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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723871/optimal-anti-retroviral-prophylaxis-in-infants-at-high-risk-of-acquiring-human-immunodeficiency-virus-a-systematic-review
#1
Sara Beste, Shaffiq Essajee, George Siberry, Alisse Hannaford, Jasmeen Dara, Nandita Sugandhi, Martina Penazzato
INTRODUCTION: The risk of perinatal HIV infection can be dramatically reduced through maternal antiretroviral therapy (ART) and infant antiretroviral (ARV) postnatal prophylaxis. The 2013 WHO guidelines recommended four to six weeks of nevirapine or zidovudine as post-natal prophylaxis, with possible extension to 12 weeks for high-risk breastfed infants. A systematic review was undertaken to determine if there is evidence for the WHO to recommend enhanced or extended prophylaxis for high-risk infants...
July 18, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711398/comprehensive-maternity-support-and-shared-care-in-switzerland-comparison-of-levels-of-satisfaction
#2
Lucia Floris, Olivier Irion, Jocelyne Bonnet, Maria-Pia Politis Mercier, Claire de Labrusse
BACKGROUND: According to the woman-centred care model, continuous care by a midwife has a positive impact on satisfaction. Comprehensive support is a model of team midwifery care implemented in the large Geneva University Hospitals in Switzerland, which has organised shared care according to the biomedical model of practice. This model of care insures a follow up by a specific group of midwives, during perinatal period. AIM: The goal of this study was to evaluate the satisfaction and outcomes of the obstetric and neonatal care of women who received comprehensive support during pregnancy, childbirth and the postpartum period, and compare them to women who received shared care...
July 12, 2017: Women and Birth: Journal of the Australian College of Midwives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710303/intrapartum-spontaneous-pneumomediastinum-and-surgical-emphysema-hamman-s-syndrome-in-a-30-year-old-woman-with-asthma
#3
Divya Bharathi Nagarajan, Malinga Dilhan Ratwatte, John Mathews, Mateen Siddiqui
The authors report a case of a 30-year-old nulliparous woman with a prior medical history of asthma who developed intrapartum pneumomediastinum with surgical emphysema during the second stage of labour. She was managed conservatively with supportive care and there was complete resolution of symptoms within 4 days. Clinical and radiological findings were consistent with Hamman's syndrome (spontaneous pneumomediastinum). This case reiterates the possibility of childhood asthma or a family history of asthma as being an associated risk factor for Hamman's syndrome and reminds us of the need to distinguish such clinical findings from more important and potentially life-threatening conditions such as oesophageal rupture, pulmonary embolism and aortic dissection that can present with similar findings...
July 14, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708899/the-cost-effectiveness-of-a-quality-improvement-program-to-reduce-maternal-and-fetal-mortality-in-a-regional-referral-hospital-in-accra-ghana
#4
David M Goodman, Rohit Ramaswamy, Marc Jeuland, Emmanuel K Srofenyoh, Cyril M Engmann, Adeyemi J Olufolabi, Medge D Owen
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of a quality improvement intervention aimed at reducing maternal and fetal mortality in Accra, Ghana. DESIGN: Quasi-experimental, time-sequence intervention, retrospective cost-effectiveness analysis. METHODS: Data were collected on the cost and outcomes of a 5-year Kybele-Ghana Health Service Quality Improvement (QI) intervention conducted at Ridge Regional Hospital, a tertiary referral center in Accra, Ghana, focused on systems, personnel, and communication...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707099/maternal-health-care-utilization-among-syrian-refugees-in-lebanon-and-jordan
#5
Hannah Tappis, Emily Lyles, Ann Burton, Shannon Doocy
Purpose The influx of Syrian refugees into Jordan and Lebanon over the last 5 years presents an immense burden to national health systems. This study was undertaken to assess utilization of maternal health services among Syrian refugees in both countries. Description A cross-sectional survey of Syrian refugees living in urban and rural (non-camp) settings was conducted using a two-stage cluster survey design with probability proportional to size sampling in 2014-2015. Eighty-six percent of surveyed households in Lebanon and 88% of surveyed households in Jordan included women with a live birth in the last year...
