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Neurotrauma

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891038/accessory-atlantoaxial-ligament-avulsion-fracture-of-the-axis-are-there-any-clinical-implications
#1
Hamid Reza Niknejad, Frank van Calenbergh, Philippe Demaerel, Johannes van Loon
Injuries to the craniocervical support structures are frequently observed in neurotrauma cases. Stability of this region is of vital importance. Literature has mainly focused on three major ligaments of the craniocervical junction: The tectorial membrane, the transverse ligament, and the alar ligaments. However, the accessory atlantoaxial ligament (ALL) also seems to be involved in craniocervical stability as shown in cadaveric specimens. Still, the biomechanical importance of this structure needs to be determined, especially in trauma settings...
October 2016: Journal of Craniovertebral Junction and Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886628/eeg-utilization-in-canadian-intensive-care-units-a-multicentre-prospective-observational-study
#2
Andrea Park, Martin Chapman, Victoria A McCredie, Derek Debicki, Teneille Gofton, Loretta Norton, J Gordon Boyd
PURPOSE: We have previously shown that electroencephalography (EEG) may be an underutilized monitoring modality in a single general medical-surgical ICU, that does not have a specific neurocritical care consultation service or neurocritical care unit. The present study was designed to describe the pattern of EEG utilization across 3 academic ICUs in Ontario, Canada that use different models of neurocritical care. METHOD: In this prospective multicentre observational study, ICU patients were screened weekly for 6 non-consecutive weeks to determine if they met the ESICM's recommendations or suggestions for EEG monitoring...
November 13, 2016: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27850548/910-comparing-oral-versus-intravenous-acetaminophen-for-temperature-control-in-a-neurotrauma-icu
#3
Jane Faris, Shawn Kohlhaas, Francis Dane, Kara Underhill
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834543/chronic-effects-of-neurotrauma-consortium
#4
David X Cifu, Kirsty J Dixon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834541/supervised-learning-technique-for-the-automated-identification-of-white-matter-hyperintensities-in-traumatic-brain-injury
#5
James R Stone, Elisabeth A Wilde, Brian A Taylor, David F Tate, Harvey Levin, Erin D Bigler, Randall S Scheibel, Mary R Newsome, Andrew R Mayer, Tracy Abildskov, Garrett M Black, Michael J Lennon, Gerald E York, Rajan Agarwal, Jorge DeVillasante, John L Ritter, Peter B Walker, Stephen T Ahlers, Nicholas J Tustison
BACKGROUND: White matter hyperintensities (WMHs) are foci of abnormal signal intensity in white matter regions seen with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). WMHs are associated with normal ageing and have shown prognostic value in neurological conditions such as traumatic brain injury (TBI). The impracticality of manually quantifying these lesions limits their clinical utility and motivates the utilization of machine learning techniques for automated segmentation workflows. METHODS: This study develops a concatenated random forest framework with image features for segmenting WMHs in a TBI cohort...
2016: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834540/quantitative-structural-neuroimaging-of-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-in-the-chronic-effects-of-neurotrauma-consortium-cenc-comparison-of-volumetric-data-within-and-across-scanners
#6
Elisabeth A Wilde, Erin D Bigler, Trevor Huff, Haonan Wang, Garrett M Black, Zachary P Christensen, Naomi Goodrich-Hunsaker, Jo Ann Petrie, Tracy Abildskov, Brian A Taylor, James R Stone, Nicholas J Tustison, Mary R Newsome, Harvey S Levin, Zili D Chu, Gerald E York, David F Tate
BACKGROUND: An important component of the multicentre Chronic Effects of Neurotrauma Consortium (CENC) project is the development of improved quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) methods, including volumetric analysis. Although many studies routinely employ quality assurance (QA) procedures including MR and human phantoms to promote accuracy and monitor site differences, few studies perform rigorous direct comparisons of these data nor report findings that enable inference regarding site-to-site comparability...
