DeLisi, Justin Alcala, Abdi Kusow, Andy Hochstetler, Mark H Heirigs, Jonathan W Caudill, Chad R Trulson, Michael T Baglivio
Adverse childhood experiences are associated with an array of health, psychiatric, and behavioral problems including antisocial behavior. Criminologists have recently utilized adverse childhood experiences as an organizing research framework and shown that adverse childhood experiences are associated with delinquency, violence, and more chronic/severe criminal careers. However, much less is known about adverse childhood experiences vis-à-vis specific forms of crime and whether the effects vary across race and ethnicity...
March 22, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319814/time-specific-and-cumulative-effects-of-exposure-to-parental-externalizing-behavior-on-risk-for-young-adult-alcohol-use-disorder
#16
Alexis C Edwards, Sara L Lönn, Katherine J Karriker-Jaffe, Jan Sundquist, Kenneth S Kendler, Kristina Sundquist
BACKGROUND: Previous studies indicate that parental externalizing behavior (EB) is a robust risk factor for alcohol use disorder (AUD) in their children, and that this is due to both inherited genetic liability and environmental exposure. However, it remains unclear whether the effects of exposure to parental EB vary as a function of timing and/or chronicity. METHODS: We identified biological parents with an alcohol use disorder, drug abuse, or criminal behavior, during different periods of their child's upbringing, using Swedish national registries...
March 8, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318335/the-cognitive-affective-and-somatic-empathy-scales-cases-for-children
#17
Adrian Raine, Frances R Chen
Although the assessment of empathy has moved from general empathy to differentiating between cognitive and affective empathy, no instruments have assessed somatic (motor) empathy, and none have separated positive from negative affect empathy. The main objective of this study was to develop a 30-item self-report cognitive, affective, and somatic empathy scale (CASES) with positive and negative affect components for use with children and adolescents. A community sample of 428 male and female 11-year-olds completed the CASES together with validity questionnaires and were assessed on IQ...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314129/crack-cocaine-inhalation-induces-schizophrenia-like-symptoms-and-molecular-alterations-in-mice-prefrontal-cortex
#18
Lorena Bianchine Areal, Alice Laschuk Herlinger, Fabrício Souza Pelição, Cristina Martins-Silva, Rita Gomes Wanderley Pires
Crack cocaine (crack) addiction represents a major social and health burden, especially seeing as users are more prone to engage in criminal and violent acts. Crack users show a higher prevalence of psychiatric comorbidities - particularly antisocial personality disorders - when compared to powder cocaine users. They also develop cognitive deficits related mainly to executive functions, including working memory. It is noteworthy that stimulant drugs can induce psychotic states, which appear to mimic some symptoms of schizophrenia among users...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299972/older-and-incarcerated-policy-implications-of-aging-prison-populations
#19
Zachary Psick, Jonathan Simon, Rebecca Brown, Cyrus Ahalt
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore the policy Implications of aging prison populations. Design/methodology/approach An examination of the worldwide aging trend in prison and its implications for correctional policy, including an examination of population aging in California prisons as a case example of needed reform. Findings Prison populations worldwide are aging at an unprecedented rate, and age-related medical costs have had serious consequences for jurisdictions struggling to respond to the changes...
March 13, 2017: International Journal of Prisoner Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299967/reducing-the-use-and-impact-of-solitary-confinement-in-corrections
#20
Cyrus Ahalt, Craig Haney, Sarah Rios, Matthew P Fox, David Farabee, Brie Williams
Purpose Although the reform of solitary confinement is underway in many jurisdictions around world, isolation remains in widespread use in many jails and prisons. The purpose of this paper is to discuss opportunities for reform in the USA that could also be applied globally. Design/methodology/approach A review of the evidence on solitary confinement policies and practices in the USA to develop recommendations for reform with global application. Findings Focusing on this evidence, the authors argue that solitary confinement is overused and recommend a multi-level approach available to correctional systems worldwide including: immediately limiting solitary confinement to only those cases in which a violent behavioral infraction has been committed for which safety cannot otherwise be achieved, ensuring the briefest terms of isolation needed to achieve legitimate and immediate correctional goals, prohibiting its use entirely for some populations, regularly reviewing all isolated prisoners for as-soon-as-possible return to general population, including the immediate return of those showing mental and physical health risk factors, assisting individuals who are transitioning out of isolation (either to the general population or to the community), and partnering with medical, public health, and criminal justice experts to develop evidence-based alternatives to solitary confinement for nearly all prisoners...
March 13, 2017: International Journal of Prisoner Health
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