July 13, 2017: Maternal and Child Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707059/a-prospective-cohort-study-on-the-prediction-of-fetal-distress-and-neonatal-status-with-arterial-and-venous-doppler-measurements-in-appropriately-grown-term-fetuses
#6
Ihsan Atabay, Semir Kose, Erkan Cagliyan, Bora Baysal, Ebru Yucesoy, Sabahattin Altunyurt
PURPOSE: To assess the predictive power of the cerebro-placental ratio (CPR) and the venous-arterial index (VAI) for the development of intrapartum fetal distress (FD) and neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admission. METHODS: Fetal umbilical artery, middle cerebral artery and umbilical vein Doppler measurements were obtained before the active phase of labor in 311 singleton pregnancies at ≥37 weeks. A continuous electronic fetal monitorization was applied, and an umbilical cord blood sample was obtained for each participant...
July 13, 2017: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698953/what-can-we-do-to-reduce-the-associated-costs-in-induction-of-labour-of-intrauterine-growth-restriction-foetuses-at-term-a-cost-analysis-study
#7
Jorge Duro-Gómez, María Fernanda Garrido-Oyarzún, Ana Belén Rodríguez-Marín, Antonio Jesús de la Torre González, José Eduardo Arjona-Berral, Camil Castelo-Branco
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the costs associated with induction of labour in intrauterine growth restriction fetuses comparing different procedures. STUDY DESIGN: 150 pregnancies at term diagnosed with intrauterine growth restriction and indication for induction of labour were included. 24 were ripened with misoprostol 25 μg tablets, 24 with dinoprostone 10 mg vaginal insert, and 77 with Cook(®) cervical ripening balloon. To determine the costs of induction of labour, method of induction, intrapartum medication, epidural analgesia, type of delivery, and maternal and neonatal admissions were considered...
July 11, 2017: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690864/surgical-site-infections-after-cesarean-delivery-epidemiology-prevention-and-treatment
#8
REVIEW
Tetsuya Kawakita, Helain J Landy
Cesarean delivery (CD) is one of the most common procedures performed in the United States, accounting for 32% of all deliveries. Postpartum surgical site infection (SSI), wound infection and endometritis is a major cause of prolonged hospital stay and poses a burden to the health care system. SSIs complicate a significant number of patients who undergo CD - 2-7% will experience sound infections and 2-16% will develop endometritis. Many risk factors for SSI have been described. These include maternal factors (such as tobacco use; limited prenatal care; obesity; corticosteroid use; nulliparity; twin gestations; and previous CD), intrapartum and operative factors (such as chorioamnionitis; premature rupture of membranes; prolonged rupture of membranes; prolonged labor, particularly prolonged second stage; large incision length; subcutaneous tissue thickness > 3 cm; subcutaneous hematoma; lack of antibiotic prophylaxis; emergency delivery; and excessive blood loss), and obstetrical care on the teaching service of an academic institution...
2017: Maternal Health, Neonatology and Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683767/reducing-fresh-full-term-intrapartum-stillbirths-through-leadership-and-accountability-in-a-low-resource-setting-mpilo-central-hospital-bulawayo-zimbabwe
#9
Solwayo Ngwenya
BACKGROUND: Stillbirths are distressing to the parents and healthcare workers. Globally large numbers of babies are stillborn. A number of strategies have been implemented to try and reduce stillbirths worldwide. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of leadership and accountability changes on reducing full term intrapartum stillbirths. METHODS: Leadership and accountability changes were implemented in January 2016. This retrospective cohort study was carried out to assess the impact of the changes on fresh full term intrapartum stillbirths covering the period 6 months prior to the implementation date and 12 months after the implementation date...
