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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823111/welfare-to-work-interventions-and-their-effects-on-the-mental-and-physical-health-of-lone-parents-and-their-children
#1
REVIEW
Marcia Gibson, Hilary Thomson, Kasia Banas, Vittoria Lutje, Martin J McKee, Susan P Martin, Candida Fenton, Clare Bambra, Lyndal Bond
BACKGROUND: Lone parents in high-income countries have high rates of poverty (including in-work poverty) and poor health. Employment requirements for these parents are increasingly common. 'Welfare-to-work' (WtW) interventions involving financial sanctions and incentives, training, childcare subsidies and lifetime limits on benefit receipt have been used to support or mandate employment among lone parents. These and other interventions that affect employment and income may also affect people's health, and it is important to understand the available evidence on these effects in lone parents...
August 20, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822974/sedative-and-cardiopulmonary-effects-of-dexmedetomidine-infusions-randomly-receiving-or-not-butorphanol-in-standing-horses
#2
Luíza Quintão Medeiros, Miguel Gozalo-Marcilla, Polly M Taylor, Daniela Campagnol, Flávia Augusta de Oliveira, Marcos Jun Watanabe, Antonio José de Araujo Aguiar
Dexmedetomidine (DEX) alone, or combined with butorphanol (BUT), may be administered by constant rate infusions (CRIs) in standing horses. This blinded, randomised, crossover study in six healthy adult horses aimed to determine the sedative and cardiopulmonary effects of DEX (dexmedetomidine (3.5 µg/kg+5 µg/kg/hour CRI) and DEX/BUT (dexmedetomidine (3.5 µg/kg+3.5 µg/kg/hour CRI) and butorphanol (20 µg/kg+24 µg/kg/hour CRI)). Head height above ground (HHAG), ataxia, responses to tactile/auditory stimuli and cardiopulmonary variables were recorded before, at 5/15/30/60/90 minutes and after CRIs terminated (15/30/60 minutes)...
August 19, 2017: Veterinary Record
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822828/targeted-lowering-of-central-blood-pressure-in-patients-with-hypertension-baseline-recruitment-rationale-and-design-of-a-randomized-controlled-trial-the-low-cbp-study
#3
James E Sharman, Tony Stanton, Christopher M Reid, Anthony Keech, Philip Roberts-Thomson, Simon Stewart, Robert Greenough, Michael Stowasser, Walter P Abhayaratna
BACKGROUND: High blood pressure (BP) is the most common modifiable cause of death from cardiovascular disease. Lowering BP with medication improves patient outcomes, but even in populations with normal upper arm (brachial) BP there remains considerable residual risk for cardiovascular disease and this may be due to persistently elevated central BP. There has never been a trial to determine the value of targeted central BP lowering among patients with hypertension, and this was the aim of this study...
August 16, 2017: Contemporary Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822719/thalidomide-is-associated-with-increased-t-cell-activation-and-inflammation-in-antiretroviral-naive-hiv-infected-individuals-in-a-randomised-clinical-trial-of-efficacy-and-safety
#4
Tânia R C Vergara, Sadia Samer, Joanna R Santos-Oliveira, Leila B Giron, Muhammad Shoaib Arif, Maria Luciana Silva-Freitas, Lia A Cherman, Mauro S Treitsman, Alberto Chebabo, Maria Cecilia A Sucupira, Alda M Da-Cruz, Ricardo Sobhie Diaz
TRIAL DESIGN: Open-label, randomised, controlled, pilot proof-of-concept clinical trial. METHODS: Participants: Antiretroviral naïve adult males with CD4 count ≥350cells/mm(3). INTERVENTIONS: Patients were randomised to receive thalidomide 200mg QD for 3weeks (Thalidomide group) or not (Control group) and followed for 48weeks. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that short-term Thalidomide use would reduce HIV related inflammation and HIV replication among antiretroviral naïve HIV infected individuals...
