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Pharmacology and physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440467/structural-and-evolutionary-divergence-of-aquaporins-in-parasites-review
#1
Zi-Xin Ni, Jian-Min Cui, Nian-Zhang Zhang, Bao-Quan Fu
Aquaporins are ubiquitous proteins that belong to the major intrinsic protein family. Previous studies have indicated that aquaporins are involved in multiple physiological processes in parasites, such as nutrient absorption and end product efflux, and thus, would be promising pharmacological agents in the fight against parasite infection. In the present paper, the authors analyzed the evolutionary relationship of parasitic aquaporins by re‑constructing of a phylogenic tree using neighbor‑joining and maximum likelihood methods...
April 25, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440247/circulating-biomarkers-in-glaucoma-age-related-macular-degeneration-and-diabetic-retinopathy
#2
Madhu Nath, Nabanita Halder, Thirumurthy Velpandian
Biomarkers to predict the altering physiological conditions over the period leading toward the ocular disorders are of major importance in therapeutics. Isolation and validation of the biomarkers specific to ocular diseases are a challenging task. Glaucoma is a neurodegenerative disease of the eye where the correlation of biomarkers in circulating fluid may be made specific for the eye. However, conditions such as wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and proliferative diabetic retinopathy (DR), circulating biomarkers might be having some degree of overlap with other conditions like cancer where a common factor such as angiogenesis is involved...
March 2017: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440207/epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-in-cancer-progression-preventive-phytochemicals
#3
Soorya Parathodi Illam, Arunaksharan Narayanankutty, Shaji Edappilly Mathew, Remya Valsalakumari, Rosemol M Jacob, Achuthan Chathrattil Raghavamenon
BACKGROUND: Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) is the conversion of epithelial cells into mesenchymal phenotype generally observed during embryogenesis and wound healing as well as in malignant transformation. Several signaling pathways and transcription factors associated with EMT have been explored. Dietary phytochemicals are multi-targeted agents that interfere with these pathways, assume preventive potential against pathologic EMT. OBJECTIVE: Present review aims to provide a detailed description on the nature, characteristics of EMT in physiological and pathophysiological conditions and the scope of phytochemicals in its prevention...
April 24, 2017: Recent Patents on Anti-cancer Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440197/hyperprolactinemia-induced-by-antipsychotics-from-diagnosis-to-treatment-approach
#4
Walter Milano, Chiara Colletti, Anna Capasso
Schizophrenia is one of the most severe psychiatric diseases with a significant impact on the psychosocial functioning of the patients. People with schizophrenia are at risk to die prematurely because of their illness with their poor lifestyle contributing to the excess morbidity and higher mortality rate. In particular, lifestyle (e.g. poor diet, low rates of physical activity and increased likelihood to smoke cigarettes) predisposes them to poor physical health and comorbid medical diseases. In addition, the treatment of schizophrenia usually involves the long-term administration of antipsychotic drugs and some of these medications are implicated in the increased risk of metabolic and cardiovascular effects...
April 23, 2017: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439239/development-of-automated-patch-clamp-technique-to-investigate-cftr-chloride-channel-function
#5
Arnaud Billet, Lionel Froux, John W Hanrahan, Frederic Becq
The chloride (Cl(-)) channel cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is defective in cystic fibrosis (CF), and mutation of its encoding gene leads to various defects such as retention of the misfolded protein in the endoplasmic reticulum, reduced stability at the plasma membrane, abnormal channel gating with low open probability, and thermal instability, which leads to inactivation of the channel at physiological temperature. Pharmacotherapy is one major therapeutic approach in the CF field and needs sensible and fast tools to identify promising compounds...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438781/transporter-mediated-disposition-clinical-pharmacokinetics-and-cholestatic-potential-of-glyburide-and-its-primary-active-metabolites
#6
Rui Li, Yi-An Bi, Anna Vildhede, Renato J Scialis, Sumathy Mathialagan, Xin Yang, Lisa D Marroquin, Jian Lin, Manthena V S Varma
Glyburide is widely used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. We studied the mechanisms involved in the disposition of glyburide and its pharmacologically active hydroxy metabolites, M1 and M2b; and evaluated their clinical pharmacokinetics and the potential role in glyburide-induced cholestasis employing physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling. Transport studies of parent and metabolites in human hepatocytes and transfected cell systems imply hepatic uptake mediated by organic anion transporting polypeptides...
April 24, 2017: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438413/functional-redundancy-between-canonical-endocannabinoid-signaling-systems-in-the-modulation-of-anxiety
#7
Gaurav Bedse, Nolan D Hartley, Emily Neale, Andrew D Gaulden, Toni A Patrick, Philip J Kingsley, Md Jashim Uddin, Niels Plath, Lawrence J Marnett, Sachin Patel
BACKGROUND: Increasing the available repertoire of effective treatments for mood and anxiety disorders represents a critical unmet need. Pharmacological augmentation of endogenous cannabinoid (eCB) signaling has been suggested to represent a novel approach to the treatment of anxiety disorders; however, the functional interactions between two canonical eCB pathways mediated via anandamide (N-arachidonylethanolamine [AEA]) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) in the regulation of anxiety are not well understood...
