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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737240/mtros-induced-trpv4-activation-in-traumatic-brain-injury
#1
Karthik Suresh
In a recent article in J. Neurotrauma, Szarka et al report a novel role for mtROS in activating TRPV4 and promoting myogenic constriction in TBI. We discuss the implications of this article and the exciting body of emerging literature surrounding redox activation of TRPV4.
May 8, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733307/method-for-high-speed-stretch-injury-of-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-neurons-in-a-96-well-format
#2
Jack K Phillips, Sydney A Sherman, Sevan R Oungoulian, John D Finan
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major clinical challenge with high morbidity and mortality. Despite decades of pre-clinical research, no proven therapies for TBI have been developed. This paper presents a novel method for pre-clinical neurotrauma research intended to complement existing pre-clinical models. It introduces human pathophysiology through the use of human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neurons (hiPSCNs). It achieves loading pulse duration similar to the loading durations of clinical closed head impact injury...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732946/prehospital-trauma-care-among-68-european-neurotrauma-centers-results-of-the-center-tbi-provider-profiling-questionnaires
#3
Maryse C Cnossen, Ruben van den Brande, Hester Lingsma, Suzanne Polinder, Fiona Lecky, Andrew Maas
The first hour following traumatic brain injury (TBI) is considered crucial to prevent death and disability. It is however not established yet how the prehospital care should be organized to optimize recovery during the first hour. The objective of the current study was to examine variation in prehospital trauma care across Europe aiming to inform comparative effectiveness analyses on care for neurotrauma patients. A survey on prehospital trauma care was sent to 68 neurotrauma centers from 20 European countries participating in the CENTER-TBI study...
May 5, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706930/a-preliminary-report-on-brain-derived-extracellular-vesicle-as-novel-blood-biomarkers-for-sport-related-concussions
#4
Keisuke Kawata, Masato Mitsuhashi, Randy Aldret
The purpose of the study was to test the utility of unique panel of blood biomarkers as a means to reflect one's recovery process after sport-related neurotrauma. We established a panel of biomarkers that reacted positive with CD81 (extracellular vesicle marker) and various neuron- and glia-specific antigens [e.g., neurofilament light polypeptide (NF-L), tau, synaptosome-associated protein 25 (SNAP25), glial fibrillary acidic protein, and myelin basic protein]. We first evaluated test-retest reliabilities of brain-derived exosome markers, followed by an application of these markers in eight professional ice hockey players to detect cumulative neuronal burden from a single ice hockey season...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702965/neurosurgery-in-east-africa-foundations
#5
Halinder S Mangat, Karsten Schöller, Karol P Budohoski, Japhet G Ngerageza, Mahmood Qureshi, Maria M Santos, Hamisi K Shabani, Micaella R Zubkov, Roger Härtl, Philip E Stieg
This article is the first in a series of 3 articles that seek to provide readers with an understanding of the development of neurosurgery in East Africa (Foundations), the challenges that arise in providing neurosurgical care in developing countries (Challenges), and an overview of traditional and novel approaches to overcoming these challenges to improve healthcare in the region (Innovations). We review the history and evolution of neurosurgery as a clinical specialty in East Africa. We also review Kenya, Uganda, and Tanzania in some detail and highlight contributions of individuals and local and regional organizations that helped to develop and shape neurosurgical care in East Africa...
May 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684529/effects-of-wrist-position-on-reciprocal-inhibition-and-cutaneous-reflex-amplitudes-in-forearm-muscles
#6
Yao Sun, E Paul Zehr
In the leg, amplitudes of cutaneous reflexes and reciprocal inhibition are significantly affected by joint and limb position. Comparatively little is known about such modulation in the arm. In this study, amplitudes of reciprocal inhibition (from median nerve stimulation near elbow) and cutaneous reflexes (from median or superficial radial nerve stimulation at the wrist) were measured in forearm muscle extensor carpi radialis with the hand pronated or neutral during graded voluntary activation. Significant correlations with muscle activation were found for reciprocal inhibition and cutaneous reflex amplitudes at both positions...
