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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338563/the-long-term-effects-of-the-youth-crime-prevention-program-new-perspectives-on-delinquency-and-recidivism
#1
Sanne L A de Vries, Machteld Hoeve, Jessica J Asscher, Geert Jan J M Stams
New Perspectives (NP) aims to prevent persistent criminal behavior. We examined the long-term effectiveness of NP and whether the effects were moderated by demographic and delinquency factors. At-risk youth aged 12 to 19 years were randomly assigned to the intervention group (NP, n = 47) or care as usual (CAU, n = 54). Official and self-report data were collected to assess recidivism. NP was not more effective in reducing delinquency levels and recidivism than CAU. Also, no moderator effects were found. The overall null effects are discussed, including further research and policy implications...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336651/formal-and-informal-control-of-cannabis-regular-users-experience
#2
Serge Brochu, Patrice Lépine, Catherine Patenaude, Patricia Erickson
BACKGROUND: The debate on recreational use of cannabis, recently relaunched by the election of the Liberal Party of Canada that intends to legalize and regulate its use and access, implies a better understanding of social control mechanisms that are in place, and their influence on users' behaviors. OBJECTIVE: This study addresses the issue of formal and informal controls by providing, first, a theoretical perspective of this concept, and, second, by illustrating its operation from the users' perspective...
January 16, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332549/the-role-of-sexual-abuse-in-trauma-symptoms-delinquent-and-suicidal-behaviors-and-criminal-justice-outcomes-among-females-in-a-juvenile-justice-diversion-program
#3
Krystel Tossone, Madison Wheeler, Fredrick Butcher, Jeff Kretschmar
Female juvenile justice-involved (JJI) youth experience more sexual abuse (SA) than their non-JJI counterparts or their male JJI counterparts. This study examines SA's role among JJI females ( N = 1,307) in a behavioral health diversion program. Results indicate that SA increases the risk of psychological trauma, particularly posttraumatic stress and depression. SA also increases the odds of suicidal behavior, running away, and substance use. SA females have the same odds of successfully completing behavioral health diversion and being charged with any offense or misdemeanor after termination as non-SA females...
October 1, 2017: Violence Against Women
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324826/facial-responsiveness-of-psychopaths-to-the-emotional-expressions-of-others
#4
Janina Künecke, Andreas Mokros, Sally Olderbak, Oliver Wilhelm
Psychopathic individuals show selfish, manipulative, and antisocial behavior in addition to emotional detachment and reduced empathy. Their empathic deficits are thought to be associated with a reduced responsiveness to emotional stimuli. Immediate facial muscle responses to the emotional expressions of others reflect the expressive part of emotional responsiveness and are positively related to trait empathy. Empirical evidence for reduced facial muscle responses in adult psychopathic individuals to the emotional expressions of others is rare...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324253/a-qualitative-study-comparing-physician-reported-barriers-to-treating-addiction-using-buprenorphine-and-extended-release-naltrexone-in-u-s-office-based-practices
#5
Barbara Andraka-Christou, Matthew J Capone
AIM: Our aim was to compare physician-reported barriers to sublingual buprenorphine (BUP) and extended-release naltrexone (XR-NLT) prescribing in U.S. office-based practices, and to identify potential policies for minimizing these barriers. Only one previous qualitative study has examined physician-reported barriers to prescribing XR-NLT and no qualitative study has compared physician-reported barriers between the two medications. METHODS: Researchers conducted individual semi-structured and in-depth interviews with 20 licensed physicians in four U...
January 8, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309230/cross-sector-service-use-among-high-health-care-utilizers-in-minnesota-after-medicaid-expansion
#6
Katherine Diaz Vickery, Peter Bodurtha, Tyler N A Winkelman, Courtney Hougham, Ross Owen, Mark S Legler, Erik Erickson, Matthew M Davis
Childless adults in the Medicaid expansion population have complex social and behavioral needs. This study compared the cross-sector involvement of Medicaid expansion enrollees who were high health care utilizers to that of other expansion enrollees in Hennepin County, Minnesota. We examined forty-six months of annualized utilization and cost data for expansion-eligible residents with at least twelve months of enrollment (N = 70,134) across health care, housing, criminal justice, and human service sectors...
