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Neuroplasticity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786167/neuroplasticity-in-stroke-recovery-the-role-of-microglia-in-engaging-and-modifying-synapses-and-networks
#1
REVIEW
Ioanna Sandvig, Ingrid Lovise Augestad, Asta Kristine Håberg, Axel Sandvig
Neuroplasticity after ischemic injury involves both spontaneous rewiring of neural networks and circuits as well as functional responses in neurogenic niches. These events involve complex interactions with activated microglia, which evolve in a dynamic manner over time. Although the exact mechanisms underlying these interactions remain poorly understood, increasing experimental evidence suggests a determining role of pro- and anti-inflammatory microglial activation profiles in shaping both synaptogenesis and neurogenesis...
May 22, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781959/involvement-of-the-vgf-derived-peptide-tlqp-62-in-nerve-injury-induced-hypersensitivity-and-spinal-neuroplasticity
#2
Alexander G J Skorput, Xijing Zhang, Jonathan J Waataja, Cristina D Peterson, Maureen S Riedl, Kelley F Kitto, Hai Truong, Cecilia Huffman, Stephen R Salton, Carolyn A Fairbanks, Christopher N Honda, Lucy Vulchanova
Neuroplasticity in the dorsal horn following peripheral nerve damage contributes critically to the establishment of chronic pain. The neurosecretory protein VGF (non-acronymic) is rapidly and robustly upregulated following nerve injury, and therefore peptides generated from it are positioned to serve as signals for peripheral damage. The goal of this project was to understand the spinal modulatory effects of the C-terminal VGF derived peptide TLQP-62 at the cellular level and gain insight into the function of the peptide in the development of neuropathic pain...
May 16, 2018: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780611/myelin-status-is-associated-with-change-in-functional-mobility-following-slope-walking-in-people-with-multiple-sclerosis
#3
E M King, M J Sabatier, M Hoque, T M Kesar, D Backus, M R Borich
Background: The level of myelin disruption in multiple sclerosis patients may impact the capacity for training-induced neuroplasticity and the magnitude of therapeutic response to rehabilitation interventions. Downslope walking has been shown to increase functional mobility in individuals with multiple sclerosis, but it is unclear if myelin status influences therapeutic response. Objective: The current study aimed to examine the relationship between baseline myelin status and change in functional mobility after a walking intervention...
April 2018: Multiple Sclerosis Journal—Experimental, Translational and Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780336/brain-training-in-children-and-adolescents-is-it-scientifically-valid
#4
REVIEW
Teresa Rossignoli-Palomeque, Elena Perez-Hernandez, Javier González-Marqués
Background: Brain training products are becoming increasingly popular for children and adolescents. Despite the marketing aimed at their use in the general population, these products may provide more benefits for specific neurologically impaired populations. A review of Brain Training (BT) products analyzing their efficacy while considering the methodological limitations of supporting research is required for practical applications. Method: searches were made of the PubMed database (until March 2017) for studies including: (1) empirical data on the use of brain training for children or adolescents and any effects on near transfer (NT) and/or far transfer (FT) and/or neuroplasticity, (2) use of brain training for cognitive training purposes, (3) commercially available training applications, (4) computer-based programs for children developed since the 1990s, and (5) relevant printed and peer-reviewed material...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773951/the-role-of-neuroinflammation-and-neurovascular-dysfunction-in-major-depressive-disorder
#5
REVIEW
Sang Won Jeon, Yong-Ku Kim
Although depression has generally been explained with monoamine theory, it is far more multifactorial, and therapies that address the disease's pathway have not been developed. In this context, an understanding of neuroinflammation and neurovascular dysfunction would enable a more comprehensive approach to depression. Inflammation is in a sense a type of allostatic load involving the immune, endocrine, and nervous systems. Neuroinflammation is involved in the pathophysiology of depression by increasing proinflammatory cytokines, activating the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis, increasing glucocorticoid resistance, and affecting serotonin synthesis and metabolism, neuronal apoptosis and neurogenesis, and neuroplasticity...
