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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759057/comparing-costs-of-traditional-and-specialty-probation-for-people-with-serious-mental-illness
#1
Jennifer L Skeem, Lina Montoya, Sarah M Manchak
OBJECTIVE: Specialty mental health probation reduces the likelihood of rearrest for people with mental illness, who are overrepresented in the justice system. This study tested whether specialty probation was associated with lower costs than traditional probation during the two years after placement in probation. METHODS: A longitudinal, matched study compared costs of behavioral health care and criminal justice contacts among 359 probationers with mental illness at prototypic specialty or traditional agencies...
May 15, 2018: Psychiatric Services: a Journal of the American Psychiatric Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748748/an-initial-assessment-of-leon-county-florida-s-pre-arrest-adult-civil-citation-program
#2
Albert M Kopak
Momentum is building behind law enforcement-assisted diversion programs. Some of these programs have been designed specifically for drug-involved offenders, while others focus on adults who have no prior involvement in the criminal justice system. The Leon County Pre-Arrest Diversion program, which has been operating since March 2013, offers first-time arrestees the opportunity to participate in an alternative to arrest-as-usual. Successful completion of the program results in avoidance of a formal criminal arrest record...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Behavioral Health Services & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726310/readiness-to-change-as-a-predictor-of-treatment-engagement-and-outcome-for-partner-violent-men
#3
Ana I Maldonado, Christopher M Murphy
Resistance to change has been long recognized as a barrier to successful intervention for partner violent individuals. Using archival data from a community-based intimate partner violence (IPV) intervention program, the current study investigated readiness to change as a predictor of treatment engagement and outcome in cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for IPV, and examined whether court referral status, antisocial personality characteristics, and borderline personality characteristics moderate these associations...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724513/forensic-psychiatry-and-neurolaw-description-developments-and-debates
#4
Gerben Meynen
Neuroscience produces a wealth of data on the relationship between brain and behavior, including criminal behavior. The research field studying the possible and actual impact of neuroscience on the law and legal practices, is called neurolaw. It is a new and rapidly developing domain of interdisciplinary research. Since forensic psychiatryhas to do with both neuroscience and the law, neurolaw is of specific relevance for this psychiatric specialty. In this contribution, I will discuss three main research areas in neurolaw - revision, assessment, and intervention - and explore their relevance for forensic psychiatry...
April 30, 2018: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722995/from-theoretical-to-empirical-considering-reflections-of-psychopathy-across-the-thin-blue-line
#5
Diana M Falkenbach, Justin Balash, Maria Tsoukalas, Stephanie Stern, Scott O Lilienfeld
The majority of psychopathy research has focused on negative outcomes in criminal populations. However, psychopathy encompasses a variety of traits, and recent research suggests that certain features of psychopathy, such as a fearless temperament, may be related to psychological resiliency, "successful" functioning, and even heroic behavior (Hall & Benning, 2006; Lykken, 1995). Despite anecdotal discussion, little is known about the possible "successful" or adaptive reflections of psychopathic personality traits in ostensible heroes...
May 3, 2018: Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716815/effect-of-traffic-legislation-on-road-traffic-deaths-in-ningbo-china
#6
Rongrong Sheng, Shuang Zhong, Adrian G Barnett, Bryan J Weiner, Jiaying Xu, Hui Li, Guozhang Xu, Tianfeng He, Cunrui Huang
PURPOSE: Road safety is a major public health concern in China. However, the effectiveness of traffic laws in China is not known. We investigated the effect of traffic legislation on traffic deaths using data in Ningbo, China. METHODS: We obtained traffic fatality data from 2002 to 2014 from the Ningbo Municipal Center for Disease Control and Prevention. An interrupted time series was used to look for change points in fatalities over time. We first used multiple change-point analysis to identify whether change points existed...
April 17, 2018: Annals of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709622/adverse-childhood-experiences-and-young-adult-health-outcomes-among-youth-aging-out-of-foster-care
#7
Rebecca Rebbe, Paula S Nurius, Mark E Courtney, Kym R Ahrens
OBJECTIVE: Former youth in foster care (YFC) are at greater risk of chronic health conditions than their peers. Although research in general population samples has demonstrated a dose-response relationship between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and adult health outcomes, few studies have conducted similar analyses in highly stress-exposed populations such as YFC. This paper uses person-centered latent class analysis (LCA) methods to examine the relationship between different profiles of ACE exposures and divergent health trajectories amongst this high-risk population...