2016: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834538/the-chronic-effects-of-neurotrauma-consortium-cenc-multi-centre-observational-study-description-of-study-and-characteristics-of-early-participants
#7
W C Walker, W Carne, L M Franke, T Nolen, S D Dikmen, D X Cifu, K Wilson, H G Belanger, R Williams
PRIMARY OBJECTIVES: To establish and comprehensively evaluate a large cohort of US veterans who served in recent military conflicts in order to better understand possible chronic and late-life effects of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), including those that may stem from neurodegeneration. RESEARCH DESIGN: Cross-sectional and prospective longitudinal. METHODS AND PROCEDURES: Inclusion criteria are prior combat exposure and deployment(s) in Operation Enduring Freedom, Operation Iraqi Freedom or one of their follow-on conflicts (collectively OEF/OIF)...
2016: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834536/progression-of-tau-pathology-within-cholinergic-nucleus-basalis-neurons-in-chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy-a-chronic-effects-of-neurotrauma-consortium-study
#8
Elliott J Mufson, Sylvia E Perez, Muhammad Nadeem, Laura Mahady, Nicholas M Kanaan, Eric E Abrahamson, Milos D Ikonomovic, Fiona Crawford, Victor Alvarez, Thor Stein, Ann C McKee
OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that the nucleus basalis of Meynert (nbM), a cholinergic basal forebrain (CBF) cortical projection system, develops neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) during the progressive pathological stages of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) in the brain of athletes. METHOD: To characterize NFT pathology, tau-antibodies marking early, intermediate and late stages of NFT development in CBF tissue obtained at autopsy from eighteen former athletes and veterans with a history of repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) were used...
2016: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824799/the-glasgow-coma-scale-gcs-deciphering-the-motor-component-of-the-gcs
#9
Megan Maserati, Anita Fetzick, Ava Puccio
The Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) was developed to standardize the assessment of neurologically compromised patients, to assist in triaging severity of injury, and to direct management decisions for an individualized plan of care. This examination allows for frequent assessments to ascertain worsening of neurological symptoms that would warrant additional radiological scans or interventions. The GCS score is composed of three components: eye, verbal, and motor, with motor being the most difficult to assess. A need for clarification of the motor component of the GCS was identified in a neurotrauma intensive care unit (ICU) at a level 1 hospital in the United States...
December 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Nursing: Journal of the American Association of Neuroscience Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822197/biomechanical-responses-of-the-brain-in-swine-subject-to-free-field-blasts
#10
Ke Feng, Liying Zhang, Xin Jin, Chaoyang Chen, Srinivasu Kallakuri, Tal Saif, John Cavanaugh, Albert King
Blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI) is a signature wound of modern warfare. The current incomplete understanding of its injury mechanism impedes the development of strategies for effective protection of bTBI. Despite a considerable amount of experimental animal studies focused on the evaluation of brain neurotrauma caused by blast exposure, there is very limited knowledge on the biomechanical responses of the gyrenecephalic brain subjected to primary free-field blast waves imposed in vivo. This study aims to evaluate the external and internal mechanical responses of the brain against different levels of blast loading with Yucatan swine in free field...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27759956/a-positive-correlation-exists-between-neurotrauma-and-tgf-%C3%AE-1-containing-microglia-in-rats
#11
Chung-Ching Chio, Mao-Tsun Lin, Ching-Ping Chang, Hung-Jung Lin
BACKGROUND: Transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1) regulates many processes after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Both Neuro AiD™ (MLC601) and astragaloside (AST) attenuate microglia activation in rats with TBI. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether MLC601 or AST improves output of TBI by affecting microglial expression of TGF-β1. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (120 in number) were used to investigate the contribution of TGF-β1-containing microglia in the MLC601-mediated or the AST-mediated neuroprotection in the brain trauma condition using lateral fluid percussion injury...