April 20, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669907/mild-tbi-and-risk-of-parkinson-disease-a-chronic-effects-of-neurotrauma-consortium-study
#7
Raquel C Gardner, Amy L Byers, Deborah E Barnes, Yixia Li, John Boscardin, Kristine Yaffe
OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to assess risk of Parkinson disease (PD) following traumatic brain injury (TBI), including specifically mild TBI (mTBI), among care recipients in the Veterans Health Administration. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, we identified all patients with a TBI diagnosis in Veterans Health Administration databases from October 2002 to September 2014 and age-matched 1:1 to a random sample of patients without TBI. All patients were aged 18 years and older without PD or dementia at baseline...
May 15, 2018: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650049/variation-in-general-supportive-and-preventive-intensive-care-management-of-traumatic-brain-injury-a-survey-in-66-neurotrauma-centers-participating-in-the-collaborative-european-neurotrauma-effectiveness-research-in-traumatic-brain-injury-center-tbi-study
#8
Jilske A Huijben, Victor Volovici, Maryse C Cnossen, Iain K Haitsma, Nino Stocchetti, Andrew I R Maas, David K Menon, Ari Ercole, Giuseppe Citerio, David Nelson, Suzanne Polinder, Ewout W Steyerberg, Hester F Lingsma, Mathieu van der Jagt
BACKGROUND: General supportive and preventive measures in the intensive care management of traumatic brain injury (TBI) aim to prevent or limit secondary brain injury and optimize recovery. The aim of this survey was to assess and quantify variation in perceptions on intensive care unit (ICU) management of patients with TBI in European neurotrauma centers. METHODS: We performed a survey as part of the Collaborative European NeuroTrauma Effectiveness Research in Traumatic Brain Injury (CENTER-TBI) study...
April 13, 2018: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29597083/traumatic-brain-injury-and-receipt-of-prescription-opioid-therapy-for-chronic-pain-in-iraq-and-afghanistan-veterans-do-clinical-practice-guidelines-matter
#9
Karen H Seal, Daniel Bertenthal, Deborah E Barnes, Amy L Byers, Carolyn J Gibson, Kristine Yaffe
Clinical practice guidelines admonish against prescribing opioids for individuals with chronic pain and traumatic brain injury (TBI) given increased risk for adverse outcomes, yet no studies have described opioid prescribing patterns in these higher risk patients. Between October 2007 and March 2015, 53,124 Iraq and Afghanistan veterans with chronic pain not prescribed opioids in the previous year were followed for one year after completing a Comprehensive TBI Evaluation (CTBIE) within Department of Veterans Affairs health care facilities...
March 26, 2018: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29574629/exercise-rehabilitation-attenuates-cognitive-deficits-in-rats-with-traumatic-brain-injury-by-stimulating-the-cerebral-hsp20-bdnf-trkb-signalling-axis
#10
Willy Chou, Yu-Fan Liu, Cheng-Hsien Lin, Mao-Tsun Lin, Chi-Chun Chen, Wen-Pin Liu, Ching-Ping Chang, Chung-Ching Chio
Physical exercise (PE) is an effective method for improving cognitive function among patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). We previously demonstrated that PE with an infrared-sensing running wheel (ISRW) system provides strong neuroprotection in an experimental animal model of stroke. In this study, we used fluid percussion injury in rats to simulate mild TBI. For rats, we used both passive avoidance learning and the Y-maze tests to evaluate cognitive function. We investigated whether PE rehabilitation attenuated cognitive deficits in rats with TBI and determined the contribution of hippocampal and cortical expression of heat shock protein 20 (HSP20) to PE-mediated cognitive recovery...
