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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028182/hypothesis-rna-and-dna-viral-sequence-integration-into-the-mammalian-host-genome-supports-long-term-b-cell-and-t-cell-adaptive-immunity
#1
Julia L Hurwitz, Bart G Jones, Emmanuelle Charpentier, David L Woodland
Viral sequence integration into the mammalian genome has long been perceived as a health risk. In some cases, integration translates to chronic viral infection, and in other instances, oncogenic gene mutations occur. However, research also shows that animal cells can benefit from integrated viral sequences (e.g., to support host cell development or to silence foreign invaders). Here we propose that, comparable with the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats that provide bacteria with adaptive immunity against invasive bacteriophages, animal cells may co-opt integrated viral sequences to support immune memory...
October 13, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027632/let-us-talk-about-eggs-professional-resistance-to-elective-egg-vitrification-and-gendered-medical-paternalism
#2
Judit Sándor, Lilla Vicsek, Zsófia Bauer
In this paper, by applying a feminist bioethical perspective, we identify a new form of medical paternalism that still shapes contemporary legal policies on human egg cryopreservation performed without medical reasons. The fear of negligent, careless women who opt to delay their pregnancy for mere convenience is a widely known gender biased stereotype. Nevertheless, the opinions and judgments of medical professionals on this issue have not yet been sufficiently explored by in-depth research. In this essay, therefore, first we look at the broader bioethical, legal, and social aspects of human egg cryopreservation...
October 13, 2017: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026755/attitude-toward-learning-of-community-medicine-a-cross-sectional-study-among-medical-school-students
#3
Japhereena Murugavel, Vinoth Gnana Chellaiyan, Dhivyatharani Krishnamoorthy
BACKGROUND: Community medicine strives to protect and promote the health and well-being of the community through primary health care approach. However the preference of community medicine as career among medical school students and curriculum of community medicine is pivotal. AIM: The study intended to find the attitude towards learning of community medicine and also to assess the preference of post graduation specialty among medical school students. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross sectional study conducted at a teaching hospital located in Tamil Nadu, South India...
January 2017: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026336/factors-associated-with-continuing-emergence-of-%C3%AE-thalassemia-major-despite-prenatal-testing-a-cross-sectional-survey
#4
Haleama Al Sabbah, Sarah Khan, Abdallah Hamadna, Lamia Abu Ghazaleh, Anwar Dudin, Bashar Adnan Karmi
PURPOSE: Health care initiatives focusing on prenatal testing and premarital genetic screening aiming to reduce the incidence of β-thalassemia have emerged during the last decade. In Palestine, 4% of the population are known thalassemia carriers with new cases continuing to appear despite the availability of prenatal testing. This study aims to identify factors that influence the decision to retain or abort fetuses affected by β-thalassemia in Palestine. METHODS: Convenience sampling was used to select 32 women (72 fetuses) who were at risk of having a baby with β-thalassemia...
2017: International Journal of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025839/family-attitudes-actions-decisions-and-experiences-following-implementation-of-deemed-consent-and-the-human-transplantation-wales-act-2013-mixed-method-study-protocol
#5
Jane Noyes, Karen Morgan, Phillip Walton, Abigail Roberts, Leah Mclaughlin, Michael Stephens
INTRODUCTION: The Human Transplantation (Wales) Act 2013 (the Act) introduced a 'soft opt-out' system of organ donation on 1 December 2015. Citizens are encouraged to make their organ donation decision known during their lifetime. In order to work, the Act and media campaign need to create a context, whereby organ donation becomes the norm, and create a mechanism for people to behave as intended (formally register their decision; consider appointing a representative; convey their donation decision to their families and friends or do nothing-deemed consent)...
October 12, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020994/willingness-to-participate-in-pragmatic-dialysis-trials-the-importance-of-physician-decisional-autonomy-and-consent-approach
#6
Katherine R Courtright, Scott D Halpern, Steven Joffe, Susan S Ellenberg, Jason Karlawish, Vanessa Madden, Nicole B Gabler, Stephanie Szymanski, Kuldeep N Yadav, Laura M Dember
BACKGROUND: Pragmatic clinical trials embedded in routine delivery of clinical care can lead to improvements in quality of care, but often have design features that raise ethical concerns. METHODS: We performed a discrete choice experiment and used conjoint analysis to assess how specific attributes of pragmatic dialysis trials influenced patients' and physicians' willingness to have their dialysis facility participate in a hypothetical trial of hypertension management...
October 11, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020742/bayes-forest-a-data-intensive-generator-of-morphological-tree-clones
#7
Ilya Potapov, Marko Järvenpää, Markku Åkerblom, Pasi Raumonen, Mikko Kaasalainen
Detailed and realistic tree form generators have numerous applications in ecology and forestry. For example, the varying morphology of trees contributes differently to formation of landscapes, natural habitats of species, and eco-physiological characteristics of the biosphere. Here, we present an algorithm for generating morphological tree "clones" based on the detailed reconstruction of the laser scanning data, statistical measure of similarity, and a plant growth model with simple stochastic rules. The algorithm is designed to produce tree forms, i...
