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Neuroplasticity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214576/amplified-induced-neural-oscillatory-activity-predicts-musicians-benefits-in-categorical-speech-perception
#1
Gavin M Bidelman
Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) reveal musical experience refines neural encoding and confers stronger categorical perception (CP) and neural organization for speech sounds. In addition to evoked brain activity, the human EEG can be decomposed into induced (non-phase-locked) response whose various frequency bands reflect different mechanisms of perceptual-cognitive processing. Here, we aimed to clarify which spectral properties of these neural oscillations are most prone to music-related neuroplasticity and which are linked to behavioral benefits in the categorization of speech...
February 15, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191467/effects-of-tibolone-on-the-central-nervous-system-clinical-and-experimental-approaches
#2
REVIEW
Rodolfo Pinto-Almazán, Julia J Segura-Uribe, Eunice D Farfán-García, Christian Guerra-Araiza
Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) increases the risk of endometrial and breast cancer. A strategy to reduce this incidence is the use of tibolone (TIB). The aim of this paper was to address the effects of TIB on the central nervous system (CNS). For the present review, MEDLINE (via PubMed), LILACS (via BIREME), Ovid Global Health, SCOPUS, Scielo, and PsycINFO (ProQuest Research Library) electronic databases were searched for the results of controlled clinical trials on peri- and postmenopausal women published from 1990 to September 2016...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188888/two-hands-one-brain-and-aging
#3
REVIEW
Celine Maes, Jolien Gooijers, Jean-Jacques Orban de Xivry, Stephan P Swinnen, Matthieu P Boisgontier
Many activities of daily living require moving both hands in an organized manner in space and time. Therefore, understanding the impact of aging on bimanual coordination is essential for prolonging functional independence and well-being in older adults. Here we investigated the behavioral and neural determinants of bimanual coordination in aging. The studies surveyed in this review reveal that aging is associated with cortical hyper-activity (but also subcortical hypo-activity) during performance of bimanual tasks...
February 8, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188627/dose-dependency-of-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-implications-for-neuroplasticity-induction-in-health-and-disease
#4
Mitchell R Goldsworthy, Brenton Hordacre
There has been a rapid growth in the use of non-invasive brain stimulation to induce neuroplasticity and modulate human brain function over the past decade. An example of this is transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), which involves the application of weak electrical currents between at least two electrodes placed over the scalp. When applied to the primary motor cortex (M1), tDCS can induce lasting polarity-dependent changes in excitability, with facilitation following anodal stimulation and suppression following cathodal...
February 11, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187919/dopamine-d3-and-acetylcholine-nicotinic-receptor-heteromerization-in-midbrain-dopamine-neurons-relevance-for-neuroplasticity
#5
Leonardo Bontempi, Paola Savoia, Federica Bono, Chiara Fiorentini, Cristina Missale
Activation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) promotes the morphological remodeling of cultured dopamine (DA) neurons, an effect requiring functional DA D3 receptors (D3R). The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms mediating D3R-nAChR cross-talk in the modulation of DA neuron structural plasticity. By using bioluminescence resonance energy transfer(2) (BRET(2)) and proximity ligation assay (PLA), evidence for the existence of D3R-nAChR heteromers has been obtained. In particular, BRET(2) showed that the D3R directly and specifically interacts with the β2 subunit of the nAChR...
February 7, 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185806/the-effect-of-acute-and-chronic-exercise-on-cognitive-function-and-academic-performance-in-adolescents-a-systematic-review
#6
REVIEW
Joanna W Li, Helen O'Connor, Nicholas O'Dwyer, Rhonda Orr
OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether exercise, proposed to enhance neuroplasticity and potentially cognitive function (CF) and academic performance (AP), may be beneficial during adolescence when important developmental changes occur. DESIGN: Systematic review evaluating the impact of acute or chronic exercise on CF and AP in adolescents (13-18 years). METHODS: Nine databases (AMED, AusportMed, CINAHL, COCHRANE, Embase, Medline, Scopus, SPORTdiscus, Web of Science) were searched from earliest records to 31st October 2016, using keywords related to exercise, CF, AP and adolescents...