August 12, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822690/microrna29a-treatment-improves-early-tendon-injury
#5
Ashlee E Watts, Neal L Millar, Josh Platt, Susan M Kitson, Moeed Akbar, Raquel Rech, Jay Griffin, Roy Pool, Tom Hughes, Iain B McInnes, Derek S Gilchrist
Tendon injuries (tendinopathies) are common in human and equine athletes and characterized by dysregulated collagen matrix, resulting in tendon damage. We have previously demonstrated a functional role for microRNA29a (miR29a) as a post-transcriptional regulator of collagen 3 expression in murine and human tendon injury. Given the translational potential, we designed a randomized, blinded trial to evaluate the potential of a miR29a replacement therapy as a therapeutic option to treat tendinopathy in an equine model that closely mimics human disease...
July 28, 2017: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822654/polarity-independent-effects-of-tdcs-on-paired-associative-stimulation-induced-plasticity
#6
Hanna Faber, Alexander Opitz, Florian Müller-Dahlhaus, Ulf Ziemann
BACKGROUND: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) can polarize the cortex of the human brain. OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: We sought to verify the hypothesis that posterior-anterior (PA) but not anterior-posterior (AP) tDCS of primary motor cortex (M1) produces cooperative effects with corticospinal plasticity induced by paired associative stimulation of the supplementary motor area (SMA) to M1 projection (PASSMA→M1) in a highly controlled experimental design...
July 27, 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822586/intravenous-mannitol-versus-placebo-during-partial-nephrectomy-in-patients-with-normal-kidney-function-a-double-blind-clinically-integrated-randomized-trial
#7
Massimiliano Spaliviero, Nicholas E Power, Katie S Murray, Daniel D Sjoberg, Nicole E Benfante, Melanie L Bernstein, James Wren, Paul Russo, Jonathan A Coleman
BACKGROUND: Mannitol is currently used as a renal protective agent to mitigate the effects of renal ischemia during nephron-sparing surgery (NSS). This routine practice lacks rigorous methodological study. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect on renal function outcomes after surgery of mannitol infusion prior to renal ischemia during NSS. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS: This prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial included 199 patients with a preoperative estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) >45ml/min/1...
August 16, 2017: European Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822559/antibiotic-therapy-for-prevention-of-fistula-in-ano-after-incision-and-drainage-of-simple-perianal-abscess-a-randomized-single-blind-clinical-trial
#8
Leila Ghahramani, Mohammad Reza Minaie, Peyman Arasteh, Seyed Vahid Hosseini, Ahmad Izadpanah, Ali Mohammad Bananzadeh, Mahboobe Ahmadbeigi, Zahra Hooshanginejad
BACKGROUND: Much controversy exists regarding the role of antibiotics in the development of fistula in-ano after incision and drainage. We evaluated the role of postoperative antibiotics in the prevention of fistula in-ano after incision and drainage of perianal abscess. METHODS: In a randomized single blind clinical trial study, 307 patients were randomly selected from those referring for incision and drainage of perianal abscess at Shahid Faghihi Hospital, Shiraz, Iran, during September 2013 to September 2014...
August 16, 2017: Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822297/validation-of-the-choking-risk-assessment-and-pneumonia-risk-assessment-for-adults-with-intellectual-and-developmental-disability-idd
#9
Justine Joan Sheppard, Georgia A Malandraki, Paula Pifer, Jill Cuff, Michelle Troche, Bronwyn Hemsley, Susan Balandin, Avinash Mishra, Roberta Hochman
BACKGROUND: Risk assessments are needed to identify adults with intellectual and developmental disability (IDD) at high risk of choking and pneumonia. AIM: To describe the development and validation of the Choking Risk Assessment (CRA) and the Pneumonia Risk Assessment (PRA) for adults with IDD. METHODS: Test items were identified through literature review and focus groups. Five-year retrospective chart reviews identified a positive choking group (PCG), a negative choking group (NCG), a positive pneumonia group (PPG), and a negative pneumonia group (NPG)...
August 16, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822046/body-mass-index-and-clinical-response-to-intravenous-or-subcutaneous-abatacept-in-patients-with-rheumatoid-arthritis
#10
Maria-Antonietta D'Agostino, Rieke Alten, Eduardo Mysler, Manuela Le Bars, June Ye, Bindu Murthy, Julia Heitzmann, Radu Vadanici, Gianfranco Ferraccioli
This post hoc analysis of ACQUIRE (NCT00559585) explored the effect of baseline body mass index (BMI) on the pharmacokinetics of and clinical response to subcutaneous (SC) or intravenous (IV) abatacept in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). ACQUIRE was a phase 3b, 6-month, double-blind, double-dummy study in which patients with RA were randomized (1:1) to SC (fixed - dose; 125 mg/week) or IV (weight-tiered; ~ 10 mg/kg/month) abatacept plus methotrexate. In this analysis, minimum abatacept plasma concentration (Cmin) was measured at 3 and 6 months, and clinical remission over 6 months was assessed by Disease Activity Score 28 (C-reactive protein; DAS28 [CRP], < 2...
