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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240736/antibiotic-treatment-at-delivery-shapes-the-initial-oral-microbiome-in-neonates
#1
Luisa F Gomez-Arango, Helen L Barrett, H David McIntyre, Leonie K Callaway, Mark Morrison, Marloes Dekker Nitert
Oral microorganisms are important determinants of health and disease. The source of the initial neonatal microbiome and the factors dictating initial human oral microbiota development are unknown. This study aimed to investigate this in placental, oral and gut microbiome profiles from 36 overweight or obese mother-baby dyads as determined by 16S rRNA sequencing. Expression of five antibiotic resistance genes of the β-lactamase class was analysed in the infant oral microbiota samples by QPCR. The neonatal oral microbiota was 65...
February 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226190/predictors-of-readiness-for-hospital-discharge-after-birth-building-evidence-for-practice
#2
Gabriella Malagon-Maldonado, Cynthia D Connelly, Ruth A Bush
BACKGROUND: Preparation for hospital discharge after birth became a global concern when hospitals in many developing countries began implementing shorter lengths of stay for uncomplicated deliveries. A mother's perceived readiness for hospital discharge may be influenced by many factors that can ultimately shape postdischarge outcomes. AIMS: The purpose of this study was to explore the antepartum, intrapartum, and postpartum predictors of discharge readiness, including nursing educational practices that are predictive of postpartum mothers' perceptions of readiness for hospital discharge...
February 22, 2017: Worldviews on Evidence-based Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225424/committee-opinion-no-689-delivery-of-a-newborn-with-meconium-stained-amniotic-fluid
#3
(no author information available yet)
In 2006, the American Academy of Pediatrics and the American Heart Association published the 2005 guidelines on neonatal resuscitation. Before the 2005 guidelines, management of a newborn with meconium-stained amniotic fluid included suctioning of the oropharynx and nasopharynx on the perineum after the delivery of the head but before the delivery of the shoulders. The 2005 guidelines did not support this practice because routine intrapartum suctioning does not prevent or alter the course of meconium aspiration syndrome in vigorous newborns...
March 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225419/committee-opinion-no-689-summary-delivery-of-a-newborn-with-meconium-stained-amniotic-fluid
#4
(no author information available yet)
In 2006, the American Academy of Pediatrics and the American Heart Association published the 2005 guidelines on neonatal resuscitation. Before the 2005 guidelines, management of a newborn with meconium-stained amniotic fluid included suctioning of the oropharynx and nasopharynx on the perineum after the delivery of the head but before the delivery of the shoulders. The 2005 guidelines did not support this practice because routine intrapartum suctioning does not prevent or alter the course of meconium aspiration syndrome in vigorous newborns...
March 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222431/the-routine-use-of-intrapartum-ultrasound-in-clinical-decision-making-during-the-second-stage-of-labor-does-it-have-any-impact-on-delivery-outcomes
#5
Oren Barak, Roni Levy, Orna Flidel, Svetlana Zaks, Moshe Gillor, Zion Hagay, Edi Vaisbuch
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The study aimed to assess whether the use of intrapartum transperineal ultrasound (US) can reduce the rate of failed vacuum extraction (VE). METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study including all women delivering at term with the diagnosis of protracted second stage of labor. The mode of delivery and rate of failed VE were compared between women who underwent a US examination prior to the decision on obstetrical interventions ("+US" group) and those in whom clinical decisions were based upon digital assessment only ("no-US" group)...
February 22, 2017: Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216258/review-systematic-review-of-the-utility-of-the-fetal-cerebroplacental-ratio-measured-at-term-for-the-prediction-of-adverse-perinatal-outcome
#6
REVIEW
Liam Dunn, Helen Sherrell, Sailesh Kumar
AIM: This systematic review evaluates the utility of the fetal cerebroplacental ratio (CPR) when assessed at term (from 37 + 0 weeks gestation) as a predictor of adverse obstetric and perinatal outcomes. DATA SOURCES AND SEARCH STRATEGY: An electronic search of Pubmed and Embase using variations of 'cerebroplacental ratio' and 'cerebroumbilical ratio' was conducted by two independent reviewers. Full text studies written in English that reported on low CPR and its correlation with relevant obstetric and perinatal outcomes were included...
February 12, 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216060/incidence-of-fever-in-labor-and-risk-of-neonatal-sepsis
#7
Craig V Towers, Angela Yates, Nikki Zite, Casey Smith, Lindsey Chernicky, Bobby Howard
BACKGROUND: The current recommendation regarding the management of a term newborn delivered of a mother with an intrapartum fever or a diagnosis of clinical chorioamnionitis is that the neonate should have baseline laboratory work drawn along with blood cultures and be universally treated with antibiotics until culture results return. These guidelines report that the rate of intrapartum fever is about 3%; however, a few large studies suggest that the rate is higher at about 7%. OBJECTIVE: To prospectively evaluate the rate of fever during labor in a large number of deliveries and determine the rate of early onset neonatal sepsis in newborns delivered from mothers with an intrapartum fever compared with the newborns that delivered from mothers that did not have an intrapartum fever...