January 2018: Health Affairs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303015/tests-of-the-attachment-and-developmental-dynamic-systems-theory-of-crime-addstoc-toward-a-differential-rdoc-diagnostic-and-treatment-approach
#7
Marc A Lindberg, Dana Zeid
The Attachment and Developmental Dynamic Systems Theory of Crime was tested on 206 male inmates. They completed measures tapping attachments, clinical issues, adverse childhood events, peer crime, and crime addictions. A significant path model was found, going from insecure parental attachments to adverse childhood events, and then on to the behavioral crime addiction and criminal peers scales. Peer crime was also predicted by insecure parent attachments and the crime addiction scale. Finally, the crime addiction, peer crime, and insecure parental attachment scales predicted frequencies of criminal behavior...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294923/measurement-matters-offense-types-and-specialization
#8
Tamara Humphrey, Erin Gibbs Van Brunschot
Offender specialization-the tendency to repeat specific offenses-is the basis of practical orientations toward managing offending by the criminal justice system. Alternatively, dominant criminological paradigms postulate that offending versatility is the norm. We consider this incongruity by, first, considering "practice" in action, through the examination of the designations used by the Canadian criminal justice system to categorize offenders based on the assumption of specialization, and whether these determinations accurately reflect the offending behavior of offenders who have committed violent interpersonal crimes...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294907/pathways-to-police-contact-for-spousal-violence-survivors-the-role-of-individual-and-neighborhood-factors-in-survivors-reporting-behaviors
#9
Betty Jo Barrett, Amy Peirone, Chi Ho Cheung, Nazim Habibov
Rational choice theory proposes that spousal violence survivors engage in a cost-benefit analysis when determining whether to contact the police in the aftermath of violence. Feminist intersectional frameworks contend that the perceived costs and benefits of police intervention differ among survivors based on their intersecting social identities. Normative theory further posits that it is not solely individual factors but also social norms derived from one's neighborhood context that may be related to reporting practices...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294894/cyberbullying-victimization-as-a-predictor-of-cyberbullying-perpetration-body-image-dissatisfaction-healthy-eating-and-dieting-behaviors-and-life-satisfaction
#10
Leslie Ramos Salazar
Cyberbullying victimization and perpetration continues to be a serious public health, criminal justice, victimology, and educational problem in middle schools in the United States. Adolescents are at a higher risk of experiencing cyberbullying as a victim and/or as a bully given the frequency of their use of the Internet via social networking sites such as Facebook and mobile devices such as cell phones and tablets. To address this important problem, the purpose of this investigation was to examine cyberbullying victimization through communication technology as a predictor of cyberbullying perpetration, body image, healthy eating and dieting behaviors, and life satisfaction of sixth-, seventh-, and eighth-grade-level middle school students...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294859/prison-homicide-an-extension-of-violent-criminal-careers
#11
Thomas J Reidy, Jon R Sorensen, Heidi Stone Bonner
This study investigated prison homicide perpetrators through the lens of the career criminal perspective. Prison homicide, while a rare event, has critical implications for the prison environment. Despite its importance as a form of institutional violence that must be addressed, only four studies in the past five decades have explored the characteristics of homicide perpetrators/victims, the motives, and circumstances of the crime. The goal of the current study was to develop a better understanding of prison homicide by examining 54 perpetrators who committed 37 inmate homicides over 40 years in a mid-Western state prison system...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294827/internet-facilitated-rape-a-multivariate-model-of-offense-behavior
#12
Louise Almond, Michelle Ann McManus, Hannah Chatterton
Recent statistics report a significant increase in individuals reporting they have been raped by a stranger whom they have met through the Internet (Internet facilitated rape [IFR]). Previous literature has primarily focused on child victims; hence, the overriding aim of this study is to further our understanding of IFR in terms of crime scene behavior. One hundred forty-four IFR cases and two comparative samples of age-matched stranger rapists (confidence approach and surprise approach) were coded for 38 crime scene behaviors...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294810/hate-crimes-against-trans-people-assessing-emotions-behaviors-and-attitudes-toward-criminal-justice-agencies
#13
Mark A Walters, Jennifer Paterson, Rupert Brown, Liz McDonnell
