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Criminal behavior

Loren Collingwood, Ben Gonzalez O'Brien, Sarah Dreier
BACKGROUND: In 2012, Washington and Colorado became the first U.S. states to legalise recreational marijuana. By 2016, eight states and the District of Columbia had legalised recreational marijuana, with more expected to consider it in 2018. Despite this trend, little academic research explains what drives ballot-initiative vote choice on marijuana legalisation. METHODS: This paper uses a pre-election random sample voter survey to examine the individual characteristics that correlated with Washington voters' support for legal recreational marijuana...
March 11, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
Andrew S Gladfelter, Brendan Lantz, R Barry Ruback
Restitution to victims is rarely paid in full. One reason for low rates of payments is that offenders lack financial resources. Beyond ability to pay, however, we argue that fair treatment has implications for offender behavior. This study, a survey of probationers who owed restitution, investigated the links between (a) ability to pay, (b) beliefs about restitution and the criminal justice system, and (c) restitution payment, both the amount paid and number of payments. Results indicate that perceived fair treatment by probation staff-those most directly involved with the collection of restitution payments-was significantly associated with greater payment, net of past payment behavior, intention to pay, and ability to pay...
March 1, 2018: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
Ronnye Rutledge, Lynn Madden, Onyema Ogbuagu, Jaimie P Meyer
Women involved in the criminal justice system (WICJ) are at high risk of acquiring HIV and would benefit from HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) but there are no studies in this population to inform PrEP implementation programs. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of HIV-uninfected, cis-gender women on probation, parole and/or recently released from prison/jail to assess PrEP awareness, eligibility, potential barriers to uptake, and the PrEP care continuum. The 125 WICJ surveyed reported high rates of HIV risk behaviors including recent transactional sex (22...
March 11, 2018: AIDS Care
Claire Ferguson, Tiffany Sutherland
The difficulty in classifying manner of death in falls from a height provides offenders an opportunity to avoid detection by having a homicide appear otherwise. Twelve fall homicides were qualitatively examined. Results showed that most homicidal falls occurred at remote outdoor locations, were planned by offenders who were in controlling intimate relationships with the victim, and were motivated by gain. Homicide was established using inconsistencies in offender's statements and the physical evidence, inappropriate postoffense behavior, evidence of planning, and improbable alleged victim behavior...
March 7, 2018: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
Thomas H Costello, Ansley Unterberger, Ashley L Watts, Scott O Lilienfeld
Despite widespread assumptions that psychopathy is associated with serious and repeated law-breaking, individuals with psychopathic personality traits do not invariably become chronic criminal offenders. As a partial explanation for this finding, Lykken (1995) ventured that a fearless temperament underlies both psychopathic traits and heroic behavior, and that heroic individuals' early exposure to effective socializing forces such as warm parenting or healthy self-esteem often fosters a characteristic adaption that tends to beget "successful" behaviors, thereby differentiating heroes from convicts...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Daniel M Blonigen, Michael A Cucciare, Christine Timko, Jennifer S Smith, Autumn Harnish, Lakiesha Kemp, Joel Rosenthal, David Smelson
BACKGROUND: Moral Reconation Therapy (MRT) is a cognitive-behavioral intervention aimed at reducing risk for criminal recidivism by restructuring antisocial attitudes and cognitions (i.e., "criminogenic thinking"). MRT has empirical support for reducing risk for criminal recidivism among civilian offenders. Recently, a version of MRT was developed for military veterans; however, no randomized controlled trials (RCT) have been conducted with the veteran-specific protocol, and the effectiveness and implementation potential of MRT outside of correctional settings has not been established...
March 7, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
J Wertz, A Caspi, D W Belsky, A L Beckley, L Arseneault, J C Barnes, D L Corcoran, S Hogan, R M Houts, N Morgan, C L Odgers, J A Prinz, K Sugden, B S Williams, R Poulton, T E Moffitt
Drawing on psychological and sociological theories of crime causation, we tested the hypothesis that genetic risk for low educational attainment (assessed via a genome-wide polygenic score) is associated with criminal offending. We further tested hypotheses of how polygenic risk relates to the development of antisocial behavior from childhood through adulthood. Across the Dunedin and Environmental Risk (E-Risk) birth cohorts of individuals growing up 20 years and 20,000 kilometers apart, education polygenic scores predicted risk of a criminal record with modest effects...
March 1, 2018: Psychological Science
Mir M Ali, Judith Teich, Ryan Mutter
Research shows criminal justice system involved individuals are more likely to have behavioral health needs. This study analyzes nationally representative data on non-incarcerated individuals with mental disorders. It examines whether having past year criminal justice system involvement was associated with perceiving an unmet need for mental health treatment and the reasons for that unmet need. Results show criminal justice system involved individuals were more likely to report perceived unmet need for mental health treatment (OR = 1...
2018: Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved
Sébastien Brouillette-Alarie, Jean Proulx
Sexual offender risk assessment practice is considered by many to be atheoretical. The identification of the most predictive risk factors and tools has typically overshadowed questions about etiology. To gain insight into the origins of criminal behavior among sexual offenders, we developed and validated an etiological model of risk based on the theoretical framework of Beech and Ward. Our model focused on persistence rather than onset, and encompassed both the sexual and nonsexual criminal activity of these offenders...
March 1, 2018: Sexual Abuse: a Journal of Research and Treatment
Liu Liu, Wing Hong Chui, Ye Chen
Young drug users are found to be increasingly involved in criminal justice issues. This exploratory and descriptive study aims to analyze the criminal behaviors among young Chinese drug users through a mixed methods research design. Quantitative analysis indicates that young drug users with and without a history of criminality show significant differences in terms of several features. Male drug users, particularly, those who are older, with religious beliefs, and initiated into drug use at younger age were most likely to commit crimes...