January 24, 2017: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182105/neuroplastic-correlates-in-the-mpfc-underlying-the-impairment-of-stress-coping-ability-and-cognitive-flexibility-in-adult-rats-exposed-to-chronic-mild-stress-during-adolescence
#7
Yu Zhang, Feng Shao, Qiong Wang, Xi Xie, Weiwen Wang
Using a valid chronic mild stress (CMS) model of depression, we found that adolescent (postnatal days [PND] 28-41) CMS induced transient alterations in anhedonia that did not persist into adulthood after a 3-week recovery period. Previously stressed adult rats exhibited more immobility/despair behaviors in the forced swimming test and a greater number of trials to reach criterion in the set-shifting task, suggesting the impaired ability to cope with stressors and the cognitive flexibility that allows adaptation to dynamic environments during adulthood...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179478/magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-of-current-hand-amputees-reveals-evidence-for-neuronal-level-changes-in-former-sensorimotor-cortex
#8
Carmen M Cirstea, In-Young Choi, Phil Lee, Huiling Peng, Christina L Kaufman, Scott H Frey
Deafferentation is accompanied by large-scale functional reorganization of maps in the primary sensory and motor areas of the hemisphere contralateral to injury. Animal models of deafferentation suggest a variety of cellular-level structural changes including depression of neuronal metabolism and even neuronal death. Whether similar neuronal changes contribute to patterns of reorganization within the contralateral sensorimotor cortex of chronic human amputees is uncertain. We used a functional MRI-guided proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) to test the hypothesis that unilateral deafferentation is associated with lower absolute levels of N-acetylaspartate (NAA, a putative marker of neuronal integrity) in the sensorimotor hand territory located contralateral to the missing hand in chronic amputees (N=19) as compared to the analogous hand territory of age/sex-matched healthy controls (N=28)...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170003/brain-volumetric-and-metabolic-correlates-of-electroconvulsive-therapy-for-treatment-resistant-depression-a-longitudinal-neuroimaging-study
#9
M Cano, I Martínez-Zalacaín, Á Bernabéu-Sanz, O Contreras-Rodríguez, R Hernández-Ribas, E Via, A de Arriba-Arnau, V Gálvez, M Urretavizcaya, J Pujol, J M Menchón, N Cardoner, C Soriano-Mas
Recent research suggests that neuroplastic and neuroinflammatory changes may account for the mode of action of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), although extant data do not allow for a clear disambiguation between these two hypotheses. Multimodal neuroimaging approaches (for example, combining structural and metabolic information) may help in clarifying this issue. Here we aimed to assess longitudinal changes in (i) regional gray matter (GM) volumes and (ii) hippocampal metabolite concentrations throughout an acute course of bitemporal ECT, as well as (iii) to determine the association between imaging changes and clinical improvement...
February 7, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169883/compensatory-functional-reorganization-may-precede-hypertension-related-brain-damage-and-cognitive-decline-a-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-study
#10
Patrycja Naumczyk, Agnieszka Sabisz, Marta Witkowska, Beata Graff, Krzysztof Jodzio, Dariusz Gąsecki, Edyta Szurowska, Krzysztof Narkiewicz
OBJECTIVES: Our study aimed at exploring structural and functional differences in the brain during higher cognitive processing between middle-aged hypertensive patients and controls matched for sex, age and years of education. METHODS: Two groups of 20 patients took part in MRI examinations. This article reports the results of functional MRI during a Stroop color interference task and structural evaluations based on a modified Fazekas scale. RESULTS: No intergroup differences were found in regards to the severity of white matter lesions (Mann-Whitney U test = 150...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167808/how-do-individuals-cope-with-stress-behavioural-physiological-and-neuronal-differences-between-proactive-and-reactive-coping-styles-in-fish
#11
Marco A Vindas, Marnix Gorissen, Erik Höglund, Gert Flik, Valentina Tronci, Børge Damsgård, Per-Ove Thörnqvist, Tom O Nilsen, Svante Winberg, Øyvind Øverli, Lars O E Ebbesson
Despite the use of fish models to study human mental disorders and dysfunctions, knowledge of regional telencephalic responses in non-mammalian vertebrates expressing alternate stress coping styles is poor. Since perception of salient stimuli associated with stress coping in mammals is mainly under forebrain limbic control, we tested region-specific forebrain neural (i.e mRNA abundance and monoamine neurochemistry) and endocrine responses at basal and acute stress conditions for previously characterised proactive and reactive Atlantic salmon...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166475/influence-of-motor-cortex-stimulation-during-motor-training-on-neuroplasticity-as-a-potential-therapeutic-intervention
#12
Crystal L Massie, Caylen White, Katie Pruit, Aubrey Freel, Kaylin Staley, Morgan Backes
Rehabilitation options to promote neuroplasticity may be enhanced when patients are engaged in motor practice during repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). Twelve participants completed 3 separate sessions: motor practice, motor practice with rTMS, and rTMS only: motor practice consisted of 30 isometric contractions and subthreshold rTMS was 30, 3-s trains at 10 Hz. Assessments included the Box and Block Test (BBT), force steadiness (10% of the maximum voluntary contraction), and TMS (cortical excitability, intracortical inhibition, and intracortical facilitation)...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Motor Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163509/role-of-thalamus-in-recovery-of-traumatic-brain-injury
#13
REVIEW
Ashok Munivenkatappa, Amit Agrawal
Degree of recovery after traumatic brain injury is highly variable that lasts for many weeks to months. The evidence of brain structures involved in recovery mechanisms is limited. This review highlights evidence of the brain structure particularly thalamus in neuroplasticity mechanism. Thalamus with its complex global networking has potential role in refining the cortical and other brain structures. Thalamic nuclei activation both naturally or by neurorehabilitation in injured brain can enhance and facilitate the improvement of posttraumatic symptoms...