2018: Journal of Inflammation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763637/neurosteroid-pregnenolone-sulfate-alone-and-as-augmentation-of-lurasidone-or-tandospirone-rescues-phencyclidine-induced-deficits-in-cognitive-function-and-social-interaction
#6
L Rajagopal, D Soni, H Y Meltzer
BACKGROUND: Pregnenolone sulfate (PregS), an endogenous neurosteroid, which negatively and positively modulates gamma amino butyric acid subunit A (GABAA ) and N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors (R) respectively, among other potential neuroplastic changes on synaptic processes, has shown some beneficial effects on treating cognitive impairment associated with schizophrenia (CIAS) and negative symptoms. Lurasidone (Lur), an atypical antipsychotic drug (AAPD), and tandospirone (Tan), a 5-HT1A  R partial agonist, have also been reported to improve cognitive or negative symptoms, or both, in some schizophrenia patients...
May 12, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761128/brain-computer-interfaces-for-post-stroke-motor-rehabilitation-a-meta-analysis
#7
REVIEW
María A Cervera, Surjo R Soekadar, Junichi Ushiba, José Del R Millán, Meigen Liu, Niels Birbaumer, Gangadhar Garipelli
Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) can provide sensory feedback of ongoing brain oscillations, enabling stroke survivors to modulate their sensorimotor rhythms purposefully. A number of recent clinical studies indicate that repeated use of such BCIs might trigger neurological recovery and hence improvement in motor function. Here, we provide a first meta-analysis evaluating the clinical effectiveness of BCI-based post-stroke motor rehabilitation. Trials were identified using MEDLINE, CENTRAL, PEDro and by inspection of references in several review articles...
May 2018: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760645/systems-analysis-of-human-visuo-myoelectric-control-facilitated-by-anodal-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-in-healthy-humans
#8
Vinh Kha, Aguida S Foerster, Susan Bennett, Michael A Nitsche, Filip Stefanovic, Anirban Dutta
Induction of neuroplasticity by transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) applied to the primary motor cortex facilitates motor learning of the upper extremities in healthy humans. The impact of tDCS on lower limb functions has not been studied extensively so far. In this study, we applied a system identification approach to investigate the impact of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation of the leg area of the motor cortex via the human visuo-myoelectric controller. The visuo-myoelectric reaching task (VMT) involves ballistic muscle contraction after a visual cue...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760575/the-development-of-human-visual-cortex-and-clinical-implications
#9
REVIEW
Caitlin R Siu, Kathryn M Murphy
The primary visual cortex (V1) is the first cortical area that processes visual information. Normal development of V1 depends on binocular vision during the critical period, and age-related losses of vision are linked with neurobiological changes in V1. Animal studies have provided important details about the neurobiological mechanisms in V1 that support normal vision or are changed by visual diseases. There is very little information, however, about those neurobiological mechanisms in human V1. That lack of information has hampered the translation of biologically inspired treatments from preclinical models to effective clinical treatments...
2018: Eye and Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758954/the-use-of-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-to-evaluate-cortical-excitability-of-lower-limb-musculature-challenges-and-opportunities
#10
Trisha M Kesar, James W Stinear, Steven L Wolf
Neuroplasticity is a fundamental yet relatively unexplored process that can impact rehabilitation of lower extremity (LE) movements. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has gained widespread application as a non-invasive brain stimulation technique for evaluating neuroplasticity of the corticospinal pathway. However, a majority of TMS studies have been performed on hand muscles, with a paucity of TMS investigations focused on LE muscles. This perspective review paper proposes that there are unique methodological challenges associated with using TMS to evaluate corticospinal excitability of lower limb muscles...