February 16, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215929/each-baby-counts-national-quality-improvement-programme-to-reduce-intrapartum-related-deaths-and-brain-injuries-in-term-babies
#8
REVIEW
Louise Robertson, Hannah Knight, Edward Prosser Snelling, Emily Petch, Marian Knight, Alan Cameron, Zarko Alfirevic
Although the most recent MBRRACE-UK (Mothers and Babies: Reducing Risk through Audits and Confidential Enquiries across the UK) perinatal mortality report has shown a downward trend in perinatal mortality, the UK still lags behind the best-performing countries in Europe. The burden of perinatal morbidity and mortality is wide-reaching and devastating for the families and care-providers involved. The aim of the Each Baby Counts (EBC) project is to reduce intrapartum term stillbirths, early neonatal deaths, and severe brain injuries by 50% by 2020...
February 16, 2017: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214925/missed-opportunities-in-neonatal-deaths-in-rwanda-applying-the-three-delays-model-in-a-cross-sectional-analysis-of-neonatal-death
#9
Efua Wilmot, Marcel Yotebieng, Alison Norris, Fidele Ngabo
Objective Administered in a timely manner, current evidence-based interventions could reduce neonatal deaths from infections, intrapartum injuries and complications due to prematurity. The three delays model (delay in seeking care, in arriving at a health facility, and in receiving adequate care), which has been applied to understanding maternal deaths, may be useful for understanding neonatal deaths. We assess the main causes of neonatal deaths in Rwanda and their associated delays. Methods Using a cross-sectional study design, we evaluated data from 2012 from 40 facilities in which babies were delivered...
February 18, 2017: Maternal and Child Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214157/causes-and-temporal-changes-in-nationally-collected-stillbirth-audit-data-in-high-resource-settings
#10
REVIEW
Tom Norris, Bradley N Manktelow, Lucy K Smith, Elizabeth S Draper
Few high-income countries have an active national programme of stillbirth audit. From the three national programmes identified (UK, New Zealand, and the Netherlands) steady declines in annual stillbirth rates have been observed over the audit period between 1993 and 2014. Unexplained stillbirth remains the largest group in the classification of stillbirths, with a decline in intrapartum-related stillbirths, which could represent improvements in intrapartum care. All three national audits of stillbirths suggest that up to half of all reviewed stillbirths have elements of care that failed to follow standards and guidance...
February 14, 2017: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211140/anesthesia-for-fetal-surgery
#11
REVIEW
Monica A Hoagland, Debnath Chatterjee
Fetal therapy is an exciting and growing field of medicine. Advances in prenatal imaging and continued innovations in surgical and anesthetic techniques have resulted in a wide range of fetal interventions including minimally invasive, open mid-gestation, and ex-utero intrapartum treatment procedures. The potential for maternal morbidity is significant and must be carefully weighed against claimed benefits to the fetus. Appropriate patient selection is critical, and a multidisciplinary team-based approach is strongly recommended...
February 17, 2017: Paediatric Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210863/healthcare-professionals-response-to-intrapartum-death-a-cross-sectional-study
#12
Karen McNamara, S Meaney, O O'Connell, M McCarthy, R A Greene, K O'Donoghue
BACKGROUND: Exposure to adverse perinatal events can impact on the way healthcare professionals (HCPs) provide patient care. The aim of this study was to document the experiences of HCPs following exposure to intrapartum death (IPD), to identify opinions surrounding education and suitable support strategies, and to ascertain if involvement with an IPD had any impact on clinical practice. METHODS: A questionnaire study, with open and closed questions, was developed and set in a tertiary maternity hospital...
February 17, 2017: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210508/scoping-review-on-maternal-health-among-immigrant-and-refugee-women-in-canada-prenatal-intrapartum-and-postnatal-care
#13
REVIEW
N Khanlou, N Haque, A Skinner, A Mantini, C Kurtz Landy
The last fifteen years have seen a dramatic increase in both the childbearing age and diversity of women migrating to Canada. The resulting health impact underscores the need to explore access to health services and the related maternal health outcome. This article reports on the results of a scoping review focused on migrant maternal health within the context of accessible and effective health services during pregnancy and following delivery. One hundred and twenty-six articles published between 2000 and 2016 that met our inclusion criteria and related to this group of migrant women, with pregnancy/motherhood status, who were living in Canada, were identified...
2017: Journal of Pregnancy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199038/the-duration-of-intrapartum-maternal-hyperglycaemia-predicts-neonatal-hypoglycaemia-in-women-with-pre-existing-diabetes
#14
T Joshi, C Oldmeadow, J Attia, K Wynne
AIM: There is a high incidence of neonatal hypoglycaemia in neonates born to mothers with pre-existing diabetes. This often necessitates admission to the neonatal intensive care. Guidelines suggest maintaining intrapartum blood glucose levels (BGLs) of 4-7 mmol/l in women with diabetes to reduce the risk of neonatal hypoglycaemia. This study assessed whether intrapartum BGLs in women with pre-gestational Type 1 and 2 diabetes were predictive of neonatal hypoglycaemia. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of 261 births delivered at a tertiary hospital in Australia from 2009 to 2014...
