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Neurotrauma

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132572/secondary-gains-advances-in-neurotrauma-management
#1
REVIEW
Brit Long, Alex Koyfman
Neurotrauma is a leading cause of death and is associated with many secondary injuries. A balance of mean arterial pressure (MAP) and intracranial pressure (ICP) is required to ensure adequate cerebral blood flow and cerebral perfusion pressure. Evaluation and management in the emergency department entails initial stabilization and resuscitation while assessing neurologic status. ICP management follows a tiered approach. Intubation requires consideration of preoxygenation, head of bed elevation, first pass success, and adequate analgesia and sedation...
February 2018: Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103039/the-need-to-separate-chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy-neuropathology-from-clinical-features
#2
Grant L Iverson, C Dirk Keene, George Perry, Rudolph J Castellani
There is tremendous recent interest in chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) in former collision sport athletes, civilians, and military veterans. This critical review places important recent research results into a historical context. In 2015, preliminary consensus criteria were developed for defining the neuropathology of CTE, which substantially narrowed the pathology previously reported to be characteristic. There are no agreed upon clinical criteria for diagnosis, although sets of criteria have been proposed for research purposes...
October 30, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095390/prediction-of-poor-prognosis-after-severe-head-injury-in-children-using-logistic-regression
#3
Rie Ichikawa, Yukihiro Maeda, Akiko Shibuya, Yoshimasa Umesato, Yoshiaki Kondo, Takeshi Maeda, Atsuo Yoshino, Shori Takahashi
OBJECTIVES: Head trauma is one of the main causes of death in childhood and often leaves severe disability with serious neurological damage. Appropriate treatment must be provided immediately to improve outcomes. This study was performed to identify factors associated with a poor prognosis at an early stage of severe head injury in children. METHODS: The subjects were registered in the Japan Neurotrauma Data Bank. They were 119 children (mean age, 8 years; male, 67...
October 31, 2017: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074609/social-intuition-and-social-information-in-physical-child-abuse-evaluation-and-diagnosis
#4
Heather T Keenan, Lawrence J Cook, Lenora M Olson, Tyler Bardsley, Kristine A Campbell
BACKGROUND: Poor and minority children with injuries concerning for abuse are evaluated and diagnosed for abuse differentially. We hypothesized that 2 steps in the decision-making process would influence evaluation and diagnosis: social intuition from meeting the family and objective social information associated with child abuse risk. METHODS: Between 2009 and 2013, 32 child abuse pediatricians (CAPs) submitted 730 child abuse consultations including original medical evaluations and diagnoses...
November 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070875/transcriptome-analysis-reveals-neuroprotective-aspects-of-human-reactive-astrocytes-induced-by-interleukin-1%C3%AE
#5
Daniel Boon Loong Teh, Ankshita Prasad, Wenxuan Jiang, Mohd Zacky Ariffin, Sanjay Khanna, Abha Belorkar, Limsoon Wong, Xiaogang Liu, Angelo H All
Reactive astrogliosis is a critical process in neuropathological conditions and neurotrauma. Although it has been suggested that it confers neuroprotective effects, the exact genomic mechanism has not been explored. The prevailing dogma of the role of astrogliosis in inhibition of axonal regeneration has been challenged by recent findings in rodent model's spinal cord injury, demonstrating its neuroprotection and axonal regeneration properties. We examined whether their neuroprotective and axonal regeneration potentials can be identify in human spinal cord reactive astrocytes in vitro...
October 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070632/retracing-your-footsteps-developmental-insights-to-spinal-network-plasticity-following-injury
#6
Celine Jean-Xavier, Simon A Sharples, Kyle A Mayr, Adam Parker Lognon, Patrick J Whelan
During development of the spinal cord, a precise interaction occurs between descending projections and sensory afferents with spinal networks that lead to expression of coordinated motor output. In the rodent, during the last embryonic week, motor output first occurs as regular bursts of spontaneous activity progressing to stochastic patterns of episodes that express bouts of coordinated rhythmic activity perinatally. Locomotor activity becomes functionally mature in the second postnatal week and is heralded by the onset of weight-bearing locomotion on the 8th-9th postnatal day...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053028/product-of-the-neurotrauma-symposium-2015
#7
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: British Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036831/dementia-pugilistica-revisited
#8
Rudy J Castellani, George Perry
 Extensive exposure of boxers to neurotrauma in the early 20th century led to the so-called punch drunk syndrome, which was formally recognized in the medical literature in 1928. "Punch drunk" terminology was replaced by the less derisive 'dementia pugilistica' in 1937. In the early case material, the diagnosis of dementia pugilistica required neurological deficits, including slurring dysarthria, ataxia, pyramidal signs, extrapyramidal signs, memory impairment, and personality changes, although the specific clinical substrate has assumed lesser importance in recent years with a shift in focus on molecular pathogenesis...