August 18, 2017: Clinical Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821906/comparing-pain-reduction-following-kyphoplasty-and-vertebroplasty-a-meta-analysis-of-randomized-and-non-randomized-controlled-trials
#11
Chen Chen, Xiaofeng Shen, Jiangping Wang, Zhigang Zhang, Yuwei Li, Hua Chen
PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to compare the extent of pain reduction with kyphoplasty (KP) and vertebroplasty (VP) in the treatment of osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (OVCF) using a visual analog scale (VAS). METHODS: A computerized database search was performed to compare pain relief from VP and KP in OVCF. The available literature was analysed to quantify the amount of pain reduction using VAS as the primary outcome. RESULTS: A total of 10 studies encompassing 902 patients met the inclusion criteria...
August 18, 2017: Der Orthopäde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821414/retention-of-vaginal-breech-delivery-skills-taught-in-simulation
#12
Heather Stone, Joan Crane, Kathy Johnston, Catherine Craig
OBJECTIVE: The optimal frequency of conducting simulation training for high-acuity, low-frequency events in obstetrics and gynaecology residency programs is unknown. This study evaluated retention over time of vaginal breech delivery skills taught in simulation, by comparing junior and senior residents. In addition, the residents' subjective comfort level to perform this skill clinically was assessed. METHODS: This prospective cohort study included 22 obstetrics and gynaecology residents in a Canadian residency training program...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC, Journal D'obstétrique et Gynécologie du Canada: JOGC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821381/evidence-from-blindness-for-a-cognitively-pluripotent-cortex
#13
REVIEW
Marina Bedny
Cognitive neuroscience seeks to discover how cognitive functions are implemented in neural circuits. Studies of plasticity in blindness suggest that this mind-brain mapping is highly flexible during development. In blindness, 'visual' cortices take on higher-cognitive functions, including language and mathematics, becoming sensitive to the grammatical structure of spoken sentences and the difficulty of math equations. Visual cortex activity at rest becomes synchronized with higher-cognitive networks. Such repurposing is striking in light of the cognitive and evolutionary differences between vision, language, and mathematics...
July 8, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821365/can-low-dose-of-ketamine-reduce-the-need-for-morphine-in-renal-colic-a-double-blind-randomized-clinical-trial
#14
Saeed Abbasi, Nader Bidi, Babak Mahshidfar, Peyman Hafezimoghadam, Mahdi Rezai, Mani Mofidi, Davood Farsi
BACKGROUND: The combination of morphine with low doses of ketamine (MK) has been utilized in the Emergency Department (ED) compared with morphine and placebo (MP) for the treatment of acute pain in few studies. The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of MP with MK for the treatment of severe pain with renal colic of patients who had been referred to the ED. METHODS: This study is a double blind randomized clinical trial on patients with severe renal colic pain who were referred to the ED...
August 14, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821345/evidence-from-blindness-for-a-cognitively-pluripotent-cortex
#15
REVIEW
Marina Bedny
Cognitive neuroscience seeks to discover how cognitive functions are implemented in neural circuits. Studies of plasticity in blindness suggest that this mind-brain mapping is highly flexible during development. In blindness, 'visual' cortices take on higher-cognitive functions, including language and mathematics, becoming sensitive to the grammatical structure of spoken sentences and the difficulty of math equations. Visual cortex activity at rest becomes synchronized with higher-cognitive networks. Such repurposing is striking in light of the cognitive and evolutionary differences between vision, language, and mathematics...