April 27, 2018: Academic Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29708371/the-lackland-behavioral-questionnaire-the-use-of-biographical-data-and-statistical-prediction-rules-for-public-safety-screening
#8
Howard N Garb, James M Wood, Monty Baker
Screening for public safety positions (e.g., police officers, fire fighters, military service members) is a difficult and challenging task. Notably, the military has been widely criticized because of the general lack of an empirically based system or program for mental health screening. The purpose of the present study is to describe the use of statistical prediction rules for this task. Prediction rules were derived and validated using U.S. Air Force (USAF) recruits in basic military training (N = 50,322)...
April 30, 2018: Psychological Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29708013/factors-influencing-the-prevalence-of-animal-cruelty-during-adolescence
#9
M Connor, C Currie, A B Lawrence
Adolescents' interactions with animals are of increasing interest and their beneficial developmental outcomes are well known. However, negative interactions such as perpetrating cruelty toward animals during childhood and adolescence have been related with child abuse, domestic violence, and later interpersonal violence. Cruelty toward animals by adolescents has been reported predominately in criminal and clinical samples, and links have been made between animal cruelty and interpersonal violence. However, studies often lack a clear definition of animal cruelty and the animal involved...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706172/effects-of-medication-assisted-treatment-mat-for-opioid-use-disorder-on-functional-outcomes-a-systematic-review
#10
Margaret A Maglione, Laura Raaen, Christine Chen, Gulrez Azhar, Nima Shahidinia, Mimi Shen, Ervant Maksabedian, Roberta M Shanman, Sydne Newberry, Susanne Hempel
This systematic review synthesizes evidence on the effects of Medication-Assisted Treatment (MAT) for opioid use disorder (OUD) on functional outcomes, including cognitive (e.g., memory), physical (e.g., fatigue), occupational (e.g., return to work), social/behavioral (e.g., criminal activity), and neurological (e.g., balance) function. Five databases were searched from inception to July 2017 to identify English-language controlled trials, case control studies, and cohort comparisons of one or more groups; cross-sectional studies were excluded...
June 2018: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704413/difficulties-to-differentiate-mood-disorders-co-occurring-with-compulsive-gambling-discussion-based-on-a-case-study
#11
REVIEW
Anna Pilszyk, Andrzej Silczuk, Bogusław Habrat, Janusz Heitzman
Contemporary literature does not take a clear position on the issue of determining civil and criminal liability of persons diagnosed with pathological gambling, and all the more so in case of possible comorbidity of or interference with other mental disorders. Diagnostic difficulties are demonstrated by a clinical picture of a patient with problem gambling who underwent forensic and psychiatric assessments to evaluate the process of making informed (and independent) decisions in view of numerous concluded civil law (mainly financial) agreements...
February 28, 2018: Psychiatria Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703717/fifty-years-of-preventing-and-treating-childhood-behaviour-disorders-a-systematic-review-to-inform-policy-and-practice
#12
REVIEW
Charlotte Waddell, Christine Schwartz, Caitlyn Andres, Jenny Lou Barican, Donna Yung
QUESTION: Oppositional defiant and conduct disorders (ODD and CD) start early and persist, incurring high individual and collective costs. To inform policy and practice, we therefore asked: What is the best available research evidence on preventing and treating these disorders? STUDY SELECTION AND ANALYSIS: We sought randomised controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating interventions addressing the prevention or treatment of behaviour problems in individuals aged 18 years or younger...
May 2018: Evidence-based Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672095/concurrent-validity-of-the-personality-assessment-screener-in-a-large-sample-of-offenders
#13
Shannon E Kelley, John F Edens, Kevin S Douglas
Mental health problems are disproportionately prevalent in forensic and correctional settings, and there have been numerous attempts to develop screening tools to evaluate individuals in such contexts. This study investigates the clinical utility of the Personality Assessment Screener (PAS; Morey, 1997), a brief self-report measure of risk for emotional and behavioral dysfunction, in a large mixed-gender offender sample (N = 1,658). The PAS is a 22-item measure derived from the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI; Morey, 1991, 2007), a more comprehensive self-report instrument widely used to assess for psychological disturbances among forensic and correctional populations...
April 2018: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667897/narrative-roles-among-contact-versus-noncontact-sexual-offenders
#14
Emma Hamilton, Delida Sanchez
The current study explored narrative roles among individuals convicted of a sexual offense. Narrative roles in a criminal context are defined as specific personal accounts utilized by offenders to justify illegal behavior. The chosen theoretical framework recognized four primary offender roles: Revengeful Mission/Romantic Quest, Professional, Victim, and Tragic Hero. A total of 23 interviews were conducted with individuals convicted of a sexual offense ( n = 11 contact, n = 12 noncontact) to explore and compare narrative roles between contact and noncontact offenders...