March 15, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436718/design-of-a-novel-curcumin-soybean-phosphatidylcholine-complex-based-targeted-drug-delivery-systems
#8
Jiajiang Xie, Yanxiu Li, Liang Song, Zhou Pan, Shefang Ye, Zhenqing Hou
Recently, the global trend in the field of nanomedicine has been toward the design of combination of nature active constituents and phospholipid (PC) to form a therapeutic drug-phospholipid complex. As a particular amphiphilic molecular complex, it can be a unique bridge of traditional dosage-form and novel drug delivery system. In thisarticle, on the basis of drug-phospholipid complex technique and self-assembly technique, we chose a pharmacologically safe and low toxic drug curcumin (CUR) to increase drug-loading ability, achieve controlled/sustained drug release and improve anticancer activity...
November 2017: Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434864/sensorimotor-representations-in-cerebellar-granule-cells-in-larval-zebrafish-are-dense-spatially-organized-and-non-temporally-patterned
#9
Laura D Knogler, Daniil A Markov, Elena I Dragomir, Vilim Štih, Ruben Portugues
A fundamental question in neurobiology is how animals integrate external sensory information from their environment with self-generated motor and sensory signals in order to guide motor behavior and adaptation. The cerebellum is a vertebrate hindbrain region where all of these signals converge and that has been implicated in the acquisition, coordination, and calibration of motor activity. Theories of cerebellar function postulate that granule cells encode a variety of sensorimotor signals in the cerebellar input layer...
April 14, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433659/carbonic-anhydrase-xii-functions-in-health-and-disease
#10
REVIEW
Abdul Waheed, William S Sly
Human CAXII was initially identified as a cancer marker in different cancers and tumors. Expression of CAXII is regulated by hypoxia and estrogen receptors. CAXII expression has been also detected in several tissues, whereas in cancer and tumor tissues its expression is several fold higher. In brain tumors, an alternatively spliced form of CAXII is expressed. Higher expression of CAXII in breast cancer is indicative of lower grade disease. CAXII plays a key role in several physiological functions. Mutation in the CAXII gene causes cystic fibrosis-like syndrome and salt wasting disease...
April 19, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432902/ayahuasca-s-entwined-efficacy-an-ethnographic-study-of-ritual-healing-from-addiction
#11
Piera Talin, Emilia Sanabria
BACKGROUND: A range of studies has demonstrated the efficacy of the psychoactive Amazonian brew ayahuasca in addressing substance addiction. These have revealed that physiological and psychological mechanisms are deeply enmeshed. This article focuses on how interactive ritual contexts support the healing effort. The study of psychedelic-assisted treatments for addiction has much to gain from ethnographic analyses of healing experiences within the particular ecologies of use and care, where these interventions are rendered efficacious...
April 19, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431749/pharmacological-advances-in-the-multimodal-management-of-perioperative-analgesia
#12
M Matute Crespo, A Montero Matamala
The concept of multimodal analgesia is currently widespread in our clinical practice. The aim of multimodal analgesia is to reduce the side effects derived from the drugs or techniques used for the control of pain together with greater effectiveness (combination of multiple mechanisms of action) with the maximum efficiency, that is, to combine different pharmacodynamics (synergistic or additive effects) and pharmacokinetics, in the context of a predictable acute pain model, thus allowing a prior strategy such as the model of acute postoperative pain...
April 18, 2017: Revista Española de Anestesiología y Reanimación
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430591/poly-adenosine-diphosphate-ribose-polymerase-as-therapeutic-target-lessons-learned-from-its-inhibitors
#13
REVIEW
Anna Mária Cseh, Zsolt Fábián, Balázs Sümegi, Luca Scorrano
Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases are a family of DNA-dependent nuclear enzymes catalyzing the transfer of ADP-ribose moieties from cellular nicotinamide-adenine-dinucleotide to a variety of target proteins. Although they have been considered as resident nuclear elements of the DNA repair machinery, recent works revealed a more intricate physiologic role of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases with numerous extranuclear activities. Indeed, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases participate in fundamental cellular processes like chromatin remodelling, transcription or regulation of the cell-cycle...
April 5, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430357/reactive-oxygen-species-key-regulators-in-vascular-health-and-diseases
#14
REVIEW
Qishan Chen, Qiwen Wang, Jianhua Zhu, Qingzhong Xiao, Li Zhang
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are a group of small reactive molecules that play critical roles in the regulation of various cell functions and biological processes. In the vascular system, physiological levels of ROS are essential for normal vascular functions including endothelial homeostasis and smooth muscle cell contraction. In contrast, uncontrolled overproduction of ROS resulted from imbalance of ROS generation and elimination, leads to the development of vascular diseases. Excessive ROS cause vascular cell damages, recruitment of inflammatory cells, lipid peroxidation, activation of metalloproteinases, and deposition of extracellular matrix, collectively leading to vascular remodeling...