September 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821315/starch-entrapped-microsphere-fibers-improve-bowel-habit-but-do-not-exhibit-prebiotic-capacity-in-those-with-unsatisfactory-bowel-habits-a-phase-i-randomized-double-blind-controlled-human-trial
#16
Heather E Rasmussen, Bruce Hamaker, Kumar B Rajan, Ece Mutlu, Stefan J Green, Michael Brown, Amandeep Kaur, Ali Keshavarzian
Approximately one-third of individuals in the United States experience unsatisfactory bowel habits, and dietary intake, especially one low in fiber, could be partly responsible. We hypothesized that intake of a fermentable fiber (starch-entrapped microspheres, SM) that has a delayed, slow fermentation profile in vitro would improve bowel habit while exhibiting prebiotic capacity in those with self-described unsatisfactory bowel habits, all with minimal adverse effects. A total of 43 healthy volunteers completed a 3-month, double-blind, parallel-arm randomized clinical trial to assess the ability of a daily dose (9 or 12 g) of SM vs psyllium (12 g) to improve bowel habit, including stool consistency and frequency, and modify gut milieu through changes in stool microbiota and short-chain fatty acids while remaining tolerable through minimal gastrointestinal symptoms...
August 2017: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821263/protocol-for-a-scoping-review-to-map-evidence-from-randomised-controlled-trials-on-paediatric-eye-disease-to-disease-burden
#17
Lucinda J Teoh, Ameenat L Solebo, Jugnoo S Rahi
BACKGROUND: Currently, about 2 per 1000 children in the industrialised world are severely visually impaired or blind (SVI/BL) due to diverse uncommon conditions that are usually present from early infancy. The impact of SVI/BL is lifelong and life-changing. Thus, children are a priority in the WHO-led global initiative against avoidable blindness. The aim of this scoping review is to assess the current evidence base on interventions to prevent or treat the major causes of childhood SVI/BL, specifically the degree of alignment between robust interventional research (RCTs) and the burden (relative frequency) of the key causative disorders, identifying gaps in the evidence base for tackling childhood blindness...
August 18, 2017: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820848/ranibizumab-and-aflibercept-for-the-treatment-of-pigment-epithelial-detachment-in-neovascular-age-related-macular-degeneration-data-from-an-observational-study
#18
Anagha Vaze, Vuong Nguyen, Vincent Daien, Jennifer J Arnold, Stephanie H Young, Chui M Cheung, Ecosse Lamoureux, Mayuri Bhargava, Daniel Barthelmes, Mark C Gillies
PURPOSE: To assess the effect of intravitreal ranibizumab and aflibercept on retinal pigment epithelial detachment (RPED) in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration. METHODS: This was a retrospective analysis of data from a prospectively designed and implemented clinical audit. Analysis included change in RPED dimensions and visual acuity in 92/233 treatment-naive eyes with neovascular age-related macular degeneration and RPED 6 months after treatment with either aflibercept or ranibizumab...
August 16, 2017: Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820793/codeine-plus-acetaminophen-for-pain-after-photorefractive-keratectomy-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-add-on-trial
#19
Vinicius B P Pereira, Renato Garcia, Andre A M Torricelli, Adriana Mukai, Samir J Bechara
BACKGROUND: Pain after photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) is significant, and the analgesic efficacy and safety of oral opioids in combination with acetaminophen has not been fully investigated in PRK trials. PURPOSE: To assess the efficacy and safety of the combination of codeine plus acetaminophen (paracetamol) versus placebo as an add-on therapy for pain control after PRK. STUDY DESIGN: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial...
August 17, 2017: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820753/prevention-of-exposure-keratopathy-in-critically-ill-patients-a-single-center-randomized-pilot-trial-comparing-ocular-lubrication-with-bandage-contact-lenses-and-punctal-plugs
#20
Itai Bendavid, Inbal Avisar, Irena Serov Volach, Amir Sternfeld, Idit Dan Brazis, Lewaa Umar, Yiftach Yassur, Pierre Singer, Jonathan David Cohen
OBJECTIVES: To compare the effectiveness of bandage contact lenses and punctal plugs with ocular lubricants in preventing corneal damage in mechanically ventilated and sedated critically ill patients. DESIGN: Single-center, prospective, randomized, pilot study. SETTING: Sixteen-bed, general ICU at a tertiary academic medical center. PATIENTS: Adults admitted to the ICU and anticipated to require mechanical ventilation and continuous sedation for greater than or equal to 4 days...
August 17, 2017: Critical Care Medicine
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