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Vision loss

James P Gaska, Steven T Wright, Marc D Winterbottom, Steven C Hadley
INTRODUCTION: Although there are numerous studies that demonstrate that color vision deficient (CVD) individuals perform less well than color vision normal (CVN) individuals in tasks that require discrimination or identification of colored stimuli, there remains a need to quantify the relationship between the type and severity of CVD and performance on operationally relevant tasks. METHODS: Participants were classified as CVN (N = 45) or CVD (N = 49) using the Rabin cone contrast test, which is the standard color vision screening test used by the United States Air Force...
2016: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
Hashim Ali Khan, Muhammad Aamir Shahzad
PURPOSE: To report a case of atypical serpiginous choroiditis with previously unreported findings on optical coherence tomographic angiography. CASE REPORT: A 35-year-old otherwise healthy man had a 1-week history of vision loss in his right eye. The visual acuity in right eye was counting fingers at 1 meter. Fundoscopy showed a classic peripapillary serpiginous lesion and a solitary macular lesion. Fundus fluorescein angiography revealed early hypofluorescence of active lesions with gradual increase in fluorescence across the phase of angiogram...
October 25, 2016: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
N Wat, R Lm Wong, I Yh Wong
INTRODUCTION: Diabetes mellitus is a systemic disease with complications that include sight-threatening diabetic retinopathy. It is essential to understand the risk factors of diabetic retinopathy before effective prevention can be implemented. The aim of this review was to examine the association between diabetic retinopathy and systemic risk factors. METHODS: A PubMed literature search was performed up to May 2016 to identify articles reporting associations between diabetic retinopathy and systemic risk factors; only publications written in English were included...
October 24, 2016: Hong Kong Medical Journal, Xianggang Yi Xue za Zhi
Delila Hodzic-Hadzibegovic, Shakoor Ba-Ali, Marianne Valerius, Henrik Lund-Andersen
PURPOSE: To quantify the fluid resorption from the centre of the fovea in a pregnant woman with diabetic macular oedema by daily optical coherence tomography (OCT) measurements after the administration of intravitreal dexamethasone implant (Ozurdex(®) ). METHODS: A 36-year-old pregnant woman with type 1 diabetes for 33 years presented with diabetic macular oedema with foveal serous detachment and symptomatic vision loss at 16 gestational weeks. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) in Snellen notation and central retinal volume assessed by optical coherence tomography (OCT, Topcon Corporation) were measured almost on a daily basis the first five weeks after implantation and then 2-3 times per month until childbirth...
October 24, 2016: Acta Ophthalmologica
Daniel Shu Wei Ting, Kara-Anne Tan, Val Phua, Gavin Siew Wei Tan, Chee Wai Wong, Tien Yin Wong
Diabetic retinopathy (DR), a leading cause of acquired vision loss, is a microvascular complication of diabetes. While traditional risk factors for diabetic retinopathy including longer duration of diabetes, poor blood glucose control, and dyslipidemia are helpful in stratifying patient's risk for developing retinopathy, many patients without these traditional risk factors develop DR; furthermore, there are persons with long diabetes duration who do not develop DR. Thus, identifying biomarkers to predict DR or to determine therapeutic response is important...
December 2016: Current Diabetes Reports
Melissa A Wilson, Kelly Guld, Steven Galetta, Ryan D Walsh, Julia Kharlip, Madhura Tamhankar, Suzanne McGettigan, Lynn M Schuchter, Leslie A Fecher
BACKGROUND: Ipilimumab, a humanized CLTA-4 antibody is a standard therapy in the treatment of advanced melanoma. While ipilimumab provides an overall survival benefit to patients, it can be associated with immune related adverse events (IrAEs). CASE PRESENTATION: Here we describe a patient treated with ipilimumab who experienced known IrAEs, including hypophysitis, as well as a profound vision loss due to optic neuritis. There are rare reports of optic neuritis occurring as an adverse event associated with ipilimumab treatment...
2016: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
Ru-Ik Chee, Marc J Dinkin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 25, 2016: Neurology
Sara Ajina, Holly Bridge
Damage to the primary visual cortex removes the major input from the eyes to the brain, causing significant visual loss as patients are unable to perceive the side of the world contralateral to the damage. Some patients, however, retain the ability to detect visual information within this blind region; this is known as blindsight. By studying the visual pathways that underlie this residual vision in patients, we can uncover additional aspects of the human visual system that likely contribute to normal visual function but cannot be revealed under physiological conditions...
October 23, 2016: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
Peng Li, Zhenmin Wang, Qiangyi Zhou, Shiwei Li, Jing Zhang, Ying Wang, Xingchao Wang, Bo Wang, Fu Zhao, Pinan Liu, Zhijun Yang
BACKGROUND: Vision is extremely important for patients with hearing loss due to neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2). Tumors adjacent to the anterior visual pathway can potentially impair the vision. To date, only a few case reports and small-series studies have been reported. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical features of tumors adjacent to the anterior visual pathway in a large series of NF2 patients. METHODS: Seventy-three patients with potentially vision-impairing tumors were carefully screened from among 467 NF2 patients...
October 21, 2016: World Neurosurgery
Fabrizio Leo, Elena Cocchi, Luca Brayda
Vision loss has severe impacts on physical, social and emotional well-being. The education of blind children poses issues as many scholar disciplines (e.g. geometry, mathematics) are normally taught by heavily relying on vision. Touch-based assistive technologies are potential tools to provide graphical contents to blind users, improving learning possibilities and social inclusion. Raised-lines drawings are still the golden standard, but stimuli cannot be reconfigured or adapted and the blind person constantly requires assistance...
