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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907234/shooting-alone-the-pre-attack-experiences-and-behaviors-of-u-s-solo-mass-murderers
#1
Paul Gill, James Silver, John Horgan, Emily Corner
This paper outlines the sociodemographic, developmental, antecedent attack, attack preparation, and commission properties of 115 mass murderers between 1990 and 2014. The results indicate that mass murderer attacks are usually the culmination of a complex mix of personal, political, and social drivers that crystalize at the same time to drive the individual down the path of violent action. We specifically focus upon areas related to prior criminal engagement, leakage, and attack location familiarity. Whether the violence comes to fruition is usually a combination of the availability and vulnerability of suitable targets that suit the heady mix of personal and political grievances and the individual's capability to engage in an attack from both a psychological and technical capability standpoint...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899902/aggressive-antisocial-behaviors-are-related-to-character-maturity-in-young-swedish-violent-offenders-independent-of-adhd
#2
Thomas Nilsson, Örjan Falk, Eva Billstedt, Nóra Kerekes, Henrik Anckarsäter, Märta Wallinius, Björn Hofvander
BACKGROUND: Antisocial personality and psychopathic traits have constantly been found to accompany criminal and aggressive behaviors, but little attention has been given to aspects of character maturity and its relation to such behaviors. The present study investigated (1) whether level of character maturity (low, medium, and high) is associated with amount of aggressive antisocial behaviors (AABs) and psychopathic traits in young men imprisoned for violent criminality, and (2) whether such an association is independent of coexisting attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886095/sociocultural-determinants-of-risky-sexual-behaviors-among-adult-latinas-a-longitudinal-study-of-a-community-based-sample
#3
Patria Rojas, Hui Huang, Tan Li, Gira J Ravelo, Mariana Sanchez, Christyl Dawson, Judith Brook, Mariano Kanamori, Mario De La Rosa
Few studies have examined the sociocultural determinants of risky sexual behavior trajectories among adult Latinas. To longitudinally examine the link between sociocultural determinants of risky sexual behaviors, we followed a sample of adult Latina mother-daughter dyads (n = 267) across a 10-year span through four waves of data collection. The present study investigates how risky sexual behavior (operationalized as sex under the influence of alcohol or other drugs, sex without a condom, or multiple sex partners) is affected by: (a) socioeconomic conditions; (b) mental health; (c) medical health; (d) acculturation to U...
November 23, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874189/incapacity-of-the-mind-secondary-to-medication-misuse-as-a-not-criminally-responsible-defense
#4
Sebastien S Prat, Bruno J Losier, Heather M Moulden, Gary A Chaimowitz
The manifestations of disorders of the mind may play a role in the occurrence of criminal behavior. In the majority of the cases, the presence of a psychiatric disorder is cited as the reason that an individual was not fully aware of his behavior. However, other conditions, such as seizure disorders or hypoglycemia, have also been linked to an inability to understand the nature and consequences of one's actions. On occasion, these situations can be explained by a state of automatism that may be described as insane or noninsane...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864958/patient-profiles-of-criminal-behavior-in-the-context-of-traumatic-brain-injury
#5
Kristy S Lane, Maria E St Pierre, Margo D Lauterbach, Vassilis E Koliatsos
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) can lead to significant post-traumatic disturbances in mood and behavior, with the frontal lobes playing a key role in emotional and behavioral regulation. Injury to the frontal lobe can result in disinhibition and aggression which can result in police intervention and/or incarceration. We highlight four adult cases with a history of severe TBI with frontal lobe injuries and the presence of post-TBI criminal behaviors. There is evidence to support an anatomical basis for aggressive behaviors, yet there are other risk factors to be considered...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849429/area-level-deprivation-and-adverse-consequences-in-people-with-substance-use-disorders-findings-from-the-psychiatric-and-addictive-dual-disorder-in-italy-paddi-study
#6
Giuseppe Carrà, Cristina Crocamo, Paola Borrelli, Tommaso Tabacchi, Francesco Bartoli, Ioana Popa, Cristina Montomoli, Massimo Clerici
BACKGROUND: Environmental factors may operate with individual ones to influence the risk of substance use. Research has focused on severe adverse consequences influenced by contextual variables. However, the literature on community level factors influencing substance use behaviors is relatively limited across Europe so far. OBJECTIVE: We capitalized on data from a National survey, exploring individual and contextual characteristics, to study adverse consequences among people with substance use disorders...