April 21, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429819/effects-of-dielectrophoresis-on-thrombogenesis-in-human-whole-blood
#15
Steven Kinio, James Mills
Thrombogenesis (blood clot formation) is a major barrier to the development of biomedical devices that interface with blood. Although state-of-the-art chemically and pharmacologically mediated clot mitigation strategies are effective, some limitations of such approaches include depletion of active agents, or adverse reactions in patients. Increased clotting protein adsorption and platelet adhesion, which occurs when artificial surfaces are exposed to blood, results in enhanced clot formation on artificial surfaces...
April 21, 2017: Electrophoresis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428678/productive-cough-in-children-and-adolescents-view-from-primary-health-care-system
#16
REVIEW
Edin Begic, Zijo Begic, Amra Dobraca, Edo Hasanbegovic
Cough is one of the most common symptoms that doctor faces in working with pediatric population, and according to some characteristics of cough, doctors can often conclude localization, and sometimes even the nature of the disease that causes it. Cough is not only the physiological defense reaction, but a symptom of a disease. According to duration it can be acute, chronic and recidivist, recurrent and persistent, strong or discreet, caused by changes in body position and changes in outside temperature. Pathoanatomically it is divided into lobar, lobular, alveolar and interstitial, pathogenetically to bronchogenic and hematogenous, as well as in immuno competent and immunocompromised, and clinically on the local and inpatient (72 hours after hospital admission)...
February 2017: Medical Archives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428100/an-overview-of-the-safety-pharmacology-career-of-dr-c-r-hassler
#17
M A Hawk, M K Pugsley, T Vinci, J Wallery, C R Hassler, R L Hamlin
Each year the Safety Pharmacology Society (SPS) recognizes an investigator who has had a marked impact upon the discipline. The 2016 recipient of the SPS Distinguished Service Award (DSA) was Dr. Craig R. Hassler. Dr. Hassler is one of the founding members of the SPS and has been actively engaged in physiological research for over 46years. Dr. Hassler delivered a talk entitled "My 43Years at Battelle Memorial Institute" to meeting attendees. In this article an overview is provided of the illustrious career of Dr...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424769/folates-in-plants-research-advances-and-progress-in-crop-biofortification
#18
REVIEW
Vera Gorelova, Lars Ambach, Fabrice Rébeillé, Christophe Stove, Dominique Van Der Straeten
Folates, also known as B9 vitamins, serve as donors and acceptors in one-carbon (C1) transfer reactions. The latter are involved in synthesis of many important biomolecules, such as amino acids, nucleic acids and vitamin B5. Folates also play a central role in the methyl cycle that provides one-carbon groups for methylation reactions. The important functions fulfilled by folates make them essential in all living organisms. Plants, being able to synthesize folates de novo, serve as an excellent dietary source of folates for animals that lack the respective biosynthetic pathway...
2017: Frontiers in Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424660/ccl2-monocyte-chemoattractant-protein-1-and-parathyroid-hormone-action-on-bone
#19
REVIEW
Jawed Akhtar Siddiqui, Nicola C Partridge
Chemokines are small molecules that play a crucial role as chemoattractants for several cell types, and their components are associated with host immune responses and repair mechanisms. Chemokines selectively recruit monocytes, neutrophils, and lymphocytes and induce chemotaxis through the activation of G protein-coupled receptors. Two well-described chemokine families (CXC and CC) are known to regulate the localization and trafficking of immune cells in cases of injury, infection, and tumors. Monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1/CCL2) is one of the important chemokines from the CC family that controls migration and infiltration of monocytes/macrophages during inflammation...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424618/pharmacological-and-biochemical-characterization-of-tlqp-21-activation-of-a-binding-site-on-cho-cells
#20
Laura Molteni, Laura Rizzi, Elena Bresciani, Roberta Possenti, Pamela Petrocchi Passeri, Corrado Ghè, Giampiero Muccioli, Jean-Alain Fehrentz, Pascal Verdié, Jean Martinez, Robert J Omeljaniuk, Giuseppe Biagini, Anna Binda, Ilaria Rivolta, Vittorio Locatelli, Antonio Torsello
VGF is a propeptide of 617 amino acids expressed throughout the central and the peripheral nervous system. VGF and peptides derived from its processing have been found in dense core vesicles and are released from neuronal and neuroendocrine cells via the regulated secretory pathway. Among VGF-derived neuropeptides, TLQP-21 (VGF(556-576)) has raised a huge interest and is one of most studied. TLQP-21 is a multifunctional neuropeptide involved in the control of several physiological functions, potentially including energy homeostasis, pain modulation, stress responsiveness and reproduction...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
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