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Neuroplasticity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108255/regular-exercise-promotes-memory-function-and-enhances-hippocampal-neuroplasticity-in-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-mice
#1
Tae-Woon Kim, Yun-Hee Sung
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a progressive condition affecting the central nervous system (CNS), and is characterized by the development of demyelinated lesions and plaques in the brain and spinal cord. Exercise is beneficial against dementia in elderly patients, so we investigated the effects of exercise on memory in relation to hippocampal demyelination and neuroplasticity in a mouse model of MS (experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis [EAE]). Mice were randomly divided into three groups: Sham, EAE, and EAE and exercise (EAE+EX)...
January 17, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108062/chronic-vortioxetine-treatment-in-rodents-modulates-gene-expression-of-neurodevelopmental-and-plasticity-markers
#2
Jessica A Waller, Joseph A Tamm, Aicha Abdourahman, Alan L Pehrson, Yan Li, Manuel Cajina, Connie Sánchez
The multimodal antidepressant vortioxetine displays an antidepressant profile distinct from those of conventional selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) and possesses cognitive-enhancing properties in preclinical and clinical studies. Recent studies have begun to investigate molecular mechanisms that may differentiate vortioxetine from other antidepressants. Acute studies in adult rats and chronic studies in a middle-aged mouse model reveal upregulation of several markers that play a central role in synaptic plasticity...
January 17, 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105707/binge-drinking-differentially-affects-cortical-and-subcortical-microstructure
#3
Laurel S Morris, Nicholas G Dowell, Mara Cercignani, Neil A Harrison, Valerie Voon
Young adult binge drinkers represent a model for endophenotypic risk factors for alcohol misuse and early exposure to repeated binge cycles. Chronic or harmful alcohol use leads to neurochemical, structural and morphological neuroplastic changes, particularly in regions associated with reward processing and motivation. We investigated neural microstructure in 28 binge drinkers compared with 38 matched healthy controls. We used a recently developed diffusion magnetic resonance imaging acquisition and analysis, which uses three-compartment modelling (of intracellular, extracellular and cerebrospinal fluid) to determine brain tissue microstructure features including neurite density and orientation dispersion index (ODI)...
January 20, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104411/brain-and-cognitive-reserve-translation-via-network-control-theory
#4
REVIEW
John Dominic Medaglia, Fabio Pasqualetti, Roy H Hamilton, Sharon L Thompson-Schill, Danielle S Bassett
Traditional approaches to understanding the brain's resilience to neuropathology have identified neurophysiological variables, often described as brain or cognitive "reserve," associated with better outcomes. However, mechanisms of function and resilience in large-scale brain networks remain poorly understood. Dynamic network theory may provide a basis for substantive advances in understanding functional resilience in the human brain. In this perspective, we describe recent theoretical approaches from network control theory as a framework for investigating network level mechanisms underlying cognitive function and the dynamics of neuroplasticity in the human brain...
January 16, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101530/integrative-analysis-of-disease-signatures-shows-inflammation-disrupts-juvenile-experience-dependent-cortical-plasticity
#5
Milo R Smith, Poromendro Burman, Masato Sadahiro, Brian A Kidd, Joel T Dudley, Hirofumi Morishita
Throughout childhood and adolescence, periods of heightened neuroplasticity are critical for the development of healthy brain function and behavior. Given the high prevalence of neurodevelopmental disorders, such as autism, identifying disruptors of developmental plasticity represents an essential step for developing strategies for prevention and intervention. Applying a novel computational approach that systematically assessed connections between 436 transcriptional signatures of disease and multiple signatures of neuroplasticity, we identified inflammation as a common pathological process central to a diverse set of diseases predicted to dysregulate plasticity signatures...
November 2016: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095052/increased-gamma-connectivity-during-working-memory-retention-following-traumatic-brain-injury
#6
Neil W Bailey, Nigel C Rogasch, Kate E Hoy, Jerome J Maller, Rebecca A Segrave, Caley M Sullivan, Paul B Fitzgerald
PRIMARY OBJECTIVE: Alterations to functional connectivity following a traumatic brain injury (TBI) may lead to impaired cognitive performance and major depressive disorder (MDD). In particular, functional gamma band connectivity is thought to reflect information binding important for working memory. The objective of this study was to determine whether altered functional gamma connectivity may be a factor in MDD following TBI (TBI-MDD). RESEARCH DESIGN: This study assessed individuals with TBI-MDD, as well as individuals with TBI alone and MDD alone using electroencephalographic recordings while participants performed a working memory task to assess differences in functional connectivity between these groups...