February 15, 2017: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198792/child-growth-according-to-maternal-and-child-hiv-status-in-zimbabwe
#15
Adetayo O Omoni, Robert Ntozini, Ceri Evans, Andrew J Prendergast, Lawrence H Moulton, Parul S Christian, Jean H Humphrey
BACKGROUND: Growth failure is common among HIV-infected infants, but there are limited data on the effects of HIV exposure or timing of HIV acquisition on growth. METHODS: 14110 infants were enrolled in the ZVITAMBO trial in Zimbabwe before the availability of antiretroviral therapy (ART) or co-trimoxazole. Anthropometric measurements were taken from birth through 12-24 months of age. Growth outcomes were compared between 5 groups of children: HIV-infected in utero (IU), intrapartum (IP) or postnatally (PN); HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU); and HIV-unexposed...
February 13, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184287/of-the-phrensy-an-update-on-the-epidemiology-and-pathogenesis-of-bacterial-meningitis-in-the-pediatric-population
#16
REVIEW
Andrew Janowski, Jason Newland
In the past century, advances in antibiotics and vaccination have dramatically altered the incidence and clinical outcomes of bacterial meningitis. We review the shifting epidemiology of meningitis in children, including after the implementation of vaccines that target common meningitic pathogens and the introduction of intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis offered to mothers colonized with Streptococcus agalactiae. We also discuss what is currently known about the pathogenesis of meningitis. Recent studies of the human microbiome have illustrated dynamic relationships of bacterial and viral populations with the host, which may potentiate the risk of bacterial meningitis...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182668/cross-sectional-study-of-mode-of-delivery-and-maternal-and-perinatal-outcomes-in-mainland-china
#17
Lei Hou, Susan Hellerstein, Allison Vitonis, Liying Zou, Yan Ruan, Xin Wang, Weiyuan Zhang
BACKGROUND: Cesarean delivery (CD) rates have risen globally with nearly 50% of the non-indicated CDs worldwide in China and Brazil. In China's One Child Policy era (1979-2015) most deliveries were women having their only child. Family size is a major determinant of the safety of medically non-indicated CD or CD on maternal request. The goal of this study is to document CD rates, indications, and analyze the relative safety of non-indicated CD compared to SVD and intrapartum CD. METHODS: Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses of the association between mode of delivery and short-term maternal and perinatal outcomes were performed on a cross-section of all deliveries at 39 hospitals in 14 provinces of China in 2011, presented as adjusted odds ratio (aOR), 99% confidence intervals (CI)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178310/diversity-and-composition-of-vaginal-microbiota-of-pregnant-women-at-risk-for-transmitting-group-b-streptococcus-treated-with-intrapartum-penicillin
#18
Luiz Fernando Wurdig Roesch, Rita C Silveira, Andréa L Corso, Priscila Thiago Dobbler, Volker Mai, Bruna S Rojas, Álvaro M Laureano, Renato S Procianoy
BACKGROUND: Administering intravenous antibiotics during labor to women at risk for transmitting Group B Streptococcus (GBS) can prevent infections in newborns. However, the impact of intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis on mothers' microbial community composition is largely unknown. We compared vaginal microbial composition in pregnant women experiencing preterm birth at ≤ 32 weeks gestation that received intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis with that in controls. METHODS: Microbiota in vaginal swabs collected shortly before delivery from GBS positive women that received penicillin intravenously during labor or after premature rupture of membranes was compared to controls...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167590/chikungunya-and-neonatal-immunity-fatal-vertically-transmitted-chikungunya-infection
#19
Tracy Evans-Gilbert
Chikungunya is a mosquito-borne infectious disease that has emerged as a global pathogen. The virus can pass vertically from mother to child especially during the perinatal period, with an intrapartum vertical transmission rate of 50%. Approximately half of the neonates infected with chikungunya present with severe symptoms and infrequently death. This report summarizes two severe cases of vertically transmitted neonatal chikungunya infection. One case was confirmed by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and the other fulfilled clinical and epidemiological criteria...
February 6, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165755/the-relationship-of-the-administration-of-intrapartum-synthetic-oxytocin-and-breastfeeding-initiation-and-duration-rates
#20
Aurora Fernández-Cañadas Morillo, Miguel A Marín Gabriel, Ibone Olza Fernández, Begoña Martínez Rodríguez, Modesto Durán Duque, Ana M Malalana Martínez, Carmen Gonzalez Armengod, Pilar Pérez Riveiro, Lourdes García Murillo
AIM: The consequences that intrapartum administration of hormones can have on breastfeeding are unclear. The aim of the study is to determine if synthetic intrapartum oxytocin, used routinely for induction/stimulation, has a relationship to initiation/duration of breastfeeding. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted a cohort study that was carried out in a tertiary university hospital distinguished by WHO-UNICEF as a BFHI (Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative). A group of 53 mother and newborn dyads who had been exposed to intrapartum synthetic oxytocin were compared with 45 nonexposed dyads...
February 6, 2017: Breastfeeding Medicine: the Official Journal of the Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine
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