October 1, 2017: GigaScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018414/development-of-a-click-beetle-luciferase-reporter-system-for-enhanced-bioluminescence-imaging-of-listeria-monocytogenes-analysis-in-cell-culture-and-murine-infection-models
#8
Sadeeq Ur Rahman, Michael Stanton, Pat G Casey, Angela Spagnuolo, Giuliano Bensi, Colin Hill, Kevin P Francis, Mark Tangney, Cormac G M Gahan
Listeria monocytogenes is a Gram-positive facultative intracellular pathogen that is widely used as a model organism for the analysis of infection biology. In this context, there is a current need to develop improved reporters for enhanced bioluminescence imaging (BLI) of the pathogen in infection models. We have developed a click beetle red luciferase (CBR-luc) based vector (pPL2CBR(opt)) expressing codon optimized CBR-luc under the control of a highly expressed Listerial promoter (PHELP) for L. monocytogenes and have compared this to a lux-based system expressing bacterial luciferase for BLI of the pathogen using in vitro growth experiments and in vivo models...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993303/the-lived-experience-of-being-evaluated-for-organ-donation-focus-groups-with-living-kidney-donors
#9
Camilla S Hanson, Angelique F Ralph, Karine E Manera, John S Gill, John Kanellis, Germaine Wong, Jonathan C Craig, Jeremy R Chapman, Allison Tong
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Comprehensive evaluations are required to safeguard voluntarism and minimize harm to living kidney donors. This process is lengthy, invasive, and emotionally challenging, with up to one fifth of potential donors opting out. We aimed to describe donors' experiences of the evaluation process. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: We conducted 14 focus groups involving 123 kidney donors who completed donation from three transplant centers (Australia and Canada)...
October 9, 2017: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992245/a-complex-lens-for-a-complex-eye
#10
Aaron L Stahl, Regina S Baucom, Tiffany A Cook, Elke K Buschbeck
A key innovation for high resolution eyes is a sophisticated lens that precisely focuses light onto photoreceptors. The eyes of holometabolous larvae range from very simple eyes that merely detect light to eyes that are capable of high spatial resolution. Particularly interesting are the bifocal lenses of Thermonectus marmoratus larvae, which differentially focus light on spectrally-distinct retinas. While functional aspects of insect lenses have been relatively well studied, little work has explored their molecular makeup, especially in regard to more complex eye types...
September 2, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990748/cal-mediconnect-enrollment-why-are-dual-eligible-consumers-in-los-angeles-county-opting-out
#11
Kate McBride, Ana Reynoso, Tiffany Alunan, Brenda Gutierrez, Adrien Bacong, Marge Moon, Anastasia Bacigalupo, A E Benjamin, Steven P. Wallace, Kathryn G Kietzman
Los Angeles County has the state’s lowest rate of consumer enrollment in Cal MediConnect, a program that is responsible for the delivery and coordination of medical, behavioral health, and long-term services and support benefits for individuals who are dually eligible for Medicare and Medi-Cal. This policy brief examines the factors that influence consumer decisions and may contribute to low enrollment rates. Influential factors include consumer knowledge of health care options, perception of choice, and disruption of existing care...
September 2017: Policy Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990283/metastatic-spread-from-squamous-cell-carcinoma-of-the-hypopharynx-to-the-totally-implantable-venous-access-port-insertion-site-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#12
Ankit Mangla, Nikki Agarwal, Michael Russell Mullane
BACKGROUND: The totally implantable venous access port plays a crucial role in delivering chemotherapy in the outpatient setting. Here, we report the first case of a patient with hypopharyngeal tumor who developed chest wall metastasis over the totally implantable venous access port inserted in the internal jugular vein. METHODS: Our patient, a 58-year-old man with a hypopharyngeal tumor presented with a lump over the totally implantable venous access port site...
October 9, 2017: Head & Neck
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989698/recent-advances-to-accelerate-re-endothelialization-for-vascular-stents
#13
Tarek M Bedair, Mahmoud A ElNaggar, Yoon Ki Joung, Dong Keun Han
Cardiovascular diseases are considered as one of the serious diseases that leads to the death of millions of people all over the world. Stent implantation has been approved as an easy and promising way to treat cardiovascular diseases. However, in-stent restenosis and thrombosis remain serious problems after stent implantation. It was demonstrated in a large body of previously published literature that endothelium impairment represents a major factor for restenosis. This discovery became the driving force for many studies trying to achieve an optimized methodology for accelerated re-endothelialization to prevent restenosis...