Based on a survey of 593 lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people in the United Kingdom, this study shows that direct anti-LGBT hate crimes (measured by direct experiences of victimization) and indirect anti-LGBT hate crimes (measured by personally knowing other victims of hate crime) are highly prolific and frequent experiences for LGBT people. Our findings show that trans people are particularly susceptible to hate crimes, both in terms of prevalence and frequency. This article additionally highlights the negative emotional and (intended) behavioral reactions that were correlated with an imagined hate crime scenario, showing that trans people are more likely to experience heightened levels of threat, vulnerability, and anxiety compared with non-trans LGB people...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294774/the-role-of-family-support-in-the-explanation-of-patterns-of-desistance-among-individuals-convicted-of-a-sexual-offense
#14
Allyson Walker, Lila Kazemian, Patrick Lussier, Chongmin Na
Despite the growing body of research on desistance from crime, there have been comparatively few studies that have focused specifically on desistance from sex offending. Much remains unknown about whether the findings from the general desistance literature are applicable to individuals convicted of a sexual offense. The current study explores this issue. Given the well-established importance of the social support network in the process of desistance from crime, this research focuses on the influence of indicators of family support on reoffending outcomes...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294660/gender-differences-in-complex-posttraumatic-stress-symptoms-and-their-relationship-to-mental-health-and-substance-abuse-outcomes-in-incarcerated-adults
#15
Paulette Giarratano, Julian D Ford, Thomas H Nochajski
Complex trauma (CT; for example, childhood abuse) has been associated with significant behavioral health problems (i.e., mental health and substance use disorders) and symptoms that are consistent with complex posttraumatic stress disorder (C-PTSD). CT is prevalent in adult forensic populations, and particularly important for women as they tend to report more adverse consequences of exposure to traumatic stressors and are entering the criminal justice system at a heightened rate compared with men. However, no studies have empirically tested the relationship among CT, C-PTSD, and behavioral health problems with gender among incarcerated adults...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294642/an-exploratory-study-of-female-psychopathy-and-drug-related-violent-crime
#16
Nicholas D Thomson
There is a clear link between drugs and violence, and the extensive burden drug-related violence inflicts on society. However, drug-related violence is largely understudied, especially in female populations. The aim of the present study was to explore whether women convicted of drug-related violent crime differed on individual-level risk factors from women convicted of a nondrug-related violent crime and women convicted of nonviolent crimes. One hundred and twenty-five female inmates were classified using official criminal records...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288217/searching-for-the-neural-causes-of-criminal-behavior
#17
Ralph Adolphs, Jan Gläscher, Daniel Tranel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 29, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282238/behavioral-addictions-and-criminal-responsibility
#18
Austin W Blum, Jon E Grant
Certain behavioral addictions pose difficult and unresolved problems for the criminal justice system. These disorders are characterized by strong desire states and may be associated with illegal behaviors that are committed to support the addiction. In this article, we begin with a general account of criminal responsibility and provide the legally relevant phenomenology and cognitive features of behavioral addictions. We then discuss how the legal system has approached two behavioral addictions, gambling disorder and kleptomania, during criminal trials and at sentencing...
December 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279900/the-need-to-include-biological-variables-in-prospective-longitudinal-studies-of-the-development-of-criminal-behavior
#19
David P Farrington
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 26, 2017: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279896/association-of-childhood-blood-lead-levels-with-criminal-offending
#20
Amber L Beckley, Avshalom Caspi, Jonathan Broadbent, Honalee Harrington, Renate M Houts, Richie Poulton, Sandhya Ramrakha, Aaron Reuben, Terrie E Moffitt
Importance: Lead is a neurotoxin with well-documented effects on health. Research suggests that lead may be associated with criminal behavior. This association is difficult to disentangle from low socioeconomic status, a factor in both lead exposure and criminal offending. Objective: To test the hypothesis that a higher childhood blood lead level (BLL) is associated with greater risk of criminal conviction, recidivism (repeat conviction), conviction for violent offenses, and variety of self-reported criminal offending in a setting where BLL was not associated with low socioeconomic status...
December 26, 2017: JAMA Pediatrics
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