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Affective neuroscience neuroimaging

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870421/multimodal-neuroimaging-of-male-and-female-brain-structure-in-health-and-disease-across-the-life-span
#1
REVIEW
Neda Jahanshad, Paul M Thompson
Sex differences in brain development and aging are important to identify, as they may help to understand risk factors and outcomes in brain disorders that are more prevalent in one sex compared with the other. Brain imaging techniques have advanced rapidly in recent years, yielding detailed structural and functional maps of the living brain. Even so, studies are often limited in sample size, and inconsistent findings emerge, one example being varying findings regarding sex differences in the size of the corpus callosum...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867832/a-neuroimaging-point-of-view-on-the-diversity-of-social-cognition-evidence-for-extended-influence-of-experience-and-emotion-related-factors-on-face-processing
#2
REVIEW
Nathalie George
Faces are key social stimuli that convey a wealth of information essential for person perception and adaptive interpersonal behaviour. Studies in the domain of cognitive, affective, and social neuroscience have put in light that the processing of faces recruits specific visual regions and activates a distributed set of brain regions related to attentional, emotional, social, and memory processes associated with the perception of faces and the extraction of the numerous information attached to them. Studies using neuroimaging techniques such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have allowed localizing these brain regions and characterizing their functional properties...
2016: Culture and Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855424/arts-brain-and-cognition
#3
Vida Demarin, Marina Roje Bedeković, Marijana Bosnar Puretić, Marija Bošnjak Pašić
Art is a product of human creativity; it is a superior skill that can be learned by study, practice and observation. Modern neuroscience and neuroimaging enable study of the processes during artistic performance. Creative people have less marked hemispheric dominance. It was found that the right hemisphere is specialized for metaphoric thinking, playfulness, solution finding and synthesizing, it is the center of visualization, imagination and conceptualization, but the left hemisphere is still needed for artistic work to achieve balance...
December 2016: Psychiatria Danubina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798256/how-should-neuroscience-study-emotions-by-distinguishing-emotion-states-concepts-and-experiences
#4
Ralph Adolphs
In this debate with Lisa Feldman Barrett, I defend a view of emotions as biological functional states. Affective neuroscience studies emotions in this sense, but it also studies the conscious experience of emotion ("feelings"), our ability to attribute emotions to others and to animals ("attribution", "anthropomorphizing"), our ability to think and talk about emotion ("concepts of emotion", "semantic knowledge of emotion"), and the behaviors caused by an emotion ("expression of emotions", "emotional reactions")...
October 19, 2016: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779910/decoding-dynamic-brain-patterns-from-evoked-responses-a-tutorial-on-multivariate-pattern-analysis-applied-to-time-series-neuroimaging-data
#5
Tijl Grootswagers, Susan G Wardle, Thomas A Carlson
Multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) or brain decoding methods have become standard practice in analyzing fMRI data. Although decoding methods have been extensively applied in brain-computer interfaces, these methods have only recently been applied to time series neuroimaging data such as MEG and EEG to address experimental questions in cognitive neuroscience. In a tutorial style review, we describe a broad set of options to inform future time series decoding studies from a cognitive neuroscience perspective...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744097/the-application-of-neuroimaging-to-social-inequity-and-language-disparity-a-cautionary-examination
#6
REVIEW
Monica E Ellwood-Lowe, Matthew D Sacchet, Ian H Gotlib
In the nascent field of the cognitive neuroscience of socioeconomic status (SES), researchers are using neuroimaging to examine how growing up in poverty affects children's neurocognitive development, particularly their language abilities. In this review we highlight difficulties inherent in the frequent use of reverse inference to interpret SES-related abnormalities in brain regions that support language. While there is growing evidence suggesting that SES moderates children's developing brain structure and function, no studies to date have elucidated explicitly how these neural findings are related to variations in children's language abilities, or precisely what it is about SES that underlies or contributes to these differences...
December 2016: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27688155/sex-and-gender-affect-the-social-brain-beyond-simplicity
#7
REVIEW
Marina A Pavlova
As the most fascinating, complex, and dynamic part of our organism, the human brain is shaped by many interacting factors that not only are of neurobiological (including sex hormones) and environmental origin but are also sociocultural in their very nature (such as social roles). Gender is one of these factors. Most neurological, neurodevelopmental, neuropsychiatric, and psychosomatic disorders are characterized by impairments in visual social cognition (primarily body language reading and face perception) and a skewed sex ratio: females and males are affected differently in terms of clinical picture, prevalence, and severity...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27635795/nonlinear-associations-between-human-values-and-neuroanatomy
#8
George Zacharopoulos, Paul H P Hanel, Thomas M Lancaster, Niklas Ihssen, Mark Drakesmith, Sonya Foley, Gregory R Maio, David E J Linden
Human values guide behavior and the smooth functioning of societies. Schwartz's circumplex model of values predicts a sinusoidal waveform in relations between ratings of the importance of diverse human value types (e.g., achievement, benevolence) and any variables psychologically relevant to them. In this neuroimaging study, we examined these nonlinear associations between values types and brain structure. In 85 participants, we found the predicted sinusoidal relationship between ratings of values types and two measures of white matter (WM), volume and myelin volume fraction, as well as for grey matter (GM) parameters in several frontal regions...
September 21, 2016: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27596928/towards-tunable-consensus-clustering-for-studying-functional-brain-connectivity-during-affective-processing
#9
Chao Liu, Basel Abu-Jamous, Elvira Brattico, Asoke K Nandi
In the past decades, neuroimaging of humans has gained a position of status within neuroscience, and data-driven approaches and functional connectivity analyses of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data are increasingly favored to depict the complex architecture of human brains. However, the reliability of these findings is jeopardized by too many analysis methods and sometimes too few samples used, which leads to discord among researchers. We propose a tunable consensus clustering paradigm that aims at overcoming the clustering methods selection problem as well as reliability issues in neuroimaging by means of first applying several analysis methods (three in this study) on multiple datasets and then integrating the clustering results...
May 26, 2016: International Journal of Neural Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27477808/placebo-related-effects-a-meta-narrative-review-of-conceptualization-mechanisms-and-their-relevance-in-rheumatology
#10
Joël Coste, Sébastien Montel
For decades in medicine, the placebo effect has been conceptualized as a subjective psychological effect associated with an inert substance and considered to be a nuisance noise in the assessment of therapeutic effects in clinical trials. However, research on placebo has undergone substantial developments since the mid-1980s in several fields of knowledge (including methodology, psychology and neurosciences) that challenge this traditional view. Using a meta-narrative approach, this review of conceptualizations, determinants, mechanisms and models of placebo effects shows that placebo effects are genuine biopsychosocial phenomena strongly affected by context and factors surrounding the patient and treatments...
July 31, 2016: Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27340019/neurology-of-ecstatic-religious-and-similar-experiences-ecstatic-orgasmic-and-musicogenic-seizures-stendhal-syndrome-and-autoscopic-phenomena
#11
M Arias
All human experiences, including mystical and religious ones, are the result of brain functional activity. Thanks to the study of cases of ecstatic epilepsy with structural (MRI) and functional neuroimaging (fMRI, PET, SPECT) and neurophysiological technologies (recording and stimulation with intracranial electrodes), we now have a better knowledge of certain mental states which involve pleasant and affective symptoms and clarity of mind. These ecstatic experiences are thought to be caused by the activation of the anterior insular cortex and some neuronal networks (basically related to mirror neurons and salience) participating in introspection, social cognition, memory, and emotional processes...
June 20, 2016: Neurología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Neurología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27339690/with-love-from-me-to-you-embedding-social-interactions-in-affective-neuroscience
#12
REVIEW
Gadi Gilam, Talma Hendler
Human emotional experiences naturally occur while interacting in a spontaneous, dynamic and response contingent fashion with other humans. This resonates with both theoretical considerations as well as neuroimaging findings that illustrate the nexus between the "social" and "emotional" brain suggesting a domain-general organization of the brain. Nevertheless, most knowledge in affective neuroscience stems from studying the brain in isolation from its natural social environment. Whether social interactions are constitutive or not to the understanding of other people's intentions, incorporating such interactions is clearly required for ecological validity...
September 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27292322/animating-brains
#13
Cornelius Borck
A recent paper famously accused the rising field of social neuroscience of using faulty statistics under the catchy title 'Voodoo Correlations in Social Neuroscience'. This Special Issue invites us to take this claim as the starting point for a cross-cultural analysis: in which meaningful ways can recent research in the burgeoning field of functional imaging be described as, contrasted with, or simply compared to animistic practices? And what light does such a reading shed on the dynamics and effectiveness of a century of brain research into higher mental functions? Reviewing the heated debate from 2009 around recent trends in neuroimaging as a possible candidate for current instances of 'soul catching', the paper will then compare these forms of primarily image-based brain research with older regimes, revolving around the deciphering of the brain's electrical activity...
July 2016: Medical History
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27133227/decoding-the-nature-of-emotion-in-the-brain
#14
REVIEW
Philip A Kragel, Kevin S LaBar
A central, unresolved problem in affective neuroscience is understanding how emotions are represented in nervous system activity. After prior localization approaches largely failed, researchers began applying multivariate statistical tools to reconceptualize how emotion constructs might be embedded in large-scale brain networks. Findings from pattern analyses of neuroimaging data show that affective dimensions and emotion categories are uniquely represented in the activity of distributed neural systems that span cortical and subcortical regions...
June 2016: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26971941/a-spherical-brain-mapping-of-mr-images-for-the-detection-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#15
F J Martinez-Murcia, J M Górriz, J Ramírez, A Ortiz, For The Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is of fundamental importance in neuroscience, providing good contrast and resolution, as well as not being considered invasive. Despite the development of newer techniques involving radiopharmaceuticals, it is still a recommended tool in Alzheimer's Disease (AD) neurological practice to assess neurodegeneration, and recent research suggests that it could reveal changes in the brain even before the symptomatology appears. In this paper we propose a method that performs a Spherical Brain Mapping, using different measures to project the three-dimensional MR brain images onto two-dimensional maps revealing statistical characteristics of the tissue...
2016: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26954598/a-cognitive-neuroscience-view-of-voice-processing-abnormalities-in-schizophrenia-a-window-into-auditory-verbal-hallucinations
#16
Tatiana Conde, Oscar F Gonçalves, Ana P Pinheiro
Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) are a core symptom of schizophrenia. Like "real" voices, AVH carry a rich amount of linguistic and paralinguistic cues that convey not only speech, but also affect and identity, information. Disturbed processing of voice identity, affective, and speech information has been reported in patients with schizophrenia. More recent evidence has suggested a link between voice-processing abnormalities and specific clinical symptoms of schizophrenia, especially AVH. It is still not well understood, however, to what extent these dimensions are impaired and how abnormalities in these processes might contribute to AVH...
March 2016: Harvard Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26946503/the-social-neuroscience-of-interpersonal-emotions
#17
Laura Müller-Pinzler, Sören Krach, Ulrike M Krämer, Frieder M Paulus
In our daily lives, we constantly engage in reciprocal interactions with other individuals and represent ourselves in the context of our surrounding social world. Within social interactions, humans often experience interpersonal emotions such as embarrassment, shame, guilt, or pride. How interpersonal emotions are processed on the neural systems level is of major interest for social neuroscience research. While the configuration of laboratory settings in general is constraining for emotion research, recent neuroimaging investigations came up with new approaches to implement socially interactive and immersive scenarios for the real-life investigation of interpersonal emotions...
March 6, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26912269/the-neural-correlates-of-happiness-a-review-of-pet-and-fmri-studies-using-autobiographical-recall-methods
#18
REVIEW
Angelo Suardi, Igor Sotgiu, Tommaso Costa, Franco Cauda, Maria Rusconi
Although very difficult to define, happiness is becoming a core concept within contemporary psychology and affective neuroscience. In the last two decades, the increased use of neuroimaging techniques has facilitated empirical study of the neural correlates of happiness. This area of research utilizes procedures that induce positive emotion and mood, and autobiographical recall is one of the most widely used and effective approaches. In this article, we review eight positron emission tomography and seven functional magnetic resonance imaging studies that have investigated happiness by using autobiographical recall to induce emotion...
June 2016: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26855233/so-close-yet-so-far-motor-anomalies-impacting-on-social-functioning-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#19
REVIEW
Luca Casartelli, Massimo Molteni, Luca Ronconi
Difficulties in the social domain and motor anomalies have been widely investigated in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). However, they have been generally considered as independent, and therefore tackled separately. Recent advances in neuroscience have hypothesized that the cortical motor system can play a role not only as a controller of elementary physical features of movement, but also in a complex domain as social cognition. Here, going beyond previous studies on ASD that described difficulties in the motor and in the social domain separately, we focus on the impact of motor mechanisms anomalies on social functioning...
April 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26728171/mapping-social-interactions-the-science-of-proxemics
#20
Cade McCall
Interpersonal distance and gaze provide a wealth of information during face-to-face social interactions. These "proxemic" behaviors offer a window into everyday social cognition by revealing interactants' affective states (e.g., interpersonal attitudes) and cognitive responses (e.g., social attention). Here we provide a brief overview of the social psychological literature in this domain. We focus on new techniques for experimentally manipulating and measuring proxemics, including the use of immersive virtual environments and digital motion capture...
January 5, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
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