March 25, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29563151/emergency-department-overcrowding-a-survey-among-european-neurotrauma-centres
#11
Kimberley Bernadette Velt, Maryse Cnossen, Pleunie P M Rood, Ewout W Steyerberg, Suzanne Polinder, Hester F Lingsma
BACKGROUND: ED overcrowding is an increasing problem worldwide that may negatively affect quality of care and patient outcomes. We aimed to study ED overcrowding across European centres. METHODS: Questionnaires on structure and process of care, including crowding, were distributed to 68 centres participating in a large European study on traumatic brain injury (Collaborative European NeuroTrauma Effectiveness Research in Traumatic Brain Injury). RESULTS: Of the 65 centres included in the analysis, 32 (49%) indicated that overcrowding was a frequent problem and 28 (43%) reported that patients were placed in hallways 'multiple times a day'; 27 (41%) stated that multiple times a day, there was no bed available when a patient needed to be admitted...
March 21, 2018: Emergency Medicine Journal: EMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562823/nano-pulsed-laser-therapy-is-neuroprotective-in-a-rat-model-of-blast-induced-neurotrauma
#12
Rinat O Esenaliev, Irene Y Petrov, Yuriy Petrov, Jutatip Guptarak, Deborah R Boone, Emanuele Mocciaro, Harris Weisz, Margaret O Parsley, Stacy L Sell, Helen L Hellmich, Jonathan M Ford, Connor Pogue, Douglas DeWitt, Donald S Prough, Maria Adelaide Micci
We have developed a novel, non-invasive Nano-Pulsed Laser Therapy (NPLT) system that combines the benefits of near-infrared laser light (808 nm) and ultrasound (optoacoustic) waves, which are generated with each short laser pulse within the tissue. We tested NPLT in a rat model of blast-induced neurotrauma to determine whether transcranial application of NPLT provides neuroprotective effects. The laser pulses were applied on the intact rat head one hour after injury using a specially developed fiber-optic system...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29530703/mechanism-of-pediatric-traumatic-brain-injury-in-southwestern-uganda-a-prospective-cohort-of-100-patients
#13
Maria Punchak, Jihad Abdelgadir, Oscar Obiga, Martha Itait, Josephine N Najjuma, Michael M Haglund, David Kitya
BACKGROUND: Road traffic incidents (RTIs), falls, and violence contribute to more than two thirds of pediatric traumatic brain injuries in sub-Saharan Africa. In this study, we sought to assess mechanisms of pediatric traumatic brain injury in an effort to propose interventions for more effective pediatric head injury prevention. METHODS: A cohort of 100 patients who were <18 years treated at Mbarara Regional Referral Hospital between November 2016 and June 2017 were enrolled in the study...
March 10, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29507421/three-dimensional-electron-microscopy-reveals-changing-axonal-and-myelin-morphology-along-normal-and-partially-injured-optic-nerves
#14
Marcus K Giacci, Carole A Bartlett, Minh Huynh, Matt R Kilburn, Sarah A Dunlop, Melinda Fitzgerald
Following injury to the central nervous system, axons and myelin distinct from the initial injury site undergo changes associated with compromised function. Quantifying such changes is important to understanding the pathophysiology of neurotrauma; however, most studies to date used 2 dimensional (D) electron microscopy to analyse single sections, thereby failing to capture changes along individual axons. We used serial block face scanning electron microscopy (SBF SEM) to undertake 3D reconstruction of axons and myelin, analysing optic nerves from normal uninjured female rats and following partial optic nerve transection...
