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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526435/the-bidirectional-gut-brain-microbiota-axis-as-a-potential-nexus-between-traumatic-brain-injury-inflammation-and-disease
#1
Mark H Sundman, Nan-Kuei Chen, Vignesh Subbian, Ying-Hui Chou
As head injuries and their sequelae have become an increasingly salient matter of public health, experts in the field have made great progress elucidating the biological processes occurring within the brain at the moment of injury and throughout the recovery thereafter. Given the extraordinary rate at which our collective knowledge of neurotrauma has grown, new insights may be revealed by examining the existing literature across disciplines with a new perspective. This article will aim to expand the scope of this rapidly evolving field of research beyond the confines of the central nervous system (CNS)...
May 16, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524074/neurotrauma-the-crosstalk-between-neurotrophins-and-inflammation-in-the-acutely-injured-brain
#2
REVIEW
Lindolfo da Silva Meirelles, Daniel Simon, Andrea Regner
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among young individuals worldwide. Understanding the pathophysiology of neurotrauma is crucial for the development of more effective therapeutic strategies. After the trauma occurs, immediate neurologic damage is produced by the traumatic forces; this primary injury triggers a secondary wave of biochemical cascades together with metabolic and cellular changes, called secondary neural injury. In the scenario of the acutely injured brain, the ongoing secondary injury results in ischemia and edema culminating in an uncontrollable increase in intracranial pressure...
May 18, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508358/degradomics-in-neurotrauma-profiling-traumatic-brain-injury
#3
Hadi Abou-El-Hassan, Fares Sukhon, Edwyn Jeremy Assaf, Hisham Bahmad, Hussein Abou-Abbass, Hussam Jourdi, Firas H Kobeissy
Degradomics has recently emerged as a subdiscipline in the omics era with a focus on characterizing signature breakdown products implicated in various disease processes. Driven by promising experimental findings in cancer, neuroscience, and metabolomic disorders, degradomics has significantly promoted the notion of disease-specific "degradome." A degradome arises from the activation of several proteases that target specific substrates and generate signature protein fragments. Several proteases such as calpains, caspases, cathepsins, and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are involved in the pathogenesis of numerous diseases that disturb the physiologic balance between protein synthesis and protein degradation...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508355/neuroproteomics-studies-challenges-and-updates
#4
Naify Ramadan, Hussein Ghazale, Mohammad El-Sayyad, Mohamad El-Haress, Firas H Kobeissy
The Human Genome Project in 2003 has resulted in the complete sequence of ~99% of the human genome paving the road for the Human Proteome Project (HPP) assessing the full characterization of the translated protein map of the 20,300 protein-coding genes. Consequently, the emerging of the proteomics field has successfully been adopted as the method of choice for the proteome characterization. Proteomics is a term that is used to encompass multidisciplinary approaches combining different technologies that aim to study the entire spectrum of protein changes at a specific physiological condition...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495596/the-role-of-omega-3-and-omega-9-fatty-acids-for-the-treatment-of-neuropathic-pain-after-neurotrauma
#5
REVIEW
Iriana Galán-Arriero, Diego Serrano-Muñoz, Julio Gómez-Soriano, Carlos Goicoechea, Julian Taylor, Ana Velasco, Gerardo Ávila-Martín
Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), such as Docosaexaenoic Acid (DHA) and Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA), mediate neuroactive effects in experimental models of traumatic peripheral nerve and spinal cord injury. Cellular mechanisms of PUFAs include reduced neuroinflammation and oxidative stress, enhanced neurotrophic support, and activation of cell survival pathways. Bioactive omega-9 monounsaturated fatty acids, such as Oleic Acid (OA) and 2-Hydroxy Oleic Acid (2-OHOA), also show therapeutic effects in neurotrauma models...