January 17, 2017: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093714/neuroplasticity-based-technologies-and-interventions-for-restoring-motor-functions-in-multiple-sclerosis
#7
Sofia Straudi, Nino Basaglia
Motor impairments are very common in multiple sclerosis (MS), leading to a reduced Quality of Life and active participation. In the past decades, new insights into the functional reorganization processes that occur after a brain injury have been introduced. Specifically, the motor practice seems to be determinant to induce neuroplastic changes and motor recovery. More recently, these findings have been extended to multiple sclerosis, in particular, it has been hypothesized that disease progression, functional reorganization and disability are mutually related...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092015/enhancing-cognitive-functioning-in-healthly-older-adults-a-systematic-review-of-the-clinical-significance-of-commercially-available-computerized-cognitive-training-in-preventing-cognitive-decline
#8
REVIEW
Tejal M Shah, Michael Weinborn, Giuseppe Verdile, Hamid R Sohrabi, Ralph N Martins
Successfully assisting older adults to maintain or improve cognitive function, particularly when they are dealing with neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), remains a major challenge. Cognitive training may stimulate neuroplasticity thereby increasing cognitive and brain reserve. Commercial brain training programs are computerized, readily-available, easy-to-administer and adaptive but often lack supportive data and their clinical validation literature has not been previously reviewed...
January 14, 2017: Neuropsychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089653/priming-theta-burst-stimulation-enhances-motor-cortex-plasticity-in-young-but-not-old-adults
#9
George M Opie, Eleni Vosnakis, Michael C Ridding, Ulf Ziemann, John G Semmler
BACKGROUND: Primary motor cortex neuroplasticity is reduced in old adults, which may contribute to the motor deficits commonly observed in the elderly. Previous research in young subjects suggests that the neuroplastic response can be enhanced using non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS), with a larger plastic response observed following priming with both long-term potentiation (LTP) and depression (LTD)-like protocols. However, it is not known if priming stimulation can also modulate plasticity in older adults...
January 4, 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088900/synaptic-plasticity-dementia-and-alzheimer-disease
#10
Pietro Giusti, Stephen D Skaper, Laura Facci, Morena Zusso
Neuroplasticity is not only shaped by learning and memory but is also a mediator of responses to neuron attrition and injury (compensatory plasticity). As an ongoing process it reacts to neuronal cell activity and injury, death, and genesis, which encompasses the modulation of structural and functional processes of axons, dendrites, and synapses. The range of structural elements that comprise plasticity includes long-term potentiation (a cellular correlate of learning and memory), synaptic efficacy and remodelling, synaptogenesis, axonal sprouting and dendritic remodelling, and neurogenesis and recruitment...
January 13, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088578/the-effect-of-long-term-hindlimb-unloading-on-the-expression-of-risk-neurogenes-encoding-elements-of-serotonin-dopaminergic-systems-and-apoptosis-comparison-with-the-effect-of-actual-spaceflight-on-mouse-brain
#11
E A Kulikova, V A Kulikov, N A Sinyakova, A V Kulikov, N K Popova
The study of spaceflight effects on the brain is technically complex concern; complicated by the problem of applying an adequate ground model. The most-widely used experimental model to study the effect of microgravity is the tail-suspension hindlimb unloading model; however, its compliance with the effect of actual spaceflight on the brain is still unclear. We evaluated the effect of one month hindlimb unloading on the expression of genes related to the brain neuroplasticity - brain neutotrophic factors (Gdnf, Cdnf), apoptotic factors (Bcl-xl, Bax), serotonin- and dopaminergic systems (5-HT2A, Maoa, Maob, Th, D1r, Comt), and compared the results with the data obtained on mice that spent one month in spaceflight on Russian biosatellite Bion-M1...
January 11, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079529/leveraging-the-skills-of-nurses-and-the-power-of-language-nutrition-to-ensure-a-better-future-for-children
#12
Ashley Darcy Mahoney, Lauren Head Zauche, Sunny Hallowell, Arianne Weldon, Jennifer Stapel-Wax
BACKGROUND: Early language exposure is critical for language acquisition and significantly influences a child's literacy skills. However, preterm infants may experience language deprivation in the neonatal intensive care unit. Nurses are vital to helping parents understand their critical role in early language development. PURPOSE: To discuss the impact of language-rich interactions and interventions that promote early language exposure, or Language Nutrition, by parents and caregivers on the long-term developmental, language, and educational outcomes of high-risk infants...
January 11, 2017: Advances in Neonatal Care: Official Journal of the National Association of Neonatal Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077092/phylogenetic-analysis-of-ionotropic-l-glutamate-receptor-genes-in-the-bilateria-with-special-notes-on-aplysia-californica
#13
Justin B Greer, Sawsan Khuri, Lynne A Fieber
BACKGROUND: The neurotransmitter L-Glutamate (L-Glu) acting at ionotropic L-Glu receptors (iGluR) conveys fast excitatory signal transmission in the nervous systems of all animals. iGluR-dependent neurotransmission is a key component of the synaptic plasticity that underlies learning and memory. During learning, two subtypes of iGluR, α-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors (AMPAR) and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDAR), are dynamically regulated postsynaptically in vertebrates...