October 8, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028747/nervous-system-delivery-of-antilysophosphatidic-acid-antibody-by-nasal-application-attenuates-mechanical-allodynia-after-traumatic-brain-injury-in-rats
#9
Andreas Eisenried, Anders C N Meidahl, Michael Klukinov, Alexander Z Tzabazis, Roger A Sabbadini, J David Clark, David C Yeomans
Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a bioactive lipid that impacts neurological outcomes after neurotrauma by inhibiting neuroregeneration, promoting inflammation, and contributing to behavioral deficits. Blocking LPA signaling with a novel anti-LPA monoclonal antibody (mAb) is neuroprotective after traumatic brain injury (TBI) if given to injured animals whose blood-brain barrier (BBB) has been compromised. It is hypothesized that the anti-LPA mAb could improve chronic pain initiated by TBI. However, poor brain penetration after systemic application of the antibody makes access to the central nervous system (CNS) problematic in situations where the BBB is intact...
November 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028399/is-myelin-basic-protein-a-potential-biomarker-of-brain-cancer
#10
M G Zavialova, V E Shevchenko, E N Nikolaev, V G Zgoda
Myelin basic protein is a potential biomarker for the central nervous system diseases in which the myelin sheath is destroyed. Using pseudo-selected reaction monitoring and the method of standard additions, we have measured the myelin basic protein level in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with neurotrauma (n = 6), chronic neurodegenerative diseases (n = 2) and brain cancer (n = 5). Myelin basic protein was detected only in four out of five cerebrospinal fluid samples of patients with brain cancer...
August 2017: European Journal of Mass Spectrometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994300/in-vitro-models-as-a-platform-to-investigate-traumatic-brain-injury
#11
REVIEW
Ashwin Kumaria
Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) remains a significant cause of mortality and morbidity, affecting individuals of all age groups. Much remains to be learned about its complex pathophysiology, with a view to designing effective neuroprotective strategies to protect sublethally injured brain tissue that would otherwise die in secondary injury processes. Experimental in vivo models offer the potential to study TBI in the laboratory, however, treatments that were neuroprotective in animals have, thus far, largely failed to translate in human clinical studies...
September 2017: Alternatives to Laboratory Animals: ATLA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991097/reflections-on-50-years-of-neuroscience-nursing-publication-trends-in-neurotrauma
#12
Molly McNett, Megan Keiser, Heather Douglas, Norma D McNair
In 2018, the American Association of Neuroscience Nurses will celebrate its 50th anniversary as the premier member organization for neuroscience nurses. In recent decades, one of the highest rated member benefits has been the ability for members to join special focus groups (SFGs). The SFGs were initiated to allow an avenue for information sharing and communication for neuroscience nurses in a variety of subspecialties. In this anniversary edition, the neurotrauma SFG presents a review of trends in the publication of articles in the Journal of Neuroscience Nursing related to neurotrauma...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Nursing: Journal of the American Association of Neuroscience Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987162/neurotrauma
#13
Colin Smith
Traumatic brain injury remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality throughout the world, affecting young and old alike. Pathologic data have been developed through observations of human autopsies and developing animal models to investigate mechanisms, although animal models do not represent the polypathology of human brain injury and there are likely to be significant differences in the anatomic basis of injury and cellular responses between species. Traumatic brain injury can be defined pathologically as either focal or diffuse, and can be considered to be either primary, directly related to the force associated with the neurotrauma, or secondary, developing as a downstream consequence of the neurotrauma...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981339/preclinical-modelling-of-militarily-relevant-traumatic-brain-injuries-challenges-and-recommendations-for-future-directions
#14
Ibolja Cernak, Donald G Stein, Gregory A Elder, Stephn Ahlers, Kenneth Curley, Ralph G DePalma, John Duda, Milos Ikonomovic, Grant L Iverson, Firas Kobeissy, Vassilis E Koliatsos, Michael J Leggieri, Anthony M Pacifico, Douglas H Smith, Raymond Swanson, Floyd J Thompson, Frank C Tortella
As a follow-up to the 2008 state-of-the-art (SOTA) conference on traumatic brain injuries (TBIs), the 2015 event organized by the United States Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Office of Research and Development (ORD) analysed the knowledge gained over the last 7 years as it relates to basic scientific methods, experimental findings, diagnosis, therapy, and rehabilitation of TBIs and blast-induced neurotraumas (BINTs). The current article summarizes the discussions and recommendations of the scientific panel attending the Preclinical Modeling and Therapeutic Development Workshop of the conference, with special emphasis on factors slowing research progress and recommendations for ways of addressing the most significant pitfalls...
