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Affective neuroscience neuroimaging

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754412/affective-neuroscience-of-self-generated-thought
#1
REVIEW
Kieran C R Fox, Jessica R Andrews-Hanna, Caitlin Mills, Matthew L Dixon, Jelena Markovic, Evan Thompson, Kalina Christoff
Despite increasing scientific interest in self-generated thought-mental content largely independent of the immediate environment-there has yet to be any comprehensive synthesis of the subjective experience and neural correlates of affect in these forms of thinking. Here, we aim to develop an integrated affective neuroscience encompassing many forms of self-generated thought-normal and pathological, moderate and excessive, in waking and in sleep. In synthesizing existing literature on this topic, we reveal consistent findings pertaining to the prevalence, valence, and variability of emotion in self-generated thought, and highlight how these factors might interact with self-generated thought to influence general well-being...
May 12, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660415/towards-a-model-based-cognitive-neuroscience-of-stopping-a-neuroimaging-perspective
#2
REVIEW
Alexandra Sebastian, Birte U Forstmann, Dora Matzke
Our understanding of the neural correlates of response inhibition has greatly advanced over the last decade. Nevertheless the specific function of regions within this stopping network remains controversial. The traditional neuroimaging approach cannot capture many processes affecting stopping performance. Despite the shortcomings of the traditional neuroimaging approach and a great progress in mathematical and computational models of stopping, model-based cognitive neuroscience approaches in human neuroimaging studies are largely lacking...
April 13, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604454/bayesian-convolutional-neural-network-based-mri-brain-extraction-on-nonhuman-primates
#3
Gengyan Zhao, Fang Liu, Jonathan A Oler, Mary E Meyerand, Ned H Kalin, Rasmus M Birn
Brain extraction or skull stripping of magnetic resonance images (MRI) is an essential step in neuroimaging studies, the accuracy of which can severely affect subsequent image processing procedures. Current automatic brain extraction methods demonstrate good results on human brains, but are often far from satisfactory on nonhuman primates, which are a necessary part of neuroscience research. To overcome the challenges of brain extraction in nonhuman primates, we propose a fully-automated brain extraction pipeline combining deep Bayesian convolutional neural network (CNN) and fully connected three-dimensional (3D) conditional random field (CRF)...
March 28, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29590280/the-emerging-clinical-neuroscience-of-autism-spectrum-disorder-a-review
#4
Rebecca A Muhle, Hannah E Reed, Katharine A Stratigos, Jeremy Veenstra-VanderWeele
Importance: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a highly prevalent disorder, and community psychiatrists are likely to treat many individuals with ASD during their clinical practice. This clinical case challenge describes a routine evaluation of irritability and self-injury in a preschool-aged child who meets the criteria for ASD. The case also illustrates the importance of known risk factors for ASD, such as chromosomal deletion and prematurity. This clinical neuroscience article seeks to educate the clinician of current avenues of research that can inform and may already affect clinical practice for this patient, while providing a preview of research that may yield biological treatments for ASD within the next decade...
March 28, 2018: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29512030/task-dependent-evaluative-processing-of-moral-and-emotional-content-during-comprehension-an-erp-study
#5
Angelika Kunkel, Ruth Filik, Ian Grant Mackenzie, Hartmut Leuthold
Recently, we showed that when participants passively read about moral transgressions (e.g., adultery), they implicitly engage in the evaluative (good-bad) categorization of incoming information, as indicated by a larger event-related brain potential (ERP) positivity to immoral than to moral scenarios (Leuthold, Kunkel, Mackenzie, & Filik in Social, Cognitive, and Affective Neuroscience, 10, 1021-1029, 2015). Behavioral and neuroimaging studies indicated that explicit moral tasks prioritize the semantic-cognitive analysis of incoming information but that implicit tasks, as used in Leuthold et al...
April 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465896/insights-into-the-structure-and-function-of-the-hippocampal-formation-relevance-to-parkinson-s-disease
#6
REVIEW
Orsolya Györfi, Helga Nagy, Magdolna Bokor, Szabolcs Kéri
The link between the hippocampus and declarative memory dysfunctions following the removal of the medial temporal lobe opened unexplored fields in neuroscience. In the first part of our review, we summarized current theoretical frameworks discussing the role of hippocampus in learning and memory. Several theories are highlighted suggesting that the hippocampus is responsible for assembling stimulus elements into a unitary representation that later can be utilized to simulate future events. The hippocampal formation has been implicated in a growing number of disorders, from neurodegenerative diseases to atypical cognitive ageing and depression...