May 8, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485728/adenosine-a2a-receptor-inactivation-alleviates-early-onset-cognitive-dysfunction-after-traumatic-brain-injury-involving-an-inhibition-of-tau-hyperphosphorylation
#6
Z-A Zhao, Y Zhao, Y-L Ning, N Yang, Y Peng, P Li, X-Y Chen, D Liu, H Wang, X Chen, W Bai, J-F Chen, Y-G Zhou
Tau is a microtubule-associated protein, and the oligomeric and hyperphosphorylated forms of tau are increased significantly after neurotrauma and considered important factors in mediating cognitive dysfunction. Blockade of adenosine A2A receptors, either by caffeine or gene knockout (KO), alleviates cognitive dysfunction after traumatic brain injury (TBI). We postulated that A2AR activation exacerbates cognitive impairment via promoting tau hyperphosphorylation. Using a mouse model of moderate controlled cortical impact, we showed that TBI induced hyperphosphorylated tau (p-tau) in the hippocampal dentate gyrus and spatial memory deficiency in the Morris water maze test at 7 days and 4 weeks after TBI...
May 9, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28478818/the-multi-factorial-origins-of-chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy-cte-symptomology-in-post-career-athletes-the-athlete-post-career-adjustment-ap-ca-model
#7
Michael Gaetz
CTE has two prominent components: the pathophysiology that is detected in the brain postmortem and the symptomology that is present in the interval between retirement and end of life. CTE symptomology has been noted to include memory difficulties, aggression, depression, explosivity, and executive dysfunction at early stages progressing to problems with attention, mood swings, visuospatial difficulties, confusion, progressive dementia, and suicidality (e.g. McKee et al. (2012), Omalu et al. (2010a-c), McKee et al...
May 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455362/a-systematic-review-of-potential-long-term-effects-of-sport-related-concussion
#8
Geoff T Manley, Andrew J Gardner, Kathryn J Schneider, Kevin M Guskiewicz, Julian Bailes, Robert C Cantu, Rudolph J Castellani, Michael Turner, Barry D Jordan, Christopher Randolph, Jiří Dvořák, K Alix Hayden, Charles H Tator, Paul McCrory, Grant L Iverson
OBJECTIVE: Systematic review of possible long-term effects of sports-related concussion in retired athletes. DATA SOURCES: Ten electronic databases. STUDY SELECTION: Original research; incidence, risk factors or causation related to long-term mental health or neurological problems; individuals who have suffered a concussion; retired athletes as the subjects and possible long-term sequelae defined as >10 years after the injury. DATA EXTRACTION: Study population, exposure/outcome measures, clinical data, neurological examination findings, cognitive assessment, neuroimaging findings and neuropathology results...
April 28, 2017: British Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455190/association-of-traumatic-brain-injury-with-chronic-pain-in-iraq-and-afghanistan-veterans-impact-of-comorbid-mental-health-conditions
#9
Karen H Seal, Daniel Bertenthal, Deborah E Barnes, Amy L Byers, Irina Strigo, Kristine Yaffe
OBJECTIVE: To characterize the association between traumatic brain injury (TBI) and chronic pain and pain disability in the context of comorbid conditions, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression to better inform care of combat veterans. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study using national VA clinical data. SETTING: Veterans Health Administration (VHA) medical centers and community clinics nationwide. PARTICIPANTS: 116,913 Iraq and Afghanistan veterans who received VA care between October 2007 and March 2015, completed a Comprehensive TBI Evaluation (CTBIE), and received a gold standard diagnosis of TBI (none, mild or moderate to severe)...