2017: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936094/prevention-of-neurotrauma-an-evolving-matter
#15
Samer Hoz, Luis Rafael Moscote-Salazar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887487/trkb-enhancer-facilitates-functional-recovery-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#16
John Marshall, Joanna Szmydynger-Chodobska, Mengia S Rioult-Pedotti, Kara Lau, Andrea T Chin, Siva K Reddy Kotla, Rakesh Kumar Tiwari, Keykavous Parang, Steven W Threlkeld, Adam Chodobski
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a key player in regulating synaptic strength and learning, is dysregulated following traumatic brain injury (TBI), suggesting that stimulation of BDNF signaling pathways may facilitate functional recovery. This study investigates whether CN2097, a peptidomimetic ligand which targets the synaptic scaffold protein, postsynaptic density protein 95, to enhance downstream signaling of tropomyosin-related kinase B, a receptor for BDNF, can improve neurological function after TBI...
September 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883806/functional-neuroimaging-in-traumatic-brain-injury-from-nodes-to-networks
#17
REVIEW
John D Medaglia
Since the invention of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), thousands of studies in healthy and clinical samples have enlightened our understanding of the organization of cognition in the human brain and neuroplastic changes following brain disease and injury. Increasingly, studies involve analyses rooted in complex systems theory and analysis applied to clinical samples. Given the complexity in available approaches, concise descriptions of the theoretical motivation of network techniques and their relationship to traditional approaches and theory are necessary...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877447/limiting-oxidative-stress-following-neurotrauma-with-a-combination-of-ion-channel-inhibitors
#18
Hannah R Milbourn, Lillian M Toomey, Nikolas Gavriel, Chloe G G Gray, Alexander H Gough, Marcus K Giacci, Melinda Fitzgerald
Following injury to the central nervous system, secondary degeneration is mediated by Ca2+ imbalances and overproduction of reactive oxygen species from mitochondria, and is associated with myelin deficits and loss of function. Preventing intracellular Ca2+ influx at the acute phase of injury is a potential strategy for limiting these deficits and preserving function. The use of single ion channel inhibitors has had little success in attenuating morphological and functional deficits, potentially due to the many pathways by which calcium can traverse the cell membrane...
June 2017: Discovery Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877108/prevention-of-heel-pressure-injuries-and-plantar-flexion-contractures-with-use-of-a-heel-protector-in-high-risk-neurotrauma-medical-and-surgical-intensive-care-units-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#19
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Tina Meyers
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to compare the use of a heel protector to standard of care (pillows) in the prevention of hospital-acquired pressure injuries (HAPI) of the heels and prevention of plantar flexion contractures. DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial. SUBJECTS AND SETTING: The study took place on a surgical intensive care unit, medical intensive care unit, and neurotrauma intensive care unit. Inclusion criteria were a minimum of 5 days of sedation related to care for a critical illness, immobility for 6 to 8 hours before study initiation, a Braden Scale for Pressure Sore Risk score 18 or less, and a mobility subscale score 2 or less...
September 2017: Journal of Wound, Ostomy, and Continence Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874206/variation-in-monitoring-and-treatment-policies-for-intracranial-hypertension-in-traumatic-brain-injury-a-survey-in-66-neurotrauma-centers-participating-in-the-center-tbi-study
#20
Maryse C Cnossen, Jilske A Huijben, Mathieu van der Jagt, Victor Volovici, Thomas van Essen, Suzanne Polinder, David Nelson, Ari Ercole, Nino Stocchetti, Giuseppe Citerio, Wilco C Peul, Andrew I R Maas, David Menon, Ewout W Steyerberg, Hester F Lingsma
BACKGROUND: No definitive evidence exists on how intracranial hypertension should be treated in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). It is therefore likely that centers and practitioners individually balance potential benefits and risks of different intracranial pressure (ICP) management strategies, resulting in practice variation. The aim of this study was to examine variation in monitoring and treatment policies for intracranial hypertension in patients with TBI. METHODS: A 29-item survey on ICP monitoring and treatment was developed on the basis of literature and expert opinion, and it was pilot-tested in 16 centers...
September 6, 2017: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
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