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Neurotrauma

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324787/interactive-ebooks-in-educating-patients-and-their-families-about-head-injury-regardless-of-age
#1
Ronald Sahyouni, Amin Mahmoodi, Amir Mahmoodi, Melissa Huang, Diem Kieu Tran, Jefferson W Chen
OBJECTIVES: Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is a common and debilitating injury that is particularly prevalent in patients over 60. Given the influence of head injury on dementia (and vice versa), and the increased likelihood of ground-level falls, elderly patients are vulnerable to TBI. Educational interventions can increase knowledge and influence preventative activity to decrease the likelihood of further TBI. We sought to determine the efficacy of interactive tablet-based educational interventions in elderly patients on self-reported knowledge...
March 8, 2017: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293977/a-prospective-pilot-study-on-serum-cleaved-tau-protein-as-a-neurological-marker-in-severe-traumatic-brain-injury
#2
Sharad Pandey, Kulwant Singh, Vivek Sharma, Deepa Pandey, Ravi Prakash Jha, Sunil Kumar Rai, Richa Singh Chauhan, Royana Singh
OBJECTIVE: Neurotrauma has been labelled as a "silent epidemic" affecting both the developed and the developing nations. To date, no single brain-specific biomarker has been unanimously accepted for routine clinical use in TBI. Our study aims to determine the correlation of "cleaved-tau protein" in severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) with Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) at the time of admission, mode of injury, CT findings and outcome at discharge. METHODS: The study has been approved by the institutional ethical committee...
March 15, 2017: British Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293168/modeling-human-neurological-and-neurodegenerative-diseases-from-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-to-neuronal-differentiation-and-its-applications-in-neurotrauma
#3
REVIEW
Hisham Bahmad, Ola Hadadeh, Farah Chamaa, Katia Cheaito, Batoul Darwish, Ahmad-Kareem Makkawi, Wassim Abou-Kheir
With the help of several inducing factors, somatic cells can be reprogrammed to become induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSCs) lines. The success is in obtaining iPSCs almost identical to embryonic stem cells (ESCs), therefore various approaches have been tested and ultimately several ones have succeeded. The importance of these cells is in how they serve as models to unveil the molecular pathways and mechanisms underlying several human diseases, and also in its potential roles in the development of regenerative medicine...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291460/validation-of-laboratory-animal-and-surrogate-human-models-in-primary-blast-injury-studies
#4
Namas Chandra, Aravind Sundaramurthy, Raj K Gupta
Blast-induced neurotrauma has affected more than 300,000 service members. It is important to understand the effect of single and repeated shock-blast wave exposures on the neuropsychological behavior of soldiers, to offer them better protection, diagnostics, and treatment. Preclinical animal models and helmet design studies on human surrogate models have relied on the use of compression gas-driven shock tubes. Traditional shock tubes are so simple that if not carefully designed and operated, the test results can easily introduce detrimental artifacts clouding the conclusions...
March 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290394/a-systematic-review-of-quantitative-research-on-traumatic-brain-injury-in-india
#5
Benjamin B Massenburg, Deepa K Veetil, Nakul P Raykar, Amit Agrawal, Nobhojit Roy, Martin Gerdin
INTRODUCTION: Over a quarter of the world's trauma deaths occur in India, with traumatic brain injury (TBI) as the leading cause of death and disability within trauma. With little known about TBI in India, we set out to do a systematic review to characterize the quantitative literature on TBI in India. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The following databases were searched from their inception to December 31, 2015: PubMed, Cochrane, Web of Science, and the World Health Organization's Global Health Library, using the keywords: neurotrauma, brain injury, traumatic brain injury, TBI, head injury, and India...
March 2017: Neurology India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283963/the-application-of-proteomics-to-traumatic-brain-and-spinal-cord-injuries
#6
REVIEW
George Anis Sarkis, Manasi D Mangaonkar, Ahmed Moghieb, Brian Lelling, Michael Guertin, Hamad Yadikar, Zhihui Yang, Firas Kobeissy, Kevin K W Wang
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) and traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI), collectively termed neurotrauma, are two parallel neurological conditions that can cause long-lasting neurological impairment and other comorbidities in patients, while at the same time, can create a high burden to society. To date, there are still no FDA-approved therapeutic interventions for either TBI or SCI. Recent advances in proteomic technologies, including tandem mass spectrometry, as well as imaging mass spectrometry, have enabled new approaches to study the differential proteome in TBI and SCI with the use of either animal disease models and/or biosamples from clinical observational studies...
March 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281428/a-review-of-blood-transfusions-in-a-trauma-unit-for-young-children
#7
M Salverda, N Ketharanathan, M Van Dijk, E Beltchev, H Buys, A Numanoglu, A B Van As
BACKGROUND: Trauma is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Blood transfusions play an incremental role in the acute phase, yet practice varies owing to variations in transfusion thresholds and concerns about potential complications, especially in children. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate protocol adherence to blood transfusion thresholds in paediatric trauma patients and determine the degree of blood product wastage, as defined by discarded units. METHODS: A retrospective, descriptive study of trauma patients (age 0 - 13 years) who received a blood transfusion in the trauma unit at Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa, over a 5...