December 2016: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27751922/neuropsychological-outcomes-in-patients-with-complicated-versus-uncomplicated-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-a-6-months-follow-up
#12
Vigneswaran Veeramuthu, Vairavan Narayanan, Norlisah Ramli, Aditya Hernowo, Vicknes Waran, Mark W Bondi, Lisa Delano-Wood, Dharmendra Ganesan
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the extent of persistent neuropsychological impairment in patients with complicated versus uncomplicated mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). METHODS: 61 patients with mTBI (GCS 13 to 15) were prospectively recruited, categorized according to baseline CT findings, and underwent neuropsychological assessment at initial admission (n=61) as well as at 6 month follow-up (n=30). A paired t-test, Cohen's d effect size calculation, and repeated measure ANOVA were used to establish the differences between the groups in terms of their neuropsychological performance...
October 14, 2016: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27738990/cognitive-fatigue-is-associated-with-reduced-anterior-internal-capsule-integrity-in-veterans-with-history-of-mild-to-moderate-traumatic-brain-injury
#13
Alexandra L Clark, Lisa Delano-Wood, Scott F Sorg, Madeleine L Werhane, Karen L Hanson, Dawn M Schiehser
No known studies have directly examined white matter microstructural correlates of cognitive fatigue post-TBI in a Veteran sample. We therefore investigated the relationship between cognitive fatigue and white matter integrity in Veterans with history of mild to moderate TBI (mmTBI). 59 Veterans (TBI = 34, Veteran Controls [VCs] = 25]) with and without history of mmTBI underwent structural 3T DTI scans and completed questionnaires related to cognitive fatigue and psychiatric symptoms. Tractography was employed on six regions of interest, including the anterior and posterior limbs of the internal capsule; genu; body and splenium of the corpus callosum; and cingulum bundle...
October 6, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27730386/transcriptional-and-epigenetic-regulation-in-injury-mediated-neuronal-dendritic-plasticity
#14
Ying Wang, Wen-Yuan Li, Zhi-Gang Li, Li-Xin Guan, Ling-Xiao Deng
Injury to the nervous system induces localized damage in neural structures and neuronal death through the primary insult, as well as delayed atrophy and impaired plasticity of the delicate dendritic fields necessary for interneuronal communication. Excitotoxicity and other secondary biochemical events contribute to morphological changes in neurons following injury. Evidence suggests that various transcription factors are involved in the dendritic response to injury and potential therapies. Transcription factors play critical roles in the intracellular regulation of neuronal morphological plasticity and dendritic growth and patterning...
October 11, 2016: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725216/specific-combinations-of-ion-channel-inhibitors-reduce-excessive-ca-2-influx-as-a-consequence-of-oxidative-stress-and-increase-neuronal-and-glial-cell-viability-in-vitro
#15
Ryan L O'Hare Doig, Carole A Bartlett, Nicole M Smith, Stuart I Hodgetts, Sarah A Dunlop, Livia Hool, Melinda Fitzgerald
Combinations of Ca(2+) channel inhibitors have been proposed as an effective means to prevent excess Ca(2+) flux and death of neurons and glia following neurotrauma in vivo. However, it is not yet known if beneficial outcomes such as improved viability have been due to direct effects on intracellular Ca(2+) concentrations. Here, the effects of combinations of Lomerizine (Lom), 2,3-dioxo-7-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)6-nitro-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-1-quinoxalinyl]acetic acid monohydrate (YM872), 3,5-dimethyl-1-adamantanamine (memantine (Mem)) and/or adenosine 5'-triphosphate periodate oxidized sodium salt (oxATP) to block voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels, Ca(2+) permeable α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors, NMDA receptors and purinergic P2X7 receptors (P2X7R) respectively, on Ca(2+) concentration and viability of rat primary mixed cortical (MC) cultures exposed to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) insult, were assessed...
