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Neuroplasticity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144602/neuroplasticity-following-short-term-strength-training-occurs-at-supraspinal-level-and-is-specific-for-the-trained-task
#1
Louis-Solal Giboin, Benjamin Weiss, Felix Thomas, Markus Gruber
AIMS: Different modalities of strength training cause performance enhancements, which are specific for the trained task. However, the involved mechanisms are still largely unknown. It has been demonstrated that strength training could induce neuroplasticity, which might underlie the performance improvements during the first training sessions. Thus, we hypothesized to find task-specific neuroplasticity after a short-term strength training of two distinct strength tasks. METHODS: Young healthy male subjects were exposed to 4 sessions of either maximal isometric explosive (EXPL group, N = 9) or slow sustained (SUS group, N = 10) knee extensions...
November 16, 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143580/neuroplasticity-and-its-relevance-for-multiple-sclerosis
#2
Martin Kerschensteiner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: Neurodegenerative Disease Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142113/chromatic-and-achromatic-monocular-deprivation-produce-separable-changes-of-eye-dominance-in-adults
#3
Jiawei Zhou, Alexandre Reynaud, Yeon Jin Kim, Kathy T Mullen, Robert F Hess
Temporarily depriving one eye of its input, in whole or in part, results in a transient shift in eye dominance in human adults, with the patched eye becoming stronger and the unpatched eye weaker. However, little is known about the role of colour contrast in these behavioural changes. Here, we first show that the changes in eye dominance and contrast sensitivity induced by monocular eye patching affect colour and achromatic contrast sensitivity equally. We next use dichoptic movies, customized and filtered to stimulate the two eyes differentially...
November 29, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138092/abnormal-cortical-neuroplasticity-induced-by-paired-associative-stimulation-after-traumatic-spinal-cord-injury-a-preliminary-study
#4
Viviana Versace, Patrick B Langthaler, Yvonne Höller, Vanessa N Frey, Francesco Brigo, Luca Sebastianelli, Leopold Saltuari, Raffaele Nardone
We aimed at assessing in this pilot study whether patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) show alterations of sensorimotor plasticity within the primary motor cortex (M1). Since learning in human M1 occurs through LTP-like mechanisms, we employed the paired associative stimulation (PAS) protocol by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), which is able to induce LTP-like effects in M1, in subjects with chronic SCI. We found that PAS protocol significantly increased corticospinal excitability as long as 30minutes in healthy subjects and in SCI patients with good motor recovery, while it was followed by a non-significant increase of MEP amplitude in the SCI patients with poor functional recovery...
November 11, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137960/ampa-receptor-translocation-and-phosphorylation-are-induced-by-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-in-rats
#5
Justin Stafford, Milene L Brownlow, Anthony Qualley, Ryan Jankord
Over the last decade, the interest in transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has continued to increase, along with consideration of how it affects neuroplasticity mechanisms in the brain. Both human and animal studies have demonstrated numerous benefits and, although its application has increased, the neurophysiological mechanisms underlying tDCS' beneficial effects remain largely unknown. Recent studies have shown that long-term potentiation (LTP) increases following tDCS. In this work, we utilized a rodent model of tDCS to directly assess changes in the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor, a critical protein for enhancing synaptic transmission...
November 11, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136184/female-mimicry-by-sneaker-males-has-a-transcriptomic-signature-in-both-the-brain-and-gonad-in-a-sex-changing-fish
#6
Erica V Todd, Hui Liu, Melissa S Lamm, Jodi T Thomas, Kim Rutherford, Kelly C Thompson, John R Godwin, Neil J Gemmell
Phenotypic plasticity represents an elegant adaptive response of individuals to a change in their environment. Bluehead wrasses (Thalassoma bifasciatum) exhibit astonishing sexual plasticity, including female-to-male sex change and discrete male morphs that differ strikingly in behaviour, morphology and gonadal investment. Using RNA-seq transcriptome profiling, we examined the genes and physiological pathways underlying flexible behavioural and gonadal differences among female, dominant (bourgeois) male, and female-mimic (sneaker) male blueheads...
November 8, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126783/two-case-reports-using-simulated-reattachment-to-treat-persistent-complex-bereavement-disorder-and-ptsd
#7
Mark Rider
These case reports focus on a rapid treatment for persistent complex bereavement disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), which appears to activate the mirror neuron network. Simulated reattachment is a technique which has been found to repair phantom limb pain in just a few sessions. The same neuroplasticity that accomplishes phantom pain relief has been found to occur in the treatment of complicated grief and PTSD using similar methods. The simulated reattachment for the client in Case one was found to significantly reduce the symptoms of both complicated grief and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) within one session...