April 1, 2018: Sexual Abuse: a Journal of Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661255/serotonergic-gene-polymorphisms-5-httlpr-5htr1a-5htr2a-and-population-differences-in-aggression-traditional-hadza-and-datoga-and-industrial-russians-populations-compared
#15
Marina L Butovskaya, Polina R Butovskaya, Vasiliy A Vasilyev, Jane M Sukhodolskaya, Dania I Fekhredtinova, Dmitri V Karelin, Julia N Fedenok, Audax Z P Mabulla, Alexey P Ryskov, Oleg E Lazebny
BACKGROUND: Current knowledge on genetic basis of aggressive behavior is still contradictory. This may be due to the fact that the majority of studies targeting associations between candidate genes and aggression are conducted on industrial societies and mainly dealing with various types of psychopathology and disorders. Because of that, our study was carried on healthy adult individuals of both sex (n = 853). METHODS: Three populations were examined: two traditional (Hadza and Datoga) and one industrial (Russians), and the association of aggression with the following polymorphisms 5-HTTLPR, rs6295 (5HTR1A gene), and rs6311 (5HTR2A gene) were tested...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652769/schizophrenia-and-criminal-responsibility-a-systematic-review
#16
Georgios Tsimploulis, Gérard Niveau, Ariel Eytan, Panteleimon Giannakopoulos, Othman Sentissi
The significant progress of psychiatry in the 20th century provided a sophisticated theoretical framework to analyze the complex relationships between crime and mental illness. Schizophrenia has been traditionally associated with severe cognitive and affective deficits that heavily influence empathy, judgment capacities, but also control of impulsiveness. Although there is an association between psychotic disorders and absence or decrease of legal responsibility, their relationship is also determined by sociodemographic, developmental, and clinical factors...
May 2018: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626777/the-source-and-diversion-of-pharmaceutical-drugs-for-non-medical-use-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#17
REVIEW
Shann Hulme, David Bright, Suzanne Nielsen
BACKGROUND: The non-medical use (NMU) of pharmaceutical drugs is an increasing public health concern. This systematic review consolidates current knowledge about how pharmaceutical drugs are obtained for NMU and the processes and people involved in diversion. METHODS: Peer-reviewed and grey literature databases were searched for empirical studies published between 1996 and 2017 that examined the source or diversion of pharmaceutical opioids, sedatives or stimulants for NMU in countries with reported misuse problems...
March 27, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621775/association-of-polymorphisms-of-serotonin-transporter-5httlpr-and-5-ht2c-receptor-genes-with-criminal-behavior-in-russian-criminal-offenders
#18
Valentina A Toshchakova, Yalda Bakhtiari, Alexander V Kulikov, Sergey I Gusev, Marina V Trofimova, Olga Yu Fedorenko, Ekaterina V Mikhalitskaya, Nina K Popova, Nikolay A Bokhan, Johannes E Hovens, Anton J M Loonen, Bob Wilffert, Svetlana A Ivanova
BACKGROUND: Human aggression is a heterogeneous behavior with biological, psychological, and social backgrounds. As the biological mechanisms that regulate aggression are components of both reward-seeking and adversity-fleeing behavior, these phenomena are difficult to disentangle into separate neurochemical processes. Nevertheless, evidence exists linking some forms of aggression to aberrant serotonergic neurotransmission. We determined possible associations between 6 serotonergic neurotransmission-related gene variants and severe criminal offenses...
April 5, 2018: Neuropsychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620397/real-world-use-of-the-risk-need-responsivity-model-and-the-level-of-service-case-management-inventory-with-community-supervised-offenders
#19
Heather L Dyck, Mary Ann Campbell, Julie L Wershler
The risk-need-responsivity model (RNR; Bonta & Andrews, 2017) has become a leading approach for effective offender case management, but field tests of this model are still required. The present study first assessed the predictive validity of the RNR-informed Level of Service/Case Management Inventory (LS/CMI; Andrews, Bonta, & Wormith, 2004) with a sample of Atlantic Canadian male and female community-supervised provincial offenders (N = 136). Next, the case management plans prepared from these LS/CMI results were analyzed for adherence to the principles of risk, need, and responsivity...
April 5, 2018: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618538/using-technology-to-improve-the-objectivity-of-criminal-responsibility-evaluations
#20
Michael J Vitacco, Emily D Gottfried, Ashley B Batastini
Criminal responsibility (or insanity) evaluations require forensic clinicians to reconstruct a defendant's decision-making abilities, behavioral control, and emotional state at the time of the criminal act. Forensic evaluators are ultimately tasked to evaluate whether an individual had the capacity to understand right from wrong, and in some jurisdictions, determine whether the defendant lacked substantial capacity to conform his behavior to the requirements of the law as a result of a threshold condition (e...
March 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law
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