January 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989574/protection-of-the-brain-through-supplementation-with-larch-arabinogalactan-in-a-rat-model-of-vascular-dementia
#14
Sun Ha Lim, Jongwon Lee
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Vascular dementia (VaD) caused by reduced blood supply to the brain manifests as white matter lesions accompanying demyelination and glial activation. We previously showed that arabinoxylan consisting of arabinose and xylose, and arabinose itself attenuated white matter injury in a rat model of VaD. Here, we investigated whether larch arabinogalactan (LAG) consisting of arabinose and galactose could also reduce white matter injury. MATERIALS/METHODS: We used a rat model of bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO), in which the bilateral common carotid arteries were exposed and ligated permanently with silk sutures...
October 2017: Nutrition Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987965/emerging-targets-in-cancer-immunotherapy
#15
REVIEW
Samantha Burugu, Amanda R Dancsok, Torsten O Nielsen
The first generation of immune checkpoint inhibitors (anti-CTLA-4 and anti-PD-1/PD-L1) targeted natural immune homeostasis pathways, co-opted by cancers, to drive anti-tumor immune responses. These agents led to unprecedented results in patients with previously incurable metastatic disease and may become first-line therapies for some advanced cancers. However, these agents are efficacious in only a minority of patients. Newer strategies are becoming available that target additional immunomodulatory mechanisms to activate patients' own anti-tumor immune responses...
October 5, 2017: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987933/the-influence-of-counseling-on-the-mode-of-breech-birth-a-single-center-observational-prospective-study-in-the-netherlands
#16
Souhailla Abdessalami, Hanneke Rota, Gabriella Dias Pereira, Jan Roest, Ageeth N Rosman
OBJECTIVE: women in the Netherlands, with a fetus in breech presentation, are thoroughly counseled to make an informed choice for the mode of delivery. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of counseling techniques on women's choices for the mode of delivery and subsequently to compare fetal and maternal outcomes of vaginal breech birth versus planned caesarean section. STUDY DESIGN: we performed an observational prospective study. Data on breech deliveries were prospectively collected...
September 21, 2017: Midwifery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984519/surgical-management-of-incidentally-discovered-diffusely-infiltrating-low-grade-glioma
#17
Michael Opoku-Darko, Stefan T Lang, James Artindale, J Gregory Cairncross, Robert J Sevick, John J P Kelly
OBJECTIVE Occasionally, diffusely infiltrating low-grade gliomas (LGGs) are identified as incidental findings in patients who have no signs or symptoms that can be ascribed to the tumors. The diagnosis of incidental, asymptomatic LGGs has become more frequent due to the vast increase in access to medical imaging technology. While management of these lesions remains controversial, early surgery has been suggested to improve outcome. The authors set out to identify and review the characteristics and surgical outcomes of patients who underwent surgical intervention for incidental LGG...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983861/the-issues-of-freedom-and-happiness-in-moral-bioenhancement-continuing-the-debate-with-a-reply-to-harris-wiseman
#18
Vojin Rakić
During the previous years, Harris Wiseman has devoted substantial attention to my stance on voluntary moral bioenhancement. He argued that he has been influenced by that position, but nonetheless criticized it. I haven't replied to his criticisms yet and wish to do so now. One of the reasons is to avoid my position being misrepresented. By replying to Wiseman's criticisms, I also wish to clarify those issues in my standpoint that might have given rise to some of the misinterpretations. With the same purpose in mind, I will demarcate my concept of voluntary moral bioenhancement from related standpoints, in particular from Persson and Savulescu's notion of compulsory moral bioenhancement that, as I argued, diminishes our freedom (of the will)...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983097/tyrosine-dephosphorylated-cortactin-downregulates-contractility-at-the-epithelial-zonula-adherens-through-srgap1
#19
Xuan Liang, Srikanth Budnar, Shafali Gupta, Suzie Verma, Siew-Ping Han, Michelle M Hill, Roger J Daly, Robert G Parton, Nicholas A Hamilton, Guillermo A Gomez, Alpha S Yap
Contractile adherens junctions support cell-cell adhesion, epithelial integrity, and morphogenesis. Much effort has been devoted to understanding how contractility is established; however, less is known about whether contractility can be actively downregulated at junctions nor what function this might serve. We now identify such an inhibitory pathway that is mediated by the cytoskeletal scaffold, cortactin. Mutations of cortactin that prevent its tyrosine phosphorylation downregulate RhoA signaling and compromise the ability of epithelial cells to generate a contractile zonula adherens...
October 5, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982261/time-to-institutional-review-board-approval-with-local-versus-central-review-in-a-multicenter-pragmatic-trial
#20
Mark D Neuman, Lakisha J Gaskins, Tracy Ziolek
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Central institutional review board (IRB) review will be required for National Institutes of Health-funded multisite human subjects research as of January 2018, with similar requirements extending to most US multisite human research in 2020. Nonetheless, little is known regarding the relative efficiency of central versus local IRB review for multicenter studies. We compared the amount of time required for central versus local IRB review and approval for sites in one ongoing multicenter randomized trial...
October 1, 2017: Clinical Trials: Journal of the Society for Clinical Trials
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