keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Pharmacology and physiology

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166706/-acute-stress-response-after-critical-burn
#1
H T Tang, F Zhu
The stress response is a preexisting and adaptive behavioral mode of all living beings, which may bring deleterious consequences of dysfunction or failure of tissue and organ. This article aims to elaborate theories of stress response, summarize the manifestation and mechanism of acute stress response in critically burned patients, and help to improve clinical curative efficacy and prognosis of these patients by physiological, psychological and pharmacological methods.
November 20, 2017: Zhonghua Shao Shang za Zhi, Zhonghua Shaoshang Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Burns
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164305/nuclear-transport-of-the-human-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-and-subsequent-gene-induction-relies-on-its-residue-histidine-291
#2
A Tkachenko, M Bermudez, S Irmer-Stooff, D Genkinger, F Henkler-Stephani, G Wolber, A Luch
The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a ligand-dependent transcription factor involved in the metabolism of physiological substances and xenobiotics, representing an interesting target in both toxicology and pharmacology. In this study, we investigated the ligand-dependent conjunction of nuclear import of the human AHR in living cells and target gene induction. Our findings strengthen the theory that the AHR triggers a precisely defined and rapid reaction upon binding to endogenous ligands, while the xenobiotic β-naphthoflavone only induces rather unspecific and slow effects...
November 21, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158832/clinical-translation-and-first-in-human-use-of-44-sc-sc-psma-617-for-pet-imaging-of-metastasized-castrate-resistant-prostate-cancer
#3
Elisabeth Eppard, Ana de la Fuente, Martina Benešová, Ambreen Khawar, Ralph A Bundschuh, Florian C Gärtner, Barbara Kreppel, Klaus Kopka, Markus Essler, Frank Rösch
BACKGROUND: Various trivalent radiometals are well suited for labeling of DOTA-conjugated variants of Glu-ureido-based prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) inhibitors. The DOTA-conjugate PSMA-617 has proven high potential in PSMA radioligand therapy (PSMA-RLT) of prostate cancer as well as PET imaging when labeled with lutetium-177 and gallium-68 respectively. Considering the relatively short physical half-life of gallium-68 this positron emitter precludes prolonged acquisition periods, as required for pre-therapeutic dosimetry or intraoperative applications...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157665/lipopolysaccharide-induced-increase-in-intestinal-epithelial-tight-permeability-is-mediated-by-toll-like-receptor-4-myeloid-differentiation-primary-response-88-myd88-activation-of-myosin-light-chain-kinase-expression
#4
Meghali Nighot, Rana Al-Sadi, Shuhong Guo, Manmeet Rawat, Prashant Nighot, Martin D Watterson, Thomas Y Ma
Lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) are a major component of the Gram-negative bacterial cell wall and play an important role in mediating intestinal inflammatory responses in inflammatory bowel disease. Although recent studies suggested that physiologically relevant concentrations of LPS (0 to 1 ng/mL) cause an increase in intestinal epithelial tight junction (TJ) permeability, the mechanisms that mediate an LPS-induced increase in intestinal TJ permeability remain unclear. Herein, we show that myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) plays a central role in the LPS-induced increase in TJ permeability...
December 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157602/induction-of-fibroblast-growth-factor-21-does-not-require-activation-of-the-hepatic-x-box-binding-protein-1-in-mice
#5
Shantel Olivares, Anne S Henkel
OBJECTIVE: Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), a key regulator of the metabolic response to fasting, is highly induced by endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. The X-box binding protein 1 (Xbp1) is one of several ER stress proteins that has been shown to directly activate the FGF21 promoter. We aimed to determine whether hepatic Xbp1 is required for induction of hepatic FGF21 in vivo. METHODS: Mice bearing a hepatocyte-specific deletion of Xbp1 (Xbp1(LKO)) were subjected to fasting, pharmacologic ER stress, or a ketogenic diet, all potent stimuli of Fgf21 expression...
December 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153987/development-and-characterization-of-a-human-and-mouse-intestinal-epithelial-cell-monolayer-platform
#6
Kenji Kozuka, Ying He, Samantha Koo-McCoy, Padmapriya Kumaraswamy, Baoming Nie, Karen Shaw, Priscilla Chan, Michael Leadbetter, Limin He, Jason G Lewis, Ziyang Zhong, Dominique Charmot, Marwan Balaa, Andrew J King, Jeremy S Caldwell, Matthew Siegel
We describe the development and characterization of a mouse and human epithelial cell monolayer platform of the small and large intestines, with a broad range of potential applications including the discovery and development of minimally systemic drug candidates. Culture conditions for each intestinal segment were optimized by correlating monolayer global gene expression with the corresponding tissue segment. The monolayers polarized, formed tight junctions, and contained a diversity of intestinal epithelial cell lineages...