October 20, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Li Liu, Zijia Lin, Ling Shao, Fumin Shen, Guiguang Ding, Jungong Han
With the dramatic development of the Internet, how to exploit large-scale retrieval techniques for multimodal web data has become one of the most popular but challenging problems in computer vision and multimedia. Recently, hashing methods are used for fast nearest neighbor search in large-scale data spaces, by embedding high-dimensional feature descriptors into a similarity-preserving Hamming space with a low dimension. Inspired by this, in this paper, we introduce a novel supervised cross-modality hashing framework which can generate unified binary codes for instances represented in different modalities...
October 19, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
Matthew Osmond, Sarah M Bernier, Mina B Pantcheva, Melissa D Krebs
Glaucoma is a disease in which damage to the optic nerve leads to progressive, irreversible vision loss. The intraocular pressure (IOP) is the only modifiable risk factor for glaucoma and its lowering is considered a useful strategy for preventing or slowing down the progression of glaucomatous neuropathy. Elevated intraocular pressure associated with glaucoma is due to increased aqueous humor outflow resistance, primarily through the trabecular meshwork (TM) of the eye. Current in vitro models of the trabecular meshwork are oversimplified and do not capture the organized and complex three-dimensional nature of this tissue that consists primarily of collagen and glycoasaminoglycans...
October 24, 2016: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
Maitê M Russo, Thiago Lemos, Luís A Imbiriba, Nathalia L Ribeiro, Claudia D Vargas
Loss of vision is well known to affect postural control in blind subjects. This effect has classically been framed in terms of deficit or compensation depending on whether body sway increases or decreases in comparison with that of sighted subjects with the eyes open. However, studies have shown that postural responses can be modulated by the context and that changes in postural sway may not necessarily mean a worsened or improved postural control. The goal of our study was to test whether balance is affected by the context in blind subjects...
October 21, 2016: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Lara J G Wandling, George R Wandling, Mary Faith Marshall, Michael S Lee
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Canadian Journal of Ophthalmology. Journal Canadien D'ophtalmologie
Eli Kisilevsky, Luminita Tarita-Nistor, Esther G González, Mark S Mandelcorn, Michael H Brent, Samuel N Markowitz, Martin J Steinbach
OBJECTIVE: Patients with central vision loss develop preferred retinal loci (PRLs) in the eccentric retina. The characteristics of the PRLs for the better eye (BE) are well studied, but not those of the worse eye (WE). We examined the distribution of monocular PRLs in the visual field (VF), as well as visual acuity, fixation stability, and PRL eccentricity for the BE and WE of patients with central vision loss. DESIGN: Retrospective consecutive case series. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 87 BE and 50 WE of patients with central vision loss...
October 2016: Canadian Journal of Ophthalmology. Journal Canadien D'ophtalmologie
Dnyaneshwar D Athavale, Robin Jones, Brett A O'Donnell, Martin Forer, Nigel Biggs
PURPOSE: To describe the non-exenteration management of sino-orbital fungal infection, a life-threatening condition for which orbital exenteration is generally considered a first-line treatment. METHODS: A retrospective case series is presented of 7 orbits in 6 consecutive patients admitted and treated at 2 major metropolitan tertiary teaching hospitals in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. RESULTS: Seven orbits in 6 consecutive patients with sino-orbital fungal infection were treated conservatively with surgical debridement and intravenous antifungal agents...
October 20, 2016: Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Mohammad Yaser Kiarudi, Kaveh Fadakar, Ebrahim Mousavi
PURPOSE: To describe a case of bilateral choroidal neovascularization in a patient with beta-thalassemia major and an interventional therapeutic attempt. METHOD: Retrospective case report. RESULT: A known case of beta-thalassemia major presented with gradual vision loss. Fundoscopy revealed bilateral macular edema accompanied by intraretinal hemorrhages. Optical coherence tomography and fluorescein angiography were compatible with the diagnosis of choroidal neovascularization...
October 20, 2016: Retinal Cases & Brief Reports
J M Koshy, S Mohan, D Deodhar, M John, A Oberoi, A Pannu
BACKGROUND: Though cryptococcal meningitis (CM) is recognized as a disease of the immunocompromised, studies have implicated that it also affect immunocompetent patients. METHODOLOGY: This was a cross sectional study conducted in the Department of Medicine of a tertiary teaching institution in North India. All the patients diagnosed with CM on the basis of detection of cryptococcal antigen or the presence of capsulated budding yeast cells on India ink preparation, from April 2009 to March2015 were included in the study...
October 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Brian J Song, Lloyd Paul Aiello, Louis R Pasquale
Diabetes mellitus represents a growing international public health issue with a near quadrupling in its worldwide prevalence since 1980. Though it has many known microvascular complications, vision loss from diabetic retinopathy is one of the most devastating for affected individuals. In addition, there is increasing evidence to suggest that diabetic patients have a greater risk for glaucoma as well. Though the pathophysiology of glaucoma is not completely understood, both diabetes and glaucoma appear to share some common risk factors and pathophysiologic similarities with studies also reporting that the presence of diabetes and elevated fasting glucose levels are associated with elevated intraocular pressure-the primary risk factor for glaucomatous optic neuropathy...
December 2016: Current Diabetes Reports
Dilsher S Dhoot, Robert L Avery
The prevalence of diabetes is growing at epidemic rates in the USA. Diabetic retinopathy develops in a large proportion of patients and is a leading cause of blindness worldwide. Systemic management of diabetic retinopathy has included glycemic, hypertension, and lipid control. Local ophthalmic treatment in the form of focal/grid or panretinal laser photocoagulation has been shown to prevent vision loss in diabetic edema and proliferative diabetic retinopathy, respectively. The introduction of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor for diabetic macular edema and retinopathy has provided clinicians with improved clinical outcomes with potentially less damaging effects than laser...
December 2016: Current Diabetes Reports
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