December 17, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27723079/development-of-a-stretch-induced-neurotrauma-model-for-medium-throughput-screening-in-vitro-identification-of-rifampicin-as-a-neuroprotectant
#16
Isabel López-García, Domokos Gerő, Bartosz Szczesny, Petra Szoleczky, Gabor Olah, Katalin Módis, Kangling Zhang, Gao Jungling, Ping Wu, Lawrence C Sowers, Doug DeWitt, Donald S Prough, Csaba Szabo
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We hypothesized that an in vitro, stretch-based model of neural injury may be useful to identify compounds that decrease the cellular damage in neurotrauma. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: We screened three neural cell lines (B35, RN33B, SH-SY5Y) subjected to two differentiation methods and selected all-trans-retinoic acid-differentiated B35 rat neuroblastoma cells subjected to rapid stretch injury, coupled with a subthreshold concentration of H2 O2 , for the screen...
October 9, 2016: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720798/blast-waves-from-detonated-military-explosive-reduce-glur1-and-synaptophysin-levels-in-hippocampal-slice-cultures
#17
Marquitta Smith, Thuvan Piehler, Richard Benjamin, Karen L Farizatto, Morgan C Pait, Michael F Almeida, Vladimir V Ghukasyan, Ben A Bahr
Explosives create shockwaves that cause blast-induced neurotrauma, one of the most common types of traumatic brain injury (TBI) linked to military service. Blast-induced TBIs are often associated with reduced cognitive and behavioral functions due to a variety of factors. To study the direct effects of military explosive blasts on brain tissue, we removed systemic factors by utilizing rat hippocampal slice cultures. The long-term slice cultures were briefly sealed air-tight in serum-free medium, lowered into a 37°C water-filled tank, and small 1...
October 5, 2016: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27715315/alzheimer-s-disease-and-chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy-distinct-but-possibly-overlapping-disease-entities
#18
Ryan C Turner, Brandon P Lucke-Wold, Matthew J Robson, John M Lee, Julian E Bailes
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) and chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) have long been recognized as sharing some similar neuropathological features, mainly the presence of neurofibrilary tangles and hyperphosphorylated tau, but have generally been described as distinct entities. Evidence indicates that neurotrauma increases the risk of developing dementia and accelerates the progression of disease. Findings are emerging that CTE and AD may be present in the same patients. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: This study presents a series of previously unpublished cases, with one case demonstrating possible neurotrauma-related AD, one pure CTE, and an example of a case exhibiting features of both AD and CTE...
August 11, 2016: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693380/perturbation-of-redox-balance-after-thioredoxin-reductase-deficiency-interrupts-autophagy-lysosomal-degradation-pathway-and-enhances-cell-death-in-nutritionally-stressed-sh-sy5y-cells
#19
Pandian Nagakannan, Mohamed Ariff Iqbal, Albert Yeung, James A Thliveris, Mojgan Rastegar, Saeid Ghavami, Eftekhar Eftekharpour
Oxidative damage and aggregation of cellular proteins is a hallmark of neuronal cell death after neurotrauma and chronic neurodegenerative conditions. Autophagy and ubiquitin protease system are involved in degradation of protein aggregates, and interruption of their function is linked to apoptotic cell death in these diseases. Oxidative modification of cysteine groups in key molecular proteins has been linked to modification of cellular systems and cell death in these conditions. Glutathione and thioredoxin systems provide reducing protons that can effectively reverse protein modifications and promote cell survival...
September 28, 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27677672/neurobehavioral-testing-in-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-a-review-of-methods-and-current-findings-in-rodents
#20
Nefize Turan, Brandon A Miller, Robert A Heider, Maheen Nadeem, Iqbal Sayeed, Donald G Stein, Gustavo Pradilla
The most important aspect of a preclinical study seeking to develop a novel therapy for neurological diseases is whether the therapy produces any clinically relevant functional recovery. For this purpose, neurobehavioral tests are commonly used to evaluate the neuroprotective efficacy of treatments in a wide array of cerebrovascular diseases and neurotrauma. Their use, however, has been limited in experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage studies. After several randomized, double-blinded, controlled clinical trials repeatedly failed to produce a benefit in functional outcome despite some improvement in angiographic vasospasm, more rigorous methods of neurobehavioral testing became critical to provide a more comprehensive evaluation of the functional efficacy of proposed treatments...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
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