March 2, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Brian Holoyda, Jacqueline Landess, Renee Sorrentino, Susan Hatters Friedman
The last decade has seen a rapid increase in the use of smartphones among young children and adolescents. One consequence of this phenomenon is sexting. Although researchers of sexting have yet to arrive at a single, cohesive definition for the behavior, it generally involves the transmission of text, pictures, or videos containing sexual material. Different definitions of the behavior have led to widely varying estimates of its prevalence, although some studies have documented relatively high rates of sexting among teenagers...
March 2, 2018: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
Lisa L Sample, Brooke N Cooley, Tusty Ten Bensel
The term sex offender carries expectations that include a continuous level of sexual criminal risk and untreatable mental health conditions that govern sex offending behaviors. These role expectations by the public can socially isolate individuals who have been convicted of a crime and the people who love them. This is likely to contribute to negative self-images that can result in loneliness, isolation, and depression, and, subsequently, contribute to discontinuing support for sex offender's loved ones and reoffending...
February 1, 2018: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
Rheanna J Remmel, Andrea L Glenn, Jennifer Cox
Research on the biological factors influencing criminal behavior is increasingly being introduced into court, necessitating research on how such evidence is perceived and influences decision makers. Research on how this evidence influences sentencing recommendations is inconclusive. In this study, we focus on biological evidence related to psychopathy, a construct commonly associated with criminal behavior. Approximately 800 community members were presented with a case vignette detailing an individual who is described as having a high level of psychopathic traits...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Personality Disorders
Lauren Wilson, Michelle Gahan, Chris Lennard, James Robertson
Forensic biometrics is the application of forensic science principles to physical and behavioral characteristics. Forensic biometrics is a secondary sub-system in the forensic science "system of systems," which describes forensic science as a sub-system in the larger criminal justice, law enforcement, intelligence, and military system. The purpose of this paper is to discuss biometrics in the military domain and integration into the wider forensic science system of systems. The holistic system thinking methodology was applied to the U...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Forensic Sciences
Merih Altintas, Mustafa Bilici
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate childhood trauma in relation to criminal behavior, dissociative experiences, adverse family experiences during childhood and psychiatric backgrounds among prison inmates. METHODS: In total, 200 prison inmates were included in this questionnaire-based study. Data on demographic characteristics, adverse family experiences during childhood and psychiatric backgrounds were collected via face-to-face interviews, and a psychometric evaluation was conducted using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ-28) and Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES)...
January 2, 2018: Comprehensive Psychiatry
Louise Almond, Michelle McManus, Amarat Bal, Freya O'Brien, Lee Rainbow, Mark Webb
Davies, Wittebrood, and Jackson (1997) were among the first to investigate whether offense behaviors are predictive of criminal history, with the findings of their paper then utilized by the National Crime Agency (NCA) Behavioral Investigative Advisors (BIAs) when assisting rape investigations. The aim of the study was to replicate this seminal paper with a larger contemporary sample of U.K. stranger rapists as identified by NCA. Data from 474 adult male stranger rapists were obtained in relation to 22 crime scene behaviors and nine preconviction variables...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Annah K Bender, Kathleen K Bucholz, Andrew C Heath, Vivia V McCutcheon
BACKGROUND: Women are increasingly involved in drunk driving and fatal crashes, yet except for the screening performed in criminal justice settings, little is known about their life context, psychiatric histories, and family backgrounds. This study describes a sample of women with histories of arrest for driving under the influence of alcohol (DUI) who were interviewed outside a criminal justice setting and contrasts women with single versus multiple DUI convictions. METHODS: Women with recent documented histories of DUI participated in a study of women's health behaviors...
February 13, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Starr J Solomon, Jukka Savolainen, W Alex Mason, Jouko Miettunen, Stacy-Ann A January, Marjo-Riitta Järvelin
Purpose: Early exposure to multiple risk factors is known to predict involvement in criminal offending. The purpose of this study was to examine the processes responsible for this association. Specifically, the focus was on the capacity of adolescent educational experience to mediate the effect of childhood cumulative risk (CCR) on criminal offending, net of expected continuity in antisocial propensity and behavior. Methods: Data from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort Study 1986 ( n = 5,743) were used to estimate a structural equation model to examine the hypothesized pathways...
September 2017: Journal of Developmental and Life-course Criminology
Gemma Mestre-Bach, Trevor Steward, Roser Granero, Fernando Fernández-Aranda, María Teresa Talón-Navarro, Àngel Cuquerella, Marta Baño, Laura Moragas, Amparo Del Pino-Gutiérrez, Neus Aymamí, Mónica Gómez-Peña, Núria Mallorquí-Bagué, Cristina Vintró-Alcaraz, Pablo Magaña, José Manuel Menchón, Susana Jiménez-Murcia
Gambling disorder (GD) is a psychiatric condition that was recently recategorized as a non-substance-related addiction in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Health Disorders. Criminal activity is commonly associated with gambling; however, few empirical studies to date have examined sociodemographic and psychological variables in this population. In this study, we explored criminal behavior history in a sample of consecutively recruited treatment-seeking gamblers (n = 382) and compared subjects with a history of illegal acts (n = 103, 26...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Morna Cornell, Kathryn Dovel
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Adolescents and young people who fit within key populations face some of the greatest barriers to HIV care, but are frequently overlooked. We review the recent literature on these young, vulnerable populations including HIV risk factors, barriers to care, and strategies for engagement. RECENT FINDINGS: Common risk factors include age, risky sexual practices, poor education, and high levels of alcohol and drug abuse. Barriers to care include limited data, criminalization, and high levels of stigma...
February 9, 2018: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
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