February 27, 2017: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250612/the-impact-of-early-tracheostomy-in-neurotrauma-patients-a-retrospective-study
#8
Sai Saran, Pralay Ghosh, Afzal Azim
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246616/neurotrauma-as-an-evolving-indication-for-neuromodulation
#9
EDITORIAL
Ali Razmkon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Bulletin of Emergency and Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197044/the-impact-of-early-tracheostomy-in-neurotrauma-patients-a-retrospective-study
#10
Kapil G Zirpe, Deepali Vishnu Tambe, Abhijit M Deshmukh, Sushma K Gurav
BACKGROUND: Although majority of neurotrauma patients require long term ventilatory support but the timing of tracheostomy in such patients is controversial. METHOD: This retrospective study was conducted at a Tertiary Care Hospital, Pune, India. Patients >18 years of age, who underwent percutaneous tracheostomy (PCT) from June 2010 to November 2014 at neurotrauma unit (NTU) of hospital, were included. Patients were divided in two groups according to the timing of tracheostomy, early tracheostomy (ET) group (≤5 days; N=100) and late tracheostomy (LT) group (>5 days; N=64)...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195955/impact-score-for-traumatic-brain-injury-validation-of-the-prognostic-tool-in-a-spanish-cohort
#11
Juan José Egea-Guerrero, Ana Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Elena Gordillo-Escobar, Esperanza Fernández-Delgado, Ángela Martínez-Roldán, Álvaro Roldán-Reina, Pilar Durán-Martínez, Enrique de Vega-Ríos, María Dolores Freire-Aragón, Ángel Vilches-Arenas, Francisco Murillo-Cabezas, Manuel Quintana-Díaz
BACKGROUND: The aim of this work was to validate the IMPACT (International Mission for Prognosis and Analysis of Clinical Trials in TBI) model in a Spanish cohort of patients with moderate-severe TBI (traumatic brain injury). SETTING: Two level I neurotrauma centers. PARTICIPANTS: Patients admitted to these hospitals between 2011 and 2014 with a diagnosis of TBI and a Glasgow Coma Scale score of 12 or less. DESIGN: Prospective observational study...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192828/mr-spectroscopy-findings-in-retired-professional-rugby-league-players
#12
Andrew J Gardner, Grant L Iverson, Magdalena Wojtowicz, Christopher R Levi, Frances Kay-Lambkin, Peter W Schofield, Ross Zafonte, Sandy R Shultz, Alexander P Lin, Peter Stanwell
The aim of this study was to examine brain neurometabolite concentrations in retired rugby league players who had a history of numerous self-reported concussions. Participants were 16 retired professional rugby league players (ages 30-45 years) with an extensive history of concussion and participation in contact sports, and 16 age- and education-matched controls who had no history of neurotrauma or participation in contact sports. All completed a clinical interview, psychological and cognitive testing, and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) investigation...
March 2017: International Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187809/management-of-bacterial-central-nervous-system-infections
#13
M C Brouwer, D van de Beek
Bacterial infections of the central nervous system present as a medical emergency, thus requiring rapid diagnosis and immediate treatment. The most prevalent bacterial infections seen in the intensive care unit can be summarized as acute bacterial meningitis, subdural empyema, intracerebral abscess, and ventriculitis, which all commonly involve the brain parenchyma. The infections can either be community-acquired or hospital-acquired, e.g., after neurosurgical intervention, as a complication of severe neurotrauma or related to indwelling cerebrospinal fluid drains...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181102/cerebrospinal-fluid-nlrp3-is-increased-after-severe-traumatic-brain-injury-in-infants-and-children
#14
Jessica S Wallisch, Dennis W Simon, Hülya Bayır, Michael J Bell, Patrick M Kochanek, Robert S B Clark
BACKGROUND: Inflammasome-mediated neuroinflammation may cause secondary injury following traumatic brain injury (TBI) in children. The pattern recognition receptors NACHT domain-, Leucine-rich repeat-, and PYD-containing Protein 1 (NLRP1) and NLRP3 are essential components of their respective inflammasome complexes. We sought to investigate whether NLRP1 and/or NLRP3 abundance is altered in children with severe TBI. METHODS: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from children (n = 34) with severe TBI (Glasgow coma scale score [GCS] ≤8) who had externalized ventricular drains (EVD) placed for routine care was evaluated for NLRP1 and NLRP3 at 0-24, 25-48, 49-72, and >72 h post-TBI and was compared to infection-free controls that underwent lumbar puncture to rule out CNS infection (n = 8)...