January 11, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075486/highly-expandable-human-ips-cell-derived-neural-progenitor-cells-npc-and-neurons-for-central-nervous-system-disease-modeling-and-high-throughput-screening
#14
Chialin Cheng, Daniel M Fass, Kat Folz-Donahue, Marcy E MacDonald, Stephen J Haggarty
Reprogramming of human somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells has greatly expanded the set of research tools available to investigate the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying central nervous system (CNS) disorders. Realizing the promise of iPS cell technology for the identification of novel therapeutic targets and for high-throughput drug screening requires implementation of methods for the large-scale production of defined CNS cell types. Here we describe a protocol for generating stable, highly expandable, iPS cell-derived CNS neural progenitor cells (NPC) using multi-dimensional fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) to purify NPC defined by cell surface markers...
January 11, 2017: Current Protocols in Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074855/mir-218-targets-mecp2-and-inhibits-heroin-seeking-behavior
#15
Biao Yan, Zhaoyang Hu, Wenqing Yao, Qiumin Le, Bo Xu, Xing Liu, Lan Ma
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of evolutionarily conserved, 18-25 nucleotide non-coding sequences that post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression. Recent studies implicated their roles in the regulation of neuronal functions, such as learning, cognition and memory formation. Here we report that miR-218 inhibits heroin-induced behavioral plasticity. First, network propagation-based method was used to predict candidate miRNAs that played potential key roles in regulating drug addiction-related genes. Microarray screening was also carried out to identify miRNAs responding to chronic heroin administration in the nucleus accumbens (NAc)...
January 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069922/mechanisms-of-nmda-receptor-and-voltage-gated-l-type-calcium-channel-dependent-hippocampal-ltp-critically-rely-on-proteolysis-that-is-mediated-by-distinct-metalloproteinases
#16
Grzegorz Wiera, Daria Nowak, Inge Van Hove, Piotr Dziegiel, Lieve Moons, Jerzy W Mozrzymas
: Long-term potentiation (LTP) is widely perceived as a memory substrate and in the hippocampal CA3-CA1 pathway, distinct forms of LTP depend on N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors (nmdaLTP) or L-type voltage-gated calcium channels (vdccLTP). Long-term potentiation is also known to be effectively regulated by extracellular proteolysis that is mediated by various enzymes. Herein, we investigated whether in mice hippocampal slices these distinct forms of LTP are specifically regulated by different metalloproteinases (MMPs)...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069532/neural-plasticity-and-network-remodeling-from-concepts-to-pathology
#17
REVIEW
Erez James Cohen, Eros Quarta, Riccardo Bravi, Alberto Granato, Diego Minciacchi
Neuroplasticity has been subject to a great deal of research in the last century. Recently, significant emphasis has been placed on the global effect of localized plastic changes throughout the central nervous system, and on how these changes integrate in a pathological context. Specifically, alterations of network functionality have been described in various pathological contexts to which corresponding structural alterations have been proposed. However, considering the amount of literature and the different pathological contexts, an integration of this information is still lacking...
January 6, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062252/using-neuroimaging-to-individualize-tms-treatment-for-depression-toward-a-new-paradigm-for-imaging-guided-intervention
#18
Bruce M Luber, Simon Davis, Elisabeth Bernhardt, Andrada Neacsiu, Lori Kwapil, Sarah H Lisanby, Timothy J Strauman
The standard clinical technique for using repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) for major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with limited efficacy to date. Such limited efficacy may be due to reliance on scalp-based targeting rather than state-of-the-science methods which incorporate fMRI-guided neuronavigation based on a specific model of neurocircuit dysfunction. In this review, we examine such a specific model drawn from regulatory focus theory, which postulates two brain/behavior systems, the promotion and prevention systems, underlying goal pursuit...
January 3, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057459/parabrachial-pituitary-adenylate-cyclase-activating-polypeptide-activation-of-amygdala-endosomal-extracellular-signal-regulated-kinase-signaling-regulates-the-emotional-component-of-pain
#19
Galen Missig, Linda Mei, Margaret A Vizzard, Karen M Braas, James A Waschek, Kerry J Ressler, Sayamwong E Hammack, Victor May
BACKGROUND: Chronic pain and stress-related psychopathologies, such as depression and anxiety-associated abnormalities, are mutually reinforcing; however, the neuronal circuits and mechanisms that underlie this reinforcement are still not well understood. Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP; Adcyap1) and its cognate PAC1 receptor (Adcyap1r1) are expressed in peripheral nociceptive pathways, participate in anxiety-related responses and have been have been linked to posttraumatic stress disorder and other mental health afflictions...
August 29, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043855/age-related-alterations-in-human-neocortical-plasticity
#20
M J Spriggs, C J Cadwallader, J P Hamm, L J Tippett, I J Kirk
Age-related changes in neuroplasticity may be central to the cognitive decline associated with healthy ageing. Modulated Long-Term Potentiation (LTP) and Long-Term Depression (LTD) have been repeatedly demonstrated in aged rodents, however the translation to human research has been limited by a scarcity of non-invasive methods for doing so. We have previously demonstrated that, following a block of high frequency presentations of a visual stimulus (referred to as a "visual tetanus"), there is a LTP-like enhancement of the N1b component of the visually evoked potential (VEP) to subsequent low frequency presentations of the same stimulus...
December 30, 2016: Brain Research Bulletin
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