October 6, 2017: Explore: the Journal of Science and Healing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123928/neuroplasticity-and-healthy-lifestyle-how-can-we-understand-this-relationship
#8
EDITORIAL
Azucena Begega, Luis J Santín, Pablo Galeano, Debora Cutuli, Patricia Sampedro Piquero
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123926/spinal-excitability-changes-after-transspinal-and-transcortical-paired-associative-stimulation-in-humans
#9
Maria Knikou
Paired associative stimulation (PAS) produces enduring neuroplasticity based on Hebbian associative plasticity. This study established the changes in spinal motoneuronal excitability by pairing transcortical and transspinal stimulation. Transcortical stimulation was delivered after (transspinal-transcortical PAS) or before (transcortical-transspinal PAS) transspinal stimulation. Before and after 40 minutes of each PAS protocol, spinal neural excitability was assessed based on the amplitude of the transspinal-evoked potentials (TEPs) recorded from ankle muscles of both legs at different stimulation intensities (recruitment input-output curve)...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116473/early-rehabilitation-after-stroke-a-narrative-review
#10
REVIEW
Elisheva R Coleman, Rohitha Moudgal, Kathryn Lang, Hyacinth I Hyacinth, Oluwole O Awosika, Brett M Kissela, Wuwei Feng
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Despite current rehabilitative strategies, stroke remains a leading cause of disability in the USA. There is a window of enhanced neuroplasticity early after stroke, during which the brain's dynamic response to injury is heightened and rehabilitation might be particularly effective. This review summarizes the evidence of the existence of this plastic window, and the evidence regarding safety and efficacy of early rehabilitative strategies for several stroke domain-specific deficits...
November 7, 2017: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111577/applications-of-acupuncture-therapy-in-modulating-plasticity-of-central-nervous-system
#11
REVIEW
Ling-Yong Xiao, Xue-Rui Wang, Ye Yang, Jing-Wen Yang, Yan Cao, Si-Ming Ma, Tian-Ran Li, Cun-Zhi Liu
OBJECTIVE: Acupuncture is widely applied for treatment of various neurological disorders. This manuscript will review the preclinical evidence of acupuncture in mediating neural plasticity, the mechanisms involved. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We searched acupuncture, plasticity, and other potential related words at the following sites: PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and VIP information data base. The following keywords were used: acupuncture, electroacupuncture, plasticity, neural plasticity, neuroplasticity, neurogenesis, neuroblast, stem cell, progenitor cell, BrdU, synapse, synapse structure, synaptogenesis, axon, axon regeneration, synaptic plasticity, LTP, LTD, neurotrophin, neurotrophic factor, BDNF, GDNF, VEGF, bFGF, EGF, NT-3, NT-4, NT-5, p75NTR, neurotransmitter, acetylcholine, norepinephrine, noradrenaline, dopamine, monamine...
November 7, 2017: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111362/the-cortical-mechanisms-underlying-ocular-dominance-plasticity-in-adults-are-not-orientationally-selective
#12
Yonghua Wang, Zhimo Yao, Zhifen He, Jiawei Zhou, Robert F Hess
Recently, it has been shown that short-term monocular deprivation in adult humans can temporally shift the ocular dominance in favor of the deprived eye. It is not clear whether this form of ocular dominance plasticity can be explained by cortical contrast adaptation, which is known to be orientationally selective. Here we show that if only one eye is deprived of a limited band of orientations for a short period of 2.5 h, the deprived eye's contribution to binocular function at all orientations rather than just those corresponding to the previously deprived orientations is strengthened...
October 27, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111113/understanding-the-relationship-between-brain-and-upper-limb-function-in-children-with-unilateral-motor-impairments-a-multimodal-approach
#13
Maya Weinstein, Dido Green, Julian Rudisch, Ingar M Zielinski, Marta Benthem-Muñiz, Marijtje L A Jongsma, Verity McClelland, Bert Steenbergen, Shelly Shiran, Dafna Ben Bashat, Gareth J Barker
Atypical brain development and early brain injury have profound and long lasting impact on the development, skill acquisition, and subsequent independence of a child. Heterogeneity is present at the brain level and at the motor level; particularly with respect to phenomena of bilateral activation and mirrored movements (MMs). In this multiple case study we consider the feasibility of using several modalities to explore the relationship between brain structure and/or activity and hand function: Electroencephalography (EEG), both structural and functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (sMRI, fMRI), diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), Electromyography (EMG) and hand function assessments...
October 12, 2017: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107185/reversal-of-age-related-cognitive-impairments-in-mice-by-an-extremely-low-dose-of-tetrahydrocannabinol
#14
Yosef Sarne, Roni Toledano, Lital Rachmany, Effrat Sasson, Ravid Doron
This study was designed to test our hypothesis that an ultra-low dose of delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) reverses age-dependent cognitive impairments in old mice and to examine the possible biological mechanisms that underlie this behavioral effect. Old female mice aged 24 months that had been injected once with 0.002 mg/kg THC (3-4 orders of magnitudes lower than doses that induce the conventional cannabinoid effects in mice) performed significantly better than vehicle-treated old mice and performed similarly to naive young mice aged 2 months, in 6 different behavioral assays that measured various aspects of memory and learning...