July 6, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683513/intrapartum-sonographic-diagnosis-of-compound-hand-cephalic-presentation
#10
Andrea Dall'Asta, Nicola Volpe, Letizia Galli, Tiziana Frusca, Tullio Ghi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 6, 2017: Ultraschall in der Medizin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682319/neonatal-abstinence-syndrome-and-early-childhood-morbidity-and-mortality-in-washington-state-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#11
C E Witt, K E Rudd, P Bhatraju, F P Rivara, S E Hawes, N S Weiss
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to evaluate the association between neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) and long-term childhood morbidity and infant mortality. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a cohort study of infants born in Washington State during 1990 to 2008 who were diagnosed with NAS (n=1900) or were unexposed (n=12,283, frequency matched by birth year). 5-year hospital readmissions and infant mortality were ascertained. RESULTS: Children with history of NAS had increased risk of readmission during the first 5 years of life relative to unexposed children; this remained statistically significant after adjustment for maternal age, maternal education, gestational age and intrapartum smoking status (readmission rates: NAS=21...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681500/continuous-support-for-women-during-childbirth
#12
REVIEW
Meghan A Bohren, G Justus Hofmeyr, Carol Sakala, Rieko K Fukuzawa, Anna Cuthbert
BACKGROUND: Historically, women have generally been attended and supported by other women during labour. However, in hospitals worldwide, continuous support during labour has often become the exception rather than the routine. OBJECTIVES: The primary objective was to assess the effects, on women and their babies, of continuous, one-to-one intrapartum support compared with usual care, in any setting. Secondary objectives were to determine whether the effects of continuous support are influenced by:1...
July 6, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678829/intrapartum-pcr-assay-versus-antepartum-culture-for-assessment-of-vaginal-carriage-of-group-b-streptococci-in-a-danish-cohort-at-birth
#13
Mohammed Rohi Khalil, Niels Uldbjerg, Poul Bak Thorsen, Jens Kjølseth Møller
The aim of this study was to compare the performances of two strategies for predicting intrapartum vaginal carriage of group B streptococci (GBS). One strategy was based on an antepartum culture and the other on an intrapartum polymerase chain reaction (PCR). We conducted a prospective observational study enrolling 902 pregnant women offered GBS screening before delivery by two strategies. The Culture-strategy was based on vaginal and rectal cultures at 35-37 weeks' gestation, whereas the PCR-strategy was based on PCR assay on intrapartum vaginal swab samples...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676403/obstetric-interventions-and-maternal-morbidity-among-women-who-experience-severe-postpartum-hemorrhage-during-cesarean-delivery
#14
K Seligman, B Ramachandran, P Hegde, E T Riley, Y Y El-Sayed, L M Nelson, A J Butwick
BACKGROUND: Compared to vaginal delivery, women undergoing cesarean delivery are at increased risk of postpartum hemorrhage. Management approaches may differ between those undergoing prelabor cesarean delivery compared to intrapartum cesarean delivery. We examined surgical interventions, blood component use, and maternal outcomes among those experiencing severe postpartum hemorrhage within the two distinct cesarean delivery cohorts. METHODS: We performed secondary analyses of data from two cohorts who underwent prelabor cesarean delivery or intrapartum cesarean delivery at a tertiary obstetric center in the United States between 2002 and 2012...
March 22, 2017: International Journal of Obstetric Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675426/stage-of-labor-at-admission-among-ugandan-women-with-a-prior-cesarean-and-its-impact-on-management-and-delivery-outcomes
#15
Adeline A Boatin, Elly Agaba, Baltazar Nyongozi, Blair J Wylie
OBJECTIVE: To describe stage of labor at admission among women with a prior cesarean, and examine its impact on intrapartum management and delivery mode. METHODS: In a prospective cohort study, women admitted to Mbarara Regional Referral Hospital, Uganda, for delivery were enrolled between March and June 2015. Rates of vaginal delivery (VBAC) and in-hospital trial of labor (TOL) were compared between early (<4 cm dilation) and late (≥4 cm) presenters. Women were interviewed after delivery about decision making and labor preferences...