March 5, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29495919/blood-glutamate-scavenger-as-a-novel-neuroprotective-treatment-in-spinal-cord-injury
#15
Yona Goldshmit, Ghil Jona, Eran Schmukler, Shira Solomon, Ronit Pinkas-Kramarski, Angela Ruban
Neurotrauma causes immediate elevation of extracellular glutamate (Glu) levels, which creates excitotoxicity and facilitates inflammation, glial scar formation, and consequently neuronal death. Finding factors that reduce the inflammatory response and glial scar formation, and increase neuronal survival and neurite outgrowth, are of major importance for improving the outcome after spinal cord injury (SCI). In the present study, we evaluated a new treatment aiming to remove central nervous system (CNS) Glu into the systemic blood circulation by intravenous (IV) administration of blood Glu scavengers (BGS) such as the enzyme recombinant glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase 1 (rGOT1) and its co-substrate...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29491183/fast-direct-neuronal-signaling-via-the-il-4-receptor-as-therapeutic-target-in-neuroinflammation
#16
Christina F Vogelaar, Shibajee Mandal, Steffen Lerch, Katharina Birkner, Jerome Birkenstock, Ulrike Bühler, Andrea Schnatz, Cedric S Raine, Stefan Bittner, Johannes Vogt, Jonathan Kipnis, Robert Nitsch, Frauke Zipp
Ongoing axonal degeneration is thought to underlie disability in chronic neuroinflammation, such as multiple sclerosis (MS), especially during its progressive phase. Upon inflammatory attack, axons undergo pathological swelling, which can be reversible. Because we had evidence for beneficial effects of T helper 2 lymphocytes in experimental neurotrauma and discovered interleukin-4 receptor (IL-4R) expressed on axons in MS lesions, we aimed at unraveling the effects of IL-4 on neuroinflammatory axon injury. We demonstrate that intrathecal IL-4 treatment during the chronic phase of several experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis models reversed disease progression without affecting inflammation...
February 28, 2018: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29487794/cortical-thickness-and-subcortical-brain-volumes-in-professional-rugby-league-players
#17
Magdalena Wojtowicz, Andrew J Gardner, Peter Stanwell, Ross Zafonte, Bradford C Dickerson, Grant L Iverson
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine cortical thickness and subcortical volumes in professional rugby players with an extensive history of concussions compared to control subjects. Method: Participants included 24 active and former professional rugby league players [Age M(SD) = 33.3(6.3); Range = 21-44] with an extensive history of concussion and 18 age- and education-matched controls with no history of neurotrauma or participation in contact sports...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467718/on-the-accurate-determination-of-shock-wave-time-pressure-profile-in-the-experimental-models-of-blast-induced-neurotrauma
#18
Maciej Skotak, Eren Alay, Namas Chandra
Measurement issues leading to the acquisition of artifact-free shock wave pressure-time profiles are discussed. We address the importance of in-house sensor calibration and data acquisition sampling rate. Sensor calibration takes into account possible differences between calibration methodology in a manufacturing facility, and those used in the specific laboratory. We found in-house calibration factors of brand new sensors differ by less than 10% from their manufacturer supplied data. Larger differences were noticeable for sensors that have been used for hundreds of experiments and were as high as 30% for sensors close to the end of their useful lifetime...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465433/emerging-targets-for-reprograming-the-immune-response-to-promote-repair-and-recovery-of-function-after-spinal-cord-injury
#19
Faith H Brennan, Phillip G Popovich
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In adult mammals, a traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) elicits a chronic unregulated neuroinflammatory response accompanied by seemingly paradoxical suppression of systemic immunity. These SCI-induced changes in immune function contribute to poor neurological outcomes and enhanced morbidity or mortality. Nonspecific anti-inflammatory or proinflammatory therapies are ineffective and can even worsen outcomes. Therefore, recent experimental SCI research has advanced the understanding of how neuroimmune cross-talk contributes to spinal cord and systemic pathology...
June 2018: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463164/apolipoprotein-e-apoe-%C3%AE%C2%B54-genotype-is-associated-with-elevated-psychiatric-distress-in-veterans-with-a-history-of-mild-to-moderate-traumatic-brain-injury
#20
Victoria C Merritt, Alexandra L Clark, Scott F Sorg, Nicole D Evangelista, Madeleine Werhane, Mark W Bondi, Dawn M Schiehser, Lisa Delano-Wood
Since few studies have examined the relationship between the APOE gene and clinical outcomes following military-related traumatic brain injury (TBI), we aimed to determine whether the ε4 allele of the APOE gene influences neuropsychiatric symptoms in Veterans with a history of mild to moderate TBI. Participants included 133 Veterans (TBI=79, military controls [MC]=54) who underwent APOE genotyping and were divided into ε4+ (TBI=18, MC=15) and ε4- (TBI=61, MC=39) groups. All participants underwent evaluation of psychological distress using the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), and PTSD Checklist-Military Version (PCL-M)...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
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