February 8, 2017: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28156136/plasma-matrix-metalloproteinase-9-levels-predict-intensive-care-unit-mortality-early-after-severe-traumatic-brain-injury
#15
Daniel Simon, Joice Evaldt, Débora Dreher Nabinger, Mariano Feraboli Fontana, Mirelli Gabardo Klein, Julia do Amaral Gomes, Andrea Regner
OBJECTIVES: Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) is an inducible metalloproteinase that can degrade the cerebrovascular matrix leading to disruption of the blood-brain barrier and exacerbation of oedema in neurotrauma. Therefore, our aim was to determine whether MMP-9 plasma levels were associated with intensive care unit (ICU) mortality after severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) despite the presence of extracerebral injuries. METHODS: This cohort enrolled 80 patients who suffered severe TBI (Glasgow Coma Scale: 3-8 at hospital admission)...
2017: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153668/prevalence-of-hearing-loss-and-tinnitus-in-iraq-and-afghanistan-veterans-a-chronic-effects-of-neurotrauma-consortium-study
#16
A A Swan, J T Nelson, B Swiger, C A Jaramillo, B C Eapen, M Packer, M J Pugh
The purpose of this study was to describe the prevalence of hearing loss and tinnitus in a cohort of Iraq and Afghanistan Veterans (IAV) with common post-deployment conditions, including traumatic brain injury (TBI), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and other typical post-concussive conditions such as headaches and vertigo/dizziness. This retrospective observational study used data from the national Veterans Health Administration (VA) data repository from fiscal years 2001-2014. Veteran data was included if there were at least three years of VA care, with one or more years of care in 2007 or after...
January 31, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143715/neuroprotective-effect-of-breviscapine-on-traumatic-brain-injury-in-rats-associated-with-the-inhibition-of-gsk3%C3%AE-signaling-pathway
#17
Ling Jiang, Qing-Jie Xia, Xiu-Juan Dong, Yue Hu, Zhi-Wei Chen, Kang Chen, Kun-Hua Wang, Jia Liu, Ting-Hua Wang
Breviscapine, a standardized Chinese herbal medicine extracted from Erigeron breviscapine, has been widely used to treat cerebrovascular diseases. However, there are no reports about the neuroprotective effects and underlying molecular mechanisms of breviscapine on traumatic brain injury (TBI). Therefore, this study was aimed to investigate the effects of breviscapine on rats with TBI insult and illuminate the underlying mechanism. We created a traumatic brain-injured model with breviscapine lateral ventricle injection and evaluated the expressional changes of glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK3β) as well as the GSK3β-involved signaling pathways including apoptosis and axonal growth...
January 28, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125047/identifying-the-long-term-role-of-inducible-nitric-oxide-synthase-after-contusive-spinal-cord-injury-using-a-transgenic-mouse-model
#18
Dominic M Maggio, Amanpreet Singh, J Bryan Iorgulescu, Drew H Bleicher, Mousumi Ghosh, Michael M Lopez, Luis M Tuesta, Govinder Flora, W Dalton Dietrich, Damien D Pearse
Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is a potent mediator of oxidative stress during neuroinflammation triggered by neurotrauma or neurodegeneration. We previously demonstrated that acute iNOS inhibition attenuated iNOS levels and promoted neuroprotection and functional recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI). The present study investigated the effects of chronic iNOS ablation after SCI using inos-null mice. iNOS(-/-) knockout and wild-type (WT) control mice underwent a moderate thoracic (T8) contusive SCI...
January 25, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118785/barriers-to-nutrition-intervention-for-patients-with-a-traumatic-brain-injury
#19
Lee-Anne Chapple, Marianne Chapman, Natalie Shalit, Andrew Udy, Adam Deane, Lauren Williams
BACKGROUND: Nutrition delivered to patients with a traumatic brain injury (TBI) is typically below prescribed amounts. While the dietitian plays an important role in the assessment and provision of nutrition needs, they are part of a multidisciplinary team. The views and attitudes of medical and nursing practitioners are likely to be crucial to implementation of nutrition to patients with TBI, but there is limited information describing these. METHODS: A qualitative exploratory approach was used to explore the views and attitudes of medical and nursing practitioners on nutrition for patients with TBI...
January 1, 2017: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096400/defining-recovery-neurobiology-of-injured-spinal-cord-by-synthetic-matrix-assisted-hmsc-implantation
#20
Alexander E Ropper, Devang K Thakor, InBo Han, Dou Yu, Xiang Zeng, Jamie E Anderson, Zaid Aljuboori, Soo-Woo Kim, Hongjun Wang, Richard L Sidman, Ross D Zafonte, Yang D Teng
Mesenchymal stromal stem cells (MSCs) isolated from adult tissues offer tangible potential for regenerative medicine, given their feasibility for autologous transplantation. MSC research shows encouraging results in experimental stroke, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and neurotrauma models. However, further translational progress has been hampered by poor MSC graft survival, jeopardizing cellular and molecular bases for neural repair in vivo. We have devised an adult human bone marrow MSC (hMSC) delivery formula by investigating molecular events involving hMSCs incorporated in a uniquely designed poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid scaffold, a clinically safe polymer, following inflammatory exposures in a dorsal root ganglion organotypic coculture system...
January 31, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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