December 2016: Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162720/-469-optimizing-chronic-pain-treatment-with-enhanced-neuroplastic-responsiveness
#14
K Sibille, A Keil, A Woods, R Staud, R Fillingim
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2016: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161508/contribution-of-neuroinflammation-and-immunity-to-brain-aging-and-the-mitigating-effects-of-physical-and-cognitive-interventions
#15
REVIEW
Svetlana Di Benedetto, Ludmila Müller, Elisabeth Wenger, Sandra Düzel, Graham Pawelec
It is widely accepted that the brain and the immune system continuously interact during normal as well as pathological functioning. Human aging is commonly accompanied by low-grade inflammation in both the immune and central nervous systems, thought to contribute to many age-related diseases. This review of the current literature focuses first on the normal neuroimmune interactions occurring in the brain, which promote learning, memory and neuroplasticity. Further, we discuss the protective and dynamic role of barriers to neuroimmune interactions, which have become clearer with the recent discovery of the meningeal lymphatic system...
February 1, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161031/fmri-activity-during-associative-encoding-is-correlated-with-cardiorespiratory-fitness-and-source-memory-performance-in-older-adults
#16
Scott M Hayes, Jasmeet P Hayes, Victoria J Williams, Huiting Liu, Mieke Verfaellie
Older adults (OA), relative to young adults (YA), exhibit age-related alterations in functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) activity during associative encoding, which contributes to deficits in source memory. Yet, there are remarkable individual differences in brain health and memory performance among OA. Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is one individual difference factor that may attenuate brain aging, and thereby contribute to enhanced source memory in OA. To examine this possibility, 26 OA and 31 YA completed a treadmill-based exercise test to evaluate CRF (peak VO2) and fMRI to examine brain activation during a face-name associative encoding task...
January 12, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157752/stroke-rehabilitation
#17
Samir R Belagaje
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Rehabilitation is an important aspect of the continuum of care in stroke. With advances in the acute treatment of stroke, more patients will survive stroke with varying degrees of disability. Research in the past decade has expanded our understanding of the mechanisms underlying stroke recovery and has led to the development of new treatment modalities. This article reviews and summarizes the key concepts related to poststroke recovery. RECENT FINDINGS: Good data now exist by which one can predict recovery, especially motor recovery, very soon after stroke onset...
February 2017: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153927/neuroplastic-changes-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-undergoing-cognitive-remediation-triple-blind-trial
#18
Ian S Ramsay, Tasha M Nienow, Matthew P Marggraf, Angus W MacDonald
BACKGROUND: Patients with schizophrenia have shown cognitive improvements following cognitive remediation, but the neuroplastic changes that support these processes are not fully understood. AIMS: To use a triple-blind, placebo-controlled trial to examine neural activation before and after cognitive remediation or a computer skills training (CST) placebo (trial registration: NCT00995553)). METHOD: Twenty-seven participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging before and after being randomised to either cognitive remediation intervention or CST...
February 2, 2017: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150723/short-term-monocular-occlusion-produces-changes-in-ocular-dominance-by-a-reciprocal-modulation-of-interocular-inhibition
#19
Eva Chadnova, Alexandre Reynaud, Simon Clavagnier, Robert F Hess
Ocular dominance can be modulated by short-term monocular deprivation. This changes the contribution that each eye makes to binocular vision, an example of adult cortical neuroplasticity. Optical imaging in primates and psychophysics in humans suggest these neuroplastic changes occur in V1. Here we use brain imaging (MEG) in normal adults to better understand the nature of these neuroplastic changes. The results suggest that short-term monocular deprivation, whether it be by an opaque or translucent patch, modulates dichoptic inhibitory interactions in a reciprocal fashion; the unpatched eye is inhibited, the patched eye is released from inhibition...
February 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149392/engaging-cognitive-circuits-to-promote-motor-recovery-in-degenerative-disorders-exercise-as-a-learning-modality
#20
Michael W Jakowec, Zhou Wang, Daniel Holschneider, Jeff Beeler, Giselle M Petzinger
Exercise and physical activity are fundamental components of a lifestyle essential in maintaining a healthy brain. This is primarily due to the fact that the adult brain maintains a high degree of plasticity and activity is essential for homeostasis throughout life. Plasticity is not lost even in the context of a neurodegenerative disorder, but could be maladaptive thus promoting disease onset and progression. A major breakthrough in treating brain disorders such as Parkinson's disease is to drive neuroplasticity in a direction to improve motor and cognitive dysfunction...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Human Kinetics
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