April 25, 2017: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440841/rehabilitation-after-traumatic-brain-injury-a-survey-in-70-european-neurotrauma-centers-participating-in-the-center-tbi-study
#10
Maryse C Cnossen, Hester F Lingsma, Olli Tenovuo, Andrew I R Maas, David Menon, Ewout W Steyerberg, Gerard M Ribbers, Suzanne Polinder
OBJECTIVE: To describe variation in structural and process characteristics of acute in-hospital rehabilitation and referral to post-acute care for patients with traumatic brain injury across Europe. DESIGN: Survey study, of neurotrauma centres. METHODS: A 14-item survey about in-hospital rehabilitation and referral to post-acute care was sent to 71 neurotrauma centres participating in a European multicentre study (CENTER-TBI). The questionnaire was developed based on literature and expert opinion and was pilot-tested before sending out to the centres...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434268/ubiquitin-c-terminal-hydrolase-l1-uch-l1-as-a-therapeutic-and-diagnostic-target-in-neurodegeneration-neurotrauma-and-neuro-injuries
#11
Kevin K Wang, Zhihui Yang, George Sarkis, Isabel Torres, Vijaya Raghavan
Since its discovery as a major CNS-abundant protein 25 years ago, Ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase-L1 (UCH-L1) has emerged as an important enzyme in regulating brain protein metabolism, by coupling to the proteasome pathway of protein degradation. Areas covered: UCH-L1 is implicated in both familial and sporadic Parkinson disease and other chronic neurodegenerative diseases. Also, UCH-L1 has been recently emerging as a biofluid-based biomarker for various forms of acute neurotrauma and CNS injury. Expert opinion: The loss of UCH-L1 activity coupled with the gain of proteinopathy function are linked to neurodegeneration such as Parkinsonism and Alzheimer's disease...
April 27, 2017: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416072/-a-scandinavian-guideline-for-initial-management-of-minimal-mild-and-moderate-head-trauma-in-children
#12
Christina Rosenlund, Christina Engel Høi-Hansen, Kaare Engell Lundstrøm, Alfred Peter Born, Ole Pedersen, Ramona Åstrand
The Scandinavian Neurotrauma Committee has recently published an evidence- and consensus-based guideline for the management of minor and moderate head trauma in children. They aim is to select children for computed tomography (CT) scan, observation or early discharge, with the attempt to reduce the number of CT scans in children without missing any significant intracranial injury in need for treatment. A flow chart of the guidelines and a help sheet has been developed for clinical use. Suggestions for in-hospital observation and parental information are also presented...
April 3, 2017: Ugeskrift for Laeger
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403239/simulated-blast-overpressure-induces-specific-astrocyte-injury-in-an-ex-vivo-brain-slice-model
#13
Saranya Canchi, Malisa Sarntinoranont, Yu Hong, Jeremy J Flint, Ghatu Subhash, Michael A King
Exposure to explosive blasts can produce functional debilitation in the absence of brain pathology detectable at the scale of current diagnostic imaging. Transient (ms) overpressure components of the primary blast wave are considered to be potentially damaging to the brain. Astrocytes participate in neuronal metabolic maintenance, blood-brain barrier, regulation of homeostatic environment, and tissue remodeling. Damage to astrocytes via direct physical forces has the potential to disrupt local and global functioning of neuronal tissue...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398105/management-of-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-at-the-emergency-department-and-hospital-admission-in-europe-a-survey-of-71-neurotrauma-centers-participating-in-the-center-tbi-study
#14
Kelly A Foks, Maryse C Cnossen, Diederik W J Dippel, Andrew Maas, David Menon, Joukje van der Naalt, Ewout W Steyerberg, Hester Lingsma, Suzanne Polinder
Previous studies have indicated that there is no consensus about management of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) at the emergency department (ED) and during hospital admission. We aim to study variability between management policies for TBI patients at the ED and hospital ward across Europe. Centers participating in the Collaborative European NeuroTrauma Effectiveness Research in Traumatic Brain Injury (CENTER-TBI) study received questionnaires about different phases of TBI care. These questionnaires included 71 questions about TBI management at the ED and at the hospital ward...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386605/blast-scaling-parameters-transitioning-from-lung-to-skull-base-metrics
#15
Brandon P Lucke-Wold, Ryan C Turner, Aric Flint Logsdon, Charles L Rosen, Rabia Qaiser
Neurotrauma from blast exposure is one of the single most characteristic injuries of modern warfare. Understanding blast traumatic brain injury is critical for developing new treatment options for warfighters and civilians exposed to improvised explosive devices. Unfortunately, the pre-clinical models that are widely utilized to investigate blast exposure are based on archaic lung based parameters developed in the early 20th century. Improvised explosive devices produce a different type of injury paradigm than the typical mortar explosion...