November 7, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152305/critical-appraisal-of-the-role-of-serum-albumin-in-cardiovascular-disease
#7
REVIEW
Shih-Chieh Chien, Chun-Yen Chen, Chao-Feng Lin, Hung-I Yeh
Concentration of serum albumin (SA), a multifunctional circulatory protein, is influenced by several factors, including its synthesis rate, catabolism rate, extravascular distribution, and exogenous loss. Moreover, both nutritional status and systemic inflammation affect the synthesis of SA. Determining SA concentration aids in risk prediction in various clinical settings. It is of interest to understand the prognostic value of SA in the full spectrum of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the era of newly developed pharmacological and interventional treatments...
2017: Biomarker Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151219/implementation-of-the-nmr-chemical-shift-covariance-analysis-chesca-a-chemical-biologist-s-approach-to-allostery
#8
Stephen Boulton, Rajeevan Selvaratnam, Rashik Ahmed, Giuseppe Melacini
Mapping allosteric sites is emerging as one of the central challenges in physiology, pathology, and pharmacology. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is ideally suited to map allosteric sites, given its ability to sense at atomic resolution the dynamics underlying allostery. Here, we focus specifically on the NMR CHEmical Shift Covariance Analysis (CHESCA), in which allosteric systems are interrogated through a targeted library of perturbations (e.g., mutations and/or analogs of the allosteric effector ligand)...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151117/risks-of-flexible-ureterorenoscopy-pathophysiology-and-prevention
#9
REVIEW
Palle J S Osther
Currently, indications for flexible ureterorenoscopy (fURS) are expanding, mainly due to technological advancements. Although data from clinical series definitely presents fURS as a safe procedure, serious complications including sepsis and ureteral lesions do occur. These complications seem to be a result of the unique elements of fURS, ureteral access and irrigation, pushing normal upper urinary tract physiology into pathophysiological processes, including intrarenal/pyelo-veneous backflow and ureteral contractions, potentially resulting in septic, haemorrhagic and ureteral lesional complications...
November 18, 2017: Urolithiasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150823/metabolic-dynamics-and-physiological-adaptation-of-panax-ginseng-during-development
#10
Yu-Jin Kim, Sung Chul Joo, Jianxin Shi, Chaoyang Hu, Sheng Quan, Jianping Hu, Johan Sukweenadhi, Padmanaban Mohanan, Deok-Chun Yang, Dabing Zhang
The dynamics of metabolites from leaves to roots of Panax ginseng during development has revealed the tissue-specific and year-specific metabolic networks. Being an essential Oriental medicinal plant, ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer) is a slow-growing perennial herb-accumulating pharmaceutically active metabolites such as ginsenosides in roots during growth. However, little is known about how ginseng plants survive in the harsh environments such as winter cold and summer heat for a longer period and accumulates those active metabolites as the plant grows...
November 17, 2017: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150271/xenohormesis-in-early-life-new-avenues-of-research-to-explore-anti-aging-strategies-through-the-maternal-diet
#11
Philippe de Medina
Aging is a progressive internal physiological deterioration of the organism, leading to the occurrence of age-related lethal diseases. It has become a major societal challenge to understand the processes that drive aging and to develop rational pharmacological agents and dietary approaches to fight against age-related deterioration and diseases. Interestingly, several lines of evidence highlight an influence of the developmental period on the risk of age-related diseases later in life. This field is known as the developmental origins of health and disease...
November 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148850/atad2-in-cancer-a-pharmacologically-challenging-but-tractable-target
#12
Muzammal Hussain, Yang Zhou, Yu Song, H M Adnan Hameed, Hao Jiang, Yaoquan Tu, Jiancun Zhang
ATAD2 protein is an emerging oncogene that has strongly been linked to the etiology of multiple advanced human cancers. Therapeutically, despite the fact that genetic suppression/knockdown studies have validated it as a compelling drug target for future therapeutic development, recent druggability assessment data suggest that direct targeting of ATAD2's bromodomain (BRD) may be a very challenging task. ATAD2's BRD has been predicted as a "difficult to drug" or "least druggable" target due to the concern that its binding pocket, and the areas around it, seem to be unfeasible for ligand binding...
November 17, 2017: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146302/mechanisms-involved-in-bone-resorption-regulated-by-vitamin-d
#13
REVIEW
Yuko Nakamichi, Nobuyuki Udagawa, Tatsuo Suda, Naoyuki Takahashi
Active forms of vitamin D enhance osteoclastogenesis in vitro and in vivo through the vitamin D receptor (VDR) in osteoblast-lineage cells consisting of osteoblasts and osteocytes. This pro-resorptive activity was evident basically with higher concentrations of active vitamin D than those expected in physiological conditions. Nevertheless, vitamin D compounds have been used in Japan for treating osteoporosis to increase bone mineral density (BMD). Of note, the increase in BMD by long-term treatment with pharmacological (=near-physiological) doses of vitamin D compounds was caused by the suppression of bone resorption...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145189/rem-sleep-behavior-disorder
#14
Claudio L Bassetti, Panagiotis Bargiotas
Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a brain disorder, characterized by the dream enactment during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep due to a lack of physiologic muscle atonia and increased muscle twitching. Schenk was the first to describe this disorder in 1986; however, few authors reported in the 1970-1980s loss of physiological muscle atonia combined with dream enactment in the course of brainstem disorders and as a consequence of alcoholism and antidepressant treatment. RBD affects less than 1% of the adult population, but can be found in up to 25-50% of neurodegenerative disorders including Parkinson's disease, multisystem atrophy, and dementia with Lewy body...
2018: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144508/ly6g-neutrophil-derived-mir-223-inhibits-the-nlrp3-inflammasome-in-mitochondrial-damp-induced-acute-lung-injury
#15
Zunyong Feng, Shimei Qi, Yue Zhang, Zhilin Qi, Liang Yan, Jing Zhou, Fang He, Qianqian Li, Yanyan Yang, Qun Chen, Shi Xiao, Qiang Li, Yang Chen, Yao Zhang
MicroRNA (miRNA) mediates RNA interference to regulate a variety of innate immune processes, but how miRNAs coordinate the mechanisms underlying acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS) in patients with pulmonary inflammatory injury is still unknown. In this study, we demonstrated that miR-223 limits the number of Ly6G+ neutrophils and inhibits the activity of the NLRP3 inflammasome to alleviate ALI induced by mitochondrial damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) (MTDs). miR-223 expression is increased in the lungs of MTD-induced mice or ARDS patients following trauma/transfusion or following the physiological remission of ALI/ARDS...
November 16, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144441/g-protein-coupled-receptors-targeted-by-analgesic-venom-peptides
#16
REVIEW
James T Daniel, Richard J Clark
Chronic pain is a complex and debilitating condition associated with a large personal and socioeconomic burden. Current pharmacological approaches to treating chronic pain such as opioids, antidepressants and anticonvulsants exhibit limited efficacy in many patients and are associated with dose-limiting side effects that hinder their clinical use. Therefore, improved strategies for the pharmacological treatment of pathological pain are urgently needed. G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) are ubiquitously expressed on the surface of cells and act to transduce extracellular signals and regulate physiological processes...
November 16, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138268/n-acyl-amino-acids-elmiric-acids-endogenous-signaling-molecules-with-therapeutic-potential
#17
Sumner Burstein
The subject of N-acyl amino acid conjugates has been rapidly growing in recent years, especially with regard to their analgesic and anti-inflammatory actions. The field is comprised of a large family of lipid signaling molecules whose importance is only now being fully realized. The most widely studied member is N-arachidonoyl glycine (NAGly), which differs structurally from the endocannabinoid anandamide (N-arachidonoyl ethanolamide) by a single oxygen atom and the two are metabolically related. Topics that are covered in this mini review are: biosynthetic pathways for N-acyl amino acids, receptors for N-acyl amino acids, physiological actions of N-acyl amino acids, pharmacological effects of N-acyl amino acids and molecular mechanisms believed to be responsible for their effects...
November 14, 2017: Molecular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133341/the-trafficking-protein-ehd2-positively-regulates-cardiac-sarcolemmal-katp-channel-surface-expression-role-in-cardioprotection
#18
Hua Qian Yang, Kundan Jana, Michael J Rindler, William A Coetzee
ATP-sensitive K(+) (KATP) channels uniquely link cellular energy metabolism to membrane excitability and are expressed in diverse cell types that range from the endocrine pancreas to neurons and smooth, skeletal, and cardiac muscle. A decrease in the surface expression of KATP channels has been linked to various disorders, including dysregulated insulin secretion, abnormal blood pressure, and impaired resistance to cardiac injury. In contrast, up-regulation of KATP channel surface expression may be protective, for example, by mediating the beneficial effect of ischemic preconditioning...
November 13, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132237/neural-circuits-of-eating-behaviour-opportunities-for-therapeutic-development
#19
Peter G Clifton
Understanding of the neural and physiological substrates of hunger and satiety has increased rapidly over the last three decades, and pharmacological targets have already been identified for the treatment of obesity that has moved from pre-clinical screening to therapies approved by regulatory authorities. Initially, this review describes the way in which physiological signals of energy availability interact with hedonic and rewarding properties of food to modulate the neural circuitry that supports eating behaviour...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132133/endomorphins-promising-endogenous-opioid-peptides-for-the-development-of-novel-analgesics
#20
Zheng-Hui Gu, Bo Wang, Zhen-Zhen Kou, Yang Bai, Tao Chen, Yu-Lin Dong, Hui Li, Yun-Qing Li
Endomorphin-1 (EM1) and endomorphin-2 (EM2) are two endogenous ligands that belong to the opioid peptide family and have the highest affinity and selectivity for the µ-opioid receptor (MOR). The neuroanatomical distribution, ultrastructural features and neural circuitry of EM-containing neuronal structures have been morphologically demonstrated. In addition, the modulation effects of the EMs in different areas reflect their potential endogenous roles in many major physiological processes, including their remarkable roles in the transmission and modulation of noxious information...
November 13, 2017: Neuro-Signals
keyword
keyword
24565
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"