January 30, 2018: Ideggyógyászati Szemle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459373/neurobiological-mechanisms-of-responding-to-injustice
#7
Mirre Stallen, Filippo Rossi, Amber Heijne, Ale Smidts, Carsten K W De Dreu, Alan G Sanfey
People are particularly sensitive to injustice. Accordingly, deeper knowledge regarding the processes that underlie the perception of injustice, and the subsequent decisions to either punish transgressors or compensate victims, is of important social value. By combining a novel decision-making paradigm with functional neuroimaging, we identified specific brain networks that are involved with both the perception of, and response to, social injustice, with reward-related regions preferentially involved in punishment compared with compensation...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458188/robust-is-not-necessarily-reliable-from-within-subjects-fmri-contrasts-to-between-subjects-comparisons
#8
Zachary P Infantolino, Katherine R Luking, Colin L Sauder, John J Curtin, Greg Hajcak
Advances in cognitive and affective neuroscience come largely from within-subjects comparisons, in which the functional significance of neural activity is determined by contrasting two or more experimental conditions. Clinical and social neuroscience studies have attempted to leverage between-subject variability in such condition differences to better understand psychopathology and other individual differences. Shifting from within-to between-subjects comparisons requires that measures have adequate internal consistency to function as individual difference variables...
June 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29378297/deconstructing-arousal-into-wakeful-autonomic-and-affective-varieties
#9
REVIEW
Ajay B Satpute, Philip A Kragel, Lisa Feldman Barrett, Tor D Wager, Marta Bianciardi
Arousal plays a central role in a wide variety of phenomena, including wakefulness, autonomic function, affect and emotion. Despite its importance, it remains unclear as to how the neural mechanisms for arousal are organized across them. In this article, we review neuroscience findings for three of the most common origins of arousal: wakeful arousal, autonomic arousal, and affective arousal. Our review makes two overarching points. First, research conducted primarily in non-human animals underscores the importance of several subcortical nuclei that contribute to various sources of arousal, motivating the need for an integrative framework...
January 31, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29371263/tulsa-1000-a-naturalistic-study-protocol-for-multilevel-assessment-and-outcome-prediction-in-a-large-psychiatric-sample
#10
Teresa A Victor, Sahib S Khalsa, W Kyle Simmons, Justin S Feinstein, Jonathan Savitz, Robin L Aupperle, Hung-Wen Yeh, Jerzy Bodurka, Martin P Paulus
INTRODUCTION: Although neuroscience has made tremendous progress towards understanding the basic neural circuitry underlying important processes such as attention, memory and emotion, little progress has been made in applying these insights to psychiatric populations to make clinically meaningful treatment predictions. The overall aim of the Tulsa 1000 (T-1000) study is to use the NIMH Research Domain Criteria framework in order to establish a robust and reliable dimensional set of variables that quantifies the positive and negative valence, cognition and arousal domains, including interoception, to generate clinically useful treatment predictions...
January 24, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275186/neuroimaging-of-person-perception-a-social-visual-interface
#11
REVIEW
Jeffrey A Brooks, Jonathan B Freeman
The visual system is able to extract an enormous amount of socially relevant information from the face, including social categories, personality traits, and emotion. While facial features may be directly tied to certain perceptions, emerging research suggests that top-down social cognitive factors (e.g., stereotypes, social-conceptual knowledge, prejudice) considerably influence and shape the perceptual process. The rapid integration of higher-order social cognitive processes into visual perception can give rise to systematic biases in face perception and may potentially act as a mediating factor for intergroup behavioral and evaluative biases...
December 21, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203849/an-integrated-brain-behavior-model-for-working-memory
#12
D A Moser, G E Doucet, A Ing, D Dima, G Schumann, R M Bilder, S Frangou
Working memory (WM) is a central construct in cognitive neuroscience because it comprises mechanisms of active information maintenance and cognitive control that underpin most complex cognitive behavior. Individual variation in WM has been associated with multiple behavioral and health features including demographic characteristics, cognitive and physical traits and lifestyle choices. In this context, we used sparse canonical correlation analyses (sCCAs) to determine the covariation between brain imaging metrics of WM-network activation and connectivity and nonimaging measures relating to sensorimotor processing, affective and nonaffective cognition, mental health and personality, physical health and lifestyle choices derived from 823 healthy participants derived from the Human Connectome Project...
December 5, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163257/free-will-and-the-brain-disease-model-of-addiction-the-not-so-seductive-allure-of-neuroscience-and-its-modest-impact-on-the-attribution-of-free-will-to-people-with-an-addiction
#13
Eric Racine, Sebastian Sattler, Alice Escande
Free will has been the object of debate in the context of addiction given that addiction could compromise an individual's ability to choose freely between alternative courses of action. Proponents of the brain-disease model of addiction have argued that a neuroscience perspective on addiction reduces the attribution of free will because it relocates the cause of the disorder to the brain rather than to the person, thereby diminishing the blame attributed to the person with an addiction. Others have worried that such displacement of free will attribution would make the person with a drug addiction less responsible...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017626/case-series-of-mild-behavioral-impairment-toward-an-understanding-of-the-early-stages-of-neurodegenerative-diseases-affecting-behavior-and-cognition
#14
Alicja Cieslak, Eric E Smith, John Lysack, Zahinoor Ismail
Mild behavioral impairment (MBI) is characterized by later life acquired, sustained, and impactful neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) of any severity that cannot be better accounted for by other formal medical and psychiatric nosology. MBI is an "at risk" state for incident cognitive decline and dementia, and for some, MBI is the index manifestation of neurodegeneration, observed in advance of cognitive impairment. Initially described in Frontotemporal Dementia (FTD), MBI evolved to describe a preclinical stage of all cause dementia, and has been operationalized in the International Society to Advance Alzheimer's Research and Treatment-Alzheimer's Association (ISTAART-AA) proposed research diagnostic criteria...