May 5, 2018: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755226/bioenergy-and-its-implication-for-yoga-therapy
#11
Chathapuram Rajan Narayanan, Konstantin Korotkov, Thaiyar Madabusi Srinivasan
Electro photonic imaging (EPI) is being researched relative to its application for yoga therapy. Three parameters of interest in EPI measurements are as follows: Communication energy (C), integral or normalized area (IA), and Entropy (E). It is important to note that C indicates the total energy of communication for the organ system; IA is an indication of total amount of energy that is available for the organ system while entropy is an indication of the amount of coherence of the energy. Coherence and entropy are inversely related; this means less the entropy, more the coherence and vice versa...
May 2018: International Journal of Yoga
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748641/xiaoshuan-enteric-coated-capsule-alleviates-cognitive-impairment-by-enhancing-hippocampal-glucose-metabolism-hemodynamics-and-neuroplasticity-of-rat-with-chronic-cerebral-hypoperfusion
#12
Man-Zhong Li, Yi Zhang, Hai-Yan Zou, Ya-Li Wang, Brian-Chi Yan Cheng, Lei Wang, Qiu-Xia Zhang, Jian-Feng Lei, Hui Zhao
Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH) is identified as a critical risk factor of dementia in patients with cerebrovascular disease. Xiaoshuan enteric-coated capsule (XSECC) is a compound Chinese medicine approved by Chinese State Food and Drug Administration for promoting brain remodeling and plasticity after stroke. The present study aimed to explore the potential of XSECC to improve cognitive function after CCH and further investigate the underlying mechanisms. CCH was induced by bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO) in rats...
May 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748034/ampk-induced-memory-improvements-in-the-diabetic-population-a-case-study
#13
Alicia Halikas, Kelly J Gibas
Diabetics in mid-life carry a 1.5 times higher risk of developing Alzheimer's disease than those diagnosed with diabetes (T2D) later in life [1]. Recent research points to accelerated cognitive decline within a range of 20%-50% for middle-aged diabetics as compared to non-diabetic populations [2,3]. Metabolic syndrome (MetS), a type 2 diabetes (T2D) precursor, is also linked to MCI and AD pathologies via hypo-metabolic brain circuitry that inhibits glucose metabolism and attenuates cognitive function [4]. Dysregulation of intracellular and extracellular signaling as mediated by the mTOR and AMPK pathways is the result...
April 27, 2018: Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746899/ncs-1-is-a-regulator-of-calcium-signaling-in-health-and-disease
#14
REVIEW
Göran R Boeckel, Barbara E Ehrlich
Neuronal Calcium Sensor-1 (NCS-1) is a highly conserved calcium binding protein which contributes to the maintenance of intracellular calcium homeostasis and regulation of calcium-dependent signaling pathways. It is involved in a variety of physiological cell functions, including exocytosis, regulation of calcium permeable channels, neuroplasticity and response to neuronal damage. Over the past 30 years, continuing investigation of cellular functions of NCS-1 and associated disease states have highlighted its function in the pathophysiology of several disorders and as a therapeutic target...
May 7, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741270/persistent-effects-of-obesity-a-neuroplasticity-hypothesis
#15
Bridget A Matikainen-Ankney, Alexxai V Kravitz
The obesity epidemic is a leading cause of health problems in the United States, increasing the risk of cardiovascular, endocrine, and psychiatric diseases. Although many people lose weight through changes in diet and lifestyle, keeping the weight off remains a challenge. Here, we discuss a hypothesis that seeks to explain why obesity is so persistent. There is a great degree of overlap in the circuits implicated in substance use disorder and obesity, and neural plasticity of these circuits in response to drugs of abuse is well documented...
May 9, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741205/protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial-of-piano-training-on-cognitive-and-psychosocial-outcomes
#16
Jennifer Bugos
Age-related cognitive decline and cognitive impairment represent the fastest growing health epidemic worldwide among those over 60. There is a critical need to identify effective and novel complex cognitive interventions to promote successful aging. Since piano training engages cognitive and bimanual sensorimotor processing, we hypothesize that piano training may serve as an effective cognitive intervention, as it requires sustained attention and engages an executive network that supports generalized cognition and emotional control...