2017: J Surg Emerg Med
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377600/low-level-laser-facilitates-alternatively-activated-macrophage-microglia-polarization-and-promotes-functional-recovery-after-crush-spinal-cord-injury-in-rats
#16
Ji Wei Song, Kun Li, Zhuo Wen Liang, Chen Dai, Xue Feng Shen, Yu Ze Gong, Shuang Wang, Xue Yu Hu, Zhe Wang
Macrophages and resident microglia play an import role in the secondary neuroinflammation response following spinal cord injury. Reprogramming of macrophage/microglia polarization is an import strategy for spinal cord injury restoration. Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) is a noninvasive treatment that has been widely used in neurotrauma and neurodegenerative diseases. However, the influence of low-level laser on polarization of macrophage/microglia following spinal cord injury remains unknown. The present study applied low-level laser therapy on a crush spinal cord injury rat model...
April 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368534/interactive-ibook-based-patient-education-in-a-neurotrauma-clinic
#17
Ronald Sahyouni, Amin Mahmoodi, Amir Mahmoodi, Ramin R Rajaii, Bima J Hasjim, David Bustillo, Melissa Huang, Diem Kieu Tran, Jefferson W Chen
BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of death and disability in the United States. Educational interventions may alleviate the burden of TBI for patients and their families. Interactive modalities that involve engagement with the educational material may enhance patient knowledge acquisition when compared to static text-based educational material. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of educational interventions in the outpatient setting on self-reported patient knowledge, with a focus on iPad-based (Apple, Cupertino, California) interactive modules...
March 28, 2017: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335668/directions-for-use-of-intracranial-pressure-monitoring-in-treatment-of-severe-traumatic-brain-injury-using-data-from-the-japan-neurotrauma-data-bank
#18
Eiichi Suehiro, Yuichi Fujiyama, Hiroyasu Koizumi, Michiyasu Suzuki
Neuromonitoring can be used to observe intracranial pathological conditions in neurointensive care, but use of intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring is low in Japan. In this study, we retrospectively investigated the effects of ICP monitoring in treatment of severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) using data from the Japan Neurotrauma Data Bank (JNTDB). The study was conducted in 1,091 subjects enrolled in the JNTDB (Project 2009) from July 2009 to June 2011. The subjects were divided into those treated with and without ICP monitoring in intensive care for severe TBI...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324787/interactive-ebooks-in-educating-patients-and-their-families-about-head-injury-regardless-of-age
#19
Ronald Sahyouni, Amin Mahmoodi, Amir Mahmoodi, Melissa Huang, Diem Kieu Tran, Jefferson W Chen
OBJECTIVES: Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is a common and debilitating injury that is particularly prevalent in patients over 60. Given the influence of head injury on dementia (and vice versa), and the increased likelihood of ground-level falls, elderly patients are vulnerable to TBI. Educational interventions can increase knowledge and influence preventative activity to decrease the likelihood of further TBI. We sought to determine the efficacy of interactive tablet-based educational interventions in elderly patients on self-reported knowledge...
March 8, 2017: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293977/a-prospective-pilot-study-on-serum-cleaved-tau-protein-as-a-neurological-marker-in-severe-traumatic-brain-injury
#20
Sharad Pandey, Kulwant Singh, Vivek Sharma, Deepa Pandey, Ravi Prakash Jha, Sunil Kumar Rai, Richa Singh Chauhan, Royana Singh
OBJECTIVE: Neurotrauma has been labelled as a "silent epidemic" affecting both the developed and the developing nations. To date, no single brain-specific biomarker has been unanimously accepted for routine clinical use in TBI. Our study aims to determine the correlation of "cleaved-tau protein" in severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) with Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) at the time of admission, mode of injury, CT findings and outcome at discharge. METHODS: The study has been approved by the institutional ethical committee...
March 15, 2017: British Journal of Neurosurgery
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