July 4, 2017: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668289/foley-catheterisation-versus-oral-misoprostol-for-induction-of-labour-in-hypertensive-women-in-india-inform-a-multicentre-open-label-randomised-controlled-trial
#16
Shuchita Mundle, Hillary Bracken, Vaishali Khedikar, Jayashree Mulik, Brian Faragher, Thomas Easterling, Simon Leigh, Paul Granby, Alan Haycox, Mark A Turner, Zarko Alfirevic, Beverly Winikoff, Andrew D Weeks
BACKGROUND: Between 62 000 and 77 000 women die annually from pre-eclampsia and eclampsia. Prompt delivery, preferably by the vaginal route, is vital for good maternal and neonatal outcomes. Two low-cost interventions-low-dose oral misoprostol tablets and transcervical Foley catheterisation-are already used in low-resource settings. We aimed to compare the relative risks and benefits of these interventions. METHODS: We undertook this multicentre, open-label, randomised controlled trial in two public hospitals in Nagpur, India...
June 28, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667188/creactive-protein-in-healthy-term-newborns-during-the-first-48-hours-of-life
#17
Serafina Perrone, Federica Lotti, Mariangela Longini, Annalisa Rossetti, Ilaria Bindi, Francesco Bazzini, Elisa Belvisi, Pasquale Sarnacchiaro, Carlo Scapellato, Giuseppe Buonocore
BACKGROUND: Early-onset neonatal sepsis (EOS) is a serious and potentially life-threatening disease in newborns. C reactive protein (CRP) is the most used laboratory biomarker for the detection of EOS. Little is known about normal reference values of CRP during the perinatal period as several factors are able to influence it. OBJECTIVES: To identify an appropriate range of CRP values in healthy term newborns during the first 48 hours of life. DESIGN: CRP determination was performed in 859 term newborns at 12, 24 and 48 hours of life...
June 30, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664535/characterising-levator-ani-muscle-stiffness-pre-and-post-childbirth-in-european-and-polynesian-women-in-new-zealand-a-pilot-study
#18
Jennifer A Kruger, Stephanie C Budgett, Vivien Wong, Poul M F Nielsen, Martyn P Nash, Jackie Smalldridge, Lynsey M Hayward, Tania Yu Tian, Andrew J Taberner
INTRODUCTION: The influence of levator-ani muscles on second stage labour is poorly understood. The ability of these muscles to stretch without damage may affect birth outcomes, but little is known about material properties, effects of pregnancy and/or ethnicity on levator-ani stiffness. There are strong associations between muscle damage and subsequent pelvic floor disorders. This study aimed to quantify levator-ani muscle stiffness during the third trimester of pregnancy and postpartum in European and Polynesian women...
June 30, 2017: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664414/do-obstetric-risk-factors-truly-influence-the-etiopathogenesis-of-congenital-muscular-torticollis
#19
N Hardgrib, O Rahbek, B Møller-Madsen, R D Maimburg
BACKGROUND: Congenital muscular torticollis (CMT) is seen in childhood and presents within months after birth. The etiology remains unknown; however, medical textbooks suggest trauma at birth as a main reason. The aim of this study was to systematically describe obstetric and perinatal outcomes in a population of children with a confirmed congenital muscular torticollis diagnosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Children with a validated diagnosis of congenital muscular torticollis born at Aarhus University Hospital from 2000 to 2014 were included in the study...
June 29, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology: Official Journal of the Italian Society of Orthopaedics and Traumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663282/are-postnatal-ampicillin-levels-actually-related-to-the-duration-of-intrapartum-antibiotic-prophylaxis-prior-to-delivery-a-pharmacokinetic-study-in-120-neonates
#20
Alberto Berardi, Zaira Pietrangiolillo, Maria Letizia Bacchi Reggiani, Valentina Bianco, Daniela Gallesi, Katia Rossi, Fabio Facchinetti, Fabrizio Ferrari
OBJECTIVE: To assess ampicillin levels according to the duration of intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis (IAP). DESIGN: Prospective cohort single-centre study. SETTING: Tertiary care centre (Modena, Italy). PATIENTS: 120 neonates≥35 weeks' gestation exposed to IAP. INTERVENTIONS: Neonates were divided into four groups, according to the duration of IAP prior to delivery: group 1 (n=30; <1 hour), group 2 (n=30; ≥1 and <2 hours), group 3 (n=30; ≥2 and <4 hours) and group 4 (n=30; ≥2 doses, ≥4 hours)...
June 29, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
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