October 6, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105941/assessment-and-manifestation-of-central-sensitisation-across-different-chronic-pain-conditions
#15
L Arendt-Nielsen, B Morlion, S Perrot, A Dahan, A Dickenson, H G Kress, C Wells, D Bouhassira, A Mohr Drewes
Different neuroplastic processes can occur along the nociceptive pathways and may be important in the transition from acute to chronic pain and for diagnosis and development of optimal management strategies. The neuroplastic processes may result in gain (sensitisation) or loss (desensitisation) of function in relation to the incoming nociceptive signals. Such processes play important roles in chronic pain, and although the clinical manifestations differ across condition processes, they share some common mechanistic features...
November 5, 2017: European Journal of Pain: EJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105067/similarities-and-differences-in-neuroplasticity-mechanisms-between-brain-gliomas-and-nonlesional-epilepsy
#16
Pierre Bourdillon, Caroline Apra, Marc Guénot, Hugues Duffau
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the conceptual and practical implications of a hodotopic approach in neurosurgery, and to compare the similarities and the differences in neuroplasticity mechanisms between low-grade gliomas and nonlesional epilepsy. METHODS: We review the recent data about the hodotopic organization of the brain connectome, alongside the organization of epileptic networks, and analyze how these two structures interact, suggesting therapeutic prospects. Then we focus on the mechanisms of neuroplasticity involved in glioma natural course and after glioma surgery...
November 3, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104998/ankle-passive-and-active-movement-training-in-children-with-acute-brain-injury-using-a-wearable-robot
#17
Kai Chen, Bo Xiong, Yupeng Ren, Assaf Dvorkin, Deboah Gaebler-Spira, Charles Sisung, Li-Qun Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of a wearable robotic device in guiding isometric torque generation and passive-active movement training for ankle motor recovery in children with acute brain injury. PARTICIPANTS/SETTING: Ten inpatient children with acute brain injury being treated in a rehabilitation hospital. DESIGN: Daily robot-guided ankle passive-active movement therapy for 15 sessions, including isometric torque generation under real-time feedback, stretch-ing, and active movement training with motivating games using a wearable ankle rehabilitation robot...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104801/childhood-adversities-are-not-a-predictors-of-sstr4met-in-alcoholics
#18
Dominika Berent, Michał Pogórski, Dominika Kulczycka-Wojdala, Ewa Kusideł, Marian Macander, Zofia Pawłowska
Background: Genome methylation may modulate synaptic plasticity, being a potential background for mental disorder. Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), known to be frequently reported by patients with alcohol dependence (AD), have been proposed as one of environmental inequities influencing DNA methylation. The study is aiming 1.To assess a promoter region methylation in gene for somatostatin receptor subtype-4 (SSTR4), a receptor for somatostatin, a neurotransmitter engaged in neuroplasticity and memory formation, in patients with AD; 2...
2017: Translational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102768/brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-bdnf-and-neurotrophin-3-nt3-levels-in-post-mortem-brain-tissue-from-patients-with-depression-compared-to-healthy-individuals%C3%A2-%C3%A2-a-proof-of-concept-study
#19
A Sheldrick, S Camara, M Ilieva, P Riederer, T M Michel
The neurotrophic factors (NTF) hypothesis of depression was postulated nearly a decade ago and is nowadays widely acknowledged. Previous reports suggest that cerebral concentrations of NTF may be reduced in suicide victims who received minimal or no antidepressant pharmacotherapy. Recent evidence suggests that antidepressant treatment may improve or normalise cerebral concentrations of neurotrophic factors. Therefore, we examined the concentration of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin 3 (NT3) in different brain regions (cortex, cingulate gyrus, thalamus, hippocampus, putamen and nucleus caudatus) of 21 individuals - 7 patients of which 4 patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and overall age 86...
July 11, 2017: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100991/cue-induced-reinstatement-of-alcohol-seeking-behavior-is-associated-with-increased-camkii-t286-phosphorylation-in-the-reward-pathway-of-mice
#20
Michael C Salling, Christopher J Hodge, Kelly E Psilos, Vallari R Eastman, Sara P Faccidomo, Clyde W Hodge
Cue-induced reinstatement of alcohol-seeking is a hallmark behavioral pathology of addiction. Evidence suggests that reinstatement (e.g., relapse), may be regulated by cell signaling systems that underlie neuroplasticity. A variety of plasticity events require activation of calcium calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) in components of the reward pathway, such as the nucleus accumbens and amygdala. We sought to determine if cue-induced reinstatement of alcohol-seeking behavior is associated with changes in the activation state (e...
October 31, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
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