May 9, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740299/pharmacological-modulation-of-long-term-potentiation-like-activity-in-the-dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortex
#17
Bahar Salavati, Zafiris J Daskalakis, Reza Zomorrodi, Daniel M Blumberger, Robert Chen, Bruce G Pollock, Tarek K Rajji
Background : Long-term potentiation (LTP) depends on glutamatergic neurotransmission and is modulated by cholinergic, dopaminergic and GABAergic inputs. Paired associative stimulation (PAS) is a neurostimulation paradigm that, when combined with electroencephalography (EEG), assesses LTP-like activity (PAS-induced LTP) in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Thus, we conducted a study to assess the role of cholinergic, dopaminergic, GABAergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission on PAS-induced LTP in the DLPFC...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738849/5-ht-1a-receptor-stimulation-in-the-medial-prefrontal-cortex-mediates-the-antidepressant-effects-of-mglu2-3-receptor-antagonist-in-mice
#18
Kenichi Fukumoto, Michihiko Iijima, Takeo Funakoshi, Shigeyuki Chaki
We previously reported that serotonergic transmission is involved in the antidepressant effects of metabotropic glutamate 2/3 (mGlu2/3) receptor antagonists. However, the detailed underlying mechanisms had not yet been explored. In the present study, we investigated the role of the 5-HT1A receptor and its signaling cascade in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in the antidepressant effects of LY341495, an mGlu2/3 receptor antagonist. LY341495 significantly reduced the immobility time in the forced swimming test which sustained for 24 h after administration...
May 5, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737454/targeting-%C3%AE-catenin-in-glast-expressing-cells-impact-on-anxiety-and-depression-related-behavior-and-hippocampal-proliferation
#19
Rebeca Vidal, Emilio Garro-Martínez, Álvaro Díaz, Elena Castro, Eva Florensa-Zanuy, Makoto M Taketo, Ángel Pazos, Fuencisla Pilar-Cuéllar
β-catenin (key mediator in the Wnt signaling pathway) contributes to the pathophysiology of mood disorders, associated to neurogenesis and neuroplasticity. Decreased β-catenin protein levels have been observed in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex of depressed subjects. Additionally, the antidepressants exert, at least in part, their neurogenic effects by increasing β-catenin levels in the subgranular zone of the hippocampus. To further understand the role of β-catenin in depression and anxiety, we generated two conditional transgenic mice in which β-catenin was either inactivated or stabilized in cells expressing CreERT under the control of the astrocyte-specific glutamate transporter (GLAST) promoter inducible by tamoxifen, which presents high expression levels on the subgranular zone of the hippocampus...
May 8, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736847/changes-in-sensorimotor-related-thalamic-diffusion-properties-and-cerebrospinal-fluid-hydrodynamics-predict-gait-responses-to-tap-test-in-idiopathic-normal-pressure-hydrocephalus
#20
Ping-Huei Tsai, Yung-Chieh Chen, Shih-Wei Chiang, Teng-Yi Huang, Ming-Chung Chou, Hua-Shan Liu, Hsiao-Wen Chung, Giia-Sheun Peng, Hsin-I Ma, Hung-Wen Kao, Cheng-Yu Chen
OBJECTIVES: To compare diffusion tensor (DT)-derived indices from the thalamic nuclei and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) hydrodynamic parameters for the prediction of gait responsiveness to the CSF tap test in early iNPH patients. METHODS: In this study, 22 patients with iNPH and 16 normal controls were enrolled with the approval of an institutional review board. DT imaging and phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging were performed in patients and controls to determine DT-related indices of the sensorimotor-related thalamic nuclei and CSF hydrodynamics...
May 7, 2018: European Radiology
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