November 16, 2016: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844248/the-prevalence-and-correlates-of-involvement-in-the-criminal-justice-system-among-youth-on-the-autism-spectrum
#7
Julianna Rava, Paul Shattuck, Jessica Rast, Anne Roux
This study examined the prevalence and correlates of involvement in the criminal justice system among a nationally representative sample of youth with autism. We examined whether youth had been stopped and questioned by police or arrested at 14-15 years old and 21-22 years old. By age 21, approximately 20% of youth with autism had been stopped and questioned by police and nearly 5% had been arrested. Female youth were less likely to be involved in the criminal justice system, whereas youth displaying externalizing behaviors were more likely to be involved in the criminal justice system...
November 14, 2016: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826069/the-impact-of-chronic-stress-during-adolescence-on-the-development-of-aggressive-behavior-a-systematic-review-on-the-role-of-the-dopaminergic-system-in-rodents
#8
REVIEW
Jorim J Tielbeek, Zeineb Al-Itejawi, Josjan Zijlmans, Tinca Jc Polderman, Joshua W Buckholtz, Arne Popma
Pathological aggression, frequently observed in psychiatric patients and criminal subjects, poses a major burden on the health care and criminal justice system, necessitating better aetiological models to inform targets for prevention and intervention. Emerging evidence suggests that adverse experiences during development can cause long-lasting brain alterations associated with maladaptive behaviors, such as aggression. The present review discusses, mainly based on studies in rodents, whether disruption of the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system through chronic stress-exposure during adolescence predisposes to adult aggression...
November 5, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27823806/the-forensic-use-of-behavioral-genetics-in-criminal-proceedings-case-of-the-maoa-l-genotype
#9
Sally McSwiggan, Bernice Elger, Paul S Appelbaum
The role of behavioral genetic evidence in excusing and mitigating criminal behavior is unclear. Research has suggested that a low activity genotype of the enzyme monoamine oxidase (MAOA-L) may increase the risk for aggressive and antisocial behavior. By examining criminal proceedings in which MAOA-L genotype evidence was introduced, we explored the forensic uses of behavioral genetic science. Westlaw and LexisNexis legal databases were electronically searched for cases from 1995 to 2016 to identify court documents from cases involving the MAOA-L genotype...
November 4, 2016: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819465/elucidating-the-validity-of-the-externalizing-spectrum-of-psychopathology-in-correctional-forensic-and-community-samples
#10
Martin Sellbom
Krueger and colleagues (2007) have elaborated on a hierarchical structural model of externalizing psychopathology, with a general overarching factor and 2 residual liability factors reflecting callous-aggression and substance misuse. The current study used an independent set of symptom and behavior indicators (items derived from the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form) to test alternative models of externalizing. In mixed-sex samples of correctional inmates (n = 42,290), forensic criminal defendants (n = 1,065), and community participants (n = 2,214), a bifactor model based on Krueger, Markon, Patrick, Benning, and Kramer (2007) was associated with better model fit relative to a 1-factor model, 2-factor model, and a bifactor model with 2 random bifactors...
November 2016: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27808554/triarchic-model-personality-traits-and-their-impact-on-mock-juror-perceptions-of-a-white-collar-criminal-defendant
#11
Allison Rulseh, John F Edens, Jennifer Cox
The triarchic model of psychopathy proposes that this personality disorder is composed of 3 relatively distinct constructs: meanness, disinhibition, and boldness. Although the first 2 components are widely accepted, boldness has generated considerable theoretical debate concerning its relevance-largely due to its association with various ostensibly adaptive characteristics and socially desirable behaviors (e.g., self-reported heroism). But is being bold actually perceived by others as an intrinsically adaptive, socially desirable personality trait? We investigated this question using a novel approach-a jury simulation study that manipulated the level of triarchic traits exhibited by a white-collar criminal...
November 3, 2016: Journal of Personality Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807807/volunteering-in-adolescence-and-young-adulthood-crime-involvement-a-longitudinal-analysis-from-the-add-health-study
#12
Shabbar I Ranapurwala, Carri Casteel, Corinne Peek-Asa
BACKGROUND: Experiences in adolescence may have a lasting impact on adulthood. The objective of this study is to evaluate the association between adolescent (12-18 years of age) volunteerism with the incidence of illegal behaviors, arrests, and convictions in adulthood (>18 years of age). METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study using secondary data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health. Students from grades 7-12 were recruited in 1994-1995 (n = 20,745), and then followed in 2001-2002 (n = 14,322) and in 2008-2009 (n = 12,288)...
December 2016: Injury Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784035/association-of-resting-heart-rate-and-blood-pressure-in-late-adolescence-with-subsequent-mental-disorders-a-longitudinal-population-study-of-more-than-1-million-men-in-sweden
#13
Antti Latvala, Ralf Kuja-Halkola, Christian Rück, Brian M D'Onofrio, Tomas Jernberg, Catarina Almqvist, David Mataix-Cols, Henrik Larsson, Paul Lichtenstein
Importance: Differences in cardiovascular autonomic activity between individuals with psychiatric disorders and healthy controls have been observed, but whether cardiovascular autonomic abnormalities are associated with subsequent psychiatric disorders is unknown. Objective: To investigate whether differences in cardiac autonomic function as indexed by resting heart rate and blood pressure are associated with psychiatric disorders during the lifetime of men in Sweden...
October 26, 2016: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779292/-mandatory-treatment-of-forensic-psychiatric-patients-in-the-netherlands-costs-and-benefits-in-perspective
#14
M H Nagtegaal, K Goethals, G Meynen
So far, it is not known what costs and benefits are connected with the tbs-measure, a measure that involves a mandatory treatment programme for forensic psychiatric patients.<br/> AIM: To explore the costs and benefits that the tbs-measure has on society, on other important stakeholders such as victims and/or next-of-kin and the forensic psychiatric patients themselves. <br/> METHOD: We studied the relevant literature.<br/> RESULTS: The average costs of the tbs-treatment programme are 1.5 million euros...
2016: Tijdschrift Voor Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774246/inherited-proclivity-when-should-neurogenetics-mitigate-moral-culpability-for-purposes-of-sentencing
#15
J Bradley Segal
Certain genes and neurobiology ('neurogenetics') may predispose some people to violent behavior. Increasingly, defendants introduce neurogenetic evidence as a mitigating factor during criminal sentencing. Identifying the cause of a criminal act, biological or otherwise, does not necessarily preclude moral or legal liability. However, valid scientific evidence of an inherited proclivity sometimes should be considered when evaluating whether a defendant is less morally culpable for a crime and perhaps less deserving of punishment...
April 2016: Journal of Law and the Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774213/neuroscientific-and-behavioral-genetic-information-in-criminal-cases-in-the-netherlands
#16
C H de Kogel, E J M C Westgeest
In this contribution an empirical approach is used to gain more insight into the relationship between neuroscience and criminal law. The focus is on case law in the Netherlands. Neuroscientific information and techniques have found their way into the courts of the Netherlands. Furthermore, following an Italian case in which a mentally ill offender received a penalty reduction in part because of a 'genetic vulnerability for impulsive aggression', the expectation was expressed that such 'genetic defenses' would appear in the Netherlands too...
November 2015: Journal of Law and the Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774212/the-use-of-neuroscientific-evidence-in-canadian-criminal-proceedings
#17
Jennifer A Chandler
This article addresses the question of how neuroscientific evidence is currently used in the Canadian criminal justice system, with a view to identifying the main contexts in which this evidence is raised, as well as to discern the impact of this evidence on judgements of responsibility, dangerousness, and treatability. The most general Canadian legal database was searched for cases in the five-year period between 2008 and 2012 in which neuroscientific evidence related to the responsibility and recidivism risk of criminal offenders was considered...
November 2015: Journal of Law and the Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774210/neuroscience-and-behavioral-genetics-in-us-criminal-law-an-empirical-analysis
#18
Nita A Farahany
The goal of this study was to examine the growing use of neurological and behavioral genetic evidence by criminal defendants in US criminal law. Judicial opinions issued between 2005-12 that discussed the use of neuroscience or behavioral genetics by criminal defendants were identified, coded and analysed. Criminal defendants are increasingly introducing such evidence to challenge defendants' competency, the effectiveness of defense counsel at trial, and to mitigate punishment.
November 2015: Journal of Law and the Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27750182/prevalence-and-correlates-of-substance-use-among-youth-living-with-hiv-in-clinical-settings
#19
Kristi E Gamarel, Larry Brown, Christopher W Kahler, M Isabel Fernandez, Douglas Bruce, Sharon Nichols
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to better understand the prevalence and correlates of substance use behaviors among HIV-infected adolescents in HIV care settings. METHODS: A cross-sectional sample of 2216 youth living with HIV (YLWH; ages 12-26) were recruited through the Adolescent Trials Network for HIV Interventions. Participants completed a one-time survey on sociodemographic factors, substance use and health behaviors. We used logistic regression models to understand the correlates of substance use outcomes...
October 11, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27730668/public-figure-attacks-in-the-united-states-1995-2015
#20
J Reid Meloy, Molly Amman
An archival descriptive study of public figure attackers in the United States between 1995 and 2015 was undertaken. Fifty-six incidents were identified, primarily through exhaustive internet searches, composed of 58 attackers and 58 victims. A code book was developed which focused upon victims, offenders, pre-attack behaviors including direct threats, attack characteristics, post-offense and other outcomes, motivations and psychological abstracts. The average interrater agreement for coding of bivariate variables was 0...
September 2016: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
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