February 2018: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28949821/logical-and-methodological-issues-affecting-genetic-studies-of-humans-reported-in-top-neuroscience-journals
#15
Clara R Grabitz, Katherine S Button, Marcus R Munafò, Dianne F Newbury, Cyril R Pernet, Paul A Thompson, Dorothy V M Bishop
Genetics and neuroscience are two areas of science that pose particular methodological problems because they involve detecting weak signals (i.e., small effects) in noisy data. In recent years, increasing numbers of studies have attempted to bridge these disciplines by looking for genetic factors associated with individual differences in behavior, cognition, and brain structure or function. However, different methodological approaches to guarding against false positives have evolved in the two disciplines. To explore methodological issues affecting neurogenetic studies, we conducted an in-depth analysis of 30 consecutive articles in 12 top neuroscience journals that reported on genetic associations in nonclinical human samples...
January 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887387/neural-architecture-of-selective-stopping-strategies-distinct-brain-activity-patterns-are-associated-with-attentional-capture-but-not-with-outright-stopping
#16
Alexandra Sebastian, Kora Rössler, Michael Wibral, Arian Mobascher, Klaus Lieb, Patrick Jung, Oliver Tüscher
In stimulus-selective stop-signal tasks, the salient stop signal needs attentional processing before genuine response inhibition is completed. Differential prefrontal involvement in attentional capture and response inhibition has been linked to the right inferior frontal junction (IFJ) and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC), respectively. Recently, it has been suggested that stimulus-selective stopping may be accomplished by the following different strategies: individuals may selectively inhibit their response only upon detecting a stop signal (independent discriminate then stop strategy) or unselectively whenever detecting a stop or attentional capture signal (stop then discriminate strategy)...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883803/basic-emotions-in-human-neuroscience-neuroimaging-and-beyond
#17
REVIEW
Alessia Celeghin, Matteo Diano, Arianna Bagnis, Marco Viola, Marco Tamietto
The existence of so-called 'basic emotions' and their defining attributes represents a long lasting and yet unsettled issue in psychology. Recently, neuroimaging evidence, especially related to the advent of neuroimaging meta-analytic methods, has revitalized this debate in the endeavor of systems and human neuroscience. The core theme focuses on the existence of unique neural bases that are specific and characteristic for each instance of basic emotion. Here we review this evidence, outlining contradictory findings, strengths and limits of different approaches...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761076/-embodied-body-language-an-electrical-neuroimaging-study-with-emotional-faces-and-bodies
#18
Marta Calbi, Monica Angelini, Vittorio Gallese, Maria Alessandra Umiltà
To date, most investigations in the field of affective neuroscience mainly focused on the processing of facial expressions, overlooking the exploration of emotional body language (EBL), its capability to express our emotions notwithstanding. Few electrophysiological studies investigated the time course and the neural correlates of EBL and the integration of face and body emotion-related information. The aim of the present study was to investigate both the time course and the neural correlates underlying the integration of affective information conveyed by faces and bodies...
July 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706080/power-up-a-reanalysis-of-power-failure-in-neuroscience-using-mixture-modeling
#19
Camilla L Nord, Vincent Valton, John Wood, Jonathan P Roiser
Recently, evidence for endemically low statistical power has cast neuroscience findings into doubt. If low statistical power plagues neuroscience, then this reduces confidence in the reported effects. However, if statistical power is not uniformly low, then such blanket mistrust might not be warranted. Here, we provide a different perspective on this issue, analyzing data from an influential study reporting a median power of 21% across 49 meta-analyses (Button et al., 2013). We demonstrate, using Gaussian mixture modeling, that the sample of 730 studies included in that analysis comprises several subcomponents so the use of a single summary statistic is insufficient to characterize the nature of the distribution...
August 23, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616997/emotion-and-the-prefrontal-cortex-an-integrative-review
#20
Matthew L Dixon, Ravi Thiruchselvam, Rebecca Todd, Kalina Christoff
The prefrontal cortex (PFC) plays a critical role in the generation and regulation of emotion. However, we lack an integrative framework for understanding how different emotion-related functions are organized across the entire expanse of the PFC, as prior reviews have generally focused on specific emotional processes (e.g., decision making) or specific anatomical regions (e.g., orbitofrontal cortex). Additionally, psychological theories and neuroscientific investigations have proceeded largely independently because of the lack of a common framework...